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1

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Overview What is abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ...

2

A new look at abnormal uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

New universal terminology, classifications, and definitions recommended by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and supported by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to describe abnormal uterine bleeding abnormalities in reproductive women are presented. Identification and management of anovulatory and ovulatory uterine bleeding are explored. PMID:24177024

Twiss, Janice J

2013-12-10

3

Sonohysterographic evaluation of uterine abnormalities noted on hysterosalpingography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transvaginal sonohysterography was performed on 40 consecutive patients with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss and uterine abnormalities on hysterosalpingography. The findings were correlated with the hysterosalpingogram and subsequent diagnostic and\\/or operative hysteroscopy. Hysterosalpingography was incorrect in nine cases. Sono- hysterography was more accurate than hysterosalpingo- graphy and provided more information about uterine abnormalities. Sonohysterography was in complete agree- ment with

J. M. Goldberg; T. Falcone; M. Attaran

1997-01-01

4

Approach to diagnosis and management of abnormal uterine bleeding  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To present a primary care approach to evaluating and managing abnormal uterine bleeding. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Literature searches were conducted on MEDLINE from 1996 to November 2004, EMBASE from 1996 to January 2005, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the 4th quarter of 2004 to the 3rd quarter of 2005, guideline advisory committee databases, the Canadian Medical Association Infobase, and Clinical Evidence. The quality of evidence ranged from level I to III. MAIN MESSAGE Premenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding can be ovulatory, anovulatory, or anatomic. A variety of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments are available. Patients’ preferences, side effects, and physicians’ comfort should be considered when making treatment decisions. One in 4 cases of endometrial carcinoma occur in premenopausal women, so it is important to investigate women with risk factors. While postmenopausal bleeding is most commonly caused by atrophic vaginitis, bleeding should be investigated to rule out endometrial and cervical carcinoma. CONCLUSION A primary care approach to medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding can help family physicians treat most women in the office as well as help physicians know when to refer women for specialist care.

Telner, Deanna E.; Jakubovicz, Difat

2007-01-01

5

Estrogen-induced uterine abnormalities in TIMP-1 deficient mice are associated with elevated plasmin activity and reduced expression of the novel uterine plasmin protease inhibitor serpinb71  

PubMed Central

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a multifunctional protein capable of regulating a variety of biological processes in a wide array of tissue and cell types. We have previously demonstrated that TIMP-1 deficient mice exhibit alterations in normal uterine morphology and physiology. Most notably, absence of TIMP-1 is associated with an altered uterine phenotype characterized by profound branching of the uterine lumen and altered adenogenesis. To begin to assess the mechanism by which TIMP-1 may control these uterine events, we utilized steroid-treated ovariectomized wild-type and TIMP-1 null mice exposed to estrogen for 72 hours. Administration of estrogen to TIMP-1 deficient mice resulted in development of an abnormal uterine histo-architecture characterized by increased endometrial gland density, luminal epithelial cell height, and abnormal lumen structure. To determine the mediators which may contribute to the abnormal uterine morphology in the TIMP-1 deficient mice, cDNA microarray analysis was performed. Analysis revealed that expression of two plasmin inhibitors (serpbinb2 and serbinb7) was significantly reduced in the TIMP-1 null mice. Associated with the reduction in expression of these inhibitors was a significant increase in plasmin activity. Localization of the novel uterine serpinb7 revealed that expression was confined to the luminal and glandular epithelial cells. Further, expression of uterine serpinb7 was decreased by estrogen and showed an inverse relationship with plasmin activity. We conclude from these studies that in addition to controlling MMP activity, TIMP-1 may also control activity of serine proteases through modulation of serine protease inhibitors such as serpinb7.

Zhang, Xuan; Hoang, Etter; Nothnick, Warren B.

2008-01-01

6

Application of 3D Ultrasonography in Detection of Uterine Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Structural pathologies in the uterine cavity such as müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) and intrauterine lesions (fibroids, polyps, synechiae) may have important roles in subinfertility, implantation failure and pregnancy outcome. Various imaging modalities such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), sonography, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are used in the evaluation of MDAs and intrauterine lesions. Recently, three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) has been introduced as a non-invasive, outpatient diagnostic modality. With increased spatial awareness, it is superior to other techniques used for the same purpose.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Niknejadi, Maryam; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad

2011-01-01

7

Vaginoscopic Hysteroscopy and Transvaginal Sonography in the Evaluation of Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo compare accuracy of vaginoscopic hysteroscopy, a new method of outpatient hysteroscopy, with that of transvaginal sonography in diagnosing intracavitary pathology in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

Minas Paschopoulos; Evangelos D. Lolis; Yannis Alamanos; George Koliopoulos; Evangelos Paraskevaidis

2001-01-01

8

Surgical Alternatives to Hysterectomy for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Physician Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to prevent physicians with several surgical alternatives to hysterectomy for women experiencing menorrhagia and dysfunction uterine bleeding. Approximate 8700 hysterectomies are performed annually in Minnesota. Due to its inv...

2000-01-01

9

Cesarean scar defects: an underrecognized cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and other gynecologic complications.  

PubMed

The gynecologic sequelae due to deficient uterine scar healing after cesarean section are only recently being identified and described. These include conditions such as abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, and cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, as well as a potentially higher risk of complications and difficulties during gynecologic procedures such as uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and insertion of an intrauterine device. The proposed mechanism of abnormal uterine bleeding is a pouch or "isthmocele" in the lower uterine segment that causes delayed menstrual bleeding. The prevalence of symptomatic or clinically relevant cesarean scar defects (CSDs) ranges from 19.4% to 88%. Possible risk factors for CSD include number of cesarean sections, uterine position, labor before cesarean section, and surgical technique used to close the uterine incision. There are no accepted guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of CSD. We propose that a CSD be defined on transvaginal ultrasound or saline infusion sonohysterography as a triangular hypoechoic defect in the myometrium at the site of the previous hysterotomy. We also propose a classification system to aid in standardized classification for future research. Surgical techniques for repair of CSD include laparoscopic excision, resectoscopic treatment, vaginal revision, and endometrial ablation. PMID:23680518

Tower, Amanda M; Frishman, Gary N

2013-01-01

10

What is new in abnormal uterine bleeding?: best articles from the past year.  

PubMed

This month, we focus on current research in abnormal uterine bleeding. Dr. Pearlman discusses four recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts. PMID:24901282

Pearlman, Mark D

2014-07-01

11

Management of abnormal uterine bleeding in women with mechanical heart valve prosthesis and anticoagulant therapy.  

PubMed

In a prospective observational case series, we assessed the effects and management and outcome of oral anticoagulant associated abnormal uterine bleeding in women with mechanical heart valve prosthesis. Six women with mechanical heart valve prosthesis, who were admitted with persistent severe vaginal bleeding between 2003 and 2010, were evaluated. For each woman, detailed history, treatment received, if there was any complication and their final outcome and satisfaction were recorded. All the 6 women were parous, with their ages ranging from 27 to 50 years. They were receiving oral anticoagulant therapy for mechanical heart valve prosthesis. Of the 6 women, 4 had uterine fibroids, and the other 2 had dysfunctional uterine bleeding.Three patients with uterine fibroids underwent abdominal hysterectomy, and one underwent balloon thermal ablation of endometrium. While 1 patient with dysfunctional uterine bleeding underwent hysterectomy, the other patient desirous for further children, required levonorgestrel intra-uterine system. Two women requiring hysterectomy, developed postoperative complications, one a massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage and another a rectus sheath haematoma. At follow-up, 5 women were satisfied, and 1 woman had died suddenly at home 1 year after hysterectomy. Because of the twin problem of heart disease and anticoagulant therapy, treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding in these women is extremely challenging. Although medical treatment yields only temporary relief, endometrial ablative procedures or levonorgestrel intra-uterine system provides more durable solution. As anticoagulant associated peri-operative haemorrhage can be potentially fatal, hysterectomy should be reserved for women with major pelvic pathologies. Proper counselling and integrated management involving gynaecologist, cardiologist, haematologist and anaesthesiologist is essential to tackle this problem. PMID:23469574

Saha, Pradip Kumar; Rakshit, Bibek Mohan; Jana, Narayan; Dutta, Sanjib; Roy, Subesha Basu; Sengupta, Gautam

2011-12-01

12

Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology. Patients and methods The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis. Results Uterine leiomyoma (UL) was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8%) patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7%) patients. In 79 (49.1%) patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs. Conclusion UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound.

Fonseca-Moutinho, Jose Alberto; Barbosa, Ligia Silva; Torres, Daniel Goncalves; Nunes, Sara Morgado

2013-01-01

13

Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography in the Detection of Uterine Abnormalities in Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of uterine abnormalities has become a core part of the fertility work-up. A variety of modalities can be used for the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Objectives This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in uterine pathologies of infertile patients using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Reproductive Imaging at Royan Institute from October 2007 to October 2008. In this study, the medical documents of 719 infertile women who were investigated with transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and then hysteroscopy were reviewed. All women underwent hysteroscopy in the same cycle time after TVS. Seventy-six out of 719 patients were excluded from the study and 643 patients were studied. TVS was performed in the follicular phase after cessation of bleeding. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for TVS. Hysteroscopy served as the gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for TVS in the diagnosis of uterine abnormality was 79%, 82%, 84% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TVS in detection of polyp were 88.3% and 81.6%, respectively. These indices were 89.2% and 92.5%, respectively for fibroma, 67% and 98.3%, respectively for subseptated uterus and 90.9% and 100%, respectively for septated uterus. Adhesion and unicornuated uterus have the lowest sensitivity with a sensitivity of 35% and PPV of 57.1%. Conclusion TVS is a cost-effective and non-invasive method for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and septum. It is a valuable adjunctive to hysteroscopy with high accuracy for identification and characterization of intrauterine abnormalities. This may lead to a more precise surgery plan and performance.

Niknejadi, Maryam; Haghighi, Hadieh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Vosough, Ahmad; Moenian, Deena

2012-01-01

14

Comparison of Transvaginal Ultrasonography with Hysterosonography as a Screening Method in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the utility of hysterosonography (HS) as a screening method in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and HS for 105 patients whose diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. All 105 patients were initially evaluated on the same day with both TVS and HS. On TVS and HS examination, endometrial cavitary lesions were classified as diffuse hyperplasia, endometrial polyp, endometrial cancer, uterine synechia and submucosal leiomyoma. Hysteroscopy with biopsy (n=35), curettage (n=60) or hysterectomy (n=10) was performed, and the results of TVS and HS examination were correlated with the pathological findings. Results The sensitivity and specificity were 79.0% and 45.8% for TVS, and 95.1% and 83.3% for HS, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 83.0% and 39.3% for TVS, and 95.1% and 83.3% for HS, respectively. Twenty-seven showed a discrepancy between the TVS and HS, and eight cases showed a discrepancy between HS and the pathologic diagnosis. Conclusion TVS is a sensitive method to evaluate the endometrial cavitary lesions, but it often does not provide the physician with sufficient diagnostic information. With its higher sensitivities, specificities and positive and negative predictive values, HS can be better used than TVS in evaluating those patients with abnormal uterine bleeding.

Ryu, Jeong-ah; Lee, Jongmee; Kim, Sooah; Lee, Sang Hoon

2004-01-01

15

Decidualized Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Mediate Hemostasis, Angiogenesis, and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Factor VII binds trans-membrane tissue factor to initiate hemostasis by forming thrombin. Tissue factor expression is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells during the luteal phase. Long-term progestin only contraceptives elicit: 1) abnormal uterine bleeding from fragile vessels at focal bleeding sites, 2) paradoxically high tissue factor expression at bleeding sites; 3) reduced endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and enhancing reactive oxygen species levels; and 4) aberrant angiogenesis reflecting increased stromal cell-expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, decreased Angiopoietin-1 and increased endothelial cell-expressed Angiopoietin-2. Aberrantly high local vascular permeability enhances circulating factor VII to decidualized stromal cell-expressed tissue factor to generate excess thrombin. Hypoxia-thrombin interactions augment expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 by stromal cells. Thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor and interlerukin-8 synergis-tically augment angiogenesis in a milieu of reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial cell activation. The resulting enhanced vessel fragility promotes abnormal uterine bleeding.

Lockwood, Charles J.; Krikun, Graciela; Hickey, Martha; Huang, S. Joseph; Schatz, Frederick

2011-01-01

16

Longitudinal changes in QT interval variability and rate adaptation in pregnancies with normal and abnormal uterine perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maternal heart significantly adapts to the circulatory needs of pregnancy, but the effect of pregnancy on ventricular repolarization is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify longitudinal changes in ventricular repolarization during pregnancy. Monthly electrocardiographs (ECGs) were recorded in 32 pregnant women with normal uterine perfusion and 32 pregnant women with abnormal perfusion, starting from the

Mathias Baumert; Andrea Seeck; Renaldo Faber; Eugene Nalivaiko; Andreas Voss

2010-01-01

17

Pipelle endometrial sampling versus conventional dilatation & curettage in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Pipelle endometrial sampling with conventional dilatation & curettage in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Material and Methods: One hundred and forty patients with abnormal uterine bleeding were included in this comparative study; where endometrial sampling was carried out before cervical dilatation by Pipelle device followed by conventional dilatation & curettage (D&C). The histopathology report of the Pipelle sample was compared with that of the dilatation & curettage sample and the dilatation & curettage reports were considered as the gold standard. Results: 100% of the samples obtained by conventional D&C, while 97.9% of the samples obtained by the Pipelle device were adequate for histopathological examination. The histolopathological examination of 140 samples obtained by conventional D&C revealed proliferative endometrium in 37 specimens, secretory endometrium in 33 specimens, endometrial hyperplasia in 49 specimens (45 without atypia & 4 with atypia), endometritis in 8 specimens, endometrial polyps in 3 specimens and malignant endometrium in 10 specimens. In this study; the Pipelle device had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% accuracy for diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, proliferative and secretory endometrium. Also, it had 88.9% sensitivity, and 99.2% negative predictive value (NPV) and 99.3% accuracy for diagnosing endometritis and it had 60% sensitivity, 89.6% NPV and 98.6% accuracy for diagnosing endometrial polyps. Conclusion: The endometrial sampling using Pipelle is a safe, accurate, cost effective outpatient procedure, which avoids general anesthesia and has a high sensitivity and specificity for detection of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial malignancy.

Abdelazim, Ibrahim Anwar; Aboelezz, Amro; AbdulKareem, Amr Fathy

2013-01-01

18

Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. Aim: To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. Material and Methods: The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. Results: A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. Conclusion: A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management.

Damle, Rajshri P.; Dravid, N.V.; Suryawanshi, Kishor H.; Gadre, Arundhati S.; Bagale, Priya S.; Ahire, Neelam

2013-01-01

19

Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study.  

PubMed

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. Aim: To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. Material and Methods: The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. Results: A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. Conclusion: A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management. PMID:24551634

Damle, Rajshri P; Dravid, N V; Suryawanshi, Kishor H; Gadre, Arundhati S; Bagale, Priya S; Ahire, Neelam

2013-12-01

20

Endometrial curettage in abnormal uterine bleeding and efficacy of progestins for control in cases of hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the most important symptom of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial curettage (EC) is the gold standard diagnostic procedure. We present the results of patients who underwent EC for AUB and the efficacy of progestin administration in those with endometrial hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: A total of 415 female patients who presented to Duzce Public Hospital in 2011-2012 for AUB and who underwent EC were included. We determined the reasons for AUB, and females with hyperplasia were treated with 10 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days/month or 160 mg/day megestrol acetate continuously for 3 months. We evaluated the efficacy of progestins for periods of three and/or six cycles by repeating EC. A statistical analysis of specific endometrial causes according to age of presentation was conducted using the chi-square test. Results: Among the 415 females (average age, 53.5 years) followed for 6 months, 186 had physiological changes (44.8%), 89 had simple hyperplasia (21.44%), 1 had atypical hyperplasia (0.2%), 6 had (1.44%) complex hyperplasia, 3 had (0.72%) atypical complex hyperplasia, and 5 had adenocarcinoma (1.2%). Regression rates were 72.7-100%, and the optimum results were observed after 6 months of hormonal therapy. Conclusions: The main cause of AUB was physiological change. Progestin therapy resulted in significant regression even in females with atypical hyperplasia. PMID:24870785

Mesci-Haftaci, Simender; Ankarali, Handan; Yavuzcan, Ali; Caglar, Mete

2014-01-01

21

Portulaca oleracea L. in the treatment of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding: a pilot clinical trial.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common cause of referral to the gynecology clinic. Portulaca oleracea L., commonly named purslane, is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat AUB. To verify this use, ten premenopausal women with AUB comprising menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea and intermenstrual bleeding who had not responded to standard drugs and were candidates for hysterectomy participated in the clinical trial. Endometrial biopsies demonstrated the etiologies of AUB in six (60%) patients, fibroma; one (10%) patient, endometrial hyperplasia and one (10%) patient, endometrial cyst. Endometrial biopsies of two (20%) subjects were normal. The subjects took 5 g of purslane seeds powder in a glass of water every 4 h orally 48 h after the onset of menstruation for 3 days. The participants were requested to report the effects of seeds powder on the volume, duration and pattern of bleeding. Eight (80%) patients reported that the duration and volume of bleeding had reduced and their patterns of periods had normalized. The seeds powder was ineffective in two (20%) patients. One of the patients had endometrial hyperplasia and the other had fibroma. No adverse effects were reported. AUB did not recur in the patients responding to treatment for the duration of a 3 months follow-up. The results suggest that purslane seeds could be effective and safe in the treatment of AUB. PMID:19274703

Shobeiri, S F; Sharei, S; Heidari, A; Kianbakht, S

2009-10-01

22

Effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) has been used in the Iranian Traditional Medicine as a treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 30 women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Treatment comprised of giving 15 ml oral myrtle syrup daily (5 ml three times a day) for 7 days starting from the onset of bleeding. The myrtle syrup along with placebo was repeated for 3 consecutive menstrual periods. Menstrual duration and number of used pads were recorded by the Pictorial Blood loss Assessment Chart at the end of each menstrual period. The quality of life was also evaluated using the menorrhagia questionnaire. Results The mean number of bleeding days significantly declined from 10.6?±?2.7 days to 8.2?±?1.9 days after 3 months treatment with the syrup (p?=?0.01) and consequently the participants in the intervention group used fewer pads after 3 months (16.4?±?10.7) compared with the number of pads used at the beginning of the treatment (22.7?±?12.0, p?=?0.01). Bleeding days and number of pads used by the participants in the placebo group did not change significantly. Also significant changes of quality of life scores were observed in the intervention group after 3 months compared to the baseline. Conclusion Myrtle syrup is introduced as a potential remedy for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia.

2014-01-01

23

Fine structure and histochemistry of the parenchyma and uterine egg capsules of Oochoristica anolis (Cestoda: Linstowiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravid proglottids of the linstowiid cestode,Oochoristica anolis, were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and light microscope histochemistry. Primary attention was given to the structure of uterine egg capsules and the medullary parenchyma throughout which they are distributed. Each capsule consists of a syncytial uterine epithelium, with material that appears to be its secretory product deposited in the lumen.

David Bruce Conn; Frank J. Etges

1984-01-01

24

Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome.

Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

2013-01-01

25

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... uterus or cervix • Fibroids • Problems with blood clotting • Polyps • Endometrial hyperplasia • Certain types of cancer, such as ... an increase in the levels of certain hormones. Polyps: Growths that develop from membrane tissue, such as ...

26

Role of morphologic characteristics of the uterine septum in the prediction and prevention of abnormal healing outcomes after hysteroscopic metroplasty  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Can morphologic measurements (width, length and surface area) of the uterine septum predict healing-dependent abnormal anatomic results [ARs; residual septum (RS) and intrauterine adhesions in other locations (IUA-OLs)] after complete hysteroscopic metroplasty (HM)? SUMMARY ANSWER Significant predictors of ARs are the septal width and, to a lesser extent, septal surface area. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Anatomic results after hysteroscopic metroplasty have very large variation. A RS >1 cm and IUA-OLs can aggravate reproductive outcomes, resulting in the need for reoperation. New criteria for diagnosing a uterine septum according to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) have been suggested (ESHRE-ESGE criteria). Autocross-linked hyaluronic acid gel (autocross-linked polysaccharide) has an antiadhesive effect. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective, observational cohort study was performed with 96 women consecutively enrolled between 2007 and 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women who had uterine septum and previous miscarriage or infertility presented for evaluation at a university hospital, private hospital or private medical center were included. Preoperative septal width, length and surface area were determined with three-dimensional sonohysterography. Women were treated by hysteroscopy in a standardized manner with three- or four-dimensional transrectal ultrasound guidance (complete resection). Patients received either no adhesion barrier (49 patients) or adhesion barrier with autocross-linked polysaccharide (47 patients). Anatomic results were assessed with three-dimensional sonohysterography and second-look hysteroscopy. Healing-dependent ARs were reported using both American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) criterion of RS length >1 cm (ASRM>1 cm criterion) and ESHRE-ESGE criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of RS, IUA-OLs and ARs. MAIN RESULTS AND ROLE OF CHANCE In patients who had no adhesion barrier, ARs were diagnosed in 11 of 49 patients (23%) using the ASRM > 1 cm criterion and in 20 of 49 patients (41%) using the ESHRE-ESGE criteria for RS [odds ratio (OR)ESHRE-ESGE:ASRM, 2.4, P = 0.05]. In the patients who had autocross-linked polysaccharide, ARsASRM > 1 cm were diagnosed in 2 of 47 patients (4%) and ARsESHRE-ESGE in 4 of 47 patients (9%). RSESHRE-ESGE was diagnosed significantly more often than RSASRM > 1 cm 19 of 96 (20%) versus 5 of 96 (5%) in all patients (ORESHRE-ESGE:ASRM > 1 cm = 4.5, P < 0.01). In patients who had no adhesion barrier, logistic regression with ASRM > 1 cm and ESHRE-ESGE criteria showed that the width and surface area were predictors of ARs. Models adjusted by patient group confirmed the significance of width as a predictor of ARsASRM > 1 cm [OR for width, 3.5 (P < 0.01); OR for group, 0.22 (P < 0.01)], width as a predictor of ARsESHRE-ESGE [OR for width, 2.2 (P < 0.01); OR for group, 0.26 (P < 0.01)] and surface area as a predictor of ARsASRM > 1 cm [OR for surface area, 1.5 (P < 0.01)]; OR for group, 0.32 (P < 0.01). In patients who had autocross-linked polysaccharide, these predictors were not significant. Receiver-operating characteristic curves showed cutoff values for ARsASRM > 1 cm (septal width, 3.42 cm; septal surface area, 4.68cm2) and ARsESHRE-ESGE (septal width, 3.42 cm; septal surface area, 3.51cm2). LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Patients were enrolled in the adhesion barrier group in a time-dependent, consecutive and non-randomized manner. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS A wide septum and large surface area may be indications for adhesion barrier. The use of autocross-linked polysaccharide reduces the risk of ARs. The ESHRE-ESGE criteria may cause greater frequency of recognition of RS than the ASRM > 1 cm criterion, which could result in more frequent reoperations with use of the ESHRE-ESGE criteria, possibly without any significant ef

Ludwin, A.; Ludwin, I.; Pitynski, K.; Banas, T.; Jach, R.

2014-01-01

27

The Events of Normal and Abnormal Postpartum Reproductive Endocrinology and Uterine Involution in Dairy Cows: A Review  

PubMed Central

The results of numerous hormonal profile studies in the dairy cow are reviewed with respect to specific hormone changes in the early postpartum period, and factors contributing to the onset of cyclic reproductive activity. Variations from the normal pattern of postpartum hormonal activity or uterine involution are reviewed also. The normal involutionary changes of the bovine uterus are discussed.

Leslie, K. E.

1983-01-01

28

A structurally abnormal insulin causing human diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin isolated from the pancreas of a diabetic patient with fasting hyperinsulinaemia showed decreased activity in binding to cell membrane insulin receptors and in stimulating cellular 2-deoxyglucose transport and glucose oxidation. Chemical studies suggest that the isolated hormone is a mixture of normal insulin and an abnormal variant which contains a leucine for phenylalanine substitution at position 24 or 25

H. Tager; B. Given; D. Baldwin; M. Mako; J. Markese; A. Rubenstein; J. Olefsky; M. Kobayashi; O. Kolterman; R. Poucher

1979-01-01

29

Uterine Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy

30

Embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

Background: Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rare but potential life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can be lead to massive hemorrhage. Case: We describe here a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation. A 32-year-old woman presented abnormal vaginal bleeding following the induced abortion. A diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation made on the basis of Doppler ultrasonraphy was confirmed through pelvic angiography. The embolization of bilateral uterine arteries was performed successfully. Conclusion: Uterine arteriovenous malformation should be suspected in patient with abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially who had the past medical history incluing cesarean section, induced abortion, or Dillation and Curethage and so on. Although angiography remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is also a good noninvasive technique. The transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective treatment

Chen, Yan; Wang, Guoyun; Xie, Fubo; Wang, Bo; Tao, Guowei; Kong, Beihua

2013-01-01

31

Oedema in obesity; role of structural lymphatic abnormalities.  

PubMed

Oedema is a common finding in obesity and its cause is not always clear. Possible causes include impairment of cardiac, respiratory and/or renal function, chronic venous insufficiency and lymphatic problems. Lymphoscintigraphy is the best method to detect structural lymphatic abnormalities that can cause lymphoedema. We reviewed 49 female subjects with pitting oedema who had undergone lymphoscintigraphy, divided in three groups. The first group was comprised of severely obese patients in whom cardiorespiratory causes for oedema had been excluded. The second group consisted of non-obese patients with recognized causes for oedema and the third group was non-obese patients with 'idiopathic' oedema. A standard classification was used to interpret lymphoscintigraphy results. The frequency and severity of lymphoscintigraphic abnormalities was greatest in patients with clinical diagnoses of oedema related to 'recognized causes' (any abnormality in 50% of legs with obstruction in 22%). Obese patients and those with 'idiopathic'oedema had fewer (P=0.02 for both) and milder lymphoscintographic abnormalities (any abnormality 32 and 25%, respectively, obstruction 5 and 3%, respectively), and although the clinical oedema was invariably bilateral, the lymphoscintigraphy abnormalities were usually unilateral. In conclusion, structural lymphoscintigraphic abnormalities are uncommon in obesity and do not closely correlate with the clinical pattern of oedema. PMID:21266949

Vasileiou, A-M; Bull, R; Kitou, D; Alexiadou, K; Garvie, N J; Coppack, S W

2011-09-01

32

Uterine Fibroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Uterine Fibroids: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are uterine fibroids? Uterine fibroids are growths made of smooth muscle ...

33

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems.

2013-01-01

34

Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Uterine Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma by Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomata are among the most common of human neoplasms and are associated with abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, and abdominal pain. Uterine leiomyosarcomata are presumed to be the malignant counterpart to uterine leiomyomata and are very rare. Transformation of uterine leiomyoma (ULM) into uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is yet to be conclusively confirmed, and each type of tumor may represent a

Brynn Levy; Tanmoy Mukherjee; Kurt Hirschhorn

2000-01-01

35

Advanced age increases chromosome structural abnormalities in human spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

This study explores the relationship between sperm structural aberrations and age by using a multicolor multichromosome FISH strategy that provides information on the incidence of duplications and deletions on all the autosomes. ToTelvysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Abbott Park, IL, USA) with telomere-specific probes was used. We investigated the sperm of 10 male donors aged from 23 to 74 years old. The donors were divided into two groups according to age, a cohort of five individuals younger than 40 and a cohort of five individuals older than 60 years. The goal of this study was to determine (1) the relationship between donor age and frequency and type of chromosome structural abnormalities and (2) chromosomes more frequently involved in sperm structural aberrations. We found that the older patients had a higher rate of structural abnormalities (6.6%) compared with the younger cohort (4.9%). Although both duplications and deletions were seen more frequently in older men, our findings demonstrate the presence of an excess of duplications versus deletions in both groups at a ratio of 2 to 1. We demonstrate that the distribution of duplications and deletions was not linear along the chromosomes, although a trend toward a higher rate of abnormalities in larger chromosomes was observed. This work is the first study addressing the frequencies of sperm chromosome structural aberrations of all autosomes in a single assay thus making a contribution to the clarification of the amount and origin of damage present in human spermatozoa and in relation to age.

Templado, Cristina; Donate, Anna; Giraldo, Jesus; Bosch, Merce; Estop, Anna

2011-01-01

36

Abnormal thalamocortical structural and functional connectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most common idiopathic generalized epilepsy, characterized by frequent myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and, less commonly, absences. Neuropsychological and, less consistently, anatomical studies have indicated frontal lobe dysfunction in the disease. Given its presumed thalamo–cortical basis, we investigated thalamo–cortical structural connectivity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in a cohort of 28 participants with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and detected changes in an anterior thalamo–cortical bundle compared with healthy control subjects. We then investigated task-modulated functional connectivity from the anterior thalamic region identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a task consistently shown to be impaired in this group, phonemic verbal fluency. We demonstrate an alteration in task-modulated connectivity in a region of frontal cortex directly connected to the thalamus via the same anatomical bundle, and overlapping with the supplementary motor area. Further, we show that the degree of abnormal connectivity is related to disease severity in those with active seizures. By integrating methods examining structural and effective interregional connectivity, these results provide convincing evidence for abnormalities in a specific thalamo–cortical circuit, with reduced structural and task-induced functional connectivity, which may underlie the functional abnormalities in this idiopathic epilepsy.

O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Vollmar, Christian; Barker, Gareth J.; Kumari, Veena; Symms, Mark R.; Thompson, Pam; Duncan, John S.; Koepp, Matthias J.

2012-01-01

37

Decreased type III collagen expression in human uterine cervix of prolapse uteri  

PubMed Central

The precise mechanism of prolapse uteri is not fully understood. There is evidence to suggest that abnormalities of collagen, the main component of extracellular matrix, or its repair mechanism, may predispose women to prolapse. To investigate the characteristic structure of human uterine cervix of patients with prolapse uteri, various types of collagen expression in the uterine cervix tissues of the prolapse uteri were compared to those of normal uterine cervix. After informed consent, 36 specimens of uterine cervical tissues were obtained at the time of surgery from 16 postmenopausal women with prolapse uteri (stage III–IV by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination) and 20 postmenopausal women without prolapse uteri (control group). Collagens were extracted from the uterine cervix tissues by salt precipitation methods. The relative levels of various collagens were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The uterine cervix was longer in the patients with prolapse uteri than those of postmenopausal controls without prolapse uteri. The ratios of type III to type I collagen in the uterine cervical tissues were significantly decreased in the prolapse uteri, as compared to those of the postmenopausal uterine cervix without prolapse. These results suggest that decreased type III collagen expression may play an important role in determing the physiology and structure of the uterine cervix tissues of prolapse uteri.

IWAHASHI, MASAAKI; MURAGAKI, YASUTERU

2011-01-01

38

Decreased type III collagen expression in human uterine cervix of prolapse uteri.  

PubMed

The precise mechanism of prolapse uteri is not fully understood. There is evidence to suggest that abnormalities of collagen, the main component of extracellular matrix, or its repair mechanism, may predispose women to prolapse. To investigate the characteristic structure of human uterine cervix of patients with prolapse uteri, various types of collagen expression in the uterine cervix tissues of the prolapse uteri were compared to those of normal uterine cervix. After informed consent, 36 specimens of uterine cervical tissues were obtained at the time of surgery from 16 postmenopausal women with prolapse uteri (stage III-IV by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination) and 20 postmenopausal women without prolapse uteri (control group). Collagens were extracted from the uterine cervix tissues by salt precipitation methods. The relative levels of various collagens were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The uterine cervix was longer in the patients with prolapse uteri than those of postmenopausal controls without prolapse uteri. The ratios of type III to type I collagen in the uterine cervical tissues were significantly decreased in the prolapse uteri, as compared to those of the postmenopausal uterine cervix without prolapse. These results suggest that decreased type III collagen expression may play an important role in determing the physiology and structure of the uterine cervix tissues of prolapse uteri. PMID:22977496

Iwahashi, Masaaki; Muragaki, Yasuteru

2011-03-01

39

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common, debilitating condition. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is the diagnosis given to women with abnormal uterine bleeding in whom no clear etiology can be identified. DUB has been observed in both ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Medical treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptive pills, progestins, danazol (a synthetic androgen), GnRH agonists, and antifibrinolytic drugs. The drawback to medical therapy, in addition to side effects, is that the benefit lasts only while the patient takes the medication. Surgical options have concentrated mainly on endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, and it is unclear whether one is superior to the other in terms of long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Newer and less invasive ablation techniques, such as thermal balloon ablation, offer more treatment alternatives.

Chen, B H; Giudice, L C

1998-01-01

40

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common, debilitating condition. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is the diagnosis given to women with abnormal uterine bleeding in whom no clear etiology can be identified. DUB has been observed in both ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Medical treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptive pills, progestins, danazol (a synthetic androgen), GnRH agonists, and antifibrinolytic drugs. The drawback to medical therapy, in addition to side effects, is that the benefit lasts only while the patient takes the medication. Surgical options have concentrated mainly on endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, and it is unclear whether one is superior to the other in terms of long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Newer and less invasive ablation techniques, such as thermal balloon ablation, offer more treatment alternatives. PMID:9830356

Chen, B H; Giudice, L C

1998-11-01

41

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters.

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

42

Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.  

PubMed

We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure. PMID:18991959

Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

2008-10-01

43

Uterine Carcinosarcoma  

Cancer.gov

A rare cancer, uterine carcinosarcoma makes up less than five percent of all uterine cancers.2 In the U.S., about two per 100,000 women develop uterine carcinosarcoma annually.3 Roughly only 35 percent of patients survive five years after diagnosis.

44

Studies on the structural abnormality of fibrinogen Paris I.  

PubMed Central

The structural properties of an inherited fibrinogen abnormality designated fibrinogen Paris I were investigated. Dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of unreduced samples revealed no discernible differences in molecular weight from normal; this implied that in fibrinogen Paris I, the normal fibrinogen architecture of six covalently linked chains per molecule is preserved. Examination of dithiothreitol reduced samples before and after treatment with Reptilase or thrombin revealed that the Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains could release the A and B peptides, respectively. A mutant chain (mol wt 52,500, termed gammaParis I) which replaces a large proportion of gamma-chains (mol wt 49,400) was shown, like normal gamma-chains, to lack thrombin- and Reptilase-sensitive sites. The gamma-chains and alpha-chains of Paris I fibrin underwent Factor XIIIa-catalyzed cross-linking slowly; this behavior was not attributable to an intrinsic abnormality of these chains themselves but rather to the inhibitory effect of the mutant gammaParis I chains on this process. Results of DEAE-cellulose gradient elution chromatography of Paris I fibrinogen preparations revealed the presence of small amounts of normal fibrinogen molecules and also indicated that the gammaParis I chains possessed structural overlap with gamma-chains. Unlike gamma-chains however, the gammaParis I chains did not incorporate dansylcadaverine in the prescence of Factor XIIIa, nor, as previously reported, did they undergo cross-linking. The observations indicate that the amine acceptor site found in the COOH-terminal region of the gamma-chain is either not present on the gammaParis I chain or is unavailable for cross-linking. Further support for localization of the abnormality in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule was obtained from the observation that during plasmic hydrolysis of Paris I fibrinogen, at least one unique form of core Fragment D (DParis I) was evolved, whereas Fragment E did not differ from normal. Images

Mosesson, M W; Amrani, D L; Menache, D

1976-01-01

45

Doppler velocimetry of the uterine arteries in nulliparous women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry performed at 20 and 24 weeks gestation in predicting gestational hypertension and small-for-gestational age babies in a population of nulliparous women. Four hundred and fifty-six patients without risk factors for pregnancy complications and with fetuses free from structural abnormalities at ultrasonographic examination at 20 weeks gestation were considered in the study. During the routine 20 weeks ultrasound a continuous-wave Doppler examination of the uterine arteries was performed. The patients with abnormal uterine Resistance Index (RI) repeated the Doppler evaluation at 24 weeks by means of Colour Doppler equipment. Among the 419 women who completed the study an abnormal Doppler uterine arteries velocimetry was found in 8.6% of the patients. Pregnancy complications (gestational hypertension and/or small-for-gestational age babies) were observed in 56% of the patients presenting high uteroplacental RI versus 10% of those with normal uterine artery velocimetry (P = 0.0001). In the group of patients with an abnormal RI value, the presence of a diastolic notch in one or both of the uterine arteries identified a population of pregnant women at higher risk for pregnancy complications when compared with patients without notch (78% vs. 33%, P = 0.007). The knowledge of the uteroplacental resistance can help in identifying a subgroup of patients at higher risk of hypertensive disorders and small-for-gestational age babies that could benefit from prophylaxis with low dose aspirin. PMID:9131318

Frusca, T; Soregaroli, M; Valcamonico, A; Guandalini, F; Danti, L

1997-04-25

46

Cardiac ultrasonography in structural abnormalities and arrhythmias. Recognition and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Fetal cardiac ultrasonography has become an important tool in the evaluation of fetuses at risk for cardiac anomalies. It can both guide prenatal treatment and assist the management and timing of delivery. We recommend that a fetal echocardiogram be done when there is a family history of congenital heart disease; maternal disease that may affect the fetus; a history of maternal drug use, either therapeutic or illegal; evidence of other fetal abnormalities; or evidence of fetal hydrops. The optimal timing of evaluation is 18 to 22 weeks' gestation. An entire range of structural cardiac defects can be visualized prenatally, including atrioventricular septal defect, ventricular septal defect, cardiomyopathy, ventricular outlet obstruction, and complex cardiac defects. The outcome for a fetus with a recognized abnormality is unfavourable, with less than 50% surviving the neonatal period. Fetal cardiac arrhythmias are also a common occurrence, 15% in the series described here. Premature atrial or ventricular contractions are most commonly seen and usually require no treatment. Supraventricular tachycardia can result in hydrops and require in utero treatment to prevent fetal demise. Complete heart block, particularly in association with structural heart disease, has a poor prognosis for fetal survival. Images

Brook, M M; Silverman, N H; Villegas, M

1993-01-01

47

Globozoospermia is associated with chromatin structure abnormalities: case report.  

PubMed

A recent study has shown normal sperm chromatin structure in a patient with globozoospermia. However, the poor success rate following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with the use of this sperm suggests that sperm nuclear abnormalities may be present. We report here a study of the sperm DNA integrity and chromosome aneuploidy and diploidy rates of a patient with 100% round-headed sperm. The sperm chromatin packaging quality was assessed by using flow cytometry after staining the DNA with propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation, possibly indicative of apoptosis, was evaluated by flow cytometry using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The sperm chromosome aneuploidy and diploidy rates were evaluated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization using alpha-centromeric probes for chromosomes 8, 12, 18, X and Y. The patient with globozoospermia had a significantly higher number of sperm with chromatin decondensation (35 +/- 1.1%) and positive for the TUNEL assay (37 +/- 1.7%) compared with that found in four normal controls (4.7 +/- 0.4 and 22.5 +/- 1.2% respectively). In contrast, the total sperm aneuploidy (0.16%) and diploidy (0.05%) rates for the chromosomes studied were within the range found in 14 normozoospermic men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of round-headed sperm that has shown an elevated number of sperm with abnormal chromatin structure and DNA strand breaks. PMID:12151448

Vicari, Enzo; Perdichizzi, Anna; De Palma, Adele; Burrello, Nunziatina; D'Agata, Rosario; Calogero, Aldo E

2002-08-01

48

Abnormal menstrual periods (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

49

Abnormal topological organization of structural brain networks in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by disturbances of thought and emotion as well as neurocognitive deficits. It is hypothesized that the core symptoms of schizophrenia arise from the inability to integrate neural processes segregated across distributed brain regions. Graph theory allows us to verify this hypothesis at large-scale structural network level. In this study, a sample of 101 schizophrenic patients and 101 healthy controls was included. We sought to investigate the abnormality of network topological organization in patients with schizophrenia by using the cortical thickness measurement from magnetic resonance imaging. Brain networks were constructed by thresholding cortical thickness correlation matrices of 78 regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Compared to healthy controls, patients showed increased characteristic path length and clustering coefficient in the structural cortical networks. Moreover, schizophrenia patients were associated with reduced nodal centrality in several regions of the default network and increased nodal centrality mainly in primary cortex and paralimbic cortex regions. These findings suggest that the structural networks of schizophrenic patients have a less optimal topological organization, resulting in reduced capacity to integrate information across brain regions. PMID:22981811

Zhang, Yuanchao; Lin, Lei; Lin, Ching-Po; Zhou, Yuan; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Lo, Chun-Yi; Su, Tung-Ping; Jiang, Tianzi

2012-11-01

50

Structural changes of a devascularizated colonic graft when its replaces the rat uterine horn.  

PubMed

A one centimeter length of the left uterine horn in two groups of Wistar rats (n = 10) was replaced with normal (VAS group) or with denervated and devascularizated (NVAS group) colonic grafts. All animals maintained pregnancy in the right control horns but not in the grafted horns. At 40, 60 and 90 days after surgery, the light microscopic appearance of the autografts was studied. In the VAS group, and with respect to the last period, the number (5.5 +/- 0.7) and height (1.0 +/- 0.1 mm, P < 0.05 ANOVA) of the folds, the intestinal glands height (160.2 +/- 21.2 mu, P < 0.05 ANOVA) and the number of globet cells per gland (26.6 +/- 4.2, P < 0.05 ANOVA) had decreased in relation to the colon control (6.0 +/- 0.7, 1.4 +/- 0.1, 251.7 +/- 31.8, 42.6 +/- 5.2 respectively). A similar intestinal structure to that described above was observed in the anastomosis areas of the NVAS group, and therefore a decreased mucus production was maintained in this areas. No folds or intestinal glands were observed, but a monoestratified cubic epithelial cells type was observed along 63.7 +/- 4.1% of the NVAS colonic graft center. Under this epithelium a connective tissue, like a non-glandular submucosa, was obtained. PMID:1471914

Ortega-Moreno, J; Caballero-Gómez, J M

1992-01-01

51

Inhibition of PPAR? during rat pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction and attenuation of uterine vasodilation  

PubMed Central

Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPAR? in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 11/group) were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPAR? inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food) or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPAR? mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries. PPAR? was expressed in uterine vascular tissue of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats with ~2-fold greater expression in radial vs. main uterine arteries. PPAR? mRNA levels were significantly higher in uterine compared to mesenteric arteries. GW9662 treatment during pregnancy did not affect maternal physiology (body weight, glucose, blood pressure), mesenteric artery vasodilation or structural remodeling of uterine and mesenteric vessels. Inhibition of PPAR? for the last 10 days of gestation caused decreased fetal weights on both day 20 and 21 of gestation that was associated with impaired vasodilation of radial uterine arteries in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. These results define an essential role of PPAR? in the control of uteroplacental vasodilatory function during pregnancy, an important determinant of blood flow to the placenta and fetus. Strategies that target PPAR? activation in the uterine circulation could have important therapeutic potential in treatment of pregnancies complicated by hypertension, diabetes or preeclampsia.

Gokina, Natalia I.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Chapman, Abbie C.; Oppenheimer, Karen; Jetton, Thomas L.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

2013-01-01

52

Uterine prolapse  

MedlinePLUS

Lentz GM. Anatomic defects of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor: abdominal and inguinal hernias, cystocele, urethrocele, enterocele, rectocele, uterine and vaginal prolapse, and rectal incontinence: diagnosis and management. In: ...

53

The Genetic Bases of Uterine Fibroids; A Review  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas/fibroids are the most common pelvic tumors of the female genital tract. The initiators remaining unknown, estrogens and progesterone are considered as promoters of fibroid growth. Fibroids are monoclonal tumors showing 40-50% karyo-typically detectable chromosomal abnormalities. Cytogenetic aberrations involving chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 14 constitute the major chromosome abnormalities seen in leiomyomata. This has led to the discovery that disruptions or dysregulations of HMGIC and HMGIY genes contribute to the development of these tumors. Genes such as RAD51L1 act as translocation partners to HMGIC and lead to disruption of gene structure leading to the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. The mechanism underlying this disease is yet to be identified. The occurrence of PCOLCE amid a cluster of at least eight Alu sequences is potentially relevant to the possible involvement of PCOLCE in the 7q22 rearrangements that occur in many leiomyomata. PCOLCE is implicated in cell growth processes. Involvement of Alu sequences in rearrangements can lead to the disruption of this gene and, hence, loss of control for gene expression leading to uncontrolled cell growth. This can also lead to the formation of fibroids. Though, cytogenetics provides a broad perspective on uterine fibroid formation, further molecular analysis is required to understand the etiopathogenesis of uterine fibroids.

Medikare, Veronica; Kandukuri, Lakshmi Rao; Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Deenadayal, Mamata; Nallari, Pratibha

2011-01-01

54

Uterine artery Doppler flow studies in obstetric practice  

PubMed Central

In women who develop preeclampsia there is a pathological increase in placental vascular resistance should be detectable by abnormal Dopplerf low studies of the maternal uterine vessels. In women considered at low risk with abnormal early pregnancy uterine artery Doppler studies are needed. Until such time as these are available, routine uterine artery Doppler screening of women considered at low risk is not recommended. Uterine artery Doppler screening of high-risk women appears to identify those at substantially increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and interventions that might improve clinical outcomes. Abnormal testing in these women could potentially lead to increased surveillance and interventions that might improve clinical outcomes.

Giordano, Rosalba; Cacciatore, Alessandra; Romano, Mattea; La Rosa, Beatrice; Fonti, Ilenia; Vigna, Roberto

2010-01-01

55

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Structural Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The neuropathogenesis of bipolar disor- der remains poorly described. Previous work suggests that patients with bipolar disorder may have abnormalities in neural pathways that are hypothesized to modulate hu- man mood states. We examined differences in brain struc- tural volumes associated with these pathways between patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized with mania and healthy community volunteers. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Stephen M. Strakowski; Melissa P. DelBello; Kenji W. Sax; Molly E. Zimmerman; Paula K. Shear; John M. Hawkins; Eric R. Larson

1999-01-01

56

Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation. PMID:18998229

Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

2009-11-01

57

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of the decline in implantation rates observed with increasing maternal age are still a matter for debate. Data from oocyte donation strongly suggest that in women of advanced reproductive age, the ability to become pregnant is largely unaffected while oocyte quality is compromised. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos is considerably higher than that reported in spontaneous

Santiago Munné

2002-01-01

58

Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction.  

PubMed

Addiction to drugs is a major contemporary public health issue, characterized by maladaptive behavior to obtain and consume an increasing amount of drugs at the expense of the individual's health and social and personal life. We discovered abnormalities in fronto-striatal brain systems implicated in self-control in both stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological siblings who have no history of chronic drug abuse; these findings support the idea of an underlying neurocognitive endophenotype for stimulant drug addiction. PMID:22301321

Ersche, Karen D; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Turton, Abigail J; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

2012-02-01

59

Abnormal Grain Growth in Austenite Structure Reversely Transformed from Ferrite/Pearlite-Banded Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grain growth behavior of austenite reversely transformed from ferrite/pearlite (F/P)-banded and non-banded steels has been studied. It was found that the grain-coarsening temperature [the temperature at which abnormal grain growth (AGG) occurs] of the initially banded F/P structure is quite low compared with that of the non-banded sample. In the F/P-banded sample, the abnormal grains always originate from the former ferrite region. The occurrence of AGG is essentially attributable not to the austenite nucleation process during heating but to the grain growth process after the completion of austenizing. It was proposed that the lowered grain-coarsening temperature in the banded structure is due to the non-uniform pinning-effect of AlN precipitates between former ferrite and pearlite regions.

Zhang, Xianguang; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Ohno, Munekazu

2014-05-01

60

Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow  

PubMed Central

Normal pregnancy involves dramatic remodeling of the uterine vasculature, with abnormal vascular adaptations contributing to pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin is important for the renal and systemic hemodynamic adaptations to pregnancy, and has been shown to increase arterial compliance and outward hypertrophic remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that relaxin acts on its receptor, RXFP1, to mediate uterine artery compliance in late pregnancy and increase uterine blood flow velocity in rats. RXFP1 was predominantly localized to the tunica media vascular smooth muscle cells in the uterine artery, although receptors were also detected in endothelial cells. Highest expression of Rxfp1 in the uterine artery occurred in estrus and early pregnancy. Isolated uterine arteries from late pregnant rats treated with a monoclonal antibody against circulating relaxin (MCA1) had significantly increased vessel wall stiffness compared with controls, with no reduction in wall thickness. Chronic infusion of relaxin (4 ?g/h, osmotic minipump) for 5 d in nonpregnant rats significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity. Overall, these data demonstrate a functional role for relaxin in mediating uterine artery compliance in pregnant rats, which may be necessary to maintain adequate uterine blood flow to the uterus and placenta.—Vodstrcil, L. A., Tare, M., Novak, J., Dragomir, N., Ramirez, R. J., Wlodek, M. E., Conrad, K. P., Parry, L. J. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow.

Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Tare, Marianne; Novak, Jacqueline; Dragomir, Nicoleta; Ramirez, Rolando J.; Wlodek, Mary E.; Conrad, Kirk P.; Parry, Laura J.

2012-01-01

61

CT-monitored percutaneous cryoablation of uterine fibroids after uterine artery embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the effects of percutaneous cryoablation on uterine fibroids using computed tomographic (CT) guidance after\\u000a uterine artery embolization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve patients who failed to respond to uterine artery embolization were treated using percutaneous cryoablation. All patients\\u000a had undergone previous uterine artery embolization an average of 1.2 years (0.7˜1.6 years) ago. Two cases had abnormal bleeding,\\u000a and the other 10 suffered

Zizhuo Zhao; Zhi Guo; Hong Ni; Fang Liu; Baoguo Li

2007-01-01

62

Sonohysterography is a useful diagnostic approach for uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of abnormal uterine bleeding; nevertheless, it is a potentially life-threatening condition when the diagnosis is not made. We report a case of uterine AVM with a secondary uterine hematoma diagnosed 2 weeks after curettage due to spontaneous abortion. Ultrasound examination revealed a mixed echogenic mass of approximately 4?cm?×?1.5?cm with no blood flow and an additional contiguous heterogeneous mass with turbulent blood flow depicted by color Doppler. Transvaginal sonohysterography enabled us to exclude residual chorionic tissues and to make precise diagnosis of uterine AVM with a secondary hematoma. PMID:24888955

Mishina, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

2014-06-01

63

Modeling the thermal and structural response of engineered systems to abnormal environments  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is engaged actively in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to thermal and structural abnormal environments. Abnormal environments that will be addressed in this paper include: fire, impact, and puncture by probes and fragments, as well as a combination of all of the above. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the survivability of engineered systems to abnormal environments using a balanced approach between numerical simulation and testing. It is necessary to determine the response of engineered systems in two cases: (1) to satisfy regulatory specifications, and (2) to enable quantification of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). In a regulatory case, numerical simulation of system response is generally used to guide the system design such that the system will respond satisfactorily to the specified regulatory abnormal environment. Testing is conducted at the regulatory abnormal environment to ensure compliance.

Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.; Moya, J.L.

1993-10-01

64

Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.

Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

2008-01-01

65

Structural abnormalities in the dyslexic brain: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.  

PubMed

We used coordinate-based meta-analysis in order to objectively quantify gray matter abnormalities reported in nine Voxel-Based Morphometry studies of developmental dyslexia. Consistently across studies, reduced gray matter volume in dyslexic readers was found in the right superior temporal gyrus and left superior temporal sulcus. These results were related to findings from previous meta-analyses on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Convergence of gray matter reduction and reading-related underactivation was found for the left superior temporal sulcus. Recent studies point to the presence of both functional and structural abnormalities in left temporal and occipito-temporal brain regions before reading onset. PMID:22711189

Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

2013-11-01

66

Medical Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail.

Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2012-01-01

67

Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

2013-01-01

68

Structural Abnormalities in the Brains of Human Subjects Who Use Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We visualize, for the first time, the profile of structural deficits in the human brain associated with chronic methamphetamine (MA) abuse. Studies of human subjects who have used MA chronically have revealed deficits in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems and cerebral metabolic abnormalities. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and new computational brain-mapping techniques, we determined the pattern of structural brain alterations

Paul M. Thompson; Kiralee M. Hayashi; Sara L. Simon; Jennifer A. Geaga; Michael S. Hong; Yihong Sui; Jessica Y. Lee; Arthur W. Toga; Walter Ling; Edythe D. London

2004-01-01

69

The influence of exogenous steroid hormones on steroid receptors, uterine histological structure and the bacterial flora of the normal bitch.  

PubMed

Oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors have been shown to vary in both concentration and distribution during the oestrous cycle of the bitch, influenced by the normal changes in endogenous reproductive hormones. The influence of exogenous steroid hormones on steroid receptors and the histological structure of the uterus was studied in two groups of parous Beagle bitches. Group A (n = 6) were treated with progesterone (P4) in oil i.m. (3 mg/kg) in late metoestrus on the day that peripheral plasma P4 concentrations were first identified as <10 ng/ml, and subsequently once weekly on three other occasions. Group B (n = 6) were treated with a single i.m. injection of MPA (50 mg, 4.2-5.6 mg/kg) following the same protocol. Full-thickness uterine wall biopsies were obtained from the mid part of one horn 2-7 days after the last (fourth) injection of P4 or MPA. During the subsequent oestrus, when peripheral plasma P4 concentrations were between 8 and 10 ng/ml, each bitch in both groups (n = 12) received a single injection of oestradiol benzoate (ODB) in oil i.m. (7.5 mg, 0.63-0.84 mg/kg). All bitches had an ovariohysterectomy 7 days later. Full-thickness uterine wall samples were obtained from the mid part of the intact horn and other parts of the uterus. Swabs were taken from the uterine lumen for bacteriological examination; all were sterile. Tissue samples were sectioned and examined for evidence of lesions, and stained for ER and PR receptors using an immunocytochemical method. The immunoreactivity was scored semiquantitatively, incorporating both the intensity and distribution of specific staining of the receptors using a simplified histoscore (H-score). At the time of ovariohysterectomy, fluid had accumulated in the isolated section of the uterine horn distal to the point of biopsy; the volume was greater in the MPA-treated bitches. There was also evidence in some sections of histological changes in the endometrium. Variations in the expression of both ER and PR were seen between bitches, which may have been due to some not being in mid-metoestrus at the time of treatment. In general, ER scores were low after P4 and MPA treatment, but following ODB there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in ER expression in all parts of the endometrium. PR scores were zero in the glandular epithelium of all 12 bitches after P4, MPA and ODB treatment, whereas in the other parts of the endometrium they were generally moderate to high. Following treatment with ODB, PR generally increased in the three regions of the endometrium where PR were present. The study shows that ER and PR distribution and expression in the endometrium of bitches can be modified by P4, MPA and ODB, with evidence of individual variation. PMID:10497921

Dhaliwal, G K; England, G C; Noakes, D E

1999-08-16

70

Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40–70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity.

Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

2011-01-01

71

Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide  

PubMed Central

Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses.

Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

2014-01-01

72

Volumetric structural brain abnormalities in men with schizophrenia or antisocial personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain abnormalities are found in association with antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the two mental disorders most implicated in violent behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the whole brain, cerebellum, temporal lobe, lateral ventricles, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal, pre-motor, sensorimotor, occipito-parietal regions in 13 men with antisocial personality disorder, 13 men with

Ian Barkataki; Veena Kumari; Mrigendra Das; Pamela Taylor; Tonmoy Sharma

2006-01-01

73

Congenital uterine malformations.  

PubMed

With the advent of newer imaging techniques, the radiologist is now able to make very precise and accurate diagnoses of congenital uterine malformations and their complications. Because these anomalies are associated with reproductive dysfunction, they are often discovered during an infertility evaluation. By imaging parallel to the long axis of the uterus, the external contour can be evaluated, obviating laparoscopy for differentiating septate from bicornuate uteri. Obstructed uterovaginal anomalies (e.g., hematometros, hematometrocolpos), an important complication of abnormal müllerian duct development, can occur at any time from the newborn period to adulthood. Determining the site of obstruction is imperative for planning the proper surgical approach. To understand these malformations better, we review the relevant embryology. The most widely accepted classification scheme is discussed in detail, with an emphasis on diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic options. PMID:8536487

Woodward, P J; Sohaey, R; Wagner, B J

1995-01-01

74

Extra-Visual Functional and Structural Connection Abnormalities in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We assessed abnormalities within the principal brain resting state networks (RSNs) in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) to define whether functional abnormalities in this disease are limited to the visual system or, conversely, tend to be more diffuse. We also defined the structural substrates of fMRI changes using a connectivity-based analysis of diffusion tensor (DT) MRI data. Neuro-ophthalmologic assessment, DT MRI and RS fMRI data were acquired from 13 LHON patients and 13 healthy controls. RS fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis and SPM5. A DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation analysis was performed using the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally, as seed regions. Compared to controls, LHON patients had a significant increase of RS fluctuations in the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally. They also showed decreased RS fluctuations in the right lateral occipital cortex and right temporal occipital fusiform cortex. Abnormalities of RS fluctuations were correlated significantly with retinal damage and disease duration. The DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation identified a higher number of clusters in the right auditory cortex in LHON vs. controls. Differences of cluster-centroid profiles were found between the two groups for all the four seeds analyzed. For three of these areas, a correspondence was found between abnormalities of functional and structural connectivities. These results suggest that functional and structural abnormalities extend beyond the visual network in LHON patients. Such abnormalities also involve the auditory network, thus corroborating the notion of a cross-modal plasticity between these sensory modalities in patients with severe visual deficits.

Rocca, Maria A.; Valsasina, Paola; Pagani, Elisabetta; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Milesi, Jacopo; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

2011-01-01

75

[Uterine leiomyoma].  

PubMed

Uterine fibroids, benign tumors of the human uterus, are the most common indication for hysterectomy. They are clinically apparent in 20-25% of women and cause significant complaints, like prolonged and heavy menstruation, pelvic pressure or pain, sometimes reproductive dysfunction. Though surgery has been the mainstay of fibroid treatment, various minimally invasive procedures have been developed in addition to hysterectomy and abdominal myomectomy. Formation of new leiomyomas after these conservative therapies remains a substantial problem. Also drug-therapy methods are available, but the possible side-effects limit their long-term use. Authors attempt to give an overview of this common gynecological disease, yielding a new insight into the basic biology and genetics of fibroids, with the hope of new and effective methods of therapy in the future. PMID:20889441

Csatlós, Eva; Rigó, János; Szabó, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Joó, József Gábor

2010-10-17

76

[Uterine fibroids].  

PubMed

The uterine fibroid is a benign tumour. The prevalence, in all the population, is 50% for european women and 80% for black women. 30% of fibroids are symptomatic. The new FIGO classification gives 7 positions (0 to 7), submuccus (0, 1, 2), interstitial (3, 4, 5), subserous (6, 7). Diagnosis is performed by 2D and 3D ultrasound which could be associated by hysterosonography. Hysteroscopy and MRI could be proposed. Hysterectomy is the main treatment, if possible by vaginal or laparoscopic way. Conservative treatment (myomectomy) could be realized by hysteroscopic, laparoscopic way or laparotomy for patients who desire to preserve fertility. Arteries embolisation is an alternative to hysterectomy or myomectomy for patients without desire of pregnancy. Preoperative treatments by GnRH agonist or SPRM like ulipristal acetate treat anaemia, decrease the myoma volume and could modify the therapeutic strategy. PMID:24855792

Fernandez, Hervé

2014-04-01

77

Prefrontal blood flow dysregulation in drug naive ADHD children without structural abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Recent studies suggest a role for prefrontal cortex abnormalities in the pathogenesis of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD). We evaluated young drug-naïve ADHD outpatients without MRI structural abnormalities to detect prefrontal\\u000a cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) functional dysregulation; correlation between age and rCBF; and correlation between\\u000a symptoms profile and rCBF. Functional brain activities (i.e. rCBF), neuropsychological attention performance and

G. Spalletta; A. Pasini; F. Pau; G. Guido; L. Menghini; C. Caltagirone

2001-01-01

78

Co-localisation of abnormal brain structure and function in specific language impairment.  

PubMed

We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior frontal cortex and decreased in the right caudate nucleus and superior temporal cortex bilaterally. The unaffected siblings also showed reduced grey matter in the caudate nucleus relative to controls. In an auditory covert naming task, the SLI group showed reduced activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, right putamen, and in the superior temporal cortex bilaterally. Despite spatially coincident structural and functional abnormalities in frontal and temporal areas, the relationships between structure and function in these regions were different. These findings suggest multiple structural and functional abnormalities in SLI that are differently associated with receptive and expressive language processing. PMID:22137677

Badcock, Nicholas A; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Hardiman, Mervyn J; Barry, Johanna G; Watkins, Kate E

2012-03-01

79

Co-localisation of abnormal brain structure and function in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior frontal cortex and decreased in the right caudate nucleus and superior temporal cortex bilaterally. The unaffected siblings also showed reduced grey matter in the caudate nucleus relative to controls. In an auditory covert naming task, the SLI group showed reduced activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, right putamen, and in the superior temporal cortex bilaterally. Despite spatially coincident structural and functional abnormalities in frontal and temporal areas, the relationships between structure and function in these regions were different. These findings suggest multiple structural and functional abnormalities in SLI that are differently associated with receptive and expressive language processing.

Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

2012-01-01

80

[Role of pelvic endoscopy in diagnosing congenital uterine malformations].  

PubMed

The role of pelvic endoscopy in diagnosing uterine abnormalities, considering material of 1170 patients, is presented in this paper. It has been documented that pelviscopy together with hysterosalpingography play basic role in determining type of uterine abnormality. In 20 cases pelvic endoscopy enabled verification of the primary diagnosis set by hysterosalpingography. Pelvic endoscopy is a method by choice in the diagnostics of the Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. PMID:1305571

Korzon, T; Mielnik, J; Adamcio-Deptulska, M; Go?ciniak, W; Lozyk, J

1992-11-01

81

Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1995-01-02

82

Hysteroscopic diagnosis and successful management of an acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation by percutaneous embolotherapy  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations are a rare but important cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in the midlife. Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations are being increasingly diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound, color Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography. We present a case where the suspected diagnosis was placental polyp or retained products of conception and hysteroscopy showed typical findings of uterine arteriovenous malformation, which was later, confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. The patient underwent arterial embolization and recovered satisfactorily with resolution of hemorrhage and resumption of normal menstrual cycles. Abnormal bleeding due to arteriovenous malformations is worsened by curettage and hence its recognition is important in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding in the midlife.

Chittawar, Priya B.; Patel, Kailash; Agrawal, Pallavi; Bhandari, Shilpa

2013-01-01

83

Uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion  

PubMed Central

Experiments were carried out in pregnant nephrectomized rabbits to determine the relationship between uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion. Uterine blood flow was measured by the percentage distribution of radioactive microspheres injected into the left ventricle which lodged in uterus and placenta, and cardiac output was measured by dye dilution. In 40 animals, 24 hr after nephrectomy, uterine blood flow was 4.7±0.4% of cardiac output and absolute flow 32.4±3 ml/100 g per min. Plasma renin activity (PRA) in uterine vein, 994±182 ng/100 ml per hr, was higher than in carotid artery, 832±143 (P < 0.025). With reduction of uterine blood flow from 4.7±0.5 to 1.95±0.3% of cardiac output and absolute flow from 30.8±4.6 to 8.8±2 ml/100 g per min, uterine vein PRA rose from 1434±234 to 4430±300 (P < 0.001), and carotid artery PRA from 1009±200 to 2300±350 (P < 0.01). Hemorrhagic hypotension caused uterine vein PRA to increase from 913±293 to 3638±1276 (P < 0.001) and carotid artery PRA from 774±252 to 1730±433 (P < 0.01). Uterine blood flow expressed as a percentage of cardiac output remained constant after hemorrhage, 5.5±0.9 and 6.3±0.8%, although absolute flow fell from 37±7.7 to 29±3.6 ml/100 g per min because of the large fall in cardiac output which occurred. Angiotensin, 10 ng/kg per min, caused no significant change in blood pressure or cardiac output but increased uterine blood flow from 4.1±0.6 to 8.4±1% (P < 0.005) of cardiac output with absolute flow increasing from 37.4±7 to 73.2±10 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.001). The increase in uterine blood flow during angiotensin was abolished by the prior administration of propranolol. Isoproterenol, 0.5 ?/min, increased uterine blood flow from 3.5±0.6 to 6.4±1.2% of cardiac output (P < 0.02) with absolute flow increasing from 25±5 to 51±12 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.05). Norepinephrine, 500 ng/min, caused no significant change in uterine blood flow. These findings suggest that uterine renin might be involved in regulating uterine blood flow, secretion being increased in response to a reduction in flow with the resultant rise in circulating or local angiotensin, through beta adrenergic stimulation, increasing uterine blood flow.

Ferris, Thomas F.; Stein, Jay H.; Kauffman, Jeffrey

1972-01-01

84

Persistent Mosaicism for 12p Duplication/Triplication Chromosome Structural Abnormality in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case of mosaicism for a structural abnormality of chromosome 12 in a patient with phenotypic features of Pallister-Killian syndrome. A six-month-old child with dysmorphic features, exotropia, hypotonia, and developmental delay was mosaic for both a normal karyotype and a cell line with 12p duplication/triplication in 25 percent of metaphase cells. Utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified three copies of probes from the end of the short arm of chromosome 12 (TEL(12p13) locus and the subtelomere (12p terminal)) on the structurally abnormal chromosome 12. Genome-wide SNP array analysis revealed that the regions of duplication and triplication were of maternal origin. The abnormal cell line in our patient was present at 25 percent at six months and 19 months of age in both metaphase and interphase cells from peripheral blood, where typically the isochromosome 12p is absent in the newborn. This may suggest that the gene(s) resulting in a growth disadvantage of abnormal cells in peripheral blood of patients with tetrasomy 12p may not have the same influence when present in only three copies.

Shackelford, Amy L.; Conlin, Laura K.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Wenger, Sharon L.

2013-01-01

85

Uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas), benign tumours of the human uterus, are the single most common indication for hysterectomy. They are clinically apparent in up to 25% of women and cause significant morbidity, including prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure or pain, and, in rare cases, reproductive dysfunction. Thus, both the economic cost and the effect on quality of life are substantial. Surgery has been the mainstay of fibroid treatment, and various minimally invasive procedures have been developed in addition to hysterectomy and abdominal myomectomy. Formation of new leiomyomas after these conservative therapies remains a substantial problem. Although medications that manipulate concentrations of steroid hormones are effective, side-effects limit long-term use. A better approach may be manipulation of the steroid-hormone environment with specific hormone antagonists. There has been little evidence-based evaluation of therapy. New research into the basic biology of these neoplasms may add new treatment options for the future as the role of growth factors and genetic mutations in these tumours are better understood. PMID:11214143

Stewart, E A

2001-01-27

86

Uterine Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Statistics for Other Types of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer ...

87

Automatic detection of multi-level acetowhite regions in RGB color images of the uterine cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method used to detect cancer precursors and cancer of the uterine cervix, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the metaplastic epithelium on the cervix for certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. A contrast agent, a 3-5% acetic acid solution, is used, causing abnormal and metaplastic

Holger Lange

2005-01-01

88

Effectiveness of routine ultrasonography in detecting fetal structural abnormalities in a low risk population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To review the efficacy of routine prenatal ultrasonography for detecting fetal structural abnormalities. DESIGN--Retrospective study of the ultrasonographic findings and outcome of all pregnancies in women scanned in 1988-9. SETTING--Maternity ultrasonography department of a district general hospital. SUBJECTS--8785 fetuses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Correlation of prenatal ultrasonographic findings with outcome in the neonate. RESULTS--8733 babies were born during 1988-9, and 52 pregnancies were terminated after a fetal malformation was identified. 8432 (95%) of the fetuses were examined by ultrasonography in the second trimester. 130 fetuses (1.5%) were found to have an abnormality at birth or after termination of pregnancy, 125 of which had been examined in the second trimester. In 93 cases the abnormality was detected before 24 weeks (sensitivity 74.4%, 95% confidence interval to 66.7% to 82.1%. Two false positive diagnoses occurred, in both cases the pregnancies were not terminated and apparently normal infants were born. This gives a specificity of 99.98% (99.9% to 99.99%). The positive predictive value of ultrasonography in the second trimester was 97.9% (92.6% to 99.7%). Of the 125 abnormalities, 87 were lethal or severely disabling; 72 of the 87 were detected by the routine screening programme (sensitivity 82.8%, 73.2% to 90.0%). CONCLUSION--Routine fetal examination by ultrasonography in a low risk population detects many fetal structural abnormalities but can present several dilemmas in counselling.

Chitty, L S; Hunt, G H; Moore, J; Lobb, M O

1991-01-01

89

Structural brain abnormalities among relatives of patients with schizophrenia: implications for linkage studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that the nonschizophrenic relatives of schizophrenic patients exhibit structural brain abnormalities that may be manifestations of genes that predispose to schizophrenia. In this work, we examine the utility of such measures for linkage analyses. Subjects were 45 nonpsychotic first-degree adult relatives of schizophrenic patients and 48 normal controls. Sixty contiguous 3-mm coronal, T1-weighted 3D magnetic resonance images

Stephen V. Faraone; Larry J. Seidman; William S. Kremen; David Kennedy; Nikos Makris; Verne S. Caviness; Jill Goldstein; Ming T. Tsuang

2003-01-01

90

Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.  

PubMed

Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. PMID:23165165

Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2013-01-01

91

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

1993-10-01

92

Uterine leiomyoma associated non-puerperal uterine inversion misdiagnosed as advanced cervical cancer: A case report?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Uterine inversion is an un-common complication of parturition which often occurs in the immediate postpartum period. The chronic (non-puerperal) uterine inversion is rarer and most times tumour associated. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 51-year old grand multiparous lady presented with a month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding associated with offensive vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain and dizziness. The initial evaluation suggested severe anaemia secondary to advanced cervical cancer. Examination under anaesthesia (EUA), staging and biopsy was attempted but this was however inconclusive due to profuse haemorrhage. A repeat EUA revealed chronic uterine inversion secondary to fundal submucous uterine leiomyoma. Myomectomy was done with tissue histology confirming benign uterine leiomyoma. Two weeks later, a modified Haultain's procedure was done followed by simple hysterectomy and posterior colpoperineorrhaphy. She had satisfactory recovery. DISCUSSION This is the first reported case of chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion in our hospital. When it occurs, it is usually tumour associated with the commonest tumour being prolapsed myoma and leiomyosarcoma. The diagnosis is based on high index of suspicion. CONCLUSION Chronic uterine inversion is a rare gynaecological condition and can be misdiagnosed as advanced cervical cancer or other causes of severe genital haemorrhage in women. A high index of suspicion is needed for its proper diagnosis. Sometimes, an EUA and biopsy was required to determine the cause here and conveniently it could be described as a “gynaecolological near miss”.

Umeononihu, Osita Samuel; Adinma, Joseph Ifeanyi; Obiechina, Nworah J.; Eleje, George Uchenna; udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Mbachu, Ikechukwu Innocent

2013-01-01

93

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of uterine arcuate artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Post-partum haemorrhage is a major determinant of maternal mortality. Traditionally, cases of post-partum haemorrhage caused by arterial injuries were managed by caesarean hysterectomies or bilateral internal iliac artery ligations. The diagnosis of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations of uterine artery are often missed. Uterine curettage, caesarean section or vaginal delivery can result in uterine vascular anomalies like pseudo aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arteriovenous fistula and rupture of uterine vessels. Colour Doppler ultrasound pelvis allows detection of these vascular abnormalities. It helps in differentiating the vascular abnormalities that require embolization from non-vascular abnormalities which can be managed by uterine curretage. Vessel malformations can be treated safely with transcatheter uterine artery embolization, but they can develop disastrous consequences with inadvertent uterine curettage. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization after pelvic angiography is the treatment of choice for uterine artery malformations and it has the advantage of preserving the reproductive capacity. We recommend a routine use of colour Doppler ultrasound pelvis for evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:24298511

Sharma, Nidhi; Ganesh, Deepa; Devi, Lakshmi; Srinivasan, Jayashree; Ranga, Upasana

2013-10-01

94

Prompt Diagnosis and Treatment of Uterine Arcuate Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Post–partum haemorrhage is a major determinant of maternal mortality. Traditionally, cases of post–partum haemorrhage caused by arterial injuries were managed by caesarean hysterectomies or bilateral internal iliac artery ligations. The diagnosis of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations of uterine artery are often missed. Uterine curettage, caesarean section or vaginal delivery can result in uterine vascular anomalies like pseudo aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arteriovenous fistula and rupture of uterine vessels. Colour Doppler ultrasound pelvis allows detection of these vascular abnormalities. It helps in differentiating the vascular abnormalities that require embolization from non–vascular abnormalities which can be managed by uterine curretage. Vessel malformations can be treated safely with transcatheter uterine artery embolization, but they can develop disastrous consequences with inadvertent uterine curettage. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization after pelvic angiography is the treatment of choice for uterine artery malformations and it has the advantage of preserving the reproductive capacity. We recommend a routine use of colour Doppler ultrasound pelvis for evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding.

Sharma, Nidhi; Ganesh, Deepa; Devi, Lakshmi; Srinivasan, Jayashree; Ranga, Upasana

2013-01-01

95

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease.

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

96

White matter abnormalities and structural hippocampal disconnections in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer's disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer's disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer's group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

97

A contribution to the differential diagnosis of the "group of schizophrenias": structural abnormality of chromosome 4.  

PubMed Central

A structural abnormality of chromosome 4 [inv 4 (p15.2; q21.3)] is reported in a male presenting with DSM-III-R schizophrenia, undifferentiated type (295.94) and in his mother, who displayed symptoms associated with schizotypal personality disorder (DSM-III-R 301.22). The proband had a performance IQ of 91, poor motor coordination, stature in the lowest quartile and an impaired sense of time. There were no diagnostic physical or neurological abnormalities. Mild ventricular enlargement and prominent sulci were found on computed tomography. Both he and his chromosomally normal father had strabismus which required surgical correction. This case joins the long list of chromosomal abnormalities previously reported to confer an increased risk of mental illness and emphasizes the importance of a sophisticated differential diagnosis in evaluating patients who present with symptoms of schizophrenia. The implications for recent initiatives which attempt to localize genes conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses are discussed. Images Fig. 2

Palmour, R M; Miller, S; Fielding, A; Vekemans, M; Ervin, F R

1994-01-01

98

Multimodal Highlighting of Structural Abnormalities in Diabetic Rat and Human Corneas  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to highlight structural corneal changes in a model of type 2 diabetes, using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). The abnormalities were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in rat and human corneas. Methods Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were observed at age 12 weeks (n = 3) and 1 year (n = 6), and compared to age-matched controls. After in vivo CCM examination, TEM and SHG microscopy were used to characterize the ultrastructure and the three-dimensional organization of the abnormalities. Human corneas from diabetic (n = 3) and nondiabetic (n = 3) patients were also included in the study. Results In the basal epithelium of GK rats, CCM revealed focal hyper-reflective areas, and histology showed proliferative cells with irregular basement membrane. In the anterior stroma, extracellular matrix modifications were detected by CCM and confirmed in histology. In the Descemet's membrane periphery of all the diabetic corneas, hyper-reflective deposits were highlighted using CCM and characterized as long-spacing collagen fibrils by TEM. SHG microscopy revealed these deposits with high contrast, allowing specific detection in diabetic human and rat corneas without preparation and characterization of their three-dimensional organization. Conclusion Pathologic findings were observed early in the development of diabetes in GK rats. Similar abnormalities have been found in corneas from diabetic patients. Translational Relevance This multidisciplinary study highlights diabetes-induced corneal abnormalities in an animal model, but also in diabetic donors. This could constitute a potential early marker for diagnosis of hyperglycemia-induced tissue changes.

Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gael; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Savoldelli, Michele; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Plamann, Karsten; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Behar-Cohen, Francine

2013-01-01

99

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound.  

PubMed

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

Carss, Keren J; Hillman, Sarah C; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J; Maher, Eamonn R; Kilby, Mark D; Hurles, Matthew E

2014-06-15

100

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing.

Carss, Keren J.; Hillman, Sarah C.; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Kilby, Mark D.; Hurles, Matthew E.

2014-01-01

101

A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

2004-09-01

102

Incidence, structure and morphological classification of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).  

PubMed

Little detailed information is currently available on the incidence and morphological characteristics of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and of ratites in general. This situation is further compounded by the lack of a uniform system for the morphological classification of avian sperm defects. Considering the important role that sperm morphology plays in the assessment of semen quality, a detailed description of avian sperm defects is of paramount importance. Based on morphological data provided by light and electron microscopy, a mean of 17.3% abnormal sperm was recorded in semen samples collected from the distal deferent duct of four adult emus during the middle of the breeding season. Four categories of defects were identified. Head defects (57.2% of total defects) consisted of bent heads, macrocephalic heads, round heads and acephalic sperm. Zones of incomplete chromatin condensation and retained cytoplasmic droplets appeared to be implicated in head bending, while giant heads were often associated with multiple tails. Acephalic sperm revealed a complete tail devoid of a head which was replaced by a small spherical structure. Tail defects (22.6% of total defects) were subdivided into neck/midpiece defects and principal piece defects. In the neck/midpiece region disjointed sperm were the exclusive defect noted and were characterized by the complete separation of the head and midpiece in the neck region but within the confines of the plasmalemma. Defects observed in the principal piece were subdivided into short tails, coiled tails and multiple tails. No conclusive evidence was obtained that tail coiling represented the 'Dag' defect. Biflagellate sperm were the most common form of multiple tails, demonstrating two complete tails with all the normal structural elements. Cytoplasmic droplets (13.9% of total defects) were classified as a separate defect. The location and eccentric positioning of retained cytoplasmic droplets was similar to that described in ostrich sperm although the composition of the droplets differed markedly between the two species. A small percentage of sperm (6.3% of total sperm defects) displayed multiple abnormalities. Based on these findings we propose a morphological classification for abnormal ratite sperm identifying head and tail defects, with additional categories for cytoplasmic droplets and multiple defects. Each category is further subdivided to reflect a range of specific defects within the category. It is envisaged that additional defects will be added to each category or that new categories may be added as future studies on the detailed morphology of avian sperm defects are completed. PMID:21190730

du Plessis, Lizette; Soley, John T

2011-03-01

103

PTH(1-84) Administration Reverses Abnormal Bone-Remodeling Dynamics and Structure in Hypoparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Hypoparathyroidism is associated with abnormal structural and dynamic skeletal properties. We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone(1–84) [PTH(1–84)] treatment would restore skeletal properties toward normal in hypoparathyroidism. Sixty-four subjects with hypoparathyroidism were treated with PTH(1–84) for 2 years. All subjects underwent histomorphometric assessment with percutaneous iliac crest bone biopsies. Biopsies were performed at baseline and at 1 or 2 years. Another group of subjects had a single biopsy at 3 months, having received tetracycline before beginning PTH(1–84) and prior to the biopsy (quadruple-label protocol). Measurement of biochemical bone turnover markers was performed. Structural changes after PTH(1–84) included reduced trabecular width (144 ± 34 µm to 128 ± 34 µm, p = 0.03) and increases in trabecular number (1.74 ± 0.34/mm to 2.07 ± 0.50/mm, p = 0.02) at 2 years. Cortical porosity increased at 2 years (7.4% ± 3.2% to 9.2% ± 2.4%, p = 0.03). Histomorphometrically measured dynamic parameters, including mineralizing surface, increased significantly at 3 months, peaking at 1 year (0.7% ± 0.6% to 7.1% ± 6.0%, p = 0.001) and persisting at 2 years. Biochemical measurements of bone turnover increased significantly, peaking at 5 to 9 months of therapy and persisting for 24 months. It is concluded that PTH(1–84) treatment of hypoparathyroidism is associated with increases in histomorphometric and biochemical indices of skeletal dynamics. Structural changes are consistent with an increased remodeling rate in both trabecular and cortical compartments with tunneling resorption in the former. These changes suggest that PTH(1–84) improves abnormal skeletal properties in hypoparathyroidism and restores bone metabolism toward normal euparathyroid levels.

Rubin, Mishaela R; Dempster, David W; Sliney, James; Zhou, Hua; Nickolas, Thomas L; Stein, Emily M; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Dellabadia, Maryann; Ives, Rebecca; McMahon, Donald J; Zhang, Chiyuan; Silverberg, Shonni J; Shane, Elizabeth; Cremers, Serge; Bilezikian, John P

2014-01-01

104

Uterine leukocytes and decidualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of endometrium into decidua is an essential feature of normal implantation and pregnancy. There is a close association with an unusual leukocyte population, uterine natural killer (NK) cells, and onset of decid- ualization. These uterine NK cells are seen in close contact with stromal cells ultrastructurally and are also seen encir- cling vessels and glands. The possibility that

Ashley King

2000-01-01

105

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

106

The Search for Dimensional Structure Differences Between Normality and Abnormality: A Statistical Review of Published Data on Personality and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical review of published data for 37 personality and psychopathology inventories was conducted to determine whether there are dimensional structure differences between clinical and nonclinical respondents. Correlation and factor-loading matrices from multiscale inventories and from specialized measures were tested for structural invariance across populations. There was relatively consistent evidence for high levels of similarity between normal and abnormal populations

Brian P. OConnor

2002-01-01

107

Recurrent uterine rupture after hysterescopic resection of the uterine septum  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Uterine rupture after hysteroscopic septum resection is a rare complication, and its frequency is reported to be approximately 1–2.7%. Uterine perforation and monopolar resection during hysteroscopy are well-known risk factors for subsequent uterine rupture during pregnancy. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of recurrent uterine ruptures during consecutive pregnancies in a patient who had undergone hysteroscopic septum resection for recurrent pregnancy loss. DISCUSSION Recurrent uterine rupture due to hysteroscopic septum resection in pregnancy is a very rare condition. In the present case we noted that the first two uterine ruptures resulted from uterine contractions; however, the third rupture occurred spontaneously and earlier in gestation. As each uterine rupture occurred earlier than the rupture in the previous gestation, a history of uterine rupture during pregnancy should raise provider suspicion about the possibility of earlier uterine rupture recurrence. CONCLUSION Uterine rupture may occur in pregnancies after hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum. However, if a patient has a history of uterine rupture during previous pregnancies, the risk of uterine rupture may increase for earlier gestational ages in subsequent pregnancies. The patient must be informed about both the risks of uterine rupture during pregnancy after hysteroscopic septum resection and that recurrent ruptures may occur at earlier gestational weeks than during previous pregnancies.

Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Y?ld?r?m, Nuri; Akdemir, Ali; Yucebilgin, Sait

2012-01-01

108

Uterine fibroids: current perspectives.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman's menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K

2014-01-01

109

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities refer to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... Skeletal limb abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are ...

110

Uterine leiomyoma: understanding the impact of symptoms on womens' lives  

PubMed Central

Background Most women report negative experience about the symptoms of uterine leiomyoma (UL) in their lives, such as abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pain. Many studies have been conducted about efficacy of UL treatment, but little research has been performed about womens health related quality of life (HRQL). Methods This is a semi-structured, descriptive, observational, qualitative study that was performed during eight months. Focus group (FG) interviews were performed with women attending at a tertiary hospital in Brazil, who were consecutively included in the study. Seventy women with symptomatic UL were recruited to this study. FG duration was one hour with mediators with 5-6 women at each group. Collected data from discussions was processed according to thematic analysis and stored at a qualitative software. Results Women were negatively influenced by the presence of symptomatic UL. The major themes that were noticed during analysis were: beliefs and attitudes towards UL; limitation to social and professional activities; sensation of fear/unfairness/discouragement towards the symptoms and adverse effects during treatment with GnRH analogs. Conclusions Symptomatic UL has a negative impact on womens HRQL. Health providers should consider such impact when counseling women on their treatment options, since it may have an important influence in these patients’ decision-making process. While current pharmacological treatments may improve disease specific outcomes, such as bleeding intensity and tumor volume, they fail on actually improving quality of life.

2014-01-01

111

Early Abnormalities of Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Middle-Aged Korean Adults With Prehypertension: The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrehypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are few population-based studies on the changes of cardiovascular structure and function that characterize prehypertension. The aim of this study was to assess whether prehypertension is associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular structure and function in the general Korean population.MethodsWe analyzed the cross-sectional relationships between prehypertension and cardiovascular structure and

Seong Hwan Kim; Goo-Yeong Cho; Inkyung Baik; Sang Yup Lim; Cheol Ung Choi; Hong Euy Lim; Eung Ju Kim; Chang Gyu Park; Juri Park; Jinyoung Kim; Chol Shin

2011-01-01

112

Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)  

MedlinePLUS

... variety of medications and synthetic materials, called embolic agents , are used. The equipment typically used for this ... inch in diameter. Several different types of embolic agents are used for uterine fibroid embolization. They act ...

113

Center for Uterine Fibroids  

MedlinePLUS

The Center for Uterine Fibroids represents a longstanding collaboration between researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Mayo Clinic. Join us in our collaboration to search for the causes of and treatments ...

114

Symptoms of Uterine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Announcements Radio Public Service Announcements Print Materials Campaign Research Doctors Who Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Related Resources Gynecologic Cancer Symptoms Diary [PDF-503KB] Uterine Cancer fact sheet [PDF-622KB] ...

115

Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study  

PubMed Central

Imaging studies using ROI morphometry and PET have contributed to our understanding of structural and functional abnormalities in BPD; however, both methods have practical limitations to their usefulness for exploratory studies of brain-behavior relationships. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) in 34 subjects with BPD and 30 healthy controls (HC) to study effects of diagnosis, gender, childhood sexual abuse, depressed mood, impulsivity and aggression on group differences. VBM is a computer-based method for whole brain analysis that combines the advantages of a functional study with a structural method. The BPD subjects, diagnosed with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and the International Personality Disorders Examination, were compared with 30 HC, with age and gender covaried. Analyses were repeated separately by gender and, in women, by histories of childhood sexual abuse. Depressed mood, impulsivity, and aggression were covaried in separate analyses. Compared with HC, BPD subjects had significant bilateral reductions in gray matter concentrations in ventral cingulate gyrus and several regions of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. BPD women (and abused BPD women), but not BPD men, had significant reductions in medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. BPD men, but not BPD women, showed diminished gray matter concentrations in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with findings HC. Covarying for depressed mood rendered group differences non-significant in the ventral cingulate but had little effect on differences in medial temporal cortex. Covarying for aggression (LHA) had relatively little effect on group differences, while covarying for impulsivity (BIS) rendered all previously noted voxel-level group differences non-significant. Diminished gray matter in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex may mediate the dysregulation of impulse and affect in BPD. Group differences varied greatly by gender, levels of depression, and impulsivity. VBM is an efficient method for exploratory study of brain-behavior relationships.

Soloff, Paul; Nutche, Jeffrey; Goradia, Dhruman; Diwadkar, Vaibhav

2012-01-01

116

Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?  

PubMed

Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2013-10-01

117

Rectus abdominalis muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma: An unusual case and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy. Spread to the lung, thyroid, liver, brain, pancreas, heart, duodenum, breast, vagina, submandibular gland, and bone has been reported. We describe a case of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the rectus abdominalis muscle as the first case in the literature. A 39-year-old nulligravid woman presented with a history of pelvic pain. Physical examination discovered about a 6-cm mass in the suprapubic region. She had previously undergone a hysterectomy for uterine leiomyosarcoma. Operative findings had revealed a mass measuring 4×5×6 cm located in the rectus abdominalis muscle. Abnormal mitotic figures and necrosis were evident, and uterine leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignancies of the smooth muscle arising from the myometrium. Skeletal muscle is an uncommon site of metastasis by hematogenous spread. In conclusion, we have described a case of skeletal muscle metastasis (first case of rectus abdominalis muscle metastasis) secondary to uterine leiomyosarcoma.

Gungor, Tayfun; Akbay, Serap; Aksut, Hayri; Y?lmaz, Bulent

2014-01-01

118

A high-resolution study of the structure of sunspot light bridges and abnormal granulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong light bridges (SLBs) represent an abrupt change in the physical conditions of sunspot umbrae. They divide the umbra into separate units (fragments, umbral cores) and very often show a granular structure. A photometric and spectroscopic study of SLBs, and also of abnormal granulation (AG) in a region of pores, is presented. Slit-jaw images (bandpass 5425 +/- 50 A) and spectra (line Fe I 5434.5 A), with a spatial resolution of 0.3 sec, were acquired during the period 1991 July 1-10 at the Swedish Solar Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma). The power spectra of intensity fluctuations in the slit-jaw images, were used as the primary diagnostic tool, complemented by the analysis of line profiles. The following results were obtained. 1. The structures present in SLBs and AG are generally smaller than the granules in the quiet photosphere. The typical size of SLB granules is 1.2 sec (in quiet granulation, 1.5 sec). In AG, the distribution of power is more complex and is characterized by peaks corresponding to scales of 2.5 sec, 1.3 sec, and 0.64 sec. 2. SLB and AG power spectra show an excess of power (compared to quiet granulation) at scales of 0.5 sec. This power enhancement reflects the presence of small bright grains, clearly visible in SLBs and AG, with a mean nearest neighbor distance of 0.5 sec. 3. Two of these small bright grains, together with a dark lane between them, were resolved spectroscopically in a SLB. The line shifts and bisector shapes suggest a convective origin of these structures. 4. The SLB power spectra in the log P/log k scale indicate the presence of a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade in the structures between 1.7 sec and 0.64 sec. However, the small bright grains do not pertain to the turbulent cascade. They are particular phenomena, probably with a convective origin. The power spectrum of AG does not give any indication of the presence of a turbulent cascade. 5. Small bright features (umbral dots or bright grains) can be found in unbral cores, light bridges, and AG regions as well.

Sobotka, Michal; Bonet, Jose A.; Vazquez, Manuel

1994-05-01

119

Imaging for uterine myomas and adenomyosis.  

PubMed

Uterine myomas and adenomyosis are common findings, in particular in patients with symptoms of abdominal enlargement, pelvic pressure, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. Diagnosis and differentiation between the 2 entities are critical in establishing treatment options and the operative approach for surgical management. Herein are reviewed diagnostic options, their relative accuracy, and the effect of accurate diagnosis on treatment. A review was performed using PubMed, MdConsult, OVID, and reviews including cross-referenced articles and prospective and retrospective studies published from 1980 to 2013. Also reviewed are use of ultrasound with its various methods, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis, pretreatment evaluation, and differentiation of myomas and adenomyosis. PMID:24316138

Shwayder, James; Sakhel, Khaled

2014-01-01

120

Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies  

PubMed Central

A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular.

Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

2014-01-01

121

Uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization for post-partum hemorrhage: review of the literature.  

PubMed

Uterine necrosis is one of the rarest complications following pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). With the increasing incidence of cesarean section and abnormal placental localization (placenta previa) or placental invasion (placenta accreta/increta/percreta), more and more cases of uterine necrosis after embolization are being diagnosed and reported. Pelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy, and surgical management includes hysterectomy. We performed a Medline database query following the first description of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization (between January 1985 and January 2013). Medical subheading search words were the following: "uterine necrosis"; "embolization"; "postpartum hemorrhage". Seventeen citations reporting at least one case of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization for PPH were included, with a total of 19 cases. This literature review discusses the etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization, and guidelines are detailed. The mean time interval between pelvic embolization and diagnosis of uterine necrosis was 21 days (range 9-730). The main symptoms of uterine necrosis were fever, abdominal pain, menorrhagia and leukorrhea. Surgical management included total hysterectomy (n=15, 78%) or subtotal hysterectomy (n=2, 10%) and partial cystectomy with excision of the necrotic portion in three cases of associated bladder necrosis (15%). Uterine necrosis was partial in four cases (21%). Regarding the pathophysiology, four factors may be involved in uterine necrosis: the size and nature of the embolizing agent, the presence of the anastomotic vascular system and the embolization technique itself with the use of free flow embolization. PMID:23932304

Poujade, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Pierre François; Davitian, Carine; Amate, Pascale; Chatel, Paul; Khater, Carine; Aflak, Nizar; Vilgrain, Valérie; Luton, Dominique

2013-10-01

122

How Are Uterine Fibroids Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications En Español How are uterine fibroids diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... you probably won’t know that you have uterine fibroids. Sometimes, health care providers find fibroids during a ...

123

Abnormal Cerebellar Structure Is Dependent on Phenotype of Isolated Cleft of the Lip and/or Palate  

PubMed Central

Isolated cleft lip and/or palate (ICLP) is one of the most common congenital birth defects in the USA, affecting roughly 1 in 600 births annually. Along with the facial deformity, this population has been found to have abnormal neurodevelopment and gross structural abnormalities in the brain, particularly within the cerebellum. The current study examined cerebellar structure within the two primary subtypes of ICLP: cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CPO). A large sample of 107 subjects aged 7 to 27 years with ICLP was compared to 127 healthy controls. Samples were separated by sex. Brain structure was obtained via magnetic resonance imaging. For males, after controlling for intracranial volume, cerebellum volume was significantly lower in the ICLP group (F= 12.351, p=0.001). Regionally in the cerebellum, males with ICLP had proportionally larger anterior lobes (F=4.022, p= 0.047) and smaller superior posterior lobes (F=5.686, p= 0.019). CL/P males showed only a reduction in overall cerebellum volume, with no regional changes. CPO males showed only regional changes, with no reduction in overall volume. Females with ICLP showed no overall or regional cerebellar abnormalities. However, females with CPO did have significantly lower cerebellum volumes than controls. The results reveal both global and regional cerebellar abnormalities within subjects with ICLP. They also establish the existence of abnormal cerebellar morphologies that are dependent on cleft subtype as well as sex. This lends further support to the claim that CL/P and CPO are distinct conditions.

DeVolder, Ian; Richman, Lynn; Conrad, Amy L.; Magnotta, Vincent; Nopoulos, Peg

2012-01-01

124

Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.  

PubMed

Imaging studies using region-of-interest morphometry and positron emission tomography have contributed to our understanding of structural and functional abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, both methods have practical limitations to their usefulness for exploratory studies of brain-behavior relationships. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 34 subjects with BPD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects to study effects of diagnosis, gender, childhood sexual abuse, depressed mood, impulsivity and aggression on group differences. VBM is a computer-based method for whole brain analysis that combines the advantages of a functional study with a structural method. The BPD subjects, diagnosed with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and the International Personality Disorders Examination, were compared with 30 HC subjects, with age and gender covaried. Analyses were repeated separately by gender and, in women, by histories of childhood sexual abuse. Depressed mood, impulsivity, and aggression were covaried in separate analyses. Compared with HC, BPD subjects had significant bilateral reductions in gray matter concentrations in ventral cingulate gyrus and several regions of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. BPD women (and abused BPD women), but not BPD men, had significant reductions in medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. BPD men, but not BPD women, showed diminished gray matter concentrations in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with findings in HC subjects. Covarying for depressed mood rendered group differences non-significant in the ventral cingulate but had little effect on differences in medial temporal cortex. Covarying for aggression (LHA) had relatively little effect on group differences, while covarying for impulsivity, as determined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, rendered all previously noted voxel-level group differences non-significant. Diminished gray matter in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex may mediate the dysregulation of impulse and affect in BPD. Group differences varied greatly by gender, levels of depression, and impulsivity. VBM is an efficient method for exploratory study of brain-behavior relationships. PMID:19019636

Soloff, Paul; Nutche, Jeffrey; Goradia, Dhruman; Diwadkar, Vaibhav

2008-12-30

125

Pure uterine lipoma.  

PubMed

Lipomatous tumors of the uterus are unusual, benign neoplasms seen in postmenopausal women. Although many of the mixed-type cases such as lipoleiomyoma and fibrolipoma have been reported, pure uterine lipomas are extremely rare. In the literature, a few cases with pure uterine lipoma have been reported. We first present the advanced magnetic resonance findings of pure uterine lipoma, followed by those of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). We markedly detected lipid peaks on the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the apparent diffusion coefficient value to be 0.00 due to chemical-shift effects with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Although pelvic lipomatous tumors can be diagnosed with US and CT, in some cases, further workup may be required to localize the lesion. MRI may yield more valuable data for differential diagnosis. MRS and DWI findings provide additional clues on the nature of the lesion. PMID:17905250

Erdem, Gulnur; Celik, Onder; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Alkan, Alpay; Hascalik, Seyma

2007-10-01

126

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Do you have regular menstrual cycles? Is your ... Do you have kidney or liver disease? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

127

Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in the Uterine Cervix Associated with Tissue Repair  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the presence of hematopoietic precursors outside the bone marrow. This condition is usually associated with hematologic disorders. Although EMH can be found in almost every site in the body, female genital tract involvement is rare. The authors report EMH in the uterine cervix from a 64-year-old patient following cervical biopsy due to abnormal cervical cytology. Neither neoplasm nor hematologic disorder was detected before the diagnosis and after 1 year of follow up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of EMH involving the uterine cervix which showed an association with tissue repair.

Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; Neungton, Chanon; Warnnissorn, Malee

2013-01-01

128

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Different types of walking problems occur without a ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

129

Radial Structure of Normal and Abnormal Modes of the DC glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As is known dc glow discharge can burn in normal and abnormal modes. The aim of our work was to study the radial distribution of plasma density in both modes. Experiments were performed in the nitrogen pressure range p = 0.1 -- 2 Torr and the dc voltage range U < 600 V. It is shown that in the normal mode the discharge occupies only a part of the cathode area and the current density radial profile has a maximum at the center of the discharge spot and then it goes down rapidly to the border of the spot. With the dc current increasing the radial current density profile becomes broader and it's maximum value higher. The maximum value of the current density approaches a constant ``normal'' value before the transition of the discharge from the normal to the abnormal mode. In the abnormal mode the radial current density has almost a uniform profile across the electrode surface and the average current density increases with the dc current increasing.

Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Kharchenko, Nadiia; Yegorenkov, Vladimir

2009-10-01

130

The Autism ProSAP1/Shank2 mouse model displays quantitative and structural abnormalities in ultrasonic vocalisations.  

PubMed

Mouse ultrasonic vocalisations have been often used as a paradigm to extrapolate vocal communication defects observed in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The role of these vocalisations as well as their development, structure and informational content, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we characterised in depth the emission of pup and adult ultrasonic vocalisations of wild-type mice and their ProSAP1/Shank2(-/-) littermates lacking a synaptic scaffold protein mutated in ASD. We hypothesised that the vocal behaviour of ProSAP1/Shank2(-/-) mice not only differs from the vocal behaviour of their wild-type littermates in a quantitative way, but also presents more qualitative abnormalities in temporal organisation and acoustic structure. We first quantified the rate of emission of ultrasonic vocalisations, and analysed the organisation of vocalisations sequences using Markov models. We subsequently measured duration and peak frequency characteristics of each ultrasonic vocalisation, to characterise their acoustic structure. In wild-type mice, we found a high level of organisation in sequences of ultrasonic vocalisations, suggesting a communicative function in this complex system. Very limited significant sex-related variations were detected in their usage and acoustic structure, even in adult mice. In adult ProSAP1/Shank2(-/-) mice, we found abnormalities in the call usage and the structure of ultrasonic vocalisations. Both ProSAP1/Shank2(-/-) male and female mice uttered less vocalisations with a different call distribution and at lower peak frequency in comparison with wild-type littermates. This study provides a comprehensive framework to characterise abnormalities of ultrasonic vocalisations in mice and confirms that ProSAP1/Shank2(-/-) mice represent a relevant model to study communication defects. PMID:23994547

Ey, Elodie; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; Leblond, Claire S; Boeckers, Tobias M; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas

2013-11-01

131

Congenital scoliosis associated with agenesis of the uterine cervix. Case report  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations in the normal sequence of development of müllerian ducts lead to a wide spectrum of reproductive tract abnormalities. A rare form of lack of development, regarding a short tract of the müllerian ducts, leads to the isolated agenesis of the uterine cervix. Anomalies identified among patients with müllerian agenesis include skeletal deformities (i.e., scoliosis of the spine and Klippel-Feil anomaly). Case presentation A 46 years old woman presenting cyphoscoliosis and very low stature (120 cm – 3,93 feet), came to our observation for acute pelvic pain; she also reported primary amenorrhoea associated with cyclic pelvic pain. Clinical and imaging evaluation, evidenced a blind vaginal duct of normal length, left cystic adnexal mass, and enlarged uterus with hematometra. FSH, LH, 17? estradiol and CA-125, karyotype and radiographic study of limbs and vertebral column were also evaluated. At laparotomy, a left ovarian cyst was found. Uterus ended at the isthmus; under this level a thin fibrous tissue band was found, joining the uterus to the vagina. Uterine cervix was replaced by fibrous tissue containing some dilated glands lined with müllerian epithelium. Karyotype resulted 46, XX. The described skeletal deformity, were consistent with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Conclusion We report a case of congenital scoliosis associated with müllerian agenesis limited to uterine cervix, association thus far seen only among patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (utero-vaginal agenesis). This case report supports the necessity to evaluate, for accompanying müllerian anomalies, all cases of congenital structural scoliosis in view of the possibility for many müllerian development abnormalities, if timely diagnosed, to be surgically corrected.

Carlomagno, Giorgio; Di Blasi, Arturo; Monica, Matteo Della

2004-01-01

132

Abnormal structure of frontostriatal brain systems is associated with aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependence  

PubMed Central

A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by impulsive behaviours and compulsive drug-taking. Here we compared self-report, behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging data on a relatively large sample of cocaine-dependent individuals (n?=?60) with data on healthy volunteers (n?=?60); and we investigated the relationships between grey matter volume variation, duration of cocaine use, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in the cocaine-dependent group. Cocaine dependence was associated with an extensive system of abnormally decreased grey matter volume in orbitofrontal, cingulate, insular, temporoparietal and cerebellar cortex, and with a more localized increase in grey matter volume in the basal ganglia. Greater duration of cocaine dependence was correlated with greater grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, cingulate and insular cortex. Greater impairment of attentional control was associated with reduced volume in insular cortex and increased volume of caudate nucleus. Greater compulsivity of drug use was associated with reduced volume in orbitofrontal cortex. Cocaine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption.

Barnes, Anna; Simon Jones, P.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.

2011-01-01

133

Uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a little known condition of which, to date, very few cases have been described. It has a very diverse symptomatology, even though in most cases, it is diagnosed during a severe and acute haemorrhagic event. Its treatment can vary from expectant management to hysterectomy; however, current evidence suggests that the embolisation of uterine arteries is the most effective approach, especially if fertility is to be preserved. We present a case report classified as AVM, with additional images that show the appearance of this pathology in a short span of time. This case has a number of peculiarities: unusual persistence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (?-HCG), asymptomatic patient, quick establishment of the lesion and its duration with unchanging characteristics and finally its spontaneous resolution without further consequences. This entity shows an aetiopathogenesis, that is, not well established or described. We discuss its physiopathology and aetiopathogenesis. PMID:23396842

Sellers, Francisco; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Moliner, Belen; Bernabeu, Rafael

2013-01-01

134

[Uterine collagens. General review].  

PubMed

Several collagen types (mainly types I, III, V and VI), elastin, fibronectin and some proteoglycans are active constituents of uterine myometer. They surround and associate smooth muscle cells. The type I collagen biosynthesis in the uterus is under the positive control of estrogens that in addition repress the collagenase secretion and in this way prevent collagen from degradation. The cervical softening and dilation are caused by a progressive degradation of collagen and by the synthesis of an additional proteoglycan that separates and disorganizes the collagen fibres. Prostaglandin E2 and relaxin participate in the activation of collagenases. After delivery, the drop in estrogens and progesterone permits collagenases to rapidly degrade uterine collagen in excess. PMID:1663655

Borel, J P

1991-12-01

135

Effective salvage of acute massive uterine bleeding using intrauterine balloon tamponade in a uterine adenomyosis patient on dienogest.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 37-year-old nulliparous woman in whom acute massive uterine bleeding during dienogest therapy was successfully treated using intrauterine balloon tamponade. Abnormal uterine bleeding and several cases of profuse bleeding causing severe anemia in association with dienogest therapy have been reported, but this is the first reported case involving hypovolemic shock. While successful control of postpartum hemorrhage with intrauterine balloon tamponade has been well described, applications for non-obstetric bleeding, particularly in the presence of underlying diseases, such as adenomyosis, have only rarely been reported. This procedure can be easily, promptly, and safely implemented without analgesia, anesthesia, or laparotomy; it can be used with a minimally dilated external cervical os or narrow uterine cavity; and it can preserve fertility. PMID:23003209

Nishino, Kimihiro; Hayashi, Kazumasa; Chaya, Jyunya; Kato, Noriko; Yamamuro, Osamu

2013-03-01

136

Abnormalities of cerebral structure in schizophrenia on magnetic resonance imaging: interpretation in relation to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis.  

PubMed Central

The nature of abnormalities of cerebral structure evident in schizophrenia on magnetic resonance imaging is considered in relation to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of the disorder. While schizophrenic patients showed increased ventricular volume, the extent of increase with age was comparable with that evident in controls and was unrelated to duration of illness. Conversely, cortical atrophy was evident only in patients, and this increased markedly with age and duration of illness. Such findings could be suggestive of two distinct pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, but a schema for their reconciliation with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis is elaborated.

O'Callaghan, E; Buckley, P; Redmond, O; Stack, J; Ennis, J T; Larkin, C; Waddington, J L

1992-01-01

137

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

138

The application of uterine and umbilical artery velocimetry to the antenatal supervision of pregnancies complicated by maternal sickle hemoglobinopathies.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy of Doppler flow velocimetry in predicting fetal compromise and neonatal outcome in pregnant women with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, a prospective study was conducted of 96 patients, 48 with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy (8 with SS and 40 with AS hemoglobin) and 48 low-risk AA hemoglobin controls. All subjects were followed biweekly from the third trimester of pregnancy through delivery with uterine and umbilical artery velocimetry, nonstress, tests, and hematocrit and blood pressure measurements. An abnormal systolic/diastolic ratio was defined as a value greater than or equal to 3. The incidence of abnormal systolic/diastolic ratios for uterine or umbilical arteries was significantly higher in pregnant women with SS hemoglobin (88%) when compared with patients with AS (7%) and AA (4%) hemoglobin. In addition, the abnormal systolic/diastolic ratios for both umbilical and uterine arteries are correlated with abnormal nonstress test results. The nonstress test results became abnormal on average 3 weeks after the systolic/diastolic ratios did. The presence of abnormal systolic/diastolic ratios for umbilical and uterine arteries is predictive of fetal distress and infants small for gestational age. The high incidence of concordant uterine and umbilical artery abnormal systolic/diastolic ratios in pregnant women with SS hemoglobinopathy, which were identified earlier than were abnormal nonstress results, suggests an important parameter in the monitoring of these high-risk pregnancies. PMID:2971316

Anyaegbunam, A; Langer, O; Brustman, L; Damus, K; Halpert, R; Merkatz, I R

1988-09-01

139

The influence of exogenous steroid hormones on steroid receptors, uterine histological structure and the bacterial flora of the normal bitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors have been shown to vary in both concentration and distribution during the oestrous cycle of the bitch, influenced by the normal changes in endogenous reproductive hormones. The influence of exogenous steroid hormones on steroid receptors and the histological structure of the uterus was studied in two groups of parous Beagle bitches. Group A (n=6)

G. K. Dhaliwal; G. C. W. England; D. E. Noakes

1999-01-01

140

Infantile haemangioma: part I. Pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical features, life cycle and associated structural abnormalities.  

PubMed

Infantile haemangioma (IH) is the most common tumour of infancy. Its typical natural history is characterized by an early rapid growth following birth and a slow spontaneous regression phase within a period of 3 to 7 years. The exact aetiopathogeny underlying IH is still to be fully understood, but the role of fetal hypoxic stress is strongly suggested as a triggering signal in epidemiological studies. IH are composed of a complex mixture of cells including multipotent stem cells, a majority of immature endothelial cells, pericytes, dendritic cells and in the late stage, adipocytes. Most of IH are nodular and are not associated with malformations. However, in some cases, IH referred to as segmental may be associated with developmental abnormalities such as PHACES and PELVIS/SACRAL syndromes. PMID:21569112

Léauté-Labrèze, C; Prey, S; Ezzedine, K

2011-11-01

141

Structural chromosomal abnormalities detected during CVS analysis and their role in the prenatal ascertainment of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements.  

PubMed

Mosaic structural chromosomal abnormalities observed along the trophoblast-mesenchyme-fetal axis, although rare, pose a difficult problem for their prognostic interpretation in prenatal diagnosis. Additional issues are raised by the presence of mosaic imbalances of the same chromosome showing different sizes in the different tissues, that is, deletions and duplications in the cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme of chorionic villi (CV). Some of these cytogenetic rearrangements originate from the post-zygotic breakage of a dicentric chromosome or of the product of its first anaphasic breakage. Selection of the most viable cell line may result in confined placental mosaicism of the most severe imbalance, favoring the presence of the cell lines with the mildest duplications or deletions in the fetal tissues. We document three cases of ambiguous results in CV analysis due to the presence of different cell lines involving structural rearrangements of the same chromosome which were represented differently in the trophoblast and the mesenchyme. Observation by conventional karyotype of a grossly rearranged chromosome in one of the CV preparations (direct or culture) was crucial to call attention to the involved chromosomal region in other tissues (villi or amniotic fluid), allowing the prenatal diagnosis through molecular cytogenetic methods of subtelomeric rearrangements [del(7)(q36qter); del(11)(q25qter); del(20)(p13pter)]. This would have surely been undiagnosed with the routine banding technique. In conclusion, the possibility to diagnose complex abnormalities leading to cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements, together with a better knowledge of the initial/intermediate products leading to the final abnormal cryptic deletion should be added to the advantages of the CV sampling technique. PMID:23922197

Pittalis, Maria Carla; Mattarozzi, Angela; Menozzi, Cristina; Malacarne, Michela; Baccolini, Ilaria; Farina, Antonio; Pompilii, Eva; Magini, Pamela; Percesepe, Antonio

2013-10-01

142

Structural and Functional Abnormalities of Default Mode Network in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Study Combining DTI and fMRI  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN) has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE), the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. Materials and Methods Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography) and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI) connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. Results Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN) to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. Conclusion MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the former may be more sensitive in detecting the early abnormalities of MHE. This study extends our understanding of the pathophysiology of MHE.

Zhong, Jianhui; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liao, Wei; Zhong, Yuan; Ni, Ling; Jiao, Qing; Zhang, Zongjun; Liu, Yijun; Lu, Guangming

2012-01-01

143

Gray matter textural heterogeneity as a potential in-vivo biomarker of fine structural abnormalities in Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Brain imaging studies contribute to the neurobiological understanding of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Herein, we tested the prediction that distributed neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain development impact on the homogeneity of brain tissue measured using texture analysis (TA; a morphological method for surface pattern characterization). TA was applied to structural magnetic resonance brain scans of 54 adult participants (24 with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 30 controls). Measures of mean gray-level intensity, entropy and uniformity were extracted from gray matter images at fine, medium and coarse textures. Comparisons between AS and controls identified higher entropy and lower uniformity across textures in the AS group. Data reduction of texture parameters revealed three orthogonal principal components. These were used as regressors-of-interest in a voxel-based morphometry analysis that explored the relationship between surface texture variations and regional gray matter volume. Across the AS but not control group, measures of entropy and uniformity were related to the volume of the caudate nuclei, whereas mean gray-level was related to the size of the cerebellar vermis. Similar to neuropathological studies, our study provides evidence for distributed abnormalities in the structural integrity of gray matter in adults with ASC, in particular within corticostriatal and corticocerebellar networks. Additionally, this in-vivo technique may be more sensitive to fine microstructural organization than other more traditional magnetic resonance approaches and serves as a future testable biomarker in AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22333911

Radulescu, E; Ganeshan, B; Minati, L; Beacher, F D C C; Gray, M A; Chatwin, C; Young, R C D; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

2013-02-01

144

Cystic Rete Ovarii and Uterine Tube Adenoma in a Rabbit  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A 6-year-old female rabbit was presented to a veterinary clinic, and the result of ultrasound examination suggested a tumor in the uterine tube. Subsequently, both ovaries and uterus were surgically removed. In gross, a single large cyst in the right ovary and enlargement of the left uterine tube were observed. Histological examination revealed that the cyst had developed in the hilus of the ovary and was lined by single-layered cuboidal cells. In the left uterine tube, a tumor composed of epithelial cells arranged in tubular structures and pleomorphic cells between the tubular structures was observed. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial cells of the cyst were positive for pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 18, CD10, E-cadherin, calretinin and estrogen receptor; the tumor cells of the left uterine tube were positive for pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, vimentin, calretinin and estrogen receptor. From these results, the cyst was diagnosed as cystic rete ovarii, and the tumor was diagnosed as adenoma of the uterine tube. This case is the first to demonstrate cystic rete ovarii and uterine tube adenoma in rabbits.

CHAMBERS, James K.; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; ISE, Kenichiro; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

145

Is uterine-sparing surgical management of persistent postpartum hemorrhage truly a fertility-sparing technique?  

PubMed

Among 23 women who underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy after triple uterine artery ligation with or without hemostatic multiple square suturing for the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), five had abnormal findings. Endometritis was statistically significantly associated with abnormal diagnostic hysteroscopy findings. Twelve patients developed subsequent pregnancies, and four had abnormal obstetric outcomes: one placenta percreta, one placenta accreta, one recurrent postpartum hemorrhage, and one intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:21315337

Blanc, Julie; Courbiere, Blandine; Desbriere, Raoul; Bretelle, Florence; Boubli, Léon; d'Ercole, Claude; Carcopino, Xavier

2011-06-30

146

Management of Uterine Bleeding During Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of hematologic disorders, but patients are at risk for dysfunctional coagulation and abnormal bleeding. Gynecologists are often consulted before transplant for management of abnormal uterine bleeding, which may be particularly challenging in this context. CASE A premenopausal woman with MonoMAC (a rare adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex infections resulting from mutations in GATA2, a crucial gene in early hematopoiesis) presented with pancytopenia, evolving leukemia, and recent strokes, necessitating anticoagulation. During preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplant, she experienced prolonged menorrhagia requiring transfusions. Surgical therapy was contraindicated, and medical management was successful only when combined with balloon tamponade. CONCLUSION Balloon tamponade may be a potentially life-saving adjunct to medical therapy for control of uterine hemorrhage before hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Purisch, Stephanie E.; Shanis, Dana; Zerbe, Christa; Merideth, Melissa; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Stratton, Pamela

2013-01-01

147

Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass.

Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

2012-01-01

148

Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure.  

PubMed

This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications. PMID:24940181

Yuan, Xin-Cai; Tang, Jin-Long; Zeng, Hui-Zhong; Wei, Xian-Hua

2014-01-01

149

Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications.

Yuan, Xin-Cai; Tang, Jin-Long; Zeng, Hui-Zhong; Wei, Xian-Hua

2014-05-01

150

Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure  

PubMed Central

This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications.

2014-01-01

151

Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Uterine Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

2014-07-08

152

Neuroectodermal immunophenotype in uterine malignant mullerian tumors (MMT): comparative immunohistochemical analysis with embryonal uterine development.  

PubMed

Multidirectional differentiation of neoplastic cells in uterine MMT is still a subject of controversy. The present study was designed to assess the immunophenotype of 15 uterine MMT paying special attention to the markers of neural (neuroendocrine) differentiation. In addition, the same immunohistochemical study was performed on 20 human fetal specimens in order to establish possible relationships between the immunophenotype of MMT and the expression of the corresponding antigens in the fetal tissues of the embryonal female genital tract. Besides the typical immunohistochemical patterns in three cases the epithelial component showed simultaneous coexpression of vimentin and desmin. EMA and cytokeratin, whereas epithelial markers were coexpressed with vimentin in the sarcomatous component of one adenosarcoma. Moreover, both components were immunoreactive to the markers of neural differentiation (PGP 9.5, GFAP, HNK-1, N-CAM, HBA71). This aberrant expression was not correlated with morphological signs of neural differentiation at either light microscopy or ultrastructural levels. Regarding the analysis of fetal tissues, both epithelial and mesenchymal elements in the fetal genital tract expressed the above-mentioned neural markers at different dates of gestation. The intensity of this expression diminishes as the fetus matures and at the end of antenatal life the immunophenotype characteristic for adult life is established. Taking into consideration the capacity of uterine tissue to reproduce embryonal phenotype during neoplastic transformation, we studied this abnormal immunoprofile and its hypothetic value for the diagnosis and prognosis of MMT. PMID:15053066

Karseladze, A; Perevoshchikov, A; Navarro, S; Llombart-Bosch, A

2004-01-01

153

BMPR2 is required for postimplantation uterine function and pregnancy maintenance.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in cell-cell communication and growth factor signaling pathways can lead to defects in maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy, including immunologic rejection of the fetal/placental unit. In this study, we discovered that bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) is essential for postimplantation physiology and fertility. Despite normal implantation and early placental/fetal development, deletion of Bmpr2 in the uterine deciduae of mice triggered midgestation abnormalities in decidualization that resulted in abnormal vascular development, trophoblast defects, and a deficiency of uterine natural killer cells. Absence of BMPR2 signaling in the uterine decidua consequently suppressed IL-15, VEGF, angiopoietin, and corin signaling. Disruption of these pathways collectively lead to placental abruption, fetal demise, and female sterility, thereby placing BMPR2 at a central point in the regulation of several physiologic signaling pathways and events at the maternal-fetal interface. Since trophoblast invasion and uterine vascular modification are implicated in normal placentation and fetal growth in humans, our findings suggest that abnormalities in uterine BMPR2-mediated signaling pathways can have catastrophic consequences in women for the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:23676498

Nagashima, Takashi; Li, Qinglei; Clementi, Caterina; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Matzuk, Martin M

2013-06-01

154

Zona pellucida filtration of structurally abnormal spermatozoa and reduced fertilization in teratospermic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zona pellucida (ZP) penetration, in vitro fertilization, embryo development, and the morphology of fertilizing sperm were examined through use of normospermic (> 60% structurally normal sperm\\/ejaculate) versus teratospermic (< 40% structurally normal sperm\\/ejaculate) ejaculates from domestic cats. In addition, the effect of swim-up processing on sperm-oocyte interaction was compared with that of simple sperm washing. Normospermic and teratospermic ejaculates were

J. G. Howard; A. M. DONOGHUE; L. A. JOHNSTON; D. E. WILDT

1993-01-01

155

Fetal Arthrogryposis Secondary to a Giant Maternal Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital is a rare condition defined as contractures in multiple joints at birth due to disorders starting in fetal life. Its etiology is associated with many different conditions and in many instances remains unknown. The final common pathway to all of them is decreased fetal movement (fetal akinesia) due to an abnormal intrauterine environment. Causes of decreased fetal movements may be neuropathic abnormalities, abnormalities of connective tissue or muscle, intrauterine vascular compromise, maternal diseases, and space limitations within the uterus. When the cause of arthrogryposis is space limitations in uterus, the most common etiology is oligohydramnios. The same can result from intrauterine tumours as fibroids, although to our knowledge there are only two papers reporting cases of fetal deformities related to uterine leiomyomas. We describe a well-documented exceptional case of arthrogryposis associated with the presence of a large uterine fibroid. It could illustrate the importance of a careful and appropriate assessment of uterine fibroids before and in the course of a pregnancy considering that they can cause both serious maternal and fetal complications.

Vila-Vives, Jose Maria; Hidalgo-Mora, Juan Jose; Soler, Inmaculada; Rubio, Juan; Quiroga, Ramiro; Perales, Alfredo

2012-01-01

156

Normal versus abnormal structure: considerations in morphologic responses of teleosts to pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Consideration of newer more quantitative morphologic approaches to the study of aquatic pollutants can provide opportunity for collaborative/integrated studies with other subdisciplines in toxicology. Current commonly employed morphologic approaches result largely in subjective findings difficult to analyze statistically and often are directed at levels of structural organization inconsistent with biochemical and physiological approaches. We review some of the methods and approaches available for correlated structure/function studies and present examples from normal and altered skin, gill, and liver of teleosts. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6.

Hinton, D E; Lantz, R C; Hampton, J A; McCuskey, P R; McCuskey, R S

1987-01-01

157

MRI analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: structural brain abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analyses of brain structure in genetic speech and lan- guage disorders provide an opportunity to identify neu- robiological phenotypes and further elucidate the neural bases of language and its development. Here we report such investigations in a large family, known as the KE family, half the members of which are affected by a severe disorder of speech and language,

K. E. Watkins; F. Vargha-Khadem; J. Ashburner; R. E. Passingham; A. Connelly; K. J. Friston; R. S. J. Frackowiak; M. Mishkin; D. G. Gadian

2002-01-01

158

Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

2012-01-01

159

Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques.Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted

Boris Schiffer; Thomas Peschel; Thomas Paul; Elke Gizewski; Michael Forsting; Norbert Leygraf; Manfred Schedlowski; Tillmann H. C. Krueger

2007-01-01

160

Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression  

PubMed Central

The neural networks that putatively modulate aspects of normal emotional behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by converging evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological and lesion analysis studies. These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital cortex (medial prefrontal network), amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial parts of the basal ganglia, where alterations in grey matter volume and neurophysiological activity are found in cases with recurrent depressive episodes. Such findings hold major implications for models of the neurocircuits that underlie depression. In particular evidence from lesion analysis studies suggests that the MPFC and related limbic and striato-pallido-thalamic structures organize emotional expression. The MPFC is part of a larger “default system” of cortical areas that include the dorsal PFC, mid- and posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, and entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex, which has been implicated in self-referential functions. Dysfunction within and between structures in this circuit may induce disturbances in emotional behavior and other cognitive aspects of depressive syndromes in humans. Further, because the MPFC and related limbic structures provide forebrain modulation over visceral control structures in the hypothalamus and brainstem, their dysfunction can account for the disturbances in autonomic regulation and neuroendocrine responses that are associated with mood disorders. This paper discusses these systems together with the neurochemical systems that impinge on them and form the basis for most pharmacological therapies.

Price, Joseph L.; Furey, Maura L.

2008-01-01

161

Network-Level Structural Abnormalities of Cerebral Cortex in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) usually begins in childhood and adolescence and causes lifelong damage to several major organs including the brain. Despite increasing evidence of T1DM-induced structural deficits in cortical regions implicated in higher cognitive and emotional functions, little is known whether and how the structural connectivity between these regions is altered in the T1DM brain. Using inter-regional covariance of cortical thickness measurements from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance data, we examined the topological organizations of cortical structural networks in 81 T1DM patients and 38 healthy subjects. We found a relative absence of hierarchically high-level hubs in the prefrontal lobe of T1DM patients, which suggests ineffective top-down control of the prefrontal cortex in T1DM. Furthermore, inter-network connections between the strategic/executive control system and systems subserving other cortical functions including language and mnemonic/emotional processing were also less integrated in T1DM patients than in healthy individuals. The current results provide structural evidence for T1DM-related dysfunctional cortical organization, which specifically underlie the top-down cognitive control of language, memory, and emotion.

Renshaw, Perry F.; Hwang, Jaeuk; Bae, Sujin; Musen, Gail; Kim, Jieun E.; Bolo, Nicolas; Jeong, Hyeonseok S.; Simonson, Donald C.; Lee, Sun Hea; Weinger, Katie; Jung, Jiyoung J.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Choi, Yera; Jacobson, Alan M.

2013-01-01

162

Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies.  

PubMed

A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular. PMID:24753775

Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

2014-01-01

163

Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep Contribute to Further Cardiac Structure Abnormalities in Hemodialysis Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) constitute common sleep disorders. Recent findings indicate a role for PLMS as a risk factor in the development of new or the aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of PLMS with indices of cardiac morphology and function in HD patients with RLS as a potential pathway by which PLMS could alter cardiovascular risk. Methods: Based on PLMS diagnosis by an overnight polysomnographic evaluation, 19 stable HD-RLS patients were divided into the PLMS group (n = 10) and the non-PLMS group (n = 9). During the overnight assessment, nocturnal blood pressure (BP) indices were also assessed. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions were examined by M-mode echocardiography, whereas LV diastolic function was evaluated by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging the following day. Results: LV internal diameter in diastole was significantly increased in the PLMS group (4.96 ± 0.61 vs 4.19 ± 0.48 cm, p = 0.007), leading to a significantly increase in LV mass (202 ± 52 vs 150 ± 37 g, p = 0.026). In contrast, no between group differences were observed in diastolic function indices (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These are the first data to associate severe PLMS with further LV structure abnormalities in HD patients with RLS. Citation: Giannaki CD; Zigoulis P; Karatzaferi C; Hadjigeorgiou GM; George KP; Gourgoulianis K; Koutedakis Y; Stefanidis I; Sakkas GK. Periodic limb movements in sleep contribute to further cardiac structure abnormalities in hemodialysis patients with restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):147–153.

Giannaki, Christoforos D.; Zigoulis, Paris; Karatzaferi, Christina; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; George, Keith P.; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K.

2013-01-01

164

Expression of an epidermal keratin protein in liver of transgenic mice causes structural and functional abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the role of keratin intermediate filament proteins in cell structure and function, trans- genie mice were isolated that express a modified form of the human K14 keratin protein in liver hepatoeytes. A modified K14 eDNA (K14.P) sequence was linked downstream of the mouse transthyretin (TTR) gene promoter and enhancer elements to achieve targeted expression in hepatocytes. Hepatoeytes expressing

Kathryn M. Albers; Frankie E. Davis; Teresa N. Perrone; Eun Y. Lee; Yong Liu; Mary Vore

1995-01-01

165

Adenomyosis: a frequent cause of abnormal uterine bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine if there are identifying characteristics or risk factors associated with adenomyosis and to determine if routine ultrasonography identifies patients at risk for adenomyosis.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted of 182 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 1998. The standard technique for the pathologic evaluation of the uterus (three

Jennifer Kim; Estil Y. Strawn

2000-01-01

166

Appearance of uterine scar due to previous cesarean section on hysterosalpingography: various shapes, locations and sizes.  

PubMed

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the radiographic evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes that is used predominantly in the assessment of infertility and evaluation of abnormalities of the uterus and fallopian tubes. Some of the abnormalities that can be detected by HSG include congenital anomalies, polyps, leiomyomas, synechiae and adenomyosis. HSG is also used to evaluate any scarring on the uterus and fallopian tubes. Cesarean section is the most commonly performed surgical procedure involving the uterus in fertile women. Cesarean section involves an incision made in the lower uterine segment or isthmus. Various changes in the site of the cesarean incision may be seen due to wall weakness and fibrosis. The scar may have various shapes; unilateral or bilateral, single or multiple, wedge-shaped or linear. Awareness of the appearance and locations of uterine defects due to previous cesarean section is necessary in order to differentiate them from normal variations and other pathologies mimicking it. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of anatomic defects of the uterine cavity on HSG after cesarian section. We define different shapes such as thin linear defect, focal saccular outpouching, unilateral or bilateral diverticula (dog-ear like) and fistula and different locations such as the uterine body, lower uterine segment, uterine isthmus and the upper endocervical canal. PMID:24046789

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Torbati, Leila; Akhbari, Farnaz; Shahrzad, Gholam

2013-06-01

167

Appearance of Uterine Scar Due to Previous Cesarean Section on Hysterosalpingography: Various Shapes, Locations and Sizes  

PubMed Central

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the radiographic evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes that is used predominantly in the assessment of infertility and evaluation of abnormalities of the uterus and fallopian tubes. Some of the abnormalities that can be detected by HSG include congenital anomalies, polyps, leiomyomas, synechiae and adenomyosis. HSG is also used to evaluate any scarring on the uterus and fallopian tubes. Cesarean section is the most commonly performed surgical procedure involving the uterus in fertile women. Cesarean section involves an incision made in the lower uterine segment or isthmus. Various changes in the site of the cesarean incision may be seen due to wall weakness and fibrosis. The scar may have various shapes; unilateral or bilateral, single or multiple, wedge-shaped or linear. Awareness of the appearance and locations of uterine defects due to previous cesarean section is necessary in order to differentiate them from normal variations and other pathologies mimicking it. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of anatomic defects of the uterine cavity on HSG after cesarian section. We define different shapes such as thin linear defect, focal saccular outpouching, unilateral or bilateral diverticula (dog-ear like) and fistula and different locations such as the uterine body, lower uterine segment, uterine isthmus and the upper endocervical canal.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Torbati, Leila; Akhbari, Farnaz; Shahrzad, Gholam

2013-01-01

168

Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse.

Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

2010-01-01

169

Dusart syndrome: a new concept of the relationship between fibrin clot architecture and fibrin clot degradability: hypofibrinolysis related to an abnormal clot structure.  

PubMed

Fibrinogen Dusart is a congenital dysfibrinogenemia (A-alpha 554 Arginine-->Cysteine) associated with severe thrombotic disorder, high incidence of thrombotic embolism, and abnormal fibrin polymerization. This thrombotic disorder was attributed to an abnormal clot thrombolysis with reduced plasminogen binding to fibrin and defective plasminogen activation by tissue plasminogen activator. The purpose of this work was to assess whether clot architecture could be involved in the thromboresistance of the fibrin Dusart and the high incidence of embolism. An important change in Dusart fibrin clot structure was identified with dramatic decrease of gel porosity (Ks), fiber diameters (d), and fiber mass-length ratios (mu) derived from permeation analysis. In addition, rigidity of the Dusart clot was found to be greatly increased compared with normal fibrin. We provide evidence that both thrombolysis resistance and abnormal rigidity of the fibrin Dusart are related to this abnormal architecture, which impairs the access of fibrinolytic enzymes to the fibrin and which is responsible for a brittle clot that breaks easily, resulting in a high incidence of embolism. Indeed, when restoring a normal clot structure by adding dextran 40 (30 mg/mL) before coagulation, clot thrombolysis and clot rigidity recovered normal values. This effect was found to be dose-dependent. We conclude that clot architecture is crucial for the propensity of blood clot to be degraded and that abnormal clot structure can be highly thrombogenic in vivo. The alpha-C domains of fibrinogen are determinant in fibrin clot structure. PMID:7691261

Collet, J P; Soria, J; Mirshahi, M; Hirsch, M; Dagonnet, F B; Caen, J; Soria, C

1993-10-15

170

Divergent structural brain abnormalities between different genetic subtypes of children with Prader-Willi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical focal analyses. Methods High resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 children with genetically confirmed PWS (11 children carrying a deletion (DEL), 9 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD)), and compared with 11 age- and gender-matched typically developing siblings as controls. Brain morphology measures were obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. Results Both children with DEL and mUPD showed smaller brainstem volume, and a trend towards smaller cortical surface area and white matter volume. Children with mUPD had enlarged lateral ventricles and larger cortical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Further, a trend towards increased cortical thickness was found in children with mUPD. Children with DEL had a smaller cerebellum, and smaller cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes. Focal analyses revealed smaller white matter volumes in left superior and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right cingulate cortex, and bilateral precuneus areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) in children with mUPD. Conclusions Children with PWS show signs of impaired brain growth. Those with mUPD show signs of early brain atrophy. In contrast, children with DEL show signs of fundamentally arrested, although not deviant brain development and presented few signs of cortical atrophy. Our results of global brain measurements suggest divergent neurodevelopmental patterns in children with DEL and mUPD.

2013-01-01

171

Molecular diagnosis of endometrial cancer from uterine aspirates.  

PubMed

Rapid and reliable diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC) in uterine aspirates is highly desirable. Current sensitivity and failure rate of histological diagnosis limit the success of this method and subsequent hysteroscopy is often necessary. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA from uterine aspirates samples, we measured the expression level of 20 previously identified genes involved in EC pathology, created five algorithms based on combinations of five genes and evaluated their ability to diagnose EC. The algorithms were tested in a prospective, double-blind, multicenter study. We enlisted 514 patients who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding. EC was diagnosed in 60 of the 514 patients (12%). Molecular analysis was performed on the remnants of aspirates and results were compared to the final histological diagnoses obtained through biopsies acquired by aspiration or guided by hysteroscopy, or from the specimens resected by hysterectomy. Algorithm 5 was the best performing molecular diagnostic classifier in the case-control and validation study. The molecular test had a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 75% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97%. A combination of the molecular and histological diagnosis had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 97%, PPV of 79% and NPV of 99% and the cases that could be diagnosed on uterine aspirate rose from 76 to 93% when combined with the molecular test. Incorporation of the molecular diagnosis increases the reliability of a negative diagnosis, reduces the need for hysteroscopies and helps to identify additional cases. PMID:23649867

Perez-Sanchez, Cristina; Colas, Eva; Cabrera, Silvia; Falcon, Orlando; Sanchez-del-Río, Angel; García, Enrique; Fernández-de-Castillo, Luis; Muruzabal, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Elena; Fiol, Gabriel; González, Carmen; Torrejón, Rafael; Moral, Eloy; Campos, Miriam; Repollés, Manuel; Carreras, Ramon; Jiménez-López, Jesus; Xercavins, Jordi; Aibar, Elena; Perdones-Montero, Alvaro; Lalanne, Eric; Palicio, Marta; Maes, Tamara; Rosell-Vives, Elisabet; Nieto, Carlos; Ortega, Alicia; Pedrola, Nuria; Llauradó, Marta; Rigau, Marina; Doll, Andreas; Abal, Miguel; Ponce, Jordi; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Reventós, Jaume

2013-11-15

172

Uterine Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects Uterine Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award

173

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3701-3725, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

174

The heterogeneity of LDH isoenzyme patterns of human uterine sarcomas and cultured sarcoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Both the tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern and total LDH activity were investigated in a series of human uterine sarcomas and cell lines derived from these tumors. Abnormal LDH isoenzyme patterns characterized by shifts toward the muscle isoenzyme forms (LDH4 and 5) were found in some, but not all, of the sarcomas. The tumors containing rhabdomyosarcomatous elements usually had normal or only slightly altered LDH isoenzyme patterns. The LDH isoenzyme patterns expressed by cultured cell lines established from the uterine sarcomas, in general, resembled those found in the primary tumors. These results suggest that the normal or near normal LDH isoenzyme distributions found in uterine sarcomas with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation may be a potential characteristic which may be used for distinguishing these tumors from other uterine sarcomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

Nelson, K. G.; Siegfried, J. M.; Siegal, G. P.; Becker, R.; Walton, L. A.; Kaufman, D. G.

1984-01-01

175

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3?+/-mice, GSK-3? mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3? gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3? KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3? gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders.

2009-01-01

176

Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms.

Schumann, Cynthia M.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

2010-01-01

177

Doppler Sonography and 3D CT Angiography of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs): Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are rare but life threatening causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Accurate clinical and radiological diagnosis is essential because uterine instrumentation that is often used for management of other sources of abnormal bleeding, can lead to massive hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and early proper treatment can markedly reduce the associated disease mortality. Ultrasound with colour and spectral doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography can determine the actual extent of the vascular malformation and helps in pre-interventional planning noninvasively. Uterine AVM can be either congenital or acquired in nature with latter being more common. We hereby report two cases of acquired AVMs diagnosed by color doppler sonography and confirmed by three-dimensional CT angiography. Both the cases reported here had previous history of dilation and curettage for abortion. Clinically one patient presented with profuse uterine bleeding and another with meno-metrorrhagia and both cases underwent surgical removal of uterus.

Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Ranga, Upasana; Veeraiyan, Saveetha

2014-01-01

178

Naturally occurring lesions of the uterine tube in sheep and serologic evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus.  

PubMed Central

The uterine tubes from 405 ewes, collected at an abattoir, were assessed grossly and microscopically for abnormalities that correlated with serological evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. Gross lesions were found in 41 ewes and 86 had microscopic lesions. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of serum was used as an indication of exposure of individual ewes to C. abortus; 52 were found to be positive. Chi-squared analysis indicated no association between EIA-positive animals and lesions of the uterine tube.

Tomlinson, L; Barker, I K; Foster, R A; McEwen, S A; Menzies, P I; Shewen, P E

2000-01-01

179

Comparison of hysterosalpingography, hysterosonography and hysteroscopy in evaluation of the uterine cavity in patients with recurrent pregnancy losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  To evaluate the accuracy and acceptability of hysterosonography (HS) in the diagnosis of uterine anomalies in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.Method  Sixty non-pregnant patients with a history of at least three previous recurrent miscarriages were submitted to the HS, HSG and hysteroscopy (HTC) exams. The findings fall into three categories: synechiae, polypoid lesions and abnormal uterine cavity shape. The HTC exam

Hélio Antonio Guimarães Filho; Rosiane Mattar; Cláudio R. Pires; Edward Araujo Júnior; Antonio F. Moron; Luciano M. M. Nardozza

2006-01-01

180

Automatic detection of multi-level acetowhite regions in RGB color images of the uterine cervix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method used to detect cancer precursors and cancer of the uterine cervix, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the metaplastic epithelium on the cervix for certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. A contrast agent, a 3-5% acetic acid solution, is used, causing abnormal and metaplastic epithelia to turn white. The colposcopist considers diagnostic features such as the acetowhite, blood vessel structure, and lesion margin to derive a clinical diagnosis. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD, a complex image analysis system that at its core assesses the same visual features as used by colposcopists. The acetowhite feature has been identified as one of the most important individual predictors of lesion severity. Here, we present the details and preliminary results of a multi-level acetowhite region detection algorithm for RGB color images of the cervix, including the detection of the anatomic features: cervix, os and columnar region, which are used for the acetowhite region detection. The RGB images are assumed to be glare free, either obtained by cross-polarized image acquisition or glare removal pre-processing. The basic approach of the algorithm is to extract a feature image from the RGB image that provides a good acetowhite to cervix background ratio, to segment the feature image using novel pixel grouping and multi-stage region-growing algorithms that provide region segmentations with different levels of detail, to extract the acetowhite regions from the region segmentations using a novel region selection algorithm, and then finally to extract the multi-levels from the acetowhite regions using multiple thresholds. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated using human subject data.

Lange, Holger

2005-04-01

181

The comparative evaluation of uterine and cervical mucosa cytology with endometrial histopathology in cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive tract abnormalities especially in the uterus and ovaries of cows often results in infertility. The object of this study was to determine the relationship between the cytology of uterine and cervical mucosa and endometrial histopathology in normal and endometritic cows. In this study, the genital tracts of 131 slaughtered cows were collected. According to macroscopic appearances and histopathological evaluation,

M. R. Ahmadi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; S. Nazifi; H. R. Ghaisari

2005-01-01

182

Uterine Activity Patterns: Definition with Home Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was conceived in response to an urgent need for definitive information about uterine contractile activity in normal human pregnancy. The purpose of the study was to describe uterine activity in normal signleton gestations. 109 women from three...

R. K. Creasy

1992-01-01

183

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following uterine instrumentation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Shunt infections are most common within the first 6months following implantation. A shunt infection 19years after implantation secondary to uterine ablation has not been reported to our knowledge. Office hysteroscopic procedures have become commonplace in gynecologic practice. Infectious complication rates are low, but peritonitis has been described. We present a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following a uterine ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Three days following the ablation she developed abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen 5months after the procedure revealed a pseudocyst. She then underwent removal of her shunt with intra-operative cultures revealing Streptococcus agalactiae. Definitive treatment consisted of shunt explantation and antibiotic treatment with complete resolution of her pain and pseudocyst. Consideration for prophylactic antibiotics should be made when a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt undergoes any transvaginal procedure. PMID:24656752

Shaw, Andrew B; Marlin, Evan S; Ikeda, Daniel S; Ammirati, Mario

2014-08-01

184

First trimester spontaneous uterine rupture in a young woman with uterine anomaly.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency carrying a high risk for the mother and the fetus. Spontaneous uterine rupture in early pregnancy is very rare complication and it occurs usually in scarred uterus. Uterine anomalies are one of the reasons for spontaneous unscarred uterine rupture in early pregnancy. Obstetricians must consider this diagnosis when a pregnant patient presented with acute abdomen in early pregnancy. We present a case of spontaneous uterine rupture at 12 weeks of gestation in 24-year-old multigravida who had uterine anomaly presenting as an acute abdomen. Our preoperative diagnosis was ectopic pregnancy. Emergency laparotomy confirmed a spontaneous uterine rupture. Uterine anomaly is a risk factor for spontaneous uterine rupture in the early pregnancy. Clinical signs of uterine rupture in early pregnancy are nonspecific and must be distinguished from acute abdominal emergencies. PMID:24551467

Tola, Esra Nur

2014-01-01

185

A randomized prospective trial of the postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: clinical trial design  

PubMed Central

Background Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy is one of the definite methods for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with lesser intraoperative bleeding and shorter hospitalization compared with abdominal hysterectomy. However, laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy cannot preserve uterus and can show postoperative complications by the change of pelvic structure. Thus, laparoscopic uterine artery ligation has been introduced for relieving the symptoms caused by uterine fibroids in place of hysterectomy. The current study was designed to compare postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic uterine artery ligation which can treat symptomatic uterine fibroids with the preservation of uterus. Methods and design Patients enrolled the current study are randomized to laparoscopic uterine artery ligation or laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The primary outcome is to compare postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer patients version 3.0. Secondary outcomes are to evaluate the volume reduction of uterus, uterine fibroids and ovaries by the 2 treatments, to compare the improvement of subjective symptoms using 11-point symptom score and postoperative clinical outcomes between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and to investigate the improvement of postoperative vaginal bleeding by laparoscopic uterine artery ligation. Discussion Among treatment methods for symptomatic uterine fibroids with the preservation of uterus, laparoscopic uterine artery ligation is expected to have the efficacy like uterine artery embolization, which appeared to be safe for routine use with symptomatic relief. The current study fully recruited in June 2008 and the results will be available in June 2009. If there is no difference of postoperative QOL between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, the comparison of quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and uterine artery embolization will be also needed as a surgical treatment for preserving uterus. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76790866

Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Taek Sang; Jeon, Yong-Tark; Kim, Yong Beom; Jeon, Hye Won; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom

2009-01-01

186

Surgical and medical management of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).  

PubMed

A 5-yr-old female African hedgehog (Ateleris albiventris) presented with hematuria. Vulvar culture results revealed a 4+ growth of Enterococcus sp. and gamma-Streptococcus sp. susceptible to trimethoprim sulfa and enrofloxacin. Ultrasound evaluation of the abdomen revealed an unidentifiable tubular structure in the region of the reproductive tract. An exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Pathologic studies of the uterus showed a uterine spindle cell tumor, uterine endometrial polyp, uterine adenomyosis, and a possible acute infarct resulting in uterine wall necrosis. Hematuria did not reoccur, and the hedgehog lived for another 19 mo until she died from an oral squamous cell carcinoma. To date, this is the first report of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog. PMID:18229871

Done, Lisa B; Deem, Sharon L; Fiorello, Christine V

2007-12-01

187

Dual effects of melatonin on uterine myoelectrical activity of non-pregnant rats  

PubMed Central

Objective In this experimental study, we aimed to investigate the role of melatonin on uterine myoelectrical activity of non-pregnant rats. Material and Methods Forty-six female rats were assigned to six groups: (1) control; (0.2 mL 0.9% NaCl was injected intravenously (IV), n=6); (2) melatonin applied as 0.4 mg/kg/IV (n=8); (3) melatonin applied as 4 mg/kg/IV (n=8); (4) single dose of oxytocin (100 mU/kg) injected IV (n=8); (5) melatonin (0.4 mg/kg) plus oxytocin (100 mU/kg) (n=8); and (6) melatonin (4 mg/kg) plus oxytocin (100 mU/kg) injected IV (n=8). Each rat underwent a laparotomy, and uterine myoelectrical signals were recorded. The mean spectrum, averaged over the spectral content of signals in each group, was compared. Results Melatonin induced uterine myoelectrical activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of melatonin after oxytocin suppressed the mean power of the signals. Serum melatonin concentrations were significantly higher in melatonin-treated rats. Conclusion Melatonin itself at two different dose levels was found to be equally effective in stimulating the uterine electrical signals, although oxytocin-induced uterine electrical activity was suppressed by melatonin. These findings merit further investigations on the possible beneficial role of melatonin in the treatment of conditions associated with abnormal uterine activity.

Simsek, Yavuz; Parlakp?nar, Hakan; Turhan, Ugur; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Ates, Burhan

2014-01-01

188

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma by comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomata are among the most common of human neoplasms and are associated with abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, and abdominal pain. Uterine leiomyosarcomata are presumed to be the malignant counterpart to uterine leiomyomata and are very rare. Transformation of uterine leiomyoma (ULM) into uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is yet to be conclusively confirmed, and each type of tumor may represent a distinct genetic entity. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to evaluate DNA sequence copy-number changes in 12 specimens of ULM and 8 of ULMS. CGH analysis of ULM demonstrated chromosomal imbalances in 8 of 12 (66. 7%) specimens. The most frequent ULM gains were observed at 9q34 (a novel finding) and on chromosome 19. Other ULM imbalances included gains and losses of chromosome 1p, losses on 7q, and gains on 12q. All ULMS specimens demonstrated chromosomal aberrations. Chromosome 1 imbalances were very prominent. The most frequent losses were detected on 14q and 22q. Losses on 14q are rarely seen in other types of leiomyo-sarcoma and may be a distinctive feature of ULMS. Gains on chromosomes 8, 17, and X were observed in half the cases and were accompanied by high-level amplification. Other chromosome arms overrepresented included 12q and 19p. The absence of specific anomalies common to all ULM and ULMS argues against their being benign-malignant counterparts. PMID:10958933

Levy, B; Mukherjee, T; Hirschhorn, K

2000-08-01

189

Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of patients with shrinking of uterine fibroids or average volume of uterine fibroids, but less effective than mifepristone on reducing average size of uterus (mean difference 23.23 cm3, 95% confidence interval 17.85 to 28.61). There was no significant difference between Nona Roguy herbal product and GnRH agonist in average volume of uterine fibroids or size of uterus. No serious adverse effects from herbal preparations was reported. Authors’ conclusions Current evidence does not support or refute the use of herbal preparations for treatment of uterine fibroids due to insufficient studies of large sample and high quality. Further high quality trials evaluating clinically relevant outcomes are warranted.

Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

2011-01-01

190

Structural abnormalities in early Tourette syndrome children: a combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study.  

PubMed

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM) and white matter (WM) has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV) in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS), and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children. PMID:24098769

Liu, Yue; Miao, Wen; Wang, Jieqiong; Gao, Peiyi; Yin, Guangheng; Zhang, Liping; Lv, Chuankai; Ji, Zhiying; Yu, Tong; Sabel, B A; He, Huiguang; Peng, Yun

2013-01-01

191

The aged epidermal permeability barrier. Structural, functional, and lipid biochemical abnormalities in humans and a senescent murine model.  

PubMed Central

Aged epidermis displays altered drug permeability, increased susceptibility to irritant contact dermatitis, and often severe xerosis, suggesting compromise of the aged epidermal barrier. To delineate the functional, structural, and lipid biochemical basis of epidermal aging, we compared barrier function in young (20-30 yr) vs aged (> 80 yr) human subjects, and in a murine model. Baseline transepidermal water loss in both aged humans and senescent mice was subnormal. However, the aged barrier was perturbed more readily with either acetone or tape stripping (18 +/- 2 strippings vs 31 +/- 5 strippings in aged vs young human subjects, respectively). Moreover, after either acetone treatment or tape stripping, the barrier recovered more slowly in aged than in young human subjects (50 and 80% recovery at 24 and 72 h, respectively, in young subjects vs 15% recovery at 24 h in aged subjects), followed by a further delay over the next 6 d. Similar differences in barrier recovery were seen in senescent vs young mice. Although the total lipid content was decreased in the stratum corneum of aged mice (approximately 30%), the distribution of ceramides (including ceramide 1), cholesterol, and free fatty acids was unchanged. Moreover, a normal complement of esterified, very long-chain fatty acids was present. Finally, stratum corneum lamellar bilayers displayed normal substructure and dimensions, but were focally decreased in number, with decreased secretion of lamellar body contents. Thus, assessment of barrier function in aged epidermis under basal conditions is misleading, since both barrier integrity and barrier repair are markedly abnormal. These functional changes can be attributed to a global deficiency in all key stratum corneum lipids, resulting in decreased lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum interstices. This constellation of findings may explain the increased susceptibility of intrinsically aged skin to exogenous and environmental insults. Images

Ghadially, R; Brown, B E; Sequeira-Martin, S M; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

1995-01-01

192

Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.  

PubMed

Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W G; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

2014-01-01

193

Ichthyosis in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion.  

PubMed

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion. PMID:20049467

Rizzo, William B; S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Elias, Peter M

2010-08-01

194

Ichthyosis in Sj?gren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion  

PubMed Central

Sjögren–Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren–Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum–stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren–Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion.

S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M. Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A.; Williams, Mary L.; Elias, Peter M.

2010-01-01

195

Changes in Mouse Uterine Transcriptome in Estrus and Proestrus1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Changes in the CD-1 mouse uterine transcriptome during proestrus and estrus were investigated to help elucidate mechanisms of uterine tissue remodeling during the estrus cycle and their regulation by estrogen and progesterone in preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Mice were staged beginning at 6 weeks of age, and uterine horns were harvested after monitoring two estrus cycles. Microarray analysis of whole uterine horn RNA identified 2428 genes differentially expressed in estrus compared to proestrus, indicating there is extensive remodeling of mouse uterus during the estrus cycle, affecting ?10% of all protein-encoding genes. Many (?50%) of these genes showed the same differential expression in independent analyses of isolated uterine lumenal epithelial cells. Changes in gene expression associated with structural alterations of the uterus included remodeling of the extracellular matrix, changes in cell keratins and adhesion molecules, activation of mitosis and changes in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) presentation, complement and coagulation cascades, and cytochrome P450 expression. Signaling pathways regulated during the estrus cycle, involving ligand-gated channels, Wnt and hedgehog signaling, and transcription factors with poorly understood roles in reproductive tissues, included several genes and gene networks that have been implicated in pathological states. Many of the molecular pathways and biological functions represented by the genes differentially expressed from proestrus to estrus are also altered during the human menstrual cycle, although not necessarily at the corresponding phases of the cycle. These findings establish a baseline for further studies in the mouse model to dissect mechanisms involved in uterine tissue response to endocrine disruptors and the development of reproductive tract diseases.

Yip, Kerri Stanley; Suvorov, Alexander; Connerney, Jeannette; Lodato, Nicholas J.; Waxman, David J.

2013-01-01

196

Uterine muscle as a potential target of polychlorinated biphenyls during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Because of their once-popular commercial uses, improper disposal and environmental persistence, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants found in many designated Superfund sites. Several epidemiology studies associated PCB exposure with decreased length of gestation. Recent laboratory studies, described in this review, examined PCB actions in uterine muscle in order to investigate mechanisms by which PCBs may stimulate early onset of parturition. Because increased frequency, force and coordination of oscillatory uterine contractions are the defining characteristics of parturition, the laboratory studies used uterine muscle tissue and cells to study PCB actions on uterine contraction. Acute in vitro exposures to commercial PCB mixtures and microbially dechlorinated commercial PCB mixtures increased the frequency of spontaneous oscillatory contractions of uteri from pregnant rats. Increased uterine stimulation was observed with PCB mixtures containing increased abundance of lesser-chlorinated, ortho-substituted congeners. Similarly, in vitro exposures to PCB congeners increased the frequency of spontaneous uterine oscillatory contractions in a structurally related manner, with ortho-substitution of four or fewer chlorines associated with increased stimulation. Moreover, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 prevented stimulation of oscillatory uterine contractions by the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242, suggesting involvement of arachidonic acid in the Aroclor 1242-induced stimulation. Acute exposure to a hydroxylated estrogenic PCB inhibited uterine contraction acutely, but a 42-h exposure increased uterine sensitivity to the uterotonic hormone oxytocin in a manner similar to 17 beta-estradiol, suggesting an estrogenic mechanism by which some PCBs could decrease gestation length. These studies show that PCBs stimulate uterine contraction in vitro, providing biologically plausible mechanisms in support of previous epidemiology findings associating PCB exposure with decreased gestation length. Further conclusions regarding human health should be considered in the context of human exposure and the experimental limitations of the in vitro studies. PMID:12018005

Loch-Caruso, Rita

2002-03-01

197

Regulation of uterine matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the role of microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Controlled expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is vital for normal uterine physiology while abnormal expression of MMP9 is associated with uterine disease. Despite the importance of MMP9 within the uterus, its regulation is poorly understood. In this review, the complex regulation of MMP9 within the uterus is highlighted and the potential novel role of microRNAs in the regulation of this protease is discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the necessity to enhance our understanding on the regulation of MMP9 expression which may lead to the establishment of novel approaches to counteract mis-expression of this protease and the diseases associated with it.

Nothnick, Warren B.

2014-01-01

198

Uterine cavity assessment in infertile women: Sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional Hysterosonography versus Hysteroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background: Assessment of uterine abnormalities is a core part in infertility evaluation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional hysterosonography (3-DHS) in the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities in infertile women. Materials and Methods: The infertile women who visited Royan Institute and referred to 3-DHS consecutively, prior to in vitro fertilization, from 2010-2011 included in this cross-sectional study. For patients who underwent hysteroscopy in addition to 3-DHS (214/977), the verification bias adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS which were calculated by global sensitivity analysis method. Hysteroscopy was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Histological diagnosis of resected endometrial tissues by hysteroscopy was assessed and the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detection of polyp or hyperplasia were determined. Histopathologic results were considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of polyp or hyperplasia. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity for 3-DHS in diagnosis of uterine anomalies considering hysteroscopy as the gold standard were 68.4% and 96.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of hysteroscopy in diagnose of polyp or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.3% and 81.4% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS in diagnosis polyps or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.4% and 80.2 % respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study proved that, compared to hysteroscopy; 3-DHS has a reliable specificity for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detecting polyp or hyperplasia regarding histopathology as the gold standard was the same.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Rashidy, Zohreh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Akhoond, Mohamadreza; Niknejadi, Maryam; Hemat, Mandana; ShamsiPour, Mansour

2013-01-01

199

Uterine cavity assessment in infertile women: Sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional Hysterosonography versus Hysteroscopy.  

PubMed

Background: Assessment of uterine abnormalities is a core part in infertility evaluation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional hysterosonography (3-DHS) in the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities in infertile women. Materials and Methods: The infertile women who visited Royan Institute and referred to 3-DHS consecutively, prior to in vitro fertilization, from 2010-2011 included in this cross-sectional study. For patients who underwent hysteroscopy in addition to 3-DHS (214/977), the verification bias adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS which were calculated by global sensitivity analysis method. Hysteroscopy was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Histological diagnosis of resected endometrial tissues by hysteroscopy was assessed and the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detection of polyp or hyperplasia were determined. Histopathologic results were considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of polyp or hyperplasia. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity for 3-DHS in diagnosis of uterine anomalies considering hysteroscopy as the gold standard were 68.4% and 96.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of hysteroscopy in diagnose of polyp or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.3% and 81.4% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS in diagnosis polyps or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.4% and 80.2 % respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study proved that, compared to hysteroscopy; 3-DHS has a reliable specificity for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detecting polyp or hyperplasia regarding histopathology as the gold standard was the same. PMID:24639723

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Rashidy, Zohreh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Akhoond, Mohamadreza; Niknejadi, Maryam; Hemat, Mandana; Shamsipour, Mansour

2013-12-01

200

Biological roles of uterine glands in pregnancy.  

PubMed

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E

2014-09-01

201

Coexisting Malignant Melanoma and Blue Nevus of the Uterine Cervix: An Unusual Combination  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma (MM) and blue nevi of the uterine cervix are an extremely rare neoplasm, probably derived from embryologic migration of melanocytes from the neural crest. MM displays aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 76-year-old postmenopausal woman abnormal vaginal bleeding. She underwent a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with paraaortic-iliac lymphadenectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of MM and blue nevi in the uterine cervix. Although it is extremely rare, this case suggests that MM of the uterine cervix should be considered in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasm. Early diagnosis is essential in order to warrant a better prognosis, although there are no cases of cure described.

Parada, David; Pena, Karla B.; Riu, Frances

2012-01-01

202

A case of a large solitary fibrous tumour of the uterine cervix  

PubMed Central

Background Solitary fibrous tumour of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare phenomenon. We present a case of the largest cervical tumour of this type in this anatomical location reported so far. Case presentation A 45-year old white female presented with abdominal pain, abnormal uterine bleedings and a 15 cm mass of the uterine cervix/left parametrium. Histological examination with immunohistochemistry of the tumour biopsy revealed diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumour. The patient underwent radical abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. No recurrence has been observed for 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Solitary fibrous tumour can be occasionally found in patients with large cervical/parametrial masses. Immunohistochemistry was helpful in diagnosis and surgery was feasible and effective in treatment of our case of a large solitary fibrous tumour of the cervix.

2014-01-01

203

Surgical management of neurovascular bundle in uterine fibroid pseudocapsule.  

PubMed

The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes. PMID:22906340

Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S; Tsin, Daniel A; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M; Mettler, Liselotte

2012-01-01

204

Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule  

PubMed Central

The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes.

Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte

2012-01-01

205

Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail.

Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2012-01-01

206

Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition  

PubMed Central

Bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen is common in cattle after parturition, often leading to infection and uterine disease. Clinical disease can be diagnosed and scored by examination of the vaginal mucus, which reflects the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Viruses may also cause uterine disease and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is tropic for endometrial cells, causing a rapid cytopathic effect. The elimination of pathogens by the innate immune system is dependent on pattern recognition receptors binding pathogen-associated molecules. Uterine epithelial and stromal cells express receptors such as Toll-like Receptor 4 that binds E. coli lipopolysaccharide. The infertility associated with uterine disease is caused by damage to the endometrium and disruption of ovarian cyclic activity. Bacteria modulate endometrial prostaglandin secretion, and perturb ovarian follicle growth and function. Understanding the molecular basis of uterine disease will lead to novel approaches to treating infertility.

Sheldon, I. Martin; Williams, Erin J.; Miller, Aleisha N.A.; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan

2008-01-01

207

Innovative oral treatments of uterine leiomyoma.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2012-01-01

208

Uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis without fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the potential usefulness of transcatheter uterine artery embolization as a treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis in patients without uterine fibroids.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uterine artery embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 250–710 mm was performed in 43 patients (mean; 40.3 years, range; 31–52 years) with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or bulk-related symptoms (pelvic heaviness, urinary frequency) due to adenomyosis without fibroids.

M. D Kim; J. W Won; D. Y Lee; C.-S Ahn

2004-01-01

209

Application of Detergents or High Hydrostatic Pressure as Decellularization Processes in Uterine Tissues and Their Subsequent Effects on In Vivo Uterine Regeneration in Murine Models  

PubMed Central

Infertility caused by ovarian or tubal problems can be treated using In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET); however, this is not possible for women with uterine loss and malformations that require uterine reconstruction for the treatment of their infertility. In this study, we are the first to report the usefulness of decellularized matrices as a scaffold for uterine reconstruction. Uterine tissues were extracted from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and decellularized using either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at optimized conditions. Histological staining and quantitative analysis showed that both SDS and HHP methods effectively removed cells from the tissues with, specifically, a significant reduction of DNA contents for HHP constructs. HHP constructs highly retained the collagen content, the main component of extracellular matrices in uterine tissue, compared to SDS constructs and had similar content levels of collagen to the native tissue. The mechanical strength of the HHP constructs was similar to that of the native tissue, while that of the SDS constructs was significantly elevated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no apparent denaturation of collagen fibers in the HHP constructs compared to the SDS constructs. Transplantation of the decellularized tissues into rat uteri revealed the successful regeneration of the uterine tissues with a 3-layer structure 30 days after the transplantation. Moreover, a lot of epithelial gland tissue and Ki67 positive cells were detected. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the regenerated tissues have a normal response to ovarian hormone for pregnancy. The subsequent pregnancy test after 30 days transplantation revealed successful pregnancy for both the SDS and HHP groups. These findings indicate that the decellularized matrix from the uterine tissue can be a potential scaffold for uterine regeneration.

Hirota, Yasushi; Aizawa, Masanori; Yoshino, Osamu; Kishida, Akio; Osuga, Yutaka; Saito, Shigeru; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S.

2014-01-01

210

Differential transcription of Eomes and T-bet during maturation of mouse uterine natural killer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During human and rodent uterine de- cidualization, transient but abundant numbers of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells appear, prolifer- ate, and differentiate. uNK cells share features with peripheral NK cells but are specialized to promote interferon- (IFN-)-mediated, preg- nancy-associated, structural changes in maternal placental arteries. In CD8 T cells and NK cells, the transcription factors T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes) regulate

Chandrakant Tayade; Yuan Fang; Gordon P. Black; Paffaro VA Jr.; Adrian Erlebacher; B. Anne Croy

2005-01-01

211

[Chronic renal failure secondary to uterine prolapse].  

PubMed

Acute and chronic renal failure secondary to bilateral severe hydroureteronephrosis is a rare sequela of uterine prolapse. We report a case of neglected complete uterine prolapse in a 72-year-old patient resulting in bilateral hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and chronic renal failure. In an attempt to diminish the ureteral obstruction a vaginal pessary was used to reduce the uterine prolapse. Finally, surgical repair of prolapse by means of a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. In conclusion, all patients presenting with complete uterine prolapse should be screened to exclude urinary tract obstruction. If present, obstructive uropathy should be relieved by the reduction or repair of the prolapse before irreversible renal damage occurs. PMID:15912657

Peces, R; Canora, J; Venegas, J L

2005-01-01

212

Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

2009-01-01

213

Uterine leiomyosarcoma metastasizing to the heart.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an uncommon and aggressive gynecologic malignancy with an overall poor prognosis. Lungs, bones and brain are common sites of metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the heart are extremely rare, and only a few case reports have been published so far. Herein we present the case of 57 years old female, who had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years back for uterine leiomyosarcoma, she presented with dyspnea, dizziness, fever, and tachycardia, subsequently was found to have interventricular septum cardiac as well extensive system metastasis and recurrent pelvic mass. Patient's symptoms responded to palliative radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy. PMID:24717993

Tunio, Mutahir Ali; Al-Asiri, Mushabbab; Fareed, Muhammad Mohsin

2014-03-01

214

Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Maurizio Mandala (University of Calabria)

2009-02-01

215

Impaired uterine artery flow associated with the presence of ovarian endometrioma: preliminary results of a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Aim of this prospective, case–control study was to evaluate uterine arteries’ blood flow before and after laparoscopic surgery in patients with ovarian endometriosis and its possible correlation with infertility. Methods We prospectively enrolled 110 women of reproductive age; 69 with ovarian endometriomas and scheduled for surgery, and 41 controls. At enrolment, a detailed medical, gynecologic and obstetric history was collected. Fertility and pregnancy desire were assessed. All patients underwent complete physical and gynecologic examination. Transvaginal ultrasound with Doppler color flow was performed to evaluate Resistance Index (RI) of uterine arteries during the secretory phase, at enrolment (T0) and 3 months after laparoscopic surgery (T1). Results Among cases, 27 patients were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. At enrolment (T0) unilateral or bilateral flow alterations (RI???0.8) were found in 38 out of 42 patients with ovarian endometriosis (90%), whereas in the control group only 17 women (41%) had Doppler alterations. The difference in uterine artery RI values between cases and controls was statistically significant (P?uterine artery flow (P <0.0001) was found 3 months after surgical treatment of endometriosis. Nineteen patients with endometriosis (45%) were infertile before surgery; all of them presented uterine artery Doppler alterations at T0. After surgery the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in patients who presented uterine artery flow normalization than in those with persistent uterine artery flow alterations (p?=?0.002). Conclusions A strong correlation was found between uterine artery flow abnormalities and ovarian endometriosis. Uterine artery flow improvement following surgery seems to increase the probabilities of achieving pregnancy.

2014-01-01

216

Rapid developing basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a young adult Taiwanese.  

PubMed

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the uterine cervix is a rare malignancy of the female genital tract with a poorer clinical outcome than SCC of the uterine cervix. We report a case of BSCC of the uterine cervix developing rapidly in a young adult Taiwanese. A 35-year-old woman, Para 2, visited the emergency room with severe dizziness, palpitations and sudden excessive vaginal bleeding with hemoglobin of 3.6 g/dl. She had been well and healthy but intermittent vaginal spotting developed for around 6 months previously and was treated as abnormal uterine bleeding by ob-gyn practitioners. She had a repeat cesarean operation 16 months prior to this episode and the last Pap smear showed reactive change 12 months ago at our hospital. On examination, she had an ulcerated, necrotic, and punched-out lesion of 5 cm of the cervix. A cervical biopsy revealed poorly differentiated typical BSCC. Abdominal/pelvic computerized tomography and whole body positron emission tomography confirmed FIGO staging IB2. She responded well to concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Follow-up for the patient is ongoing. This is a rapid developing BSCC of the uterine cervix, although we cannot actually ascertain when it started and how rapidly it progressed. PMID:24362481

Tsai, H J; Liou, B; Li, M C

2013-12-01

217

Clinical application of whole-genome array CGH during prenatal diagnosis: Study of 25 selected pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings or apparently balanced structural aberrations  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was the application and evaluation of array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array CGH) in selected cases during prenatal diagnosis. Array CGH was applied in 25 fetal samples out of which 15 had normal karyotypes and abnormal ultrasound findings and 10 had apparently balanced structural aberrations with or without abnormal ultrasound findings. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, chorionic villi samples (CV) and amniotic fluid. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) array CGH (Cytochip, BlueGnome Ltd.) of 1 Mb was applied and results were confirmed with either Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), Multiplex Ligation-dependant Probe Amplification (MLPA) or Real-Time PCR. Results Three out of 25 samples (12%), referred for prenatal array CGH, were found to carry copy number alterations. The number of cases with clinically significant alterations was 2/25 (8%), while one (4%) was of uncertain clinical significance. Two benign Copy Number Variations (CNVs) were also found in 1/25 cases (4%). Conclusions The outcome of this study indicates the ability of array CGH to identify chromosomal abnormalities which cannot be detected during routine prenatal cytogenetic analysis, therefore increasing the overall detection rate.

2010-01-01

218

Developmental Abnormalities of Neuronal Structure and Function in Prenatal Mice Lacking the Prader-Willi Syndrome Gene Necdin  

PubMed Central

Necdin (Ndn) is one of a cluster of genes deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Ndntm2Stw mutant mice die shortly after birth because of abnormal respiratory rhythmogenesis generated by a key medullary nucleus, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). Here, we address two fundamental issues relevant to its pathogenesis. First, we performed a detailed anatomical study of the developing medulla to determine whether there were defects within the preBötC or synaptic inputs that regulate respiratory rhythmogenesis. Second, in vitro studies determined if the unstable respiratory rhythm in Ndntm2Stw mice could be normalized by neuromodulators. Anatomical defects in Ndntm2Stw mice included defasciculation and irregular projections of axonal tracts, aberrant neuronal migration, and a major defect in the cytoarchitecture of the cuneate/gracile nuclei, including dystrophic axons. Exogenous application of neuromodulators alleviated the long periods of slow respiratory rhythms and apnea, but some instability of rhythmogenesis persisted. We conclude that deficiencies in the neuromodulatory drive necessary for preBötC function contribute to respiratory dysfunction of Ndntm2Stw mice. These abnormalities are part of a more widespread deficit in neuronal migration and the extension, arborization, and fasciculation of axons during early stages of central nervous system development that may account for respiratory, sensory, motor, and behavioral problems associated with PWS.

Pagliardini, Silvia; Ren, Jun; Wevrick, Rachel; Greer, John J.

2005-01-01

219

Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management  

PubMed Central

Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies.

de Medeiros, Sebastiao Freitas; Yamamoto, Marcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

2013-01-01

220

Therapeutic management of uterine fibroid tumors: updated French guidelines.  

PubMed

The medical management of symptomatic non-submucosal uterine fibroid tumors (leiomyomas or myomas) is based on the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by any of the following: progestogens, a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, tranexamic acid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or GnRH analogs. Selective progesterone receptor modulators are currently being evaluated and have recently been approved for fibroid treatment. Neither combined estrogen-progestogen contraception nor hormone treatment of the menopause is contraindicated in women with fibroids. When pregnancy is desired, whether or not infertility is being treated by assisted reproductive technology, hysteroscopic resection in one or two separate procedures of submucosal fibroids less than 4 cm in length is recommended, regardless of whether they are symptomatic. Interstitial, also known as intramural, fibroids have a negative effect on fertility but treating them does not improve fertility. Myomectomy is therefore indicated only for symptomatic fibroids; depending on their size and number, and may be performed by laparoscopy or laparotomy. Physicians must explain to women the potential consequences of myomas and myomectomy on future pregnancy. For perimenopausal women who have been informed of the alternatives and the risks, hysterectomy is the most effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is associated with a high rate of patient satisfaction. When possible, the vaginal or laparoscopic routes should be preferred to laparotomy for hysterectomies for fibroids considered typical on imaging. Because uterine artery embolization is an effective treatment with low long-term morbidity, it is an option for symptomatic fibroids in women who do not want to become pregnant, and a validated alternative to myomectomy and hysterectomy that must be offered to patients. Myolysis is under assessment, and research on its use is recommended. Isolated laparoscopic ligation of the uterine arteries is a potential alternative to uterine artery embolization; it also complements myomectomy by reducing intraoperative bleeding. It is possible to use second-generation techniques of endometrial ablation to treat submucosal fibroids in women whose families are complete. Subtotal hysterectomy is a possible alternative to total hysterectomy for fibroid treatment, given that by laparotomy the former has a lower complication rate than the latter, while by laparoscopy, these rates are the same. In each case, the patient is informed about the benefit and risk associated with each therapeutic option. PMID:22939241

Marret, Henri; Fritel, Xavier; Ouldamer, Lobna; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Brun, Jean-Luc; De Jesus, Isabelle; Derrien, Jean; Giraudet, Géraldine; Kahn, Vanessa; Koskas, Martin; Legendre, Guillaume; Lucot, Jean Philippe; Niro, Julien; Panel, Pierre; Pelage, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Hervé

2012-12-01

221

Converging evidence for abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and evaluation of midsagittal structures in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder: an MRI study.  

PubMed

Volumetric imaging research has shown abnormal brain morphology in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when compared with control subjects. We present results on a study of brain morphology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midline structures, via indices of gray matter volume and density, in pediatric PTSD. We hypothesized that both methods would demonstrate aberrant morphology in the PFC. Further, we hypothesized aberrant brainstem anatomy and reduced corpus callosum volume in children with PTSD. Twenty-four children (aged 7-14) with history of interpersonal trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). Images of the PFC and midline brain structures were first analyzed using volumetric image analysis. The PFC data were then compared with whole brain voxel-based techniques using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The PTSD group showed significantly increased gray matter volume in the right and left inferior and superior quadrants of the PFC and smaller gray matter volume in the pons and posterior vermis areas by volumetric image analysis. The voxel-by-voxel group comparisons demonstrated increased gray matter density mostly localized to ventral PFC as compared with the control group. Abnormal frontal lobe morphology, as revealed by separate-complementary image analysis methods, and reduced pons and posterior vermis areas are associated with pediatric PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry may help to corroborate and further localize data obtained by volume of interest methods in PTSD. PMID:19349151

Carrion, Victor G; Weems, Carl F; Watson, Christa; Eliez, Stephan; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L

2009-06-30

222

Operative and Conservative Treatment of Uterine Sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Uterine sarcomas are rare, aggressive mesenchymal tumours with a relatively poor prognosis. The term comprises various histological subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcomas as well as undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, which require different operative and systemic/radiation therapy strategies accordingly. The evidence on operative, adjuvant and palliative treatment currently available is presented here.

Harter, P.; El-Khalfaoui, K.; Heitz, F.; du Bois, A.

2014-01-01

223

Current concepts in uterine fibroid embolization.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) has become established as an accepted minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids and should be considered a treatment option for patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. It is important for diagnostic radiologists to understand the procedure, since imaging is a key component in the evaluation and care of these patients. Both the interventional radiologist and the gynecologist must fully evaluate a patient before recommending UFE as a treatment for symptomatic fibroids. However, relatively few absolute contraindications exist (pregnancy, known or suspected gynecologic malignancy, and current uterine or adnexal infection). A thorough evaluation includes a medical history, menstrual history, physical examination, and discussion of fertility goals. In almost all cases, bilateral uterine artery catheterization and embolization are needed, since most uterine fibroids, whether single or multiple, receive blood supply from both uterine arteries. After UFE, patients can reasonably expect resolution of symptoms such as menorrhagia, pelvic pressure, and pelvic pain. Although infrequent, major adverse events can occur and include ovarian failure or amenorrhea, fibroid expulsion, and rarely venous thromboembolism. Hysterectomy remains the definitive and most common treatment for uterine fibroids, but less-invasive approaches such as UFE are becoming of greater interest to both patients and physicians. PMID:23065167

Bulman, Julie C; Ascher, Susan M; Spies, James B

2012-10-01

224

Lymphatic Vessel Dynamics in the Uterine Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

During pregnancy, maternal uterine blood vessels undergo dramatic vascular remodeling. However, until now, little was known about whether the lymphatic circulation experiences similar changes and whether these vessels interact with placental cells that invade maternal tissue. Recent studies demonstrate that lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall are highly compartmentalized where their presence is mostly restricted to the deeper layers. In

K. Red-Horse

2008-01-01

225

Acute Renal Failure after Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.

Rastogi, Sachin [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Wu, Yu-Hsin [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (United States); Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Stavropoulos, S. William [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail: stav@rad.upenn.edu

2004-09-15

226

Three-dimensional volume-rendered imaging of normal and abnormal fetal fluid-filled structures using inversion mode.  

PubMed

A total of six normal and eight abnormal fetuses at 16-38?weeks of gestation were studied using transabdominal three-dimensional sonography with an inversion mode. In normal fetuses, the stomach, gallbladder and bladder could be depicted. In particular, peristalsis of the stomach was noted. In the case of holoprosencephaly, fused hemispheres were evident. In the case of hydrocephalus, the enlargement of ventricular cavities was noted. In the case of bilateral pleural effusion, the spatial relationship and size of the effusions were depicted. In the case of meconium peritonitis, the spatial relationship between the dilated intestines and ascites was depicted. In two cases of hydronephrosis, the dilated renal pelvis and calyces were clearly shown. In the case of multicystic dysplastic kidney, the number and size of cysts were clearly identified. In the case of left ovarian cyst, the anatomical relationships among the ovarian cyst, kidney, stomach and bladder could be easily understood. PMID:21790889

Hata, Toshiyuki; Mori, Nobuhiro; Tenkumo, Chiaki; Hanaoka, Uiko; Kanenishi, Kenji; Tanaka, Hirokazu

2011-11-01

227

Quantitative assessment of right ventricular structural abnormalities by right ventricular polar mapping of single photon emission computed tomogram.  

PubMed

The identification of right ventricular (RV) abnormalities is clinically important in the evaluation of arrhythmogenic substrates in right ventricular-originated ventricular tachycardia (RVT). The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic benefit of quantitative analysis in RV single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin/sestamibi in patients with RVT. Thirty patients with RVT (15 with idiopathic RVT and 15 with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)) were compared with 27 control subjects (including 11 with right bundle branch block) with regard to the semiquantitative RV uptake score in each of six segments and the quantitative RV extent score in polar coordinate map displays by SPECT imaging. The RV total score and RV extent score were compared with the RV global function. Perfusion abnormalities were more frequently detected (P = 0.0001) in the ARVC group (59/90, 65.6%) than in the idiopathic RVT group (4/90, 4.4%) or controls (1/162, 0.6%). The RV extent score in the ARVC group (53.0 +/- 24.8) was significantly higher than that in the idiopathic RVT group (8.4 +/- 10.1) or controls (1.2 +/- 4.9). The RV extent score correlated well with the regional RV perfusion score (P < 0.0001) and with the RV ejection fraction (P < 0.0001). Non-invasive RV perfusion mapping using a (99m)Tc-labelled tracer is useful for the quantitative evaluation of RV substrates in patients with ARVC. PMID:12352592

Eguchi, M; Tsuchihashi, K; Hashimoto, A; Uno, K; Kyuma, M; Takahashi, T; Shimoshige, S; Wakabayashi, T; Nakahara, N; Nakata, T; Shimamoto, K

2002-10-01

228

Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Results Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P <0.01). In multivariable analyses, popliteal cysts were significantly associated with increased osteophytes in both medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments while subgastrocnemius bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Conclusions Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities.

2014-01-01

229

Loss of heterozygosity and reduced expression of the CUTL1 gene in uterine leiomyomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic analyses has revealed deletions and\\/or rearrangments at several chromosomal positions in approximately half of uterine leiomyomas. The most frequent genetic alteration, deletion of 7q22, was found in approximately 35% of studied cases with cytogenetic abnormalities (128\\/366=35%). The same chromosomal band was also found to be deleted in a fraction of acute myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. The frequent deletion

Wendy Rong Zeng; Stephen W Scherer; Michael Koutsilieris; Jack J Huizenga; Frederic Filteau; Lap-Chee Tsui; Alain Nepveu

1997-01-01

230

[Placenta percreta: A rare etiology of spontaneous uterine perforation in the second trimester of pregnancy].  

PubMed

Placenta accreta is an abnormal adherence of placenta to the uterine wall without interposition of decidua basalis. Placenta percreta is the rarest form but may complicate the pregnancy with acute severe hemorrhage. We report a case of placenta percreta with multiple perforations of an unscarred uterus reaveled by hemoperitoneum at 22 weeks in a 33-years-old gravida 2 para 1. Emergency total hysterectomy was performed. Risk factors, clinical approach and therapeutic managements are discussed. PMID:21183389

Blé, R Konan; Adjoussou, S; Doukoure, B; Gallot, D; Olou, N; Koffi, A; Fanny, M; Koné, M

2011-01-01

231

Polyarteritis nodosa with uterine involvement.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is characterized by multisystem necrotizing vasculitis, primarily affecting small-to-medium-sized muscular arteries, and it is typically found in middle-aged men. PAN is rarely found in the female genital tract (including the uterus), and imaging of the uterus with PAN has not previously been reported. Reported is a case of a 78-year-old patient with uterus enlargement who was diagnosed with PAN through clinical findings and images. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a uterus affected by PAN are presented and reviewed, and potential characteristic findings of the uterine with PAN are discussed. PMID:23986829

Hirai, Chihiro; Koike, Shigeomi; Hirano, Motoharu; Nishimura, Junichi; Akashita, Shiho; Ohkoshi, Takahumi; Katsumata, Yasushi

2012-01-01

232

Investigation of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere by microwave ground-based sensing over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of the lower atmosphere structure and stability is required for studying the processes of the convection in the atmosphere, determining the mutual influence of global climate change trends and the current state of regional climate systems, which have an impact on the appearance of dangerous meteorological events (heavy rains, thunderstorms, hail, floods, squalls, tornadoes, etc). There are many methods of measuring structure of the atmosphere: contact (rocket and balloon), contactless - active (lidar) and passive (radiometric), with the placement of the instrumentation on the satellite, airplanes and the Earth's surface (ground-based). For the convection processes study in order to predict dangerous meteorological events the ground-based radiometric sensing of the structure of the lower atmosphere seems to be the most suitable due to higher time and spatial resolution. This report discusses the peculiarities of the structure of the lower atmosphere over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during the abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014 retrieved from measurements by radiometric complex HATPRO-G3 by Radiometer Physics GmbH. This complex gives vertical thermal and water vapor profiles of the lower atmosphere (0 - 10 km) with time resolution of a few minutes, horizontally resolution of about 10 kilometers and vertically resolution of about 100 meters. The analysis of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere is based on the vertical distribution of virtual potential temperature derived from these measurements under the hydrostatic approximation. Also the comparison of the results for the abnormally winter 2013 - 2014 and the data computed from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (http://www.wrf-model.org) for winter 2011 - 2012 is discussed.

Karashtin, Dmitriy; Berezin, Evgeny; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

2014-05-01

233

A Two-Stage Model for In Vivo Assessment of Brain Tumor Perfusion and Abnormal Vascular Structure Using Arterial Spin Labeling  

PubMed Central

The ability to assess brain tumor perfusion and abnormalities in the vascular structure in vivo could provide significant benefits in terms of lesion diagnosis and assessment of treatment response. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has emerged as an increasingly viable methodology for non-invasive assessment of perfusion. Although kinetic models have been developed to describe perfusion in healthy tissue, the dynamic behaviour of the ASL signal in the brain tumor environment has not been extensively studied. We show here that dynamic ASL data acquired in brain tumors displays an increased level of ‘biphasic’ behaviour, compared to that seen in healthy tissue. A new two-stage model is presented which more accurately describes this behaviour, and provides measurements of perfusion, pre-capillary blood volume fraction and transit time, and capillary bolus arrival time. These biomarkers offer a novel contrast in the tumor and surrounding tissue, and provide a means for measuring tumor perfusion and vascular structural abnormalities in a fully non-invasive manner.

Hales, Patrick W.; Phipps, Kim P.; Kaur, Ramneek; Clark, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

234

Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of uterine vessels to treat symptomatic leiomyomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of uterine vessels was performed in three women with symptomatic myomas who required conventional surgical treatment. Uterine size and dominant myoma size were assessed by ultrasonography before and after surgery. Both uterine arteries, as well as anastomosis zone of uterine arteries with ovarian arteries, were occluded in all three women. Surgery was uneventful, and patients were hospitalized

Wei-Min Liu

2000-01-01

235

Investigation and management of abnormal peri-menopausal bleeding.  

PubMed

Abnormal peri-menopausal bleeding is a common clinical problem. Decisions to investigate if the menstrual disorders are related to an underlying pathology or represent physiologic changes are often complex especially as no clear guidance is available. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current available evidence regarding the investigation tools used to evaluate women with abnormal uterine bleeding during menopausal transition and in the post-menopausal period. In this article, we focus mainly on the investigation and exclusion of endometrial carcinoma, as this represents the most common malignancy diagnosed. PMID:24132616

Turnbull, Hilary; Glover, Alexandra; Morris, Edward P; Duncan, Timothy J; Nieto, Joaquin J; Burbos, Nikolaos

2013-12-01

236

[The clinical characteristics of women with uterine hemorrhages in premenopause].  

PubMed

The clinical characteristics was studied on 431 women with uterine bleedings during the premenopaussal phase of the climacterium. The author established that menarche, duration of menstrual interval and the menstruation itself before the bleeding did not differ from those of female population in the country. The same was referred to the reproductive characteristics. Premenopausal bleeding reached its peak between 46 and 48 years of age as its duration was relatively great. It was connected with frequent neuro-endocrine and metabolic pathology. The most frequent manifestations were obesity and hypertension. The number of the former hepatitis patients was comparatively large. Diseases of the uterine body were frequent in the structure of genital pathology. The frequency of benign, precancerous and malignant neoplastic processes (without myoma) was high-12.7%. PMID:2802100

Rachev, E

1989-01-01

237

A mutation in Rab38 small GTPase causes abnormal lung surfactant homeostasis and aberrant alveolar structure in mice.  

PubMed

The chocolate mutation, which is associated with oculocutaneous albinism in mice, has been attributed to a G146T transversion in the conserved GTP/GDP-interacting domain of Rab38, a small GTPase that regulates intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab38 displays a unique tissue-specific expression pattern with highest levels present in the lung. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of Rab38-G146T on lung phenotype and to investigate the molecular basis of the mutant gene product (Rab38(cht) protein). Chocolate lungs exhibited a uniform enlargement of the distal airspaces with mild alveolar destruction as well as a slight increase in lung compliance. Alveolar type II cells were engorged with lamellar bodies of increased size and number. Hydrophobic surfactant constituents (ie, phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein B) were increased in lung tissues but decreased in alveolar spaces, consistent with a malfunction in lamellar body secretion and the subsequent cellular accumulation of these organelles. In contrast to wild-type Rab38, native Rab38(cht) proteins were found to be hydrophilic and not bound to intracellular membranes. Unexpectedly, recombinant Rab38(cht) proteins retained GTP-binding activity but failed to undergo prenyl modification that is required for membrane-binding activity. These results suggest that the genetic abnormality of Rab38 affects multiple lysosome-related organelles, resulting in lung disease in addition to oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:18832574

Osanai, Kazuhiro; Oikawa, Rieko; Higuchi, Junko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsuchihara, Katsuma; Iguchi, Masaharu; Jongsu, Huang; Toga, Hirohisa; Voelker, Dennis R

2008-11-01

238

Structural brain abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations: A comparative voxel-based analysis.  

PubMed

The objective is to evaluate clinical characteristics and cerebral alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with diurnal visual hallucinations (VHs). Assessment was performed using magnetic resonance image (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirty-nine patients with PD (53.8%) and ten controls were studied. Voxel based morphology analysis was performed. Eleven patients presented diurnal VHs and among these, six had cognitive dysfunction. Patients with VHs performed worse in the mentation-related UPDRS I (p=0.005) and motor-related UPDRS III (p=0.02). Patients with VHs showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume compared to controls in the left opercula frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. PD without hallucinations demonstrated reduced grey matter volume in the left superior frontal gyrus compared to controls. Comparisons between patients with VHs regarding the presence of cognitive dysfunction showed that cases with cognitive dysfunction as compared to those without cognitive dysfunction showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume in the left opercular frontal gyrus. Cases without cognitive dysfunction had reduced grey matter substance in the left insula and left trigonal frontal gyrus. Judging from our findings, an abnormal frontal cortex, particularly left sided insula, frontal opercular, trigonal frontal gyrus and orbital frontal would make PD patients vulnerable to hallucinations. Compromise of the left operculum distinguished cases with VHs and cognitive dysfunction. Our findings reinforce the theoretical concept of a top-down visual processing in the genesis of VHs in PD. PMID:24732953

Gama, Romulo Lopes; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; Távora, Daniel Gurgel Fernandes; Duran, Fábio L S; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio

2014-06-01

239

Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery\\u000a embolization (UAE).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty women aged 39–56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings\\u000a of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms\\u000a were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of

V. Froeling; C. Scheurig-Muenkler; B. Hamm; T. J. Kroencke

240

Uterine contractility in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.  

PubMed

This study aims to compare uterine activity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) patients vs normal pregnancies, and to determine the relevance of ICP and excessive uterine activity. A total of 59 patients with ICP and 89 with normal pregnancies were selected. Liver function, total bile acids and uterine activity were evaluated; uterine contraction parameters were compared at the specified range of gestational age. Uterine contraction frequency was significantly higher in the third trimester patients with ICP. Aspartate transaminase (AST) appeared to correlate with contraction frequency (r = 0.357, p = 0.006) and Montevideo units (MVUs) (r = 0.349, p = 0.007). For each 50 U/l increase in AST, the hazard ratio of excessive uterine activity was increased by 1.31-fold (95% CI = 1.034-1.663, p = 0.025). The present study demonstrates that third trimester uterine contractility increases in patients with ICP. These findings should be of note, given what is known about obstetric cholestasis, and should prompt further research. PMID:24484433

Zhao, P; Zhang, K; Yao, Q; Yang, X

2014-04-01

241

Dietary Wolfberry Ameliorates Retinal Structure Abnormalities in db/db Mice at the Early Stage of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Hyperglycemia-linked oxidative stress and/or consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress are the causative factors of pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Dietary bioactive components which mitigate oxidative stress may serve as potential chemopreventative agents to prevent or slow down the disease progression. Wolfberry is a traditional Asian fruit consumed for years to prevent aging eye diseases in Asian countries. Here we report that dietary wolfberry ameliorated mouse retinal abnormality at the early stage of type 2 diabetes in db/db mice. Male mice at 6 weeks of age were fed the control diet with or without 1 % (kCal) wolfberry for 8 weeks. Dietary wolfberry restored the thickness of the whole retina, in particular the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, and the integrity of retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), and the ganglion cell number in db/db mice. Western blotting of whole retinal cell lysates revealed that addition of wolfberry lowered expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarkers BiP, PERK, ATF6, and caspase-12; and restored AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, and FOXO3? activities. To determine if our observations were due to the high contents of zeaxanthin and lutein in wolfberry additional studies using these carotenoids were conducted. Using the human adult diploid RPE cell line ARPE-19 we demonstrated that both zeaxanthin and lutein could mimic wolfberry preventive effect on activation of AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, FOXO3? activities, normalize cellular reactive oxygen species, and attenuate ER stress in ARPE-19 cells exposed to a high glucose challenge. The zeaxanthin preventive effect was abolished by siRNA knockdown of AMPK?. These results suggested that AMPK activation appeared to play a key role in upregulated expression of thioredoxin and Mn SOD, and mitigation of cellular oxidative stress and/or ER stress by wolfberry and zeaxanthin and/or lutein. Taken together, dietary wolfberry on retinal protection in diabetic mice is, at least partially, due to zeaxanthin and/or lutein.

Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yunong; Jiang, Yu; Willard, Lloyd; Ortiz, Edlin; Wark, Logan; Medeiros, Denis; Lin, Dingbo

2011-01-01

242

Leukemic Reticuloendotheliosis: 'Hairy Cell Leukemia,' Functional and Structural Features of the Abnormal Cell in a Patient with Profound Leukocytosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of profound leukocytosis in a patient with leukemic reticuloendotheliosis (LRE) enabled us to obtain purified LRE cells for the investigation of their structural and functional characteristics. The LRE cells of our patient bore surface imm...

D. H. Boldt S. F. Speckart R. P. MacDermott G. S. Nash J. E. Valeski

1976-01-01

243

The structural phase transition and mechanism of abnormal temperature dependence of conductivity in ZnTe:Cu polycrystalline thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and electrical transport of ZnTe polycrystalline thin films have been studied as a function of doping concentration and post-grown annealing temperature. For undoped ZnTe thin films, the electrical transport characterizes as commonly expected thermal activation of carriers with activation energy 0.22 eV, and the structure is the cubic phase with a (111)-preferred orientation as shown by X-ray diffraction

Jing-quan Zhang; Liang-huan Feng; Wei Cai; Jia-gui Zheng; Ya-ping Cai; Bing Li; Li-li Wu; Ye Shao

2002-01-01

244

Pre-Uterine Artery Embolization MRI: Beyond Fibroids  

SciTech Connect

Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is increasingly being performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation before and after treatment is routine practice with the potential to significantly alter management in up to a fifth of patients. It is well recognized that significant incidental findings may be demonstrated during imaging investigations, and in particular that abnormalities that are not directly related to the clinical question may be overlooked. Radiologists evaluating pre-UAE MRI studies must be aware of the MRI appearances of gynecological pathologies that may cause similar symptoms or that may affect the success or complication rates of UAE, and they must also be wary of 'satisfaction of search,' reviewing imaging thoroughly so that relevant other pathologies are not missed. We demonstrate the appearances of coincidental pathologies found on pre-UAE MRI, with the potential to change patient management.

Williams, Petra L., E-mail: Petra.Williams@phnt.swest.nhs.uk [Derriford Hospital, Department of Clinical Imaging (United Kingdom); Coote, Jacky M.; Watkinson, Anthony F. [Royal Devon and Exeter Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Clinical Imaging (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15

245

Committee Opinion No. 601: Tamoxifen and uterine cancer.  

PubMed

Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen agent, is widely used as adjunctive therapy for women with breast cancer, and it has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, treatment of metastatic breast cancer, and reduction in breast cancer incidence in high-risk women. Tamoxifen use may be extended to 10 years based on new data demonstrating additional benefit. Women taking tamoxifen should be informed about the risks of endometrial proliferation, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, and uterine sarcomas, and any abnormal vaginal bleeding, bloody vaginal discharge, staining, or spotting should be investigated. Postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen should be closely monitored for symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer. Premenopausal women treated with tamoxifen have no known increased risk of uterine cancer and require no additional monitoring beyond routine gynecologic care. Unless the patient has been identified to be at high risk of endometrial cancer, routine endometrial surveillance has not proved to be effective in increasing the early detection of endometrial cancer in women using tamoxifen and is not recommended. If atypical endometrial hyperplasia develops, appropriate gynecologic management should be instituted, and the use of tamoxifen should be reassessed. PMID:24848920

2014-06-01

246

Neonatal uterine prolapse - a case report.  

PubMed

Uterine prolapse is commonly seen in the geriatric age group. Congenital vaginouterine prolapse is a rare condition occurring in neonates and is usually associated with spinal cord malformations in about 85% of cases. Several modalities of treatment have been described for neonatal uterine prolapse. Conservative treatment in the form of simple digital reposition, use of pessary or other self-retaining device is usually sufficient to treat this condition, which is self-limiting and regressive. Here we report our first case of neonatal uterine prolapse, managed successfully with simple digital reposition. PMID:24858176

Saha, D K; Hasan, K M; Rahman, S M; Majumder, S K; Zahid, M K; Chakraborty, A K; Bari, M S

2014-04-01

247

Treatment of Uterine Artery Vasospasm with Transdermal Nitroglycerin Ointment During Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery vasospasm can complicate uterine artery embolization (UAE) by prolonging procedure times or even causing treatment failure. Embolization must be delayed until the spasm improves and adequate antegrade flow in the vessel is restored. Vasospasm can also produce a 'false endpoint' to the procedure, where stasis of flow in the vessel is falsely attributed to successful embolization but is actually the result of vasospasm, leading to undertreatment or treatment failure. Traditional treatments for uterine artery vasospasm have included transcatheter intra-arterial vasodilators and catheter withdrawal from the vessel, both of which can yield mixed results. We report a case of uterine artery vasospasm during UAE successfully treated with transdermal nitroglycerine ointment.

Denison, Gregory L., E-mail: denisong@pol.net; Ha, Thuong Van; Keblinskas, Darius [The University of Chicago Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

2005-06-15

248

Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of maternal and fetal blood flow in abnormal canine pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the changes of uterine artery, umbilical artery and fetal abdominal aorta, renal and internal carotid arteries blood flow in abnormal canine pregnancy. Twenty-two, Brucella-negative pregnant bitches were retrospectively classified into abnormal (which had either interrupted their pregnancy between days 52 and 60 or had perinatal death >60% of the litter; n=11) and normal (which had delivered healthy puppies at term; n=11). In all the animals, color and pulsed-wave Doppler examinations of uterine artery were conducted every 10 days from Day 20 to 50 from estimated luteinizing hormone peak. Doppler ultrasonography was also conducted in the fetuses to assess umbilical artery, abdominal aorta, renal and internal carotid arteries from Day 40 to 60 of gestation. Throughout the study, resistance index (RI) of uterine, umbilical and fetal renal arteries decreased up to -15% compared to -36% (P<0.01), -11% compared to -23% (P<0.05) and 2% compared to -13% (P<0.05), respectively in the abnormal and normal bitches. Fetal abdominal aorta and internal carotid did not differ between groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that in dogs, uterine artery, umbilical artery and fetal renal artery RI differ between normal and abnormal gestation being useful for the prediction of adverse obstetric outcome. PMID:21616613

Blanco, P G; Rodríguez, R; Rube, A; Arias, D O; Tórtora, M; Díaz, J D; Gobello, C

2011-06-01

249

Fluorescent studies directed towards the location of abnormal epithelial cells in cervical smears.  

PubMed

Cervical screening is concerned with the search for abnormal epithelial cells in smears prepared from scrapings from the uterine cervix. It is a highly skilled labour intensive operation and automated methods of detecting dyskariotic cells in cervical smears would be helpful. We report a fluorescence method of detecting abnormal cervical cells in smears and biopsies using a probe for guanidinobenzoatase. This approach has the potential for automation. PMID:1714306

Steven, F S; Johnson, J

1990-01-01

250

Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

2010-01-01

251

Uterine artery embolisation: an alternative to surgery?  

PubMed

According to comparative evaluation in about 900 patients, uterine artery embolisation may expose patients to a lower risk of serious complications than surgery. But it reduces fertility. PMID:24926521

2014-05-01

252

Metastatic calcaneal lesion associated with uterine carcinosarcoma.  

PubMed

Metastatic lesions of uterine carcinosarcoma most commonly occur in the abdomen and lungs and less frequently in highly vascularized bone. We report a rare case of an 86-year-old female with uterine carcinosarcoma with metastasis to the left calcaneus. The patient had a history of uterine carcinosarcoma with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, along with bilateral pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomy, with no adjuvant therapy. The initial pedal complaint was that of left foot pain. The initial radiographic findings were negative; however, magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a substantial area of marrow edema in the calcaneus. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathologic analysis revealed adenocarcinoma with features consistent with the patient's previous uterine tumor specimen. The patient was given one treatment of chemotherapy and was discharged to a hospice, where she died of her disease 2 weeks later. PMID:23871174

Rice, Brittany M; Todd, Nicholas W; Jensen, Richard; Rush, Shannon M; Rogers, William

2014-01-01

253

Electrophysiological abnormalities precede overt structural changes in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy due to mutations in desmoplakin-A combined murine and human study  

PubMed Central

Aims Anecdotal observations suggest that sub-clinical electrophysiological manifestations of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) develop before detectable structural changes ensue on cardiac imaging. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a murine model with conditional cardiac genetic deletion of one desmoplakin allele (DSP ±) and compared the findings to patients with non-diagnostic features of ARVC who carried mutations in desmoplakin. Methods and results Murine: the DSP (±) mice underwent electrophysiological, echocardiographic, and immunohistochemical studies. They had normal echocardiograms but delayed conduction and inducible ventricular tachycardia associated with mislocalization and reduced intercalated disc expression of Cx43. Sodium current density and myocardial histology were normal at 2 months of age. Human: ten patients with heterozygous mutations in DSP without overt structural heart disease (DSP+) and 12 controls with supraventricular tachycardia were studied by high-density electrophysiological mapping of the right ventricle. Using a standard S1–S2 protocol, restitution curves of local conduction and repolarization parameters were constructed. Significantly greater mean increases in delay were identified particularly in the outflow tract vs. controls (P< 0.01) coupled with more uniform wavefront progression. The odds of a segment with a maximal activation–repolarization interval restitution slope >1 was 99% higher (95% CI: 13%; 351%, P= 0.017) in DSP+ vs. controls. Immunostaining revealed Cx43 mislocalization and variable Na channel distribution. Conclusion Desmoplakin disease causes connexin mislocalization in the mouse and man preceding any overt histological abnormalities resulting in significant alterations in conduction–repolarization kinetics prior to morphological changes detectable on conventional cardiac imaging. Haploinsufficiency of desmoplakin is sufficient to cause significant Cx43 mislocalization. Changes in sodium current density and histological abnormalities may contribute to a worsening phenotype or disease but are not necessary to generate an arrhythmogenic substrate. This has important implications for the earlier diagnosis of ARVC and risk stratification.

Gomes, John; Finlay, Malcolm; Ahmed, Akbar K.; Ciaccio, Edward J.; Asimaki, Angeliki; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.; Quarta, Giovanni; Nobles, Muriel; Syrris, Petros; Chaubey, Sanjay; McKenna, William J.; Tinker, Andrew; Lambiase, Pier D.

2012-01-01

254

Regional Brain Structural Abnormality in Meal-Related Functional Dyspepsia Patients: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Brain dysfunction in functional dyspepsia (FD) has been identified by multiple neuroimaging studies. This study aims to investigate the regional gray matter density (GMD) changes in meal-related FD patients and their correlations with clinical variables, and to explore the possible influence of the emotional state on FD patients’s brain structures. Methods Fifty meal-related FD patients and forty healthy subjects (HS) were included and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was employed to identify the cerebral structure alterations in meal-related FD patients. Regional GMD changes' correlations with the symptoms and their durations, respectively, have been analyzed. Results Compared to the HS, the meal-related FD patients showed a decreased GMD in the bilateral precentral gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and midcingulate cortex (MCC), left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and right insula (p<0.05, FWE Corrected, Cluster size>50). After controlling for anxiety and depression, the meal-related FD patients showed a decreased GMD in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left MCC, right precentral gyrus and insula (p<0.05, FWE Corrected, Cluster size>50). Before controlling psychological factors, the GMD decreases in the ACC were negatively associated with the symptom scores of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) (r?=??0.354, p?=?0.048, Bonferroni correction) and the duration of FD (r?=??0.398, p?=?0.02, Bonferroni correction) respectively. Conclusions The regional GMD of meal-related FD patients, especially in the regions of the homeostatic afferent processing network significantly differed from that of the HS, and the psychological factors might be one of the essential factors significantly affecting the regional brain structure of meal-related FD patients.

Yang, Yue; Zhang, Danhua; Liu, Jixin; Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Jinbo; Lu, Shengfeng; Tang, Yong; Chen, Yuan; Lan, Lei; Yu, Shuguang; Li, Ying; Gao, Xin; Gong, Qiyong; Tian, Jie; Liang, Fanrong

2013-01-01

255

Evaluation of subcortical grey matter abnormalities in patients with MRI-negative cortical epilepsy determined through structural and tensor magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Although many studies have found abnormalities in subcortical grey matter (GM) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or generalised epilepsies, few studies have examined subcortical GM in focal neocortical seizures. Using structural and tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we evaluated subcortical GM from patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy without visible lesion on MRI. Our aims were to determine whether there are structural abnormalities in these patients and to correlate the extent of any observed structural changes with clinical characteristics of disease in these patients. Methods Twenty-four people with epilepsy and 29 age-matched normal subjects were imaged with high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor MR scans. The patients were characterised clinically by normal brain MRI scans and seizures that originated in the neocortex and evolved to secondarily generalised convulsions. We first used whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect density changes in subcortical GM. Volumetric data, values of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) for seven subcortical GM structures (hippocampus, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, thalamus and amygdala) were obtained using a model-based segmentation and registration tool. Differences in the volumes and diffusion parameters between patients and controls and correlations with the early onset and progression of epilepsy were estimated. Results Reduced volumes and altered diffusion parameters of subcortical GM were universally observed in patients in the subcortical regions studied. In the patient-control group comparison of VBM, the right putamen, bilateral nucleus accumbens and right caudate nucleus of epileptic patients exhibited a significantly decreased density Segregated volumetry and diffusion assessment of subcortical GM showed apparent atrophy of the left caudate nucleus, left amygdala and right putamen; reduced FA values for the bilateral nucleus accumbens; and elevated MD values for the left thalamus, right hippocampus and right globus pallidus A decreased volume of the nucleus accumbens consistently related to an early onset of disease. The duration of disease contributed to the shrinkage of the left thalamus. Conclusions Patients with neocortical seizures and secondary generalisation had smaller volumes and microstructural anomalies in subcortical GM regions. Subcortical GM atrophy is relevant to the early onset and progression of epilepsy.

2014-01-01

256

Hysteroscopic Transcervical Resection of Uterine Septum  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the method of diagnosis for uterine septum and the clinical effect of hysteroscopic transcervical resection of the septum. Methods: One-hundred ninety cases of patients with uterine septum who were diagnosed and treated at our hospital during 2007–2011 were selected, and their general information, perioperative status, postoperative recovery treatment, and postoperative pregnancy rates were statistically analyzed. Results: All 190 patients were cured with one surgery, with an average hysteroscopic operating time of 22.60 ± 10.67 minutes and intraoperative blood loss of 15.74 ± 9.64 mL. There were no complications such as uterine perforation, water intoxication, infection, or heavy bleeding. Among the 115 patients that we followed up, 86 became pregnant and delivered infants, 81 of which were born at term and 5 that were born premature. Conclusion: The combination of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy is still the most reliable method for the diagnosis of uterine septum. With a shorter operative time, less blood loss, a significantly increased postoperative pregnancy rate and live birth rate, and a significantly lower spontaneous abortion rate, transcervical resection of the septum was the preferred method for the treatment of uterine septum, and surgical instruments and skills were critical to the prognosis of uterine septum.

Shi, Xiaoyan; Hua, Xiangdong; Gu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Dazhen

2013-01-01

257

CA 125 and other tumor markers in uterine leiomyomas and their association with lesion characteristics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with serum levels of several tumor markers in a group of patients operated for uterine myoma. One hundred thirty-seven female patients operated for uterine myoma were included. Serum samples were examined for CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as part of routine workup. Pathological and morphological characteristics of the patients were retrieved from medical records. The mean age was 46.7 ± 8.8 years (range, 22-85 y). Abnormally high levels of CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, CEA, and AFP were found in 19.7%, 6.6%, 5.1%, 3.7%, and 1.5% of the patients, respectively. Patients with additional adenomyosis and patients with at least one large myoma (? 5 cm diameter) had significantly higher levels of CA 125. Multivariate analysis identified coexistence of adenomyosis (OR 7.7 [95% CI, 2.6-23.0], p < 0.001) and presence of at least one large myoma (OR 5.6 [1.4-22.8], p = 0.016) as independent predictors of abnormally high CA 125 levels. CA 125 levels are affected by the tumor size and coexistence of adenomyosis in uterine leiomyomas. Indirect mechanisms caused by large myoma size such as peritoneal irritation may be responsible for CA 125 elevations. PMID:24955185

Babacan, Ali; Kizilaslan, Cem; Gun, Ismet; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

2014-01-01

258

CA 125 and other tumor markers in uterine leiomyomas and their association with lesion characteristics  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with serum levels of several tumor markers in a group of patients operated for uterine myoma. One hundred thirty-seven female patients operated for uterine myoma were included. Serum samples were examined for CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as part of routine workup. Pathological and morphological characteristics of the patients were retrieved from medical records. The mean age was 46.7 ± 8.8 years (range, 22-85 y). Abnormally high levels of CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, CEA, and AFP were found in 19.7%, 6.6%, 5.1%, 3.7%, and 1.5% of the patients, respectively. Patients with additional adenomyosis and patients with at least one large myoma (? 5 cm diameter) had significantly higher levels of CA 125. Multivariate analysis identified coexistence of adenomyosis (OR 7.7 [95% CI, 2.6-23.0], p < 0.001) and presence of at least one large myoma (OR 5.6 [1.4-22.8], p = 0.016) as independent predictors of abnormally high CA 125 levels. CA 125 levels are affected by the tumor size and coexistence of adenomyosis in uterine leiomyomas. Indirect mechanisms caused by large myoma size such as peritoneal irritation may be responsible for CA 125 elevations.

Babacan, Ali; Kizilaslan, Cem; Gun, Ismet; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

2014-01-01

259

Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy. Methods: Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20–40 years. The data were collected through review

Man Deuk Kim; Nahk Keun Kim; Hee Jin Kim; Mee Hwa Lee

2005-01-01

260

Disruption of Arp2/3 Results in Asymmetric Structural Plasticity of Dendritic Spines and Progressive Synaptic and Behavioral Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. To gain insight into and test the possible pathogenetic role of this pathway, we designed a conditional knockout of the Arp2/3 complex, a conserved final output for actin signaling pathways that orchestrates de novo actin polymerization. Here we report that postnatal loss of the Arp2/3 subunit ArpC3 in forebrain excitatory neurons leads to an asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines, followed by a progressive loss of spine synapses. This progression of synaptic deficits corresponds with an evolution of distinct cognitive, psychomotor, and social disturbances as the mice age. Together these results point to the dysfunction of actin signaling, specifically that which converges to regulate Arp2/3, as an important cellular pathway that may contribute to the etiology of complex psychiatric disorders.

Kim, Il Hwan; Racz, Bence; Wang, Hong; Burianek, Lauren; Weinberg, Richard; Yasuda, Ryohei; Wetsel, William C.; Soderling, Scott H.

2013-01-01

261

Doppler Sonography and 3D CT Angiography of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs): Report of Two Cases.  

PubMed

Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are rare but life threatening causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Accurate clinical and radiological diagnosis is essential because uterine instrumentation that is often used for management of other sources of abnormal bleeding, can lead to massive hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and early proper treatment can markedly reduce the associated disease mortality. Ultrasound with colour and spectral doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography can determine the actual extent of the vascular malformation and helps in pre-interventional planning noninvasively. Uterine AVM can be either congenital or acquired in nature with latter being more common. We hereby report two cases of acquired AVMs diagnosed by color doppler sonography and confirmed by three-dimensional CT angiography. Both the cases reported here had previous history of dilation and curettage for abortion. Clinically one patient presented with profuse uterine bleeding and another with meno-metrorrhagia and both cases underwent surgical removal of uterus. PMID:24701531

Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Ranga, Upasana; Veeraiyan, Saveetha

2014-02-01

262

Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation developing in retained products of conception: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding in the postabortal period requires meticulous diagnostic work-up to decide proper management. Imaging modalities including Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in concert with clinical and laboratory findings are useful to narrow the differential diagnoses but are not definitive. Presence of increased uterine vascularity and arteriovenous shunting is non-specific and can be detected in a variety of conditions including retained trophoblastic tissue, gestational trophoblastic disease, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), placental polyp and vascular neoplasm. We present here a case of a multiparous woman with unexplained postabortal bleeding posing a diagnostic challenge. Excluding the possibility of AVM before attempting dilatation and curettage in such a clinical scenario is crucial to prevent catastrophic bleeding. PMID:24033740

Goyal, Surbhi; Goyal, Ankur; Mahajan, Surbhi; Sharma, Shikha; Dev, Geeta

2014-01-01

263

Knowledge of, Perception of, and Attitude towards Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended.

Adegbesan-Omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.

2014-01-01

264

Nanomedicine for Uterine Leiomyoma Therapy  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this work was to engineer polymeric nanoparticles to encapsulate and deliver 2-methoxyestradiol, a potential antitumor drug for treatment of uterine leiomyoma (fibroids), the most common hormone-dependent pathology affecting women of reproductive age. Materials & Methods Encapsulation efficiency and drug release from the nanoparticles were monitored by HPLC. Cell morphology and in vitro cytotoxicity experiments were carried out in a human leiomyoma cell line (huLM). Results The nanoparticles displayed high encapsulation efficiency (>86%), which was verified by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Excellent long-term stability of the nanoparticles and gradual drug release without burst were also observed. Cellular uptake of fluorescent nanoparticles was confirmed by confocal imaging. The drug-loaded poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity in huLM cells to a significantly greater extent than the free drug at 0.35 ?M. Conclusion This novel approach represents a potential fertility-preserving alternative to hysterectomy.

Ali, Hazem; Kilic, Gokhan; Vincent, Kathleen; Motamedi, Massoud; Rytting, Erik

2013-01-01

265

What Are the Key Statistics about Uterine Sarcoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for uterine sarcoma? What are the key statistics about uterine sarcoma? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

266

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL...and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor....

2009-04-01

267

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL...and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor....

2010-04-01

268

Cohort Study of Uterine Contractions in Black Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prospective cohort study examined uterine activity in 89 black inner city women without major medical risks for preterm labor. The objective of the study was to describe the participants' uterine activity during the second and third trimesters of preg...

D. Main J. A. Grisso

1989-01-01

269

What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... Next Topic Additional resources for uterine sarcoma What`s new in uterine sarcoma research and treatment? Molecular pathology ... the chromosomes leads to the formation of a new gene, called JAZF1/JJAZ. This gene may help ...

270

Regulation of the uterine contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

Parturition at term, the end stage of a successful pregnancy occurs as a result of powerful, co-ordinated and periodic contractions of uterine smooth muscle (myometrium). To occur in a propitious manner, a high degree of control over the activation of a myometrial cell is required. We review the molecular mechanisms and structural composition of myometrial cells that may contribute to their increased contractile capacity at term. We focus attention on pathways that lead to the activation of filamentous networks traditionally labeled ‘contractile’ or ‘cytoskeletal’ yet draw attention to the fact that functional discrimination between these systems is not absolute.

Morgan, Kathleen G

2007-01-01

271

Regulation of the uterine contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Parturition at term, the end stage of a successful pregnancy, occurs as a result of powerful, co-ordinated and periodic contractions of uterine smooth muscle (myometrium). To occur in a propitious manner, a high degree of control over the activation of a myometrial cell is required. We review the molecular mechanisms and structural composition of myometrial cells that may contribute to their increased contractile capacity at term. We focus attention on pathways that lead to the activation of filamentous networks traditionally labeled 'contractile' or 'cytoskeletal' yet draw attention to the fact that functional discrimination between these systems is not absolute. PMID:17582796

Taggart, Michael J; Morgan, Kathleen G

2007-06-01

272

Uterine biology in pigs and sheep  

PubMed Central

There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

2012-01-01

273

Recent time trends in uterine cancer.  

PubMed Central

Recent trends in corpus uterine cancer incidence rates were explored using 1979-86 data from the Surveillance and End Results Program (SEER); recent trends in hospitalizations for corpus uterine cancer were explored using 1979-86 data from National Hospital Discharge Surveys (NHDS); and recent trends in exogenous hormone use were delineated using data from the 1980, 1981, and 1985 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). Uterine cancer incidence rates using SEER data have continued to decline since 1979. An acceleration in the decline since 1983-84 is suggested in all women and in women with intact uteri ages 45-64. Hospitalizations for uterine cancer have also declined since 1979, with a marked acceleration in the decline since 1983-84 for all women and for women ages 40-79 has increased 22 percent and use of unopposed exogenous estrogens in women of similar age has increased 7 percent, while use of exogenous progesterones have shown much more substantial increases of approximately 700 percent. Possible relationships between trends in exogenous hormone use and incidence rates of corpus uterine cancer are discussed.

Persky, V; Davis, F; Barrett, R; Ruby, E; Sailer, C; Levy, P

1990-01-01

274

Uterine artery embolization immediately preceding laparoscopic myomectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether performing uterine artery embolization (UAE) immediately before laparoscopic myomectomy can facilitate a minimally invasive surgical approach for larger uterine fibroids. Methods In a retrospective case–control study, laparoscopic myomectomy with and without preoperative UAE was examined. Data were analyzed from 26 laparoscopic myomectomies performed by a single surgeon at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine between 2004 and 2010. Controls were matched for age, calendar year, surgeon, and number of fibroids removed. Surgical outcomes included preoperative clinical uterine size, operative time, operative blood loss, and postoperative myoma specimen weight. Data were analyzed via 2-tailed Student t test. Results Twelve women underwent laparoscopic myomectomy within 169±16 minutes (mean±SEM) of preoperative UAE. Fourteen control patients underwent laparoscopic myomectomy alone. The UAE group had a greater mean preoperative clinical uterine size (19.7 versus 12.4 weeks, P<0.001) and a greater mean myoma specimen weight measured postoperatively (595.3 versus 153.6 grams, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in operative time or blood loss, and there were no intra-operative complications. Conclusion UAE performed immediately before laparoscopic myomectomy facilitated minimally invasive surgery for larger uteri and larger uterine myomas, with no differences in operative time or blood loss.

Goldman, Kara N.; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer E.; Pavone, Mary-Ellen; Thomas, Andrew P.; Vogelzang, Robert L.; Milad, Magdy P.

2014-01-01

275

Oxytocin, excessive uterine activity, and patient safety: time for a collaborative approach.  

PubMed

Oxytocin use for induction or augmentation of labor is a common occurrence in labor and delivery, as well as a common source of conflict between obstetric providers and nurses. Allegations regarding inappropriate oxytocin use and excessive uterine activity arise in obstetric litigation in both the United States and abroad, and oxytocin was recently added to the Institute for Safe Medical Practices list of high-alert medications, making oxytocin administration a significant risk management issue. Current efforts at standardization of terminology related to uterine activity, recent research on the relationship of excessive uterine activity to fetal oxygenation and outcome, and clinical success with adoption of standardized oxytocin administration provide clinicians with evidence to create a structured, collaborative approach to oxytocin administration in labor. This article provides a brief overview of relevant literature and suggests strategies for the implementation of such a collaborative approach. PMID:19209060

Miller, Lisa A

2009-01-01

276

Clinical efficiency investigation of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effectiveness of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids. From August 2008 to August 2009, forty-eight women with uterine fibroids desiring to preserve their uteri underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Among them, 18 women received laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before uterine myomectomy while the others received laparoscopic myomectomy only. All of the 48 cases with uterine fibroids underwent laparoscopic myomectomy successfully, and no patient developed Intraoperative or postoperative complications. The average operation time was (105.6±27.6) min, and the average surgical blood loss was (87.52±18.35) ml. Blocking uterine artery before laparoscopic myomectomy is valuable and feasible for the management of women with symptomatic fibroids. Adopting this method can obtain pleasing therapeutic effect. The method can reduce blood loss thus make the surgical field clean and clear, and it can reduce the operating time and recurrence rate. It can also reduce electro-coagulation on the surgical surface and therefore cause less tissue necrosis and lower incidence of complications.

Yin, Xiang-Hua; Gao, Ling-Ling; Gu, Yang; Song, Jing-Zhe; Gao, Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ping

2014-01-01

277

Association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index: cohort based study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether maternal anxiety in the third trimester is associated with an increased uterine artery resistance index. Design Cohort based study. Subjects 100 pregnant women, with a mean gestation of 32 weeks. Outcome measures Self rating Spielberger questionnaire for state anxiety and trait anxiety, and uterine blood flow waveform patterns as assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound. Results A significant association was found between uterine artery resistance index and scores for both Spielberger state anxiety and trait anxiety (rs=0.31, P<0.002 and 0.28 P<0.005 respectively). Women with state anxiety scores >40 (n=15) had a higher mean uterine resistance index than those with scores ?40 (mean difference with mean resistance index 24%, 95% confidence interval 12% to 38%; P<0.0001). Similarly, women with trait anxiety scores >40 (n=32) had a higher mean resistance index than those with scores ?40, although to a lesser extent. The presence of notches in the waveform pattern produced by uterine artery blood flow was found in 4/15 (27%) women with high state anxiety scores compared with 4/85 (5%) with low anxiety scores (P<0.02). Conclusions This study shows an association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index. It suggests a mechanism by which the psychological state of the mother may affect fetal development, and may explain epidemiological associations between maternal anxiety and low birth weight. The influence of maternal anxiety may be one mechanism by which the intrauterine environment contributes to later disease in offspring. Key messagesWomen who were anxious during pregnancy had significantly abnormal patterns of blood flow through the uterine arteriesOf the most anxious group, 27% had an increased resistance index of clinical concern, compared with 4% in the less anxious groupThe study did not establish whether the impaired blood flow was predominantly linked with state anxiety or trait anxietyThe findings may help to explain previous studies that have linked stress or anxiety in pregnancy with small for gestational age babies

Teixeira, Jeronima M A; Fisk, Nicholas M; Glover, Vivette

1999-01-01

278

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity in uterine sympathetic nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic responses of uterine sympathetic nerves to changes in the circulating levels of sex hormones represent one of the most remarkable examples of physiological plasticity in the adult autonomic nervous system. The density of uterine sympathetic nerves is markedly and irreversibly reduced following puberty, and shows phases of degeneration and regeneration during the natural oestrous cycle. Even more remarkable, uterine

M. Mónica Brauer

2008-01-01

279

Thermal Balloon Endometrial Ablation for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Background: Condition and Target Population Abnormal uterine bleeding is defined as an increase in the frequency of menstruation, duration of flow or amount of blood loss. (1) DUB is a diagnosis of exclusion when there is no pelvic pathology or underlying medical cause for the increased bleeding. (1) It is characterized by heavy prolonged flow with or without breakthrough bleeding. It may occur as frequent, irregular, or unpredictable bleeding; lengthy menstrual periods; bleeding between periods; or a heavy flow during periods. Menorrhagia, cyclical HMB over several consecutive cycles during the reproductive years, is the most frequent form of DUB. The incidence of DUB has not been reported in the literature. For Ontario, an expert estimated that about 15% to 20% of women over 30 years have DUB. The prevalence increases with age and peaks just before menopause. (1) Using 2001 Ontario census-based population estimates, there are about 2 million women between the ages of 30 and 49 years; therefore, of these, about 290,965 to 387,953 may have DUB. The Technology Being Reviewed: Thermal Balloon Endometrial Ablation Since the 1990s, second-generation endometrial ablation (EA) techniques developed, the aim to provide simpler, quicker, and more effective treatment options for menorrhagia compared with first-generation EA techniques and hysterectomy. (2) Compared with first-generation techniques these depend less on the people operating them and more on the actual devices to ensure safety and efficacy. TBEA relies on the transfer of heat from heated liquid within a balloon that is inserted into the uterus. (2) It does not require a hysteroscope for direct visualization of the uterus and can be performed under local anesthesia. In order to use TBEA, patients with DUB cannot have a long (>10–12 cm) or irregularly shaped uterine cavity, because the balloon must be in direct contact with the uterine wall to cause ablation. For Ontario, an expert estimated that about 70% of patients with DUB considered for EA would have a uterus suitable for TBEA based on these criteria. If 70% of Ontario women between 30 and 49 years of age with DUB have a uterus suitable for TBEA, then about 203,675 to 271,567 women may be eligible. However, some of these women will be successfully treated by drugs or will want amenorrhea (the cessation of their periods) and therefore choose to have a hysterectomy. Review Strategy The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to June 2004. A Cochrane systematic review from 2004 was identified that examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TBEA for heavy menstrual bleeding. (2) Another literature search was done to update information from the systematic review. Summary of Findings A 2004 systematic review of the literature by Garside et al. (2) in the United Kingdom, found that overall, there were few significant differences between outcomes for first-generation techniques and TBEA. The outcomes were bleeding, postoperative complications, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and repeat surgery rates. Significant differences were reported most often by one study by Pellicano et al., (3) but this was a level 2 study with methodological weaknesses. Furthermore, according to Garside et al., there was considerable clinical and methodological heterogeneity among the studies in the systematic review. Therefore, a quantitative synthesis using meta-analysis was not done. In Garfield and colleagues’ review: TBEA had significantly shorter operating and theatre times (P < .05, < .01, and .0001). TBEA had fewer intraoperative adverse effects (e.g., reported rates of uterine perforation with RB ablation: from 1% to 5%; TBEA: 0%; rates of cervical laceratio

2004-01-01

280

Treatment of adenomyomectomy in women with severe uterine adenomyosis using a novel technique.  

PubMed

The advised treatment for severe adenomyosis is hysterectomy, but for patients wishing to preserve their uterus, novel conservative surgery, adenomyomectomy, can be performed. The technique needs to be developed to reduce spontaneous uterine rupture, adhesion and recurrence rates. This study aimed to investigate the safety and therapeutic outcomes of adenomyomectomy. Prospectively, 103 Iranian patients with documented severe adenomyosis were candidates for adenomyomectomy over a period of 7years (from April 2004 to March 2011). The surgical procedure involved resection of adenomatosis lesions with a thin (?0.5cm) margin (wedge-shaped removal) after sagittal incision in the uterine body. Reconstruction of the layers was performed and inverted sutures were used for the serosal layer ends. Of 103 patients, 55.34% presented with infertility, 16.50% with IVF failure, 8.74% with recurrent abortion and 19.42% with abnormal uterine bleeding. Of 70 patients who attempted pregnancy, naturally (n=21) or by assisted reproduction treatment (n=49), 30% achieved a clinical pregnancy, and 16 resulted in a full-term live birth. Dysmenorrhoea and hypermenorrhoea were reduced post surgery. Only one patient had relapsed adenomyosis. Adenomyomectomy is a conservative and effective treatment for adenomyosis. This study describes an efficient procedure to treat severe adenomyosis. Adenomyosis is uterine thickening that occurs when endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, moves into the outer muscular walls of the uterus. The advised treatment for the severe forms of adenomyosis is hysterectomy (removal of the patient's uterus), but for the patient who wishes to preserve her uterus, a novel conservative surgery referred to as 'adenomyomectomy' (removal of the abnormal tissues) can be performed. This technique must be developed for reduction of spontaneous uterine rupture, adhesions and recurrence rate. This study aims to investigate the safety and therapeutic outcomes of adenomyomectomy. Prospectively, 103 Iranian patients with documented severe adenomyosis were candidates for adenomyomectomy over a period of 7years (from April 2004 to March 2011). The surgical procedure was resection of adenomatosis lesions with a thin margin. Of 103 patients, 55.34% presented with infertility, 16.50% with IVF failure, 8.74% with recurrent abortion and 19.42% with abnormal uterus bleeding. Of 70 patients who attempted pregnancy either naturally (n=21) or using assisted reproduction technology (n=49), 30% became pregnant, and 16 pregnancies reached full term. There was a significant reduction in dysmenorrhoea and hypermenorrhoea. Only one patient had relapsed adenomyosis. Based on these results, we conclude that adenomyomectomy is the conservative and effective option to treat adenomyosis with preservation of the uterus. The procedure described in this study can be an efficient procedure to treat severe adenomyosis. PMID:24768558

Saremi, AboTaleb; Bahrami, Homa; Salehian, Pirooz; Hakak, Nasrin; Pooladi, Arash

2014-06-01

281

Use of Cyclosporine in Uterine Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Uterine transplantation has been proposed as a possible solution to absolute uterine factor infertility untreatable by any other option. Since the first human attempt in 2000, various teams have tried to clarify which immunosuppressant would be most suitable for protecting the allogeneic uterine graft while posing a minimal risk to the fetus. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant widely used by transplant recipients. It is currently being tested as a potential immunosuppressant to be used during UTn. Its effect on the mother and fetus and its influence upon the graft during pregnancy have been of major concern. We review the role of CsA in UTn and its effect on pregnant transplant recipients and their offspring.

Saso, Srdjan; Logan, Karl; Abdallah, Yazan; Louis, Louay S.; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. Richard; Del Priore, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

282

Uterine cirsoid aneurysm: MRI and MRA  

SciTech Connect

Uterine cirsoid aneurysm is uncommon. It is important to make a diagnosis of this disease preoperatively, because repeated curettages may induce life-threatening massive genital bleeding. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with uterine cirsoid aneurysm in whom MRI and MRA were very useful for the preoperative diagnosis. The radiologic appearances on ultrasonography, CT, conventional SE MRI, MRA, dynamic MRI, and pelvic angiography are presented. Conventional SE T1-weighted and T2-weighted images demonstrated multiple flow voids in the uterus and bilateral adnexal regions. MRA demonstrated a cluster of distinct, tortuous, and coiled vascular channels in the pelvis. MRA could obtain images almost equal to angiography and was considered to be an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of uterine cirsoid aneurysm. 28 refs., 7 figs

Joja, Ikuo; Asakawa, Mari; Motoyama, Kazumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan)] [and others] [Okayama Univ. (Japan); and others

1996-03-01

283

Uterine hemangioma: a rare pathologic entity.  

PubMed

Uterine hemangioma is a rare benign tumor usually presenting with menorrhagia or pregnancy-associated complications. Although the current literature identifies fewer than 50 cases, we in our institution identified 5 similar cases among 3700 patients undergoing total hysterectomy from January 2006 to December 2010. Adenomyosis was the most common preoperative diagnosis among our patients. Vaginal examination, uterine curettage specimens, ultrasonography, and hysterography are usually uninformative, and the definitive diagnosis relies on the final histologic examination. The differential diagnosis includes adenomatoid tumor, lymphangioma, and arteriovenous malformation. Uterine hemangiomas are classified into congenital and acquired. The former is believed to be associated with some hereditary diseases, while the latter is associated with both physical changes and hormone alteration, especially high estrogen level. The best treatment for hemangiomas is unclear. However, it is very important to obtain an accurate diagnosis to prevent overtreatment among reproductive-age women. The prognosis is excellent after hysterectomy. PMID:22540306

Chou, Wan-Yi; Chang, Hui-Wen

2012-05-01

284

Uterine cervical malignant granular cell tumor.  

PubMed

Malignant granular cell tumor is relatively uncommon, constituting only 1-2% of all granular cell tumors. It is a rare and unusual tumor, especially in non-typical sites, such as the uterine cervix, and grows more rapidly than benign granular cell tumor. It can be treated with surgical excision, but recurrence is possible and prognosis can be poor. A malignant granular cell tumor in the uterine cervix of a 37-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed. The patient has a history of irregular vaginal bleeding. Uterine cervical biopsy under colposcope revealed a malignant granular cell tumor. After isophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery was performed on the lesion, which approximately involved half the depth of cervical stroma. Computed tomography examination showed no local recurrence or distant metastasis during the 26-month follow-up period. PMID:22414028

Guo, Na; Peng, Zhilan; Yang, Kaixuan; Lou, Jiangyan

2012-06-01

285

Colloidal iron hydroxide staining of surface carbohydrates after glycerol treatment of uterine epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural relationships between intramembranous particles (IMPs) and surface carbohydrates has been studied in uterine epithelial cells with a colloidal iron hydroxide (CIH) technique. To aggregate IMPs, glycerol treatment of unfixed cells was used and this treatment also caused some patching of CIH deposits on the cell surface. We conclude that some of the CIH receptors may be the surface

C. R. Murphy; S. Bradbury

1984-01-01

286

Uterine Prolapse: From Antiquity to Today  

PubMed Central

Uterine prolapse is a condition that has likely affected women for all of time as it is documented in the oldest medical literature. By looking at the watershed moments in its recorded history we are able to appreciate the evolution of urogynecology and to gain perspective on the challenges faced by today's female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons in their attempts to treat uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. “He who cannot render an account to himself of at least three thousand years of time, will always grope in the darkness of inexperience” —Goethe, Translation of Panebaker

Downing, Keith T.

2012-01-01

287

Abnormal Cone Structure in Foveal Schisis Cavities in X-Linked Retinoschisis from Mutations in Exon 6 of the RS1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate macular cone structure in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) caused by mutations in exon 6 of the RS1 gene. Methods. High-resolution macular images were obtained with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in two patients with XLRS and 27 age-similar healthy subjects. Retinal structure was correlated with best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, fundus-guided microperimetry, full-field electroretinography (ERG), and multifocal ERG. The six coding exons and the flanking intronic regions of the RS1 gene were sequenced in each patient. Results. Two unrelated males, ages 14 and 29, with visual acuity ranging from 20/32 to 20/63, had macular schisis with small relative central scotomas in each eye. The mixed scotopic ERG b-wave was reduced more than the a-wave. SD-OCT showed schisis cavities in the outer and inner nuclear and plexiform layers. Cone spacing was increased within the largest foveal schisis cavities but was normal elsewhere. In each patient, a mutation in exon 6 of the RS1 gene was identified and was predicted to change the amino acid sequence in the discoidin domain of the retinoschisin protein. Conclusions. AOSLO images of two patients with molecularly characterized XLRS revealed increased cone spacing and abnormal packing in the macula of each patient, but cone coverage and function were near normal outside the central foveal schisis cavities. Although cone density is reduced, the preservation of wave-guiding cones at the fovea and eccentric macular regions has prognostic and therapeutic implications for XLRS patients with foveal schisis. (Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00254605.)

Ratnam, Kavitha; Birch, David G.; Sundquist, Sanna M.; Lucero, Anna S.; Zhang, Yuhua; Meltzer, Meira; Smaoui, Nizar; Roorda, Austin

2011-01-01

288

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

289

Fetal facial abnormalities identified during obstetric sonography.  

PubMed

The orbits and, if readily accessible, the facial profile were visualized as part of a brief fetal anatomy survey during approximately 7100 low-risk and high-risk obstetric sonographic examinations. This examination identified 17 facial abnormalities in 11 fetuses. There were seven abnormalities of the eyes, including three instances of absence of both eyes, two of hypertelorism, one of proptosis, and one of relative prominence. There were seven abnormalities of the nose, including three instances of marked flattening, one of absence, one of a proboscis, one of a single nostril, and one of a sunken appearance. There were two abnormally small chins. There was one marked cleft that involved the nose, lip, and palate. At least two fetuses with abnormal faces were missed entirely and coexistent facial abnormalities were missed in another three fetuses. Of the 11 fetuses with facial abnormalities identified, eight had other structural abnormalities as well, and the other three had either polyhydramnios or a history of teratogen exposure. A brief facial examination done as part of the fetal anatomy survey helps to identify abnormalities in high-risk fetuses but is considerably less productive in low-risk fetuses. PMID:3543386

Hegge, F N; Prescott, G H; Watson, P T

1986-12-01

290

Differences in uterine innervation at hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to identify patterns of uterine innervation in normal uteri and selected clinical conditions including adenomyosis and chronic pelvic pain. Study Design: A retrospective survey was performed of stored uteri removed at hysterectomy for a variety of clinical conditions, including 8 uteri from nulliparous subjects (group 1, mean age 40.0 years, range 30-52 years), 21 uteri with

Martin J. Quinn; Nick Kirk

2002-01-01

291

Human Neuron-Committed Teratocarcinoma NT2 Cell Line Has Abnormal ND10 Structures and Is Poorly Infected by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early regulatory protein ICP0 stimulates the initiation of lytic infection and reactivation from quiescence in human fibroblast cells. These functions correlate with its ability to localize to and disrupt centromeres and specific subnuclear structures known as ND10, PML nuclear bodies, or promyelocytic oncogenic domains. Since the natural site of herpesvirus latency is in neurons, we investigated the status of ND10 and centromeres in uninfected and infected human cells with neuronal characteristics. We found that NT2 cells, a neuronally committed human teratocarcinoma cell line, have abnormal ND10 characterized by low expression of the major ND10 component PML and no detectable expression of another major ND10 antigen, Sp100. In addition, PML is less extensively modified by the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 in NT2 cells compared to fibroblasts. After treatment with retinoic acid, NT2 cells differentiate into neuron-like hNT cells which express very high levels of both PML and Sp100. Infection of both NT2 and hNT cells by HSV-1 was poor compared to human fibroblasts, and after low-multiplicity infection yields of virus were reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. ICP0-deficient mutants were also disabled in the neuron-related cell lines, and cells quiescently infected with an ICP0-null virus could be established. These results correlated with less-efficient disruption of ND10 and centromeres induced by ICP0 in NT2 and hNT cells. Furthermore, the ability of ICP0 to activate gene expression in transfection assays in NT2 cells was poor compared to Vero cells. These results suggest that a contributory factor in the reduced HSV-1 replication in the neuron-related cells is inefficient ICP0 function; it is possible that this is pertinent to the establishment of latent infection in neurons in vivo.

Hsu, Wei-Li; Everett, Roger D.

2001-01-01

292

Open-access transvaginal sonography in women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal bleeding: a descriptive study in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnostic ultrasonography is used by GPs in approximately 10% of patients of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal sonography is recommended as a first-line diagnostic instrument for assessing uterine pathology. Aim To assess if findings resulting from openaccess sonography were in agreement with the GPs’ working hypotheses and if these findings contributed to GPs’ management. Design and setting Prospective observational cohort study of GPs working in the health district of the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam and their patients consulting with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Method Data on patients’ history, GPs’ primary working hypotheses, and intended management were recorded. After sonography, GPs recorded their actual management. Results A total of 122 patients were included by 18 GPs from June 2003 to December 2004. Data from 89 patients were available for analysis. The GPs’ working hypotheses implied ‘no structural pathology’ in 65/89 patients, and ‘fibroids’ in 24/89 patients. Sonographic findings were confirmed in 50/65 patients where ‘no structural pathology’, and in 14/24 of those where ‘fibroids’ were expected. Initially, GPs had intended to refer nine patients to a gynaecologist. Actual management after sonographic assessment was watchful waiting or drug therapy in 57/89 patients. Eighty-nine per cent of these patients had normal sonographic findings. The actual referral rate rose to 27/89 patients. In 17 referred patients, sonographic findings were suggestive of intracavitary abnormalities. Conclusion Open-access sonography contributed to more accurate diagnoses and improved GPs’ management of women with abnormal vaginal bleeding.

de Vries, Corlien JH; Waard, Margreet Wieringa-de; Bindels, Patrick JE; Ankum, Willem M

2011-01-01

293

Uterine plasticity and reproductive fitness.  

PubMed

Reproduction in humans is unique in two major aspects. First, the incidence of chromosomally abnormal and developmentally compromised human preimplantation embryos is exceptionally high, and second, the uterus decidualizes spontaneously each cycle, a process also responsible for the menstrual shedding of the endometrium in the absence of pregnancy. Emerging evidence suggests that these distinctive reproductive traits are functionally linked. Thus, the decidual process enables the mother to limit investment in compromised pregnancies, while menstruation imposes a need for constant recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate and renew the endometrium each cycle. Endometrial stem cells are immune-privileged compared with other types of adult stem cells, suggesting a role for these cells in accommodating deeply invading semi-allogenic fetal trophoblast. Thus, by coupling reproductive competence to a process of constant tissue renewal, decidualization enables the human uterus to adapt to pregnancy failure and a changing ecology. PMID:23948451

Lucas, Emma S; Salker, Madhuri S; Brosens, Jan J

2013-11-01

294

Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.  

PubMed

Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization. PMID:1526931

Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

1992-05-01

295

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

296

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth. ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or just appear ...

297

Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M. II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M.  

PubMed

Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (>/=19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

Finkel, A; Dent, P B; Emrich, W H; Gent, M; Rahim, M A

1974-01-01

298

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.

BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

2011-01-01

299

Type II H von Willebrand disease: new structural abnormality of plasma and platelet von Willebrand factor in a patient with prolonged bleeding time and borderline levels of ristocetin cofactor activity.  

PubMed

In this study a new variant of type II von Willebrand disease is identified by multimeric analyses of increasing resolving power. Prior to multimeric analysis, the patient was misdiagnosed as carrying an undefined abnormality in platelet function because of his normal von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) and low borderline ristocetin cofactor (Ricof) levels. Absence of the largest multimers from the patient's plasma and platelets was shown in a low-resolution system, but all the multimers were present in his relatives. An abnormality in the complex multimeric structure was demonstrated in both plasma and platelets with high-resolution agarose gels. The plasma of the proband and of several family members shows a broader central band with a minor, faster moving satellite band differing from the typical "triplet pattern" observed with normal plasma. Platelets show a "doublet" that runs with a mobility different from the "doublet" in normals. Therefore the proband may be either a homozygote or double heterozygote for this new abnormality. Treatment with desmopressin (DDAVP) on several occasions corrected the prolonged bleeding time of the patient only transiently. Factor VIII increased significantly, but vWF:Ag and Ricof responded poorly. We conclude that this vWF abnormality is different from those observed in the other variants (II A-G) previously described. Therefore the proposed designation for this new variant is type II H. PMID:2510503

Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Lombardi, R; Lattuada, A; Colibretti, M L; Dent, J A; Zimmerman, T S

1989-12-01

300

Imaging the pediatric pelvis: The normal and abnormal genital tract and simulators of its diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging of the pediatric pelvis has proven of great use in defining the normal and abnormal genital tracts. Sonography is\\u000a the key screening tool and often the only tool necessary for the diagnosis of problems related to ambiguous genitalia, ovarian\\u000a and uterine masses, amenorrhea, and abdominal and pelvic pain. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)\\u000a have key roles

Harris L. Cohen; Stewart E. Bober; Shirley N. Bow

1992-01-01

301

Endocrine abnormalities during the follicular phase in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of endocrine abnormalities during the follicular phase in non-pregnant women with a history of recurrent abortion was investigated in a case-control study. A total of 42 consecutive women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (three or more consecutive abor- tions, mean K SD: 3.9 K 1.1 range 3-8) with no parental chromosome rearrangement or uterine abnor- mality were studied during

S. Bussen; M. Sutterlin; T. Steck

1999-01-01

302

Sonographic and MR features of puerperal uterine inversion.  

PubMed

Puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of a mismanaged third stage of labour. Early diagnosis is mandatory for proper management of the patient. Complete uterine inversion is a clinical diagnosis. However, incomplete uterine inversion is difficult to identify and warrants further workup. Sonographic evaluation, although a bedside procedure, may be confusing. The conspicuity of findings is much greater on MR examination than on ultrasound. Only a few diagnostic imaging findings in uterine inversion have been described in previous reports. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who had a full-term vaginal delivery and presented after 20 days with acute urinary retention and mild vaginal bleeding. She was diagnosed as a case of neglected subacute incomplete uterine inversion. Both greyscale and Doppler sonographic and MR features of the case are described with an emphasis on better delineation of uterine and adnexal anatomy on MR imaging. PMID:24619161

Thakur, Shruti; Sharma, Sanjiv; Jhobta, Anupam; Aggarwal, Neeti; Thakur, Charu S

2014-06-01

303

Mathematical Approach for Modeling the Uterine Electrical Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of physiological modeling of the uterine electrical activity generated at cellular level is to understand the main physiological uterine contractile mechanisms, in particular, the propagation mechanisms and their relationship with the uterine EMG signal recorded externally from the abdominal wall of the pregnant women. In this present paper, we model the electrical activity simulated at its cellular level. This model is built in three steps: first we built a model based on the formulation of Hodgkin and Huxley and adapted to the specificities of the uterine cell. The second step was the integration of the cellular model in a two-dimensional propagation model by using the reactiondiffusion equations in order to simulate the propagation of the uterine activity at the tissue level. Finally, a simplified version of the space-time integration of the electrical activity was used to build a first example of the uterine EMG.

Chkeir, Aly; Moslem, Bassam; Rihana, Sandy; Germain, Guy; Marque, Catherine

304

Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.  

PubMed Central

We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology.

Parashari, A.; Singh, V.; Sehgal, A.; Satyanarayana, L.; Sodhani, P.; Gupta, M. M.

2000-01-01

305

Surgical management of leiomyomas for fertility or uterine preservation.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. These tumors are not always symptomatic but can cause abnormal uterine bleeding and anemia, pelvic pressure and pain, urinary frequency, and adverse reproductive outcomes-symptoms that can diminish the quality of life of women. Myomectomy is the primary treatment modality for women with symptomatic leiomyomas who are of reproductive age and desire future fertility. Myomectomy can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life and, in some clinical situations, improve reproductive outcomes. There are robust surgical outcome data supporting the use of a minimally invasive approach such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy over laparotomy. Perioperative outcomes and return to normal activity are significantly better with a minimally invasive approach. Reproductive outcomes are not adversely affected. Detailed preoperative imaging is required for minimally invasive procedures to be successful. There are several evidence-based techniques that can be used to reduce blood loss during surgery. The role of robotic technology in enhancing surgical outcomes has not been clearly defined. PMID:23635687

Falcone, Tommaso; Parker, William H

2013-04-01

306

Isolated Uterine Metastasis of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Most common metastasis sites of breast cancer are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain, whereas uterine involvement by metastatic breast disease is rare. Metastatic carcinoma of the uterus usually originates from other genital sites, most commonly being from the ovaries. Invasive lobular carcinoma spreads to gynecologic organs more frequently than invasive ductal carcinoma. Case Report. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 2 years ago and modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathological examination of tumor revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, stage IIIc. She presented with abdominal pain and distension. Diagnostic workup and gynecologic examination revealed lesions that caused diffuse thickening of the uterus wall. Endometrial sampling was performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Breast carcinoma metastases in endometrium and myometrium were confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Conclusion. We herein report the first case of isolated uterine patient who had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast.

Arslan, Deniz; Tural, Deniz; Tatl?, Ali Murat; Akar, Emre; Uysal, Mukremin; Erdogan, Gulgun

2013-01-01

307

Etiology, diagnosis, and management of uterine leiomyomas.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign gynecologic tumors. While the true etiology of leiomyomas remains unknown, their origin is thought to be multifactorial including genetic, hormonal, and tissue growth factor variations. Leiomyomas are predominantly found in women of reproductive age and are the leading indication for hysterectomy worldwide. Menstrual irregularities, pain, and fertility difficulties may arise from leiomyoma presence, although many women remain asymptomatic. Diagnosis can be made via ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, when precise mapping of the tissue is needed. Many treatment options are available ranging from surgical to medical and should be chosen depending on symptom severity, number and size of leiomyomas, patient age, fertility desires, and patient preferences. The objective of this article is to present a practical clinical perspective on uterine leiomyomas and an overview of contemporary treatment options. PMID:22587581

Rice, Kate E; Secrist, Jenny R; Woodrow, Elizabeth L; Hallock, Laura M; Neal, Jeremy L

2012-01-01

308

Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis coexisting with leiomyoma of the uterine body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an extremely rare case of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL) coexisting with leiomyoma of the\\u000a uterine body in a 32-year-old woman. The patient had undergone a caesarean section 12 years ago and used oral contraceptives\\u000a since then. Before the present surgery leiomyoma of the left corner of the uterine body was diagnosed. DPL was found on the\\u000a uterine serous

Piotr Surmacki; Stanis?aw Sporny; Arkadiusz Tosiak; Janusz Lasota

2006-01-01

309

The Hormonal Control of Uterine Luminal Fluid Secretion and Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretion of uterine luminal fluid initially provides a transport and support medium for spermatozoa and unimplanted embryos,\\u000a while the absorption of uterine luminal fluid in early pregnancy results in the closure of the lumen and allows blastocysts\\u000a to establish intimate contact with the uterine epithelium. We have established an in vivo perfusion technique of the lumen\\u000a to study the

N. Salleh; D. L. Baines; R. J. Naftalin; S. R. Milligan

2005-01-01

310

Laparoscopic management of a cavitated noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn of a unicornuate uterus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is the most uncommon uterine anomaly of the female genital tract. It has an estimated frequency of one in 100,000 among the fertile female population. This anomaly results from the abnormal maturation of one Müllerian duct with the normal development of the contralateral one. Case presentation We report here the case of a 14-year-old Caucasian girl who came to our hospital with intense dysmenorrhea. Imaging techniques revealed a unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn and a large hematosalpinx. We performed a laparoscopic removal of this uterine anomaly without any complication in the postoperative period. Conclusion In our case report, we demonstrate that laparoscopy is the best approach for the treatment of IIb Müllerian abnormalities. Laparoscopy resulted in anatomical and reproductive results equivalent to those offered by a laparotomic approach, but with the additional advantages of minimally invasive surgery, such as better cosmetic results and postoperative period, which are essential for very young patients.

2010-01-01

311

A model of preeclampsia in rats: the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is defined as new-onset hypertension with proteinuria after 20 wk gestation and is hypothesized to be due to shallow trophoblast invasion in the spiral arteries thus resulting in progressive placental ischemia as the fetus grows. Many animal models have been developed that mimic changes in maternal circulation or immune function associated with preeclampsia. The model of reduced uterine perfusion pressure in pregnant rats closely mimics the hypertension, immune system abnormalities, systemic and renal vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress in the mother, and intrauterine growth restriction found in the offspring. The model has been successfully used in many species; however, rat and primate are the most consistent in comparison of characteristics with human preeclampsia. The model suffers, however, from lack of the ability to study the mechanisms responsible for abnormal placentation that ultimately leads to placental ischemia. Despite this limitation, the model is excellent for studying the consequences of reduced uterine blood flow as it mimics many of the salient features of preeclampsia during the last weeks of gestation in humans. This review discusses these features.

Li, Jing; LaMarca, Babbette

2012-01-01

312

Ultrastaging of lymph node in uterine cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and a criterion for adjuvant therapy in uterine cancers. While detection of micrometastases by ultrastaging techniques is correlated to prognosis in several other cancers, this remains a matter of debate for uterine cancers. The objective of this review on sentinel nodes (SN) in uterine cancers was to determine the contribution of ultrastaging to detect micrometastases. Methods Review of the English literature on SN procedure in cervical and endometrial cancers and histological techniques including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, serial sectioning, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular techniques to detect micrometastases. Results In both cervical and endometrial cancers, H&E and IHC appeared insufficient to detect micrometastases. In cervical cancer, using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of macrometastases varied between 7.1% and 36.3% with a mean value of 25.8%. The percentage of women with micrometastases ranged from 0% and 47.4% with a mean value of 28.3%. In endometrial cancer, the rate of macrometastases varied from 0% to 22%. Using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of micrometastases varied from 0% to 15% with a mean value of 5.8%. In both cervical and endometrial cancers, data on the contribution of molecular techniques to detect micrometastases are insufficient to clarify their role in SN ultrastaging. Conclusion In uterine cancers, H&E, serial sectioning and IHC appears the best histological combined technique to detect micrometastases. Although accumulating data have proved the relation between the risk of recurrence and the presence of micrometastases, their clinical implications on indications for adjuvant therapy has to be clarified.

2010-01-01

313

Intrauterine Growth Retardation Associated with Uterine Malformations  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth retardation is caused by factors that prevent adequate fetal nourishment or by factors that intrinsically affect the fetus. Limited available space due to a congenitally malformed uterus may prevent normal intrauterine development. Two cases are presented here. A review of the available literature confirms the tendency of women with congenital uterine malformations to have smaller offspring. Intrauterine growth retardation should be added to the more commonly known complications associated with a congenitally malformed uterus. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Poma, Pedro A.

1982-01-01

314

[Uterine sarcoma--diagnostic and therapeutic problems].  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis dealt with 28 cases of uterine sarcoma treated in a ten-year period (1975-1984). The most common histological type was leiomyosarcoma. Thirteen patients underwent surgery alone, a combination of surgery and irradiation was performed in 9 patients, surgery + irradiation + chemotherapy in 2 patients, and surgery + chemotherapy in 2 patients. Sixteen patients are alive and well during a follow-up of 5 years. PMID:2273905

Chylak, V; Delac, J; Krusi?, J

1990-01-01

315

Uterine leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive tumor that has a propensity for distant metastasis. Distant sites of spread include the lung, liver, brain, and bone.CASE:A woman in her 5th decade was diagnosed with stage IV leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Distant metastasis in the chest was confirmed by thoracotomy at the time of her original diagnosis. She subsequently experienced multiple episodes of

Charles A Leath; Warner K Huh; J. Michael Straughn; Michael G Conner

2002-01-01

316

Uterine cervical tubulosquamous polyp resembling a penis.  

PubMed

This case report describes a tubulosquamous polyp resembling a penis in the uterine cervix. A 34-yr-old, gravida 0, para 0, woman showed an 18 × 8 × 5 mm polypoid lesion in the uterine ectocervix. The polyp had a penis-like appearance; the tip looked like glans penis and the middle portion resembled the shaft of the penis. Its surface was covered by squamous epithelium, and tissues resembling those of a urethra, corpus spongiosum penis, and external orifice urethra were observed. Foreskin-like tissues were also observed, although a corpus cavernosum penis was not seen. Skene glands and Cowper glands were also observed. Immunohistochemically, Skene glands and the urethra-like epithelium were focally positive for prostate-specific antigen and/or prostatic acid proteins. Histologically and immunohistochemically, the polypoid lesion overlapped with a tubulosquamous polyp of the vagina and ectopic prostatic tissue of the uterine cervix and encompassed these lesions in the lower female genital tract. The most likely theory of histogenesis is a developmental anomaly and misplacement of Skene glands. PMID:23722517

Fukunaga, Masaharu

2013-07-01

317

Microwave occlusion of the rabbit uterine horn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microwave applicator was developed and tested in a rabbit model, with the goal of developing a system to sterilize a human female through a transvaginal-transcervical- transuterine retrograde technique. The clinical procedure wold create an occluding lesion in the isthmic portion of the human fallopian tube in an out-patient procedure. The microwave applicator consisted of a flexible coaxial cable from which the inner conductor was extended to form a resonant monopole antenna. The coaxial cable and monopole were placed within a sealed teflon catheter of 3 mm diameter. A second parallel catheter of 1 mm diameter was secured to the first to provide guidance for a microwave- immune thermometry probe. Following laparotomy exposure, the applicator was placed with a transvaginal-transcervical retrograde technique in each uterine horn in succession. The temperature was elevated to 65 degree(s)C for 5 minutes. Thirty days following treatment, there was marked constriction and discoloration of the treated site as well as significant architectural effacement of the tissue composing the uterine wall. In some cases, the uterine lumen was completely occluded. Future experiments will assess the tissue response to smaller thermal doses.

Trembly, B. Stuart; Manganiello, Paul D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

1998-04-01

318

Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma metastatic to the brain  

PubMed Central

Background: Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) is a rare tumor with an aggressive growth pattern. They occur in women from 40 to 60 years and are generally characterized by poor prognosis, a high rate of local recurrence, and distant metastases. UUS accounts for 0.2% of all gynecological malignancies. Possible treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Case Description: A 65-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding was found to have a uterine mass for which she underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The pathologic evaluation was consistent with undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. She began experiencing headaches with associated visual disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a homogenous enhancing occipital dural-based mass measuring 1.6 × 1.8 × 1.7 cm. Due to the rarity of metastatic uterine sarcoma to the brain, this was believed to represent a meningioma and subsequently observed. Interval MRI scan revealed a significant increase in size of the right occipital mass to 2.3 cm with increased edema and mass effect. She underwent right occipital image guided craniotomy for resection of the mass. Histopathology confirmed UUS metastases. Conclusion: Randomized trials analyzing these treatment options are limited due to the rarity of this disease; therefore, a standard therapy is not established. Based on a review of the literature, this is only the fourth case reported of UUS metastatic to the brain.

Stofko, Douglas L

2013-01-01

319

Dealing with uterine fibroids in reproductive medicine.  

PubMed

Women who wish to conceive are nowadays more likely to present with uterine fibroids, mainly because of the delay in childbearing in our society. The relationship between uterine fibroids and human reproduction is still controversial and counselling patients might sometimes be challenging. This paper is to assist those involved in the management of patients of reproductive age presenting with uterine fibroids. The interference of fibroids on fertility largely depends on their location. Submucous fibroids interfere with fertility and should be removed in infertile patients, regardless of the size or the presence of symptoms. Intramural fibroids distorting the cavity reduce the chances of conception, while investigations on intramural fibroids not distorting the cavity have so far given controversial results. No evidence supports the systematic removal of subserosal fibroids in asymptomatic, infertile patients. Myomectomy is still the 'gold standard' in fibroid treatment for fertility-wishing patients. In experienced hands, hysteroscopic myomectomy is minimally invasive, safe, and effective. Abdominal and laparoscopic myomectomy might be challenging, but potential risks could be reduced by new strategies and techniques. PMID:22369390

Gambadauro, P

2012-04-01

320

Uterine-sparing surgery for adenomyosis and/or adenomyoma.  

PubMed

Adenomyosis of the uterus is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue, including glands and stroma, situated at least 2.5 mm below the endometrial-myometrial junction and widely distributed within the myometrium layer of the uterus. There is no consensus on the appropriate treatment for symptomatic uterine adenomyosis in women who want to preserve their uterus, partly because adenomyosis is somewhat enigmatic in diagnosis and owing to its clinical significance. Hysterectomy, through either exploratory laparotomy or minimally invasive procedures, is a definite treatment for uterine adenomyosis, once the women have completed childbirth or do not require future fertility. However, many women with a uterine pathology still have a strong desire to preserve the uterus, for which conservative and uterine-sparing procedures are increasingly used, and with which fertility preservation or quality-of-life improvement can be achieved. Although medical management can be effective, similar to the management of uterine fibroids (myoma), its effect is often transient and rapid regrowth of adenomyosis and relapse of symptoms and signs always occur once the treatment is stopped. Therefore, other strategies should be selected. Conservative and uterine-sparing surgery might be one of the most familiar procedures of these uterine-sparing procedures. In this article, the latest knowledge and research evidence on uterine-sparing surgery for uterine adenomyosis are reviewed. PMID:24767637

Horng, Huann-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yao; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Liu, Wei-Min; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chang, Wen-Hsun; Huang, Ben-Shian; Sun, Hsu-Dong; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Wei-Chun; Yen, Ming-Shyen

2014-03-01

321

[Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats].  

PubMed

The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character unlike those in cervical parts of the tubes and in the middle part of the uterine body, so the latter parts can be grouped together owing to peculiarities of their changes. The longest duration of genesis of electric discharges has been shown for the ovarian part of uterine tubes at a concentration of 10 microg/kg of oxytocin. Morphological experiments revealed that among all studies areas the ovarian parts of uterine tubes were characterized by the highest amount of atypical cells that have the maximally pronounced functional activity. PMID:21780644

Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Meliksetian, I B; Akopian, R R; Saakian, A A

2011-01-01

322

MR Reproducibility in the Assessment of Uterine Fibroids for Patients Scheduled for Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly applied in the evaluation of uterine fibroids. However, little is known about the reproducibility of MRI in the assessment of uterine fibroids. This study evaluates the inter- and intraobserver variation in the assessment of the uterine fibroids and concomitant adenomyosis in women scheduled for uterine artery embolization (UAE). Forty patients (mean age: 44.5 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids who were scheduled for UAE underwent T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI. To study inter- and intraobserver agreement 40 MR images were evaluated independently by two observers and reevaluated by both observers 4 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen's {kappa} statistic and intraclass correlation coefficient for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Inter-observer agreement for uterine volumes ({kappa} = 0.99, p < 0.0001), dominant fibroid volumes ({kappa} = 0.98, p {<=} 0.0001), and number of fibroids ({kappa} = 0.88; CI, 0.77-0.93; p < 0.0001) was excellent. For the T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted signal intensity of the dominant fibroid there was good agreement between the observers (87%; 95% CI, 71.9%-95.6%) and the intraobserver agreement was good for observer A (95%; 95% CI, 83.1%-99.4%) and moderate for observer B ({kappa} = 0.47). The interobserver agreement with respect to the presence of adenomyosis was good ({kappa} = 0.73, p < 0.0001), while both intraobserver agreements were fair to moderate (observer A, {kappa} = 0.55, p = 0.0003; and observer B, {kappa} = 0.66, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MRI criteria used for the selection of suitable UAE patients show good inter- and intraobserver reproducibility.

Volkers, Nicole A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)], E-mail: n.a.volkers@amc.uva.nl; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K. [Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Spijkerboer, Anje M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Moolhuijzen, Albert D. [Waterland Hospital, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Birnie, Erwin [Amsterdam, and Erasmus Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Academic Medical Centre, Department of Public Health Epidemiology (Netherlands); Ankum, Willem M. [Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2008-03-15

323

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

324

Midterm Clinical Results and Patient Satisfaction After Uterine Artery Embolization in Women with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the mid-term clinical results and patient satisfaction following uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with\\u000a symptomatic fibroids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between August 1998 and December 2002, 135 patients had UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. All patients were asked to fill\\u000a in a questionnaire. Questions were aimed at changes in bleeding, pain, and bulk-related symptoms. Symptoms after UAE were\\u000a scored as disappeared,

Albert J. Smeets; Paul N. M. Lohle; Harry A. M. Vervest; P. Focco Boekkooi; Leo E. H. Lampmann

2006-01-01

325

Combination of plasma-soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and uterine artery Doppler for the prediction of preeclampsia in cases of elderly gravida.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the combination of plasma-soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and uterine artery Doppler for the detection of preeclampsia in women of advanced age at 16-18 weeks of gestation and to identify associations between other pregnancy complications and abnormalities of these combined tests. The maternal plasma sFlt-1 level was measured, and uterine artery Doppler was performed at 16-18 weeks of gestation in 314 cases of elderly gravida. The main outcome was preeclampsia. Fourteen women (4.46%) developed preeclampsia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of uterine artery Doppler combined with plasma sFlt-1 for preeclampsia prediction were 28.6, 95.7, 23.5 and 96.6%, respectively. For the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 80, 95.8, 23.5 and 99.7%, respectively. Patients with abnormal uterine artery Doppler findings and an abnormal plasma s Flt-1 level (greater than 1724.5?pg?ml(-1)) had a higher risk of preterm delivery (relative risk (RR)=3.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-7.59), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RR=52.06, 95% CI 5.71-474.45) and perinatal death (RR=17.35, 95% CI 1.13-265.64). Our findings indicate that the combination of uterine artery Doppler and sFlt-1 level at 16-18 weeks of gestation in cases of elderly gravida has a high predictive value for early-onset preeclampsia, but not for overall preeclampsia. This combination test may be a useful early second trimester screening test for the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia in cases of elderly gravida. PMID:24621465

Kulmala, Lalita; Phupong, Vorapong

2014-06-01

326

Microstructural Evidence of Abnormal Grain Growth by Solid-State Wetting in Fe3%Si Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal grain growth mechanism in Fe-3%Si steel was investigated. During heat treatment, Goss grains started to grow abnormally at 1050?, and their abnormal growth was almost completed remaining numerous island grains or grain clusters at 1100?. Besides, abnormally growing Goss grains display some distinctive grain structures. These structures show the penetration of the Goss grain into the grain boundary

Hyun Park; Young Chang Joo; Doh Yeon Kim; Jong Tae Park; Jae Kwan Kim; Nong Moon Hwang

2004-01-01

327

Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.  

PubMed

A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. PMID:24055170

Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

2013-11-01

328

[Huge uterine leiomyoma with degenerative changes mimicking ovarian carcinoma--a case report].  

PubMed

Leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine tumors. Although 20-40% of all women in reproductive age may have uterine leiomyomas, they are not very common in pregnancy. Only 0.3-2.6% af all pregnant women are diagnosed with leiomyomas. The leiomyomas are symptomatic in 20-50% of all cases. Clinical symptoms are usually excessive or irregular menstrual bleeding, problems resulting from adjacent organs pressure, sterility miscarriage or problems during the labour. Leiomyomas are known to have estrogen receptors and can demonstrate an extensive growth in high estrogens concentration environment. During the pregnancy they can grow, stay the same size or as well decrease. Rapid leiomyoma's growth, caused by its transformation into sarcoma, takes place in about 0.1-0.8% of all cases. In this article we present a case of patient with leiomyoma, which rapid growth, which imitated ovarian tumor. A 40-year old patient was admitted to the 1st Department of Obstretrics and Gynecology Medical University of Warsaw, in May 2012 because of a large abdominal tumor. She had four vaginal deliveries and one cesarean section. The patients delivered three months before admission. Since the labour she had suffered from dysuria and noticed a quick waits enlargement. On admission the patient was in good general condition, without any stomachache. A giant tumor in her lower and middle abdomen was found. The tumor reached three fingers above the navel. In the ultrasound scan a large solid-cystic the tumor with moderate vascularization was described. It looked like the ovarian neoplasm. The CA-125 plasma concentration was 389,5 IU/ml. After giving a written informed consent the patient had an operation. During the operation a solid-cystic peducled uterine tumor was diagnosed. The diameter of the tumor was about 25 cm. The uterine and uterine appendages had no pathological macroscopic changes. Intraoperative histopathological examination was carried out and revealed mesenchymal tumor without evident polymorphism or mitosis. Because of lack of any signs of malignancy during the operation only the tumor with its peduncle was removed. The patient was discharged in good general condition after three day of postoperative hospitalization. The final histopathological examination revealed leiomyoma with cystic degeneration changes. A small focus of necrosis and extravasation was found. 4 weeks after the operation there were no abnormalities in the gynecological examination and the CA-125 concentration was 27 IU/ml. The presented case illustrates diagnostic difficulties, which may occur when atypical rapid tumor enlargement and its ultrasound image and laboratory tests results imitate ovarian tumor. PMID:23668063

Gajewska, Ma?gorzata; Kosi?ska-Kaczy?ska, Katarzyna; Marczewska, Janina; Kami?ski, Pawe?

2013-02-01

329

The Effect of Uterine Motion and Uterine Margins on Target and Normal Tissue Doses in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy of Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cervical cancer, uterine motion can be larger than cervix motion, requiring a larger clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin around the uterine fundus. This work simulates different motion models and margins to estimate the dosimetric consequences. A virtual study used image sets from 10 patients. Plans were created with uniform margins of 1cm (PTVA) and 2.4cm (PTVC), and a margin tapering from 2.4cm at the fundus to 1cm at the cervix (PTVB). Three inter-fraction motion models (MM) were simulated. In MM1, all structures moved with normally distributed rigid body translations. In MM2, CTV motion was progressively magnified as one moved superiorly from the cervix to the fundus. In MM3, both CTV and normal tissue motion was magnified as in MM2, modeling the scenario where normal tissues move into the void left by the mobile uterus. Plans were evaluated using static and percentile DVHs (PDVHS). For a conventional margin (PTVA), quasi-realistic uterine motion (MM3) reduces fundus dose by about 5Gy and increases normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50Gy by ?5%. A tapered CTV-to-PTV margin can restore fundus and CTV dose, but will increase normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50Gy by a further ?5%.

Gordon, J.J.; Weiss, E.; Abayomi, O.K.; Siebers, J.V.; Dogan, N.

2011-01-01

330

The effect of uterine motion and uterine margins on target and normal tissue doses in intensity modulated radiation therapy of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cervical cancer, uterine motion can be larger than cervix motion, requiring a larger clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin around the uterine fundus. This work simulates different motion models and margins to estimate the dosimetric consequences. A virtual study used image sets from ten patients. Plans were created with uniform margins of 1 cm (PTV(A)) and 2.4 cm (PTV(C)), and a margin tapering from 2.4 cm at the fundus to 1 cm at the cervix (PTV(B)). Three inter-fraction motion models (MM) were simulated. In MM1, all structures moved with normally distributed rigid body translations. In MM2, CTV motion was progressively magnified as one moved superiorly from the cervix to the fundus. In MM3, both CTV and normal tissue motion were magnified as in MM2, modeling the scenario where normal tissues move into the void left by the mobile uterus. Plans were evaluated using static and percentile DVHs. For a conventional margin (PTV(A)), quasi-realistic uterine motion (MM3) reduces fundus dose by about 5 Gy and increases normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50 Gy by ?5%. A tapered CTV-to-PTV margin can restore fundus and CTV doses, but will increase normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50 Gy by a further ?5%. PMID:21490387

Gordon, J J; Weiss, E; Abayomi, O K; Siebers, J V; Dogan, N

2011-05-21

331

Intra-uterine growth restriction as a risk factor for hypertension in children six to 10 years old  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is present in about 3–10% of live-born newborns and it is as high as 20–30% in developing countries. Since the 1990s, it has been known that abnormalities during foetal growth may result in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension in adulthood. Methods This study evaluated blood pressure parameters (using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) in children aged six to 10 years old, born as small for gestational age (SGA), and compared them to their healthy peers born as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results In the SGA group, an abnormal blood pressure level (prehypertension or hypertension) was present significantly more often than in the AGA group (50 vs 16%, p < 0.01). This relationship also occurred in association with the type of IUGR (asymmetric p < 0.01, symmetric p < 0.05). Conclusion In SGA children, abnormal blood pressure values occurred more frequently than in AGA children.

Zamecznik, Agata; Niewiadomska-Jarosik, Katarzyna; Zamojska, Justyna; Stanczyk, Jerzy; Wosiak, Agnieszka; Moll, Jadwiga

2014-01-01

332

Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Evaluation of Uterine Blood Flow in Cynomolgus Macaque  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine blood flow is an important factor in uterine viability, but the number of blood vessels required to maintain viability is uncertain. In this study, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging was used to examine uterine hemodynamics and vessels associated with uterine blood flow in cynomolgus macaque. Methods The uterus of a female cynomolgus macaque was cut from the vaginal canal to mimic a situation during trachelectomy or uterine transplantation surgery in which uterine perfusion is maintained only with uterine and ovarian vessels. Intraoperative uterine hemodynamics was observed using ICG fluorescence imaging under conditions in which various nutrient vessels were selected by clamping of blood vessels. A time-intensity curve was plotted using imaging analysis software to measure the Tmax of uterine perfusion for selected blood vessel patterns. Open surgery was performed with the uterus receiving nutritional support only from uterine vessels on one side. The size of the uterus after surgery was monitored using transabdominal ultrasonography. Results The resulting time-intensity curves displayed the average intensity in the regions of the uterine corpus and uterine cervix, and in the entire uterus. Analyses of the uterine hemodynamics in the cynomolgus macaque showed that uterine vessels were significantly related to uterine perfusion (P?=?0.008), whereas ovarian vessels did not have a significant relationship (P?=?0.588). When uterine vessels were clamped, ovarian vessels prolonged the time needed to reach perfusion maximum. Postoperative transabdominal ultrasonography showed that the size of the uterus was not changed 2 months after surgery, with recovery of periodic menstruation. The cynomolgus macaque has got pregnant with favorable fetus well-being. Conclusion Uterine vessels may be responsible for uterine blood flow, and even one uterine vessel may be sufficient to maintain uterine viability in cynomolgus macaque. Our results show that ICG fluorescence imaging is useful for evaluation of uterine blood flow since this method allows real-time observation of uterine hemodynamics.

Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Lin, Li-Yu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yanokura, Megumi; Hara, Hisako; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Abe, Takayuki; Kouyama, Keisuke; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

2012-01-01

333

UTERINE ATONY: WHAT CAN BE DONE BEFORE HYSTERECTOMY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum haemorrhage continues to be the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries and in several developed ones. Between the different causes of postpartum haemorrhage, uterine atony is the most important, specially in those settings were active management of the 4th stage of labour is not performed. In the Obstetrics Service of the Institut Univaersitari Dexeus, uterine atony

B. Serra

334

Diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry in uterine mesenchymal tumors.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis of mesenchymal uterine tumors. This article reviews the immunoreactions used most frequently in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors, endometrial stromal tumors, undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, UTROSCTs, PEComas, adenomyomas, adenosarcomas and carcinosarcomas. PMID:24863031

D'Angelo, Emanuela; Prat, Jaime

2014-05-01

335

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity in uterine sympathetic nerves.  

PubMed

Dynamic responses of uterine sympathetic nerves to changes in the circulating levels of sex hormones represent one of the most remarkable examples of physiological plasticity in the adult autonomic nervous system. The density of uterine sympathetic nerves is markedly and irreversibly reduced following puberty, and shows phases of degeneration and regeneration during the natural oestrous cycle. Even more remarkable, uterine sympathetic nerves degenerate during normal pregnancy and regenerate following delivery. Plasticity in uterine sympathetic nerves was initially interpreted as a selective effect of sex hormones on the system of paracervical short adrenergic neurons supplying the uterus. In the last decade, the alternative explanation that sex hormones might alter the ability of the uterine tissue to support its innervation began to be explored and current evidence indicates that oestrogen and pregnancy elicit changes in the neuritogenic properties of the target uterine tissue. In addition, there are indications that sex hormones may also affect the receptivity of uterine-related sympathetic neurons to target-derived signals. Although the nature of these signals is still fragmentary, there is evidence for the contribution of a range of molecules, including neurotrophins, pro-neurotrophins and chemorepulsive signals of the semaphorin family. This review summarizes some general features of plasticity in uterine sympathetic nerves and highlights recent investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this dramatic model of natural plasticity. PMID:18403274

Brauer, M Mónica

2008-06-01

336

Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Incidence and Trends in Management and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study's aim was to determine the incidence of uterine sarcomas in New York City (NYC) and evaluate trends in frequency, treatment, and survival of carcinosarcomas in two Brooklyn hospitals. Population-based cancer registry data for 1976–1985 were used to calculate the incidence of uterine sarcomas in NYC women. Medical records and histology slides of carcinosarcomas at two central Brooklyn hospitals

Concepcion D. Arrastia; Rachel G. Fruchter; Melissa Clark; Mitchell Maiman; Jean Claude Remy; Milagros Macasaet; E. Jason Gates; Theresa Di Maio; Tomasz Marzec

1997-01-01

337

Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J. [Eastbourne District General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hugh.Anderson@esht.nhs.uk

2007-11-15

338

Uterine clearance and resistance to persistent endometritis in the mare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to review the role of uterine defense mechanisms in natural resistance to chronic or persistent endometritis. A breakdown of uterine physical clearance mechanisms is currently believed to play a major role in susceptibility to persistent endometritis. Mares with increased susceptibility to persistent endometritis have impaired myometrial contractility in response to an acute inflammation, resulting

M. H. T. Troedsson

1999-01-01

339

Failed transarterial embolization of subserosal uterine arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare but potentially life-threatening from excessive vaginal bleeding. All uterine AVMs reported to date have been found in the endometrial or myometrial layers. Here we present a patient with a subserosal type AVM on the fundus of uterus, which spontaneously ruptured.

Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jin; Sohn, In Sook; Kwon, Han Sung; Park, Sang Woo

2013-01-01

340

Vaginal birth after cesarean and uterine rupture rates in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe attempted and successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates and uterine rupture rates for women with and without prior cesareans, and compare delivery outcomes in hospitals with different attempted VBAC rates.Methods: We used California hospital discharge summary data for 1995 to calculate attempted and successful VBAC rates and uterine rupture rates. We used multivariate logistic regression models

Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt; Katherine Kahn

1999-01-01

341

Laparoscopic Excision of Symmetric Uterine Remnants in a Patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Ku¨ster-Hauser Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is an infrequent developmental defect characterized by congenital absence of the vagina and uterus. Various anomalies of the müllerian system have been operated on by laparoscopy. We performed operative laparoscopy to remove symmetric uterine remnants and right ovarian endometrioma in a woman with MRKH syndrome who suffered from intractable lower abdominal pain. Both anomalous structures, which had

Cem Atabekoglu

2003-01-01

342

CDB-2914 for Uterine Leiomyomata Treatment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether 3-month administration of CDB-2914, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, reduces leiomyoma size and symptoms. METHODS Premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were randomly assigned to CDB-2914 at 10 mg (T1) or 20 mg (T2) daily or to placebo (PLC) for 3 cycles or 90–102 days if no menses occurred. The primary outcome was leiomyoma volume change determined by magnetic resonance imaging at study entry and within 2 weeks of hysterectomy. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of amenorrhea, change in hemoglobin and hematocrit, ovulation inhibition, and quality-of-life assessment. RESULTS Twenty-two patients were allocated, and 18 completed the trial. Age and body mass index were similar among groups. Leiomyoma volume was significantly reduced with CDB-2914 administration (PLC 6%; CDB-2914 ?29%; P=.01), decreasing 36% and 21% in the T1 and T2 groups, respectively. During treatment, hemoglobin was unchanged, and the median estradiol was greater than 50 pg/mL in all groups. CDB-2914 eliminated menstrual bleeding and inhibited ovulation (% ovulatory cycles: CDB-2914, 20%; PLC, 83%; P=.001). CDB-2914 improved the concern scores of the uterine leiomyoma symptom quality-of-life subscale (P=.04). One CDB-2914 woman developed endometrial cystic hyperplasia without evidence of atypia. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Compared with PLC, CDB-2914 significantly reduced leiomyoma volume after three cycles, or 90–102 days. CDB-2914 treatment resulted in improvements in the concern subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Quality of Life assessment. In this small study, CDB-2914 was well-tolerated without serious adverse events. Thus, there may be a role for CDB-2914 in the treatment of leiomyomata.

Levens, Eric D.; Potlog-Nahari, Clariss; Armstrong, Alicia Y.; Wesley, Robert; Premkumar, Ahalya; Blithe, Diana L.; Blocker, Wendy; Nieman, Lynnette K.

2009-01-01

343

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

344

Unique double de novo structural rearrangements for chromosome 11 with 46,XX,del(11)(q13q23)/46,XX,inv dup(11)(q13q23) in an infant with minor congenital abnormalities and delayed development  

SciTech Connect

Reported here is a patient with two most unusual structural rearrangements, both involving chromosome 11. The first cell line showed an interstitial deletion of a chromosome 11 with a 46,XX,del(11)(q13q23) chromosome complement. In the second cell line, one of the chromosome 11s had a duplication for the exact region, (11)(q13q23), that was deleted in the first cell line. This duplication also appeared to be inverted with karyotype 46,XX,inv dup(11)(q13q23). Interestingly, chromosome analysis did not reveal a normal cell line and the two abnormal cell lines were present in a 1:1 ratio. Parental chromosome analyses showed normal karyotypes. The patient was referred for genetic evaluation because of developmental delay. Minor congenital anomalies presented on physical examination included: weight and height at or below the 5th percentile, microcephaly, downward slanting palpebral fissures, severe clinodactyly of one toe, bilateral short fifth fingers and a broad based gait. Results of the MRI and urine metabolic screen were normal. Two hypotheses are advanced to explain the origin of the abnormality. It is most likely that the abnormality arose as a postzygotic event at the very early zygotic division. During the first DNA synthesis after fertilization and before the zygotic division, DNA synthesis errors could result in two chromatids, one with a deletion and the other with a duplication. It is also possible that after the DNA synthesis prior to the first cell division, the chromatids of the same chromosome 11 for unknown reasons were involved in uneven double somatic crossing over events resulting in deleted and duplicated chromatids, respectively. The 1:1 cell ratio found in the patient and the apparent non-existence of a normal cell line further suggest that the origin of the abnormality was post-zygotic.

Tharapel, A.T.; Zhao, J.; Smith, M.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

345

Physiology and Electrical Activity of Uterine Contractions  

PubMed Central

Presently, there is no effective treatment for preterm labor. The most obvious reason for this anomaly is that there is no objective manner to evaluate the progression of pregnancy through steps leading to labor, either at term or preterm. Several techniques have been adopted to monitor labor, and/or to diagnose labor, but they are either subjective or indirect, and they do not provide an accurate prediction of when labor will occur. With no method to determine preterm labor, treatment might never improve. Uterine EMG (electromyography) methods may provide such needed diagnostics.

Garfield, Robert E.; Maner, William L.

2007-01-01

346

Uterine Rotation: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction is an uncommon surgical emergency during pregnancy that affects seriously the prognosis of gestation. The underlying cause can be identified in the majority of cases and usually consists of adhesions secondary to previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, followed in order of frequency by intestinal volvuli. In recent years there have been no reports in which the gravid uterus has been the cause of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a woman in week 33 + 4 of pregnancy who developed extrinsic compression of the colon secondary to uterine rotation and pelvic impaction of the head of the fetus.

Gonzalez-Mesa, Ernesto; Narbona, Isidoro; Cohen, Isaac; Villegas, Emilia; Cuenca, Celia

2013-01-01

347

[Uterine cervical carcinoma and pericardial effusion].  

PubMed

A 64-year-olf woman has been treated by chemotherapy for a uterine cervical carcinoma with known pathological lymph nodes in the abdomen and in the thorax. She is admitted in our Intensive Care Unit for fever and cardiac tamponade attributed to a large pericardial effusion. No diagnostic could be concluded from the analysis of the liquid or the pericardial biopsy. Complementary investigations are performed and the differential diagnosis of pericardial effusion is discussed in the context of a neoplastic disease. PMID:18069518

Vokaer, B; Machiels, J P; Vansnick, F; Castaigne, C; Feoli, F; Dediste, A; Sculier, J P

2007-01-01

348

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C. E.

1995-01-01

349

Ovine surgical model of uterine space restriction: interactive effects of uterine anomalies and multifetal gestations on fetal and placental growth.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is observed in conditions with limitations in uterine space (e.g., uterine anomalies and multifetal gestations). IUGR is associated with reduced fetal weight, organ growth, and a spectrum of adult-onset diseases. To examine the interaction of uterine anomalies and multifetal gestations, we developed a surgical uterine space restriction model with a unilateral uterine horn ligation before breeding (unilateral surgery). Placentas and fetuses were studied on Gestational Day (GD) 120 and GD 130 (term = 147 days). Unilateral surgery decreased placentome numbers in singleton and twin pregnancies (25% and 50%, respectively) but not unilateral triplets. Unilateral surgery decreased total placentome weight in twin pregnancies (decreased 24%). Fetuses categorized as uterine space restricted (unilateral twin and both groups of triplets) had 51% fewer placentomes per fetus and a 31% reduction in placentomal weight per fetus compared to the nonrestricted group (control singleton, unilateral singleton, and control twin). By GD 130, uterine space-restricted fetuses exhibited decreased weight, smaller crown-rump, abdominal girth, and thoracic girth as well as decreased fetal heart, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus weights. Lung and brain weights were unaffected, demonstrating asymmetric IUGR. At GD 130, placental efficiency (fetal weight per total placentomal weight) was elevated in uterine space-restricted fetuses. However, fetal arterial creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cholesterol were elevated, suggesting insufficient placental clearance. Maternal-to-fetal glucose and triglycerides ratios were elevated in the uterine space-restricted pregnancies, suggesting placental nutrient transport insufficiency. This model allows for examination of interactive effects of uterine space restriction-induced IUGR on placental adaptation and fetal organ growth. PMID:20574052

Meyer, Katie M; Koch, Jill M; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Kling, Pamela J; Magness, Ronald R

2010-11-01

350

A non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility.  

PubMed

This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour. PMID:16530816

Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K

2006-10-01

351

[Uterine artery embolization--clinical problems].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to present clinical issues concerning uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with uterine fibromas. In order to ensure high clinical efficiency of UAE and prevent subsequent complications, it is necessary to carefully select patients eligible for the procedure. Patients with intramural fibromas, who do not plan to conceive, are the best candidates for the procedure. Fibroma necrosis, with following infection, and premature ovarian failure remain to be the most common complications after UAE. UAE may cause amenorrhea and increase FSH levels, what is typical for menopause. Thus, it may be responsible for problems with conception as well as optimal development of a pregnancy. It may also cause premature, iatrogenic menopause. This complication significantly more frequently occurs in women over the age of 45 as compared to younger patients. UAE is considered as an alternative therapeutic procedure, available to women who do not desire the surgery or wish to preserve the uterus. Patients subject to this procedure should be informed about the possible side effects. PMID:24505954

Wo?niakowska, Ewa; Milart, Pawe?; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Palacz, Tomasz; Wo?niak, S?awomir; Wrona, Wojciech; Szkodziak, Piotr; Paszkowski, Maciej; Czuczwar, Piotr

2013-12-01

352

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi W. J. Russell M. Komatsuda S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

353

Caenorhabditis elegans Histone Deacetylase hda-1 Is Required for Morphogenesis of the Vulva and LIN-12/Notch-Mediated Specification of Uterine Cell Fates  

PubMed Central

Chromatin modification genes play crucial roles in development and disease. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the class I histone deacetylase family member hda-1, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, has been shown to control cell proliferation. We recovered hda-1 in an RNA interference screen for genes involved in the morphogenesis of the egg-laying system. We found that hda-1 mutants have abnormal vulva morphology and vulval-uterine connections (i.e., no uterine-seam cell). We characterized the vulval defects by using cell fate-specific markers and found that hda-1 is necessary for the specification of all seven vulval cell types. The analysis of the vulval-uterine connection defect revealed that hda-1 is required for the differentiation of the gonadal anchor cell (AC), which in turn induces ventral uterine granddaughters to adopt ? fates, leading to the formation of the uterine-seam cell. Consistent with these results, hda-1 is expressed in the vulva and AC. A search for hda-1 target genes revealed that fos-1 (fos proto-oncogene family) acts downstream of hda-1 in vulval cells, whereas egl-43 (evi1 proto-oncogene family) and nhr-67 (tailless homolog, NHR family) mediate hda-1 function in the AC. Furthermore, we showed that AC expression of hda-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of the lin-12/Notch ligand lag-2 to specify ? cell fates. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of hda-1 in the formation of the vulva and the vulval-uterine connection. Given that hda-1 homologs are conserved across the phyla, our findings are likely to provide a better understanding of HDAC1 function in development and disease.

Ranawade, Ayush Vasant; Cumbo, Philip; Gupta, Bhagwati P.

2013-01-01

354

Hormonal status of breast cancer. II. Abnormal urinary steroid excretion.  

PubMed

The urinary excretion of 14 neutral steroids was measured by gas-liquid chromatography in women with early and advanced breast cancer, in women with early uterine cancer, and in healthy women from urban and rural districts. The premenopausal patients with early breast cancer excreted subnormal amounts of five steroids (11-hydroxyandrosterone, 11-hydroxyetiocholanolone, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol, and tetrahydrocorticosterone) and increased amounts of tetrahydrocortisol as compared with the normal subjects of corresponding ages. From our findings, a new parameter was proposed by which a premenopausal breast-cancer patient was separated from the control. Postmenopausal breast-cancer patients excreted greater amounts of five steroids (one steroid from 17-ketosteroids and four from 17-hydroxycorticoids) than the corresponding controls. The discrepancy between premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer was tentatively related to ovarian-adrenal dysfunction in the course of aging. Oophorectomy induced a long-lasting tumor regression only in patients with a high value for the ratio of 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroid to 17-hydroxycorticosteroid in urine taken before surgery; the ratio in the responsive patients decreased remarkably after surgery. A constitutional change in 17-ketosteroids, as observed in a postmenopausal breast-cancer patient and a premenopausal healthy woman of urban origin, favored the geographic importance in the genesis of breast malignancy. The steroid abnormalities in uterine cancer were distinguishable from those of breast cancer in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:1133844

Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Yoshida, M; Totania, R; Aoki, K

1975-06-01

355

The biology of uterine sarcomas: A review and update  

PubMed Central

Uterine sarcoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for only 5% of uterine malignancies. The pathogenesis of uterine sarcoma remains largely unknown, although recent basic science and pre-clinical animal models have provided a better understanding of tumor biology. The aim of this study was to review the clinical features, imaging characteristics, genetic aberrations and therapeutic approaches in uterine sarcoma. This study reviewed the English-language literature on clinical and basic studies on uterine sarcoma. The common variants of uterine sarcoma are carcinosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). Genetic profiling efforts have identified amplification, overexpression and mutation, while the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis driven by these genomic and genetic aberrations have yet to be fully elucidated yet. Recent genome-wide studies have also identified complex chromosomal rearrangements as oncogenic mechanisms. The cell cycle regulators, p16 and p53, are frequently over-expressed and appear to be involved in key modifications of sarcomagenesis. Molecular-targeted therapy has now been evaluated in clinical trials for certain subtypes. In conclusion, aberrations of cell cycle control would be a critical step in the development of uterine sarcoma. This review has provided new areas of study targeting molecular and genetic pathways.

KOBAYASHI, HIROSHI; UEKURI, CHIAKI; AKASAKA, JURIA; ITO, FUMINORI; SHIGEMITSU, AIKO; KOIKE, NATSUKI; SHIGETOMI, HIROSHI

2013-01-01

356

Delayed uterine fluid clearance and reduced uterine perfusion in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and clinical management with postmating antibiotic.  

PubMed

In many species a transient uterine inflammatory response follows mating and is proposed to remove excess spermatozoa, bacteria, and other contaminants from the uterus. Similar events have been documented in the bitch involving increased uterine contractions, polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx and uterine artery vasodilation. Some healthy bitches with endometrial hyperplasia have increased numbers of uterine luminal polymorphonuclear neutrophils after mating and reduced fertility; it is purported that this represents a presumed postmating endometritis. This study used B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography at the time of mating to measure uterine contractions, clearance of ejaculated fluid, and uterine artery velocity in normal bitches and those with endometrial hyperplasia. Mating resulted in an increase in the number of uterine contractions, although fewer mating-induced contractions were noted in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, uterine fluid cleared significantly more slowly after mating from the bitches with endometrial hyperplasia than the normal bitches (P = 0.01). In a further study, Doppler ultrasonography showed that in normal bitches there was a significant increase in uterine artery blood velocity (P = 0.04) and a decrease in the resistance index after mating (P = 0.04), indicating vasodilation. In bitches with endometrial hyperplasia the baseline resistance index was significantly higher than normal bitches (P = 0.05), and furthermore, although there was a significant decrease in resistance index after mating, in the bitches with endometrial hyperplasia this was of a smaller magnitude that in normal bitches. These findings indicate lower baseline uterine perfusion, and a blunted vasodilation response to mating in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia. Short-duration postmating administration of systemic antibiotic increased pregnancy rates in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia (P < 0.01). Litter sizes in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia were lower than those of normal bitches both before and after treatment with postmating antibiotic (P = 0.04 and < 0.01, respectively). Mating-induced endometritis in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia appears to affect fertility by reducing the uterine vasodilatory response to mating and delaying clearance of uterine fluid as a result of decreased uterine contractions but the effect can be ameliorated in part by the postmating administration of antibiotic. PMID:22980089

England, G C W; Moxon, R; Freeman, S L

2012-10-15

357

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

358

Measurement of Phenolic Environmental Estrogens in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the effect of phenolic environmental estrogens on uterine leiomyoma from the perspective of clinical epidemiology. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from Han women with uterine leiomyoma and women without uterine leiomyoma, living in Nanjing, China, between September 2011 and February 2013. A total of 156 urine samples and 214 blood samples were collected from the uterine leiomyoma group and 106 urine samples and 126 blood plasma samples from the control group. Bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) concentrations were determined by solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Results Phenolic environmental estrogens in the uterine leiomyoma and control groups were compared based on: gravida>3 and gravida ? 3. In participants with gravida>3, urine OP concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the uterine leiomyoma group than in the control group. In participants with gravida ? 3, urine NP concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the uterine leiomyoma group compared to controls. Despite obstetric history, urine BPA mean exposure concentration was significantly (P<0.05) different between uterine leiomyoma group and control group. The urine BPA concentration was not significantly (P>0.05) different between gravida>3 and gravida ? 3 patients. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in plasma concentrations of BPA, OP and NP between the leiomyoma group and control group. Mean exposure concentration and range of distribution of BPA, OP and NP plasma concentration differed between the uterine leiomyoma and control group. Conclusion Exposure level of phenolic environmental estrogens in human was related with leiomyoma tumorigenesis.

Shen, Yang; Xu, Qian; Ren, Mulan; Feng, Xu; Cai, Yunlang; Gao, Yongxing

2013-01-01

359

Bilateral ovarian metastatic squamous cell carcinoma arising from the uterine cervix and eluding the Mullerian mucosa  

PubMed Central

Bilateral ovarian metastasis from invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare phenomenon with very few clinically significant cases described in the literature. Ovarian metastases when present are usually seen in association with bulky, advanced cervical squamous cell carcinomas with extensive involvement of the uterus. We describe a 48 year old woman with clinically normal cervix whose hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy performed for abnormal uterine bleeding, demonstrated high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the deeper stroma of the uterus and bilateral ovarian metastases. Gross examination of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity did not show tumor while well circumscribed pearly white metastatic deposits were distinguished within the parenchyma of both the ovaries. Microscopy ascertained high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with malignant cells invading the deeper cervical stroma and disseminating further as lymphovascular tumor emboli within the myometrium of the corpus uteri without involving the endometrium. Both the fallopian tubes exhibited lymphovascular tumor emboli without epithelial involvement while the parenchyma of both the ovaries showed metastatic deposits. Although an isolated case of endophytic squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with extensive lymphovascular invasion of the corpus uteri, both the fallopian tubes and bilateral ovarian deposits without involving either the endometrium or the tubal mucosa does not form a paradigm, this case brings to light the capricious behavior of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1214687069122755

2014-01-01

360

Novel use of a tracheobronchial stent in a patient with uterine didelphys and obstructed hemivagina  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe a novel use for a tracheobronchial stent to maintain patency after vaginal septum excision in a patient with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys. Design: Description of a novel technique Setting: University-affiliated Children’s Hospital Patient: One patient with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys who presented with hematometria and hematocolpos. Intervention: In order to maintain patency and decrease stenosis risk after vaginal septum excision, a coated tracheobronchial stent was deployed and left in place for 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: To evaluate ease of stent placement and removal, re-epithelialization and patency of the neo-vagina, and post-operative assessment of pain and recurrent obstruction. Results: The tracheobroncheal stent was easily positioned and deployed with vaginoscopic guidance. Six weeks later it was removed without any tissue in-growth or granulation tissue noted. The vaginal walls were nicely epithelialized. Twelve months post-operatively the patient remained pain free with regular cycles and no evidence of obstruction or abnormality on ultrasound. Conclusion: Use of a coated tracheobronchial stent to maintain patency after septum excision in a patient with an obstructed hemivagina presents a safe, easy and effective option to diminish stenosis risk and avoid infectious complications or hysterectomy.

Cooper, Amber R.; Merritt, Diane F.

2014-01-01

361

Maternal ghrelin deficiency compromises reproduction in female progeny through altered uterine developmental programming.  

PubMed

Ghrelin has a well-known role in the regulation of appetite, satiety, energy metabolism, and reproduction; however ghrelin has not been implicated in reproductive tract development. We examined the effect of ghrelin deficiency on the developmental programming of female fertility. We observed that female wild-type mice born of ghrelin heterozygote dams (i.e. exposed in utero to ghrelin deficiency) had diminished fertility and produced smaller litters. We demonstrate that exposure to in utero ghrelin deficiency led to altered developmental programming of the reproductive tract. The number of ovarian follicles, corpora lutea, and embryos produced were identical in both exposed and unexposed mice. However wild-type embryos transferred to uteri of mice exposed to in utero ghrelin deficiency had a 60% reduction in the rate of embryo implantation compared with those transferred to wild-type unexposed uteri. We identified significant alterations in the uterine expression of four genes critical for implantation and a defect in uterine endometrial proliferation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the mechanism of subfertility was abnormal endometrial function. In utero exposure to decreased levels of ghrelin led to defects in developmental programming of the uterus and subsequent subfertility in wild-type offspring. PMID:21325042

Martin, J Ryan; Lieber, Sarah B; McGrath, James; Shanabrough, Marya; Horvath, Tamas L; Taylor, Hugh S

2011-05-01

362

Spontaneous Uterine Rupture in the First Trimester: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Uterine rupture is one of the most feared obstetric complications affecting the pregnant woman and fetus. Most of the cases have various risk factors and mainly occur during the second or third trimester. However, spontaneous uterine rupture during the first trimester is extremely rare. We experienced a case of spontaneous uterine rupture in a 36-yr-old multiparous woman without definite risk factors. The initial impression was a hemoperitoneum of an unknown origin with normal early pregnancy. Intensive surgical method would be needed for accurate diagnosis and immediate management in bad situation by hemoperitoneum even though a patient was early pregnancy.

Ryu, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-In; Park, Moon-Il

2005-01-01

363

Primary uterine osteosarcoma presenting synchronously with bilateral breast carcinomas.  

PubMed

Primary uterine sarcomas are infrequent neoplasms and most commonly leiomyosarcomas or endometrial stromal sarcomas. We report a rare case of primary uterine osteosarcoma discovered in a woman in her 60s following staging CT imaging for bilateral breast carcinomas. Examination of the subsequent hysterectomy specimen showed a tumour composed of malignant spindle cells and osteoclast-like giant cells associated with osteoid and neoplastic bone, in keeping with primary uterine osteosarcoma. Distinction of osteosarcoma from the more common carcinosarcoma is important due to the worse prognosis impacting on treatment decisions. In addition, synchronous presentation of this unusual tumour with bilateral breast carcinomas raises the possibility of a mutual genetic pathogenesis. PMID:24898994

Powell, George; Barth, Laura; Todd, Richard; Ganesan, Raji

2014-01-01

364

Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids  

PubMed Central

Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumor. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and particularly the newest, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment.

Shen, Shu-Huei; Fennessy, Fiona; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc; Tempany, Clare

2009-01-01

365

Intestinal adhesion due to previous uterine surgery as a risk factor for delayed diagnosis of uterine rupture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Uterine rupture is a life-threatening condition both to mothers and fetuses. Its early diagnosis and treatment may save their lives. Previous myomectomy is a high risk factor for uterine rupture. Intestinal adhesion due to previous myomectomy may also prevent early diagnosis of uterine rupture. Case presentation A 38-year-old primiparous non-laboring Japanese woman with a history of myomectomy was admitted in her 34th week due to lower abdominal pain. Although the pain was slight and her vital signs were stable, computed tomography revealed massive fluid collection in her abdominal cavity, which led us to perform a laparotomy. Uterine rupture had occurred at the site of the previous myomectomy; however, the small intestine was adhered tightly to the rupture, thus masking it. The baby was delivered through a low uterine segment transverse incision. The ruptured uterine wall was reconstructed. Conclusion Intestinal adhesion due to a prior myomectomy occluded a uterine rupture, possibly masking its symptoms and signs, which may have prevented early diagnosis.

2011-01-01

366

Vaginal Removal of Very Large Nascent Uterine Myoma - Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

This report shows that even extremely large nascent uterine myomas can be removed vaginally. A 25-year-old nulligravid and nulliparous patient with malaise, hypermenorrhea, and intermittent cramping pain in the lower abdomen was referred to our clinic. Gynecological examination revealed a round cauliflower-like tumor, 7?cm in diameter, originating from the external cervical os with a rough surface and without a palpable stalk or base. Ultrasound scan showed a hyperechogenic mass within the uterine cavity with two distinct subunits: one (55?×?44?mm) well-demarcated from the surrounding structures and the other (43?×?38?mm) in close proximity to the lower part of the anterior uterine wall and in continuity with the myometrium. At surgery, the myoma was completely removed vaginally. Recovery was prompt, complete, and uneventful. Follow-up at one and three months confirmed normal gynecological and sonographic findings. In conclusion, vaginal myomectomy is the treatment of choice for prolapsed pedunculated submucous myoma; even extremely large nascent myomas can be efficiently removed vaginally.

Terzic, M.; Maricic, S.; Dotlic, J.

2013-01-01

367

Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity. PMID:23066940

Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

2012-01-01

368

Endometrial carcinoma in a 15-year-old obese patient with persistent uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the upper female genital tract but is rare in teenagers. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old, nulliparous, morbidly obese female with complaints of asthenia and menometrorrhagia lasting for six months. On examination, the patient had an enlarged uterus approximately 14 gestational weeks in size, and ultrasound revealed an intrauterine mass and polycystic ovaries. An endometrial biopsy performed during hysteroscopy revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed myometrial invasion. The patient underwent a laparotomy involving total abdominal hysterectomy, right salpingo-oophorectomy, wedge-shape dissection of the left ovary, and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. We analyze the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma in this case and discuss the risk factors for endometrial carcinoma, especially in young women. Gynecologists should be vigilant for persistent abnormal uterine bleeding and other signs of endometrial carcinoma in young women, especially those who have risk factors for the disease. PMID:24456540

Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Yingmei; Zhang, Xuhong; Yuan, Bibo; Han, Cha; Xue, Fengxia

2014-04-01

369

Autofluorescent particles of human uterine muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle tissue collected from the uterine fundus of 24 patients undergoing hysterectomy was examined for chromolipoid pigments by histochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Certain cytoplasmic particles were found, mainly in smooth muscle cells, which exhibited characteristic autofluorescence, sudanophilia, and acid phosphatase activity but did not correspond to any typical pigment described previously. These particles were present in all subjects and they tended to increase in number with age. Chemical tests on tissue lipid extracts failed to prove that vitamin A was responsible for the fluorescence. The ultrastructural appearance of the particles somewhat variable, but most particles were rounded and of low electron density, with a lucent central space and dense bodies, probably lysosomes, at the periphery. The whole complex was enclosed by a single trilaminar membrane. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 4

Gosden, R. G.; Hawkins, H. K.; Gosden, C. A.

1978-01-01

370

Late leiomyoma expulsion after uterine artery embolization.  

PubMed

A case of late expulsion of a leiomyoma after uterine artery embolization (UAE) is reported in a 49-year-old woman who underwent UAE for a huge (13 cm x 12 cm; 1,061 cm(3)) bleeding- and bulk-related intramural leiomyoma diagnosed with ultrasonography. Free-flow embolization was performed with 150-400-microm polyvinyl alcohol particles and absorbable particle sponge. Symptoms and myoma size were successfully controlled until 44 months, at which time the patient reported vaginal discharge. A 7-cm necrotic, partly submucosal leiomyoma was detected. The patient refused hysterectomy and spontaneously expelled the leiomyoma through the cervix 6 months later. In conclusion, UAE necessitates long-term follow-up and women should be warned of late complications. PMID:15590809

Marret, Henri; Keris, Yann Le Brun; Acker, Olivier; Cottier, Jean Philippe; Herbreteau, Denis

2004-12-01

371

Molecular characterization of uterine clear cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Clinicopathological studies support a broad classification of endometrial carcinoma into two major types, designated as type I and type II, which correlate with their biological behavior. More recently, molecular studies have provided further insights into this classification scheme by elucidating the genetic events involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma. Microsatellite instability and mutations in the PTEN gene have been widely associated with type I (endometrioid) endometrial carcinoma, while p53 mutations have been identified in the majority of type II endometrial carcinoma, of which uterine serous carcinoma is the prototype. Uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCC) is an uncommon variant of endometrial carcinoma, and clinicopathological studies have produced conflicting results regarding its biological behavior with 5-year survival ranging from 21 to 75%. The molecular characteristics of endometrioid and serous carcinoma have been studied extensively; however, there have been few molecular genetic studies of the clear cell subtype. In this study, we evaluated 16 UCCs (11 pure and 5 mixed) for mutations in the p53 gene, PTEN gene and for microsatellite instability. Although we found that these alterations were uncommon in pure clear cell carcinomas, all three were identified. In addition, two cases of mixed serous and clear cell carcinoma showed an identical mutation of the p53 gene in the histologically distinct components and one case of mixed clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma had identical mutations in the PTEN and p53 genes, and microsatellite instability in both components. Our data suggest that UCC represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise via different pathogenetic pathways. Additional molecular studies of pure clear cell carcinoma are required to further elucidate the genetic pathways involved in its development and progression. PMID:14976538

An, Hee-Jung; Logani, Sanjay; Isacson, Christina; Ellenson, Lora H

2004-05-01

372

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis Reveals a Potential Mechanism for the Pathogenesis and Development of Uterine Leiomyomas  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas, the most common benign tumor in women, remains unclear. Since acquired factors such as obesity, hypertension and early menarche place women at greater risk for uterine leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas may be associated with epigenetic abnormalities that are caused by unfavorable environmental exposures. Principal Findings Profiles of genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression were investigated in leiomyomas and in myometrium with and without leiomyomas. Profiles of DNA methylation and mRNA expression in the myometrium with and without leiomyomas were quite similar while those in leiomyomas were distinct. We identified 120 genes whose DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns differed between leiomyomas and the adjacent myometrium. The biological relevance of the aberrantly methylated and expressed genes was cancer process, including IRS1 that is related to transformation, and collagen-related genes such as COL4A1, COL4A2 and COL6A3. We also detected 22 target genes of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, including apoptosis-related genes, that have aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter, suggesting that the aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes contributes to the aberrant response to estrogen. Conclusions Aberrant DNA methylation and its related transcriptional aberration were associated with cancer processes, which may represent a critical initial mechanism that triggers transformation of a single tumor stem cell that will eventually develop into a monoclonal leiomyoma tumor. The aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes also may contribute to the aberrant response to estrogen, which is involved in the development of uterine leiomyomas after menarche.

Maekawa, Ryo; Sato, Shun; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Asada, Hiromi; Tamura, Isao; Lee, Lifa; Okada, Maki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takaki, Eiichi; Nakai, Akira; Sugino, Norihiro

2013-01-01

373

Genetic and teratological considerations in the analysis of concordant and discordant abnormalities in twins.  

PubMed

Results from monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin research are often used in an attempt to gain a clearer understanding of the 'nature v. nurture' dilemma. Discordance between MZ twins has been considered to be environmental, and greater concordance in MZ compared with DZ pairs to be genetic. Current genetic and teratological theories considerably complicate the interpretation of concordance and discordance of abnormalities. The high rate of discordant intra-uterine death recently demonstrated in twins may profoundly influence the value of epidemiological studies usually performed in later life. Furthermore, indirect zygosity estimations based on sex ratios in DZ twins may be flawed because it is now recognized that increasing numbers of conditions are genetically heterogeneous. Emphasis is laid on problems of interpretation of discordance and concordance for developmental abnormalities in twins, and some possible mechanisms for their induction are discussed. Basic genetic concepts relevant to the expression of abnormalities in twins are outlined. PMID:3510462

Gericke, G S

1986-01-18

374

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

375

Placenta percreta and uterine rupture at 16 weeks.  

PubMed

Placenta percreta is a complication of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Spontaneous uterine rupture in early pregnancy due to placenta percreta is rare. We report a case of this life-threatening complication occurring at the sixteenth week of gestation. The patient presented with signs of shock, acute abdomen, and evidence of hemoperitoneum. The pregnancy was viable with a normal ultrasound appearance that created some confusion and there was a dilemma in the diagnosis of this case. Various obstetric and surgical causes were taken into consideration. The patient was taken to the operating room immediately for exploratory laparotomy. She was found to have fundal uterine rupture, which was managed by uterine repair. This patient had prior cesarean section and dilatation and curettage; factors well known to predispose for placenta percreta. Here, we emphasize the importance of a fast decision and surgical intervention to save a patient's life in cases of uterine rupture. PMID:23860897

Neyazi, Salwa M

2013-07-01

376

Uterine contractility patterns after an episode of preterm labor.  

PubMed

Uterine contractility patterns were studied in an attempt to identify those women on tocolytic therapy at risk for preterm delivery. One hundred sixteen women treated successfully after an episode of preterm labor were followed with an ambulatory tocodynamometer system. Contractions were monitored twice daily for 1 hour until delivery or until 36 completed weeks of gestation. In this group, 52 women (45%) delivered preterm and 64 (55%) delivered at term. The analysis revealed that 1) from 24-29 weeks' gestation, there was no significant difference in the uterine activity between the two groups; and 2) beginning at 30 weeks' gestation and continuing until the end of the 36th week of gestation, uterine activity was significantly greater in women destined to deliver preterm. These observations suggest that the patterns of daily uterine contractility observed in patients after an episode of preterm labor can identify those at greater risk for a preterm delivery. PMID:2406657

Brustman, L E; Langer, O; Damus, K; Anyaegbunam, A; Merkatz, I R

1990-03-01

377

Ultrasound-Guided Unification of Noncommunicating Uterine Cavities  

PubMed Central

Background: The benefits of ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic metroplasty have been well described in the management of the partial septate uterus. The use of ultrasonography at the time of hysteroscopy provides visualization of the intrauterine instruments within the uterine cavity. This report describes a case where ultrasound-guidance was used to enter a noncommunicating uterine cavity hysteroscopically. Methods: A 22-year-old female after her third miscarriage experienced worsening dysmenorrhea. The patient underwent a laparoscopy and hysteroscopy to further evaluate the cause of pelvic pain and to treat the Müllerian anomaly. Under ultrasound-guidance, the 2 uterine cavities were unified by hysteroscopic metroplasty. Results: Postoperative sonohysterography demonstrated unification of the 2 cavities. Conclusions: This unique application of ultrasound-guidance in hysteroscopic surgery may aid the surgeon in entering a noncommunicating uterine cavity.

Mullesserill, Bijoy T.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Damario, Mark A.

2003-01-01

378

Unusual case of uterine stump pyometra in a cat.  

PubMed

This report describes an unusual case of uterine stump pyometra in a cat whose main clinical sign at presentation was abdominal straining. At the time of ovariohysterectomy, the surgeon reported that the uterine body had a purulent content. Nearly a month after the surgery the cat showed abdominal straining. The enlarged uterine stump, filled with purulent fluid, had caused a compression of the rectum and secondary intestinal sub-occlusion. Surgical revision consisted of draining the purulent content of the remnant of the uterine body and ablating as much of it as possible; checking of the ovarian pedicles revealed the presence of a small fragment of whitish tissue on the right side, which was shown to contain, by means of histological observation and immunohistochemical staining, ovarian tissue. Four months after surgical revision the queen did not show any pathological signs and 1 year later she is still in good health. PMID:21256784

Rota, Ada; Pregel, Paola; Cannizzo, Francesca T; Sereno, Alessandra; Appino, Simonetta

2011-06-01

379

Successful robotically assisted laparoscopic correction of chronic uterine inversion.  

PubMed

We report a successful robotically assisted repair of a chronic uterine inversion. A modified Spinelli technique was used. The patient was discharged home after an uncomplicated postoperative course. PMID:21872174

Zechmeister, J R; Levey, K A

2011-01-01

380

Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids Skip sharing on social ... To determine whether TSC genes were involved in infertility related to fibroids, scientists funded by the Fertility ...

381

A rare case of uterine adenomyosis in a Siamese cat  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old, female Siamese cat with a long-term history of megestrol acetate treatment for suppression of estrus was presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed after an ovariohysterectomy.

Bulman-Fleming, Julie

2008-01-01

382

A Subset of Human Uterine Endometrial Macrophages is Alternatively Activated  

PubMed Central

Problem Human uterine macrophages must maintain an environment hospitable to implantation and pregnancy and simultaneously provide protection against pathogens. Although macrophages comprise a significant portion of leukocytes within the uterine endometrium, the activation profile and functional response of these cells to endotoxin is unknown. Method of Study Flow cytometric analysis of surface receptors and intracellular markers expressed by macrophages isolated from human endometria was performed. Uterine macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors expressed by these cells were analyzed using Bio-Plex analysis. Results CD163high human endometrial macrophages constitutively secrete both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-angiogenic factors and secretion of these factors is LPS-inducible. Conclusions A major population of human uterine macrophages is alternatively activated. These cells secrete factors in response to LPS that are involved in the activation of immune responses and tissue homeostasis.

Jensen, Amy L.; Collins, Jane; Shipman, Emilie P.; Wira, Charles R.; Guyre, Paul M.; Pioli, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

383

Modulation by beta-aminopropionitrile of vessel luminal narrowing and structural abnormalities in arterial wall collagen in a rabbit model of conventional balloon angioplasty versus laser balloon angioplasty.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to assess the potential relationship between the late loss of angiographic luminal diameter and biochemical abnormalities of arterial wall collagen in rabbits subjected to angioplasty, and to test the hypothesis that beta-aminopropionitrile (beta APN), an inhibitor of lysyl oxidase, would inhibit such changes when administered orally for 1 mo after angioplasty. Endovascular injury was induced in rabbit iliac arteries by ipsilateral balloon angioplasty (BA) and by contralateral balloon angioplasty accompanied by exposure to continuous wave neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet laser radiation (LBA). Computer measurement of angiographic luminal diameter demonstrated significant vessel narrowing at 1 and 6 mo after both procedures. By quantitative histology, the majority of the 1-mo loss in angiographic diameter could not be attributed to neointimal thickening. Analysis of collagen cross-linking by HPLC in collagen obtained from the LBA-injured segments of the arteries 1 mo after angioplasty revealed a significant increase, relative to values from uninjured arteries (P < 0.05), in the difunctional cross-link dihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL). 6 mo after angioplasty, the content of hydroxypyridinium, the trifunctional maturational product of DHLNL, was significantly elevated in both BA- and LBA-treated arteries compared with values from uninjured arteries (P < 0.05). In animals administered beta APN, luminal narrowing at 1 mo, compared with controls, was attenuated (P < 0.01) and DHLNL content was decreased (P < 0.05) in arteries subjected to LBA, but not in arteries subjected to BA. The results suggest that lathyrogenic agents may be efficacious in favorably modulating LBA-induced alterations in vessel diameter and mural connective tissue. Images

Spears, J R; Zhan, H; Khurana, S; Karvonen, R L; Reiser, K M

1994-01-01

384

Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

Przybojewski, Stefan J., E-mail: drstefanp@hotmail.com; Sadler, David J. [University of Calgary, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Foothills Hospital (Canada)

2011-02-15

385

Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.  

PubMed

We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus. PMID:24456452

Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K

2014-02-01

386

Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

Shakhova, Natalia; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman; Sergeev, Alexander M.

1998-04-01

387

Antepartum uterine relaxation with nitroglycerin at Caesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report, NTG provided sufficient uterine relaxation to allow difficult twin extraction at Caesarean delivery.\\u000a Administration of NTG in this situation was controversial, and if it had not been effective, time may have been lost before\\u000a general anaesthesia could have been induced. Nitroglycerin merits further evaluation as an antepartum uterine relaxant, but\\u000a the initial experience is encouraging.

David C. Mayer

1992-01-01

388

Education does not improve patient perception of preterm uterine contractility.  

PubMed

In this prospective study, we sought to compare pregnant women's self-perception of their preterm uterine contractility versus electronically obtained data and to evaluate the impact of intensive patient education on increasing awareness of the presence of uterine contractions. Thirty-eight women each monitored their uterine activity at home for two 60-minute periods daily during a 21-day sequence. An event marker was used to document perceived contractions and after a 3-day baseline interval, an intensive nursing-service educational intervention was initiated for all subjects. Thirty-five percent of women underreported uterine contractions, whereas only 5% overreported their uterine activity during the study. Derived patient scores of underreporting and overreporting of contractions did not vary among seven consecutive 3-day study intervals. Analysis of the data revealed that patients perceived fewer than 10% of all contractions documented electronically. No improvement in the reliability of patient perception of preterm uterine contractility was obtained after the educational intervention. PMID:2359589

Brustman, L E; Langer, O; Anyaegbunam, A; Belle, C; Merkatz, I R

1990-07-01

389

Obstructive small bowel metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Background. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive gynecologic malignancy with an overall poor prognosis. Lungs, bones, and brain are common sites of metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the small bowel are extremely rare, and only four case reports have been published to date. Case presentation. A 55-year-old Saudi woman diagnosed with a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated with total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO) presented in emergency room after sixteen months with acute abdomen. Subsequent work-up showed a jejunal mass for which resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of small bowel metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma. Further staging work-up showed wide spread metastasis in lungs and brain. After palliative cranial irradiation, systemic chemotherapy based on single agent doxorubicin was started. Conclusion. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of small bowel from uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare entity and is sign of advanced disease. It should be differentiated from primary leiomyosarcoma of small bowel as both are treated with different systemic chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24716034

Tunio, Mutahir A; Alasiri, Mushabbab; Saleh, Rasha M; Akbar, Shomaila Amir; Ali, Nagoud M; Senosy Hassan, Mohamed Abdalazez

2014-01-01

390

Obstructive Small Bowel Metastasis from Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive gynecologic malignancy with an overall poor prognosis. Lungs, bones, and brain are common sites of metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the small bowel are extremely rare, and only four case reports have been published to date. Case presentation. A 55-year-old Saudi woman diagnosed with a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated with total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO) presented in emergency room after sixteen months with acute abdomen. Subsequent work-up showed a jejunal mass for which resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of small bowel metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma. Further staging work-up showed wide spread metastasis in lungs and brain. After palliative cranial irradiation, systemic chemotherapy based on single agent doxorubicin was started. Conclusion. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of small bowel from uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare entity and is sign of advanced disease. It should be differentiated from primary leiomyosarcoma of small bowel as both are treated with different systemic chemotherapeutic agents.

Tunio, Mutahir A.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Saleh, Rasha M.; Akbar, Shomaila Amir; Ali, Nagoud M.; Senosy Hassan, Mohamed Abdalazez

2014-01-01

391

A rare case of uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malignant change in a leiomyoma or uterine fibroid is termed leiomyosarcoma. It arises from smooth muscle of the uterus and is a rare tumor that accounts for 2% to 5% of all uterine malignancies. Very few cases are reported in the literature. Our patient did not have any history of genital bleeding, which is the usual presentation in uterine sarcoma. We report an original case report of an unusual presentation of this rare tumor arising from the uterus. Case presentation A 40-year-old nulliparous woman of South Indian origin presented with a mass in her abdomen for one year with a rapid increase in size over the previous three months. Tumor marker CA-125 was raised, and a computed tomography scan showed a mass arising from the pelvis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Conclusion Because of their rarity, uterine sarcomas are not suitable for screening. Diagnosis is by histopathologic examination and surgery is the only treatment. The prognosis for women with uterine sarcoma primarily depends on the extent of disease at the time of diagnosis and the mitotic index.

2010-01-01

392

Fronto-parietal hypo-activation during working memory independent of structural abnormalities: Conjoint fMRI and sMRI analyses in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients  

PubMed Central

Adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients (HR-S) are an important group in whom to study impaired brain function and structure, particularly of the frontal cortices. Studies of working memory have suggested behavioral deficits and fMRI-measured hypoactivity in fronto-parietal regions in these subjects. Independent structural MRI (sMRI) studies have suggested exaggerated frontal gray matter decline. Therefore the emergent view is that fronto-parietal deficits in function and structure characterize HR-S. However, it is unknown if fronto-parietal sub-regions in which fMRI-measured hypo-activity might be observed are precisely those regions of the cortex in which gray matter deficits are also observed. To investigate this question we conducted conjoint analyses of fronto-parietal function and structure in HR-S (n=19) and controls (n=24) with no family history of psychoses using fMRI data during a continuous working memory task (2 Back), and sMRI collected in the same session. HR-S demonstrated significantly reduced BOLD activation in left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/46) and bilateral parietal cortex (BA 7/40). Sub-regions of interest were created from the significant fronto-parietal functional clusters. Analyses of gray matter volume from volume-modulated gray matter segments in these clusters did not reveal significant gray matter differences between groups. The results suggest that functional impairments in adolescent HR-S can be independent of impairments in structure, suggesting that the relationship between impaired function and structure is complex. Further studies will be needed to more closely assess whether impairments in function and structure provide independent or interacting pathways of vulnerability in this population.

Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Pruitt, Patrick; Goradia, Dhruman; Murphy, Eric; Bakshi, Neil; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Rajan, Usha; Reid, Andrew; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline

2011-01-01

393

Modi?ed anchored B-Lynch uterine compression suture for post partum bleeding with uterine atony.  

PubMed

A prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the performance of a modified uterine compression suturing technique for the management of refractory post partum hemorrhage (PPH) at two leading tertiary referral centers in Colombo, Sri Lanka. An modified anchored B-Lynch suture was done in 17 women with PPH due to uterine atony. In 13 of the women (76%), bleeding was arrested and the uterus conserved. Four women (24%) did not respond to the anchored compression sutures, necessitating emergency post partum hysterectomy. Mean age was 31.2 years. Nine of the women (53%) were primiparous and eight (47%) parous. Mean estimated blood loss was 1994 ml (range 1200-3300 ml). This newly modified anchor B-Lynch compression suture appeared effective in controlling about 75% of PPH due to uterine atony, which allowed uterine conservation. This simple modification can provide a first line surgical step to control PPH. PMID:21306313

Marasinghe, Jeevan P; Condous, George; Seneviratne, Harshalal R; Marasinghe, Upali

2011-03-01

394

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration.

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

395

Estimating and adjusting abnormal networks with unknown parameters and topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of parameters and topology in a complex network often lead to unexpected accidents in complex systems, such as diseases in neural systems and unexpected current in circuit system, so the methods of adjusting the abnormal network back to its normal conditions are necessary to avoid these problems. However, it is not easy to detect the structures and information of each network, even if we can find a network which has the same function as the abnormal network, it is still hard to use it as a reference to adjust the abnormal network because a lot of network information is unknown. In this paper, we design a ``bridging network'' as an information bridge between a normal network and an abnormal network to estimate and control the abnormal network. Through the ``bridging network'' and some adaptive laws, the abnormal parameters and connections in abnormal network can be adjusted to the same conditions as those of the normal network which is chosen as a reference model. Finally, the ``bridging network'' and the abnormal network achieve synchronization with the normal network. Besides, the detailed inner information in normal network and abnormal network can be accurately estimated by this ``bridging network.'' Finally, the nodes in the abnormal network will behave normally after the correction. In this paper, we use Hindmarsh-Rose model as an example to describe our method.

Jia, Chenhui; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Che, Yanqiu