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1

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

2

Future research into abnormal uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding in terms of menstrual disorders and postmenopausal bleeding are common clinical problems in both primary and secondary care. Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have offered opportunities to improve the outcomes of women suffering with these complaints. Future research should concentrate on a robust approach to the assessment of these health technologies, including the use of outcome assessments of importance to patients such as effects on health-related quality of life and taking account of patient preferences. In addition, economic evaluations need to be conducted alongside clinical research to facilitate a rational basis on which to allocate resources and upon which to base clinical decisions. Specific areas highlighted for research in this review include the role of diagnostic technologies incorporating the clinical context within which diagnostic work-up takes place. The clinical application of progesterone antagonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators is a developing area with potential for the treatment of menorrhagia. The place of minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of menstrual dysfunction and fibroid-associated menorrhagia needs more examination, as does the place of outpatient 'ambulatory' settings to provide convenient, effective 'see and treat' targeted services in both primary and secondary care. PMID:17584533

Samuel, Nadia C; Clark, T Justin

2007-12-01

3

The pathophysiology of bleeding disorders presenting as abnormal uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding is often the presenting complaint in women with underlying coagulopathies. A clear understanding of the pathophysiology of common bleeding disorders will help the practicing obstetrician/gynecologist in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The normal hemostatic process can be divided into three phases. The first phase, primary hemostasis, consists of platelet adhesion and aggregation. After vascular injury, proteins in the subendothelium are exposed that promote platelet adhesion. Platelet adhesion is uniquely dependent on von Willebrand factor, a plasma protein that serves as a molecular bridge between components of the vessel wall and the platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX receptor. Activation of the adherent platelets promotes additional platelet recruitment, culminating in the formation of the platelet plug. Quantitative or qualitative defects in either the platelet or von Willebrand factor (von Willebrand disease) lead to defective primary hemostasis. Patients present with a prolonged bleeding time and mucocutaneous bleeding manifestations. In the next phase, secondary hemostasis, the plasma coagulation factors are sequentially activated, which leads to fibrin formation and cross-linking. These reactions take place primarily on the surface of activated platelets and are essential in maintaining the stability of the initial platelet plug. Defective secondary hemostasis arises from congenital or acquired deficiencies in coagulation factors. Although these defects are most often associated with bleeding into joints and soft tissues, other manifestations, including abnormal uterine bleeding, may be present. The prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time serve as initial screening tests for these coagulation disorders, although more specific tests, including factor levels, thrombin time, clot solubility, and mixing studies, are needed to fully define the defect. In the final phase of normal hemostasis, fibrinolysis, the fibrin clot undergoes an orderly process of degradation. Deficiencies in the normal inhibitors of fibrinolysis, such as alpha 2-antiplasmin or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, may be underdiagnosed causes of delayed bleeding because they are not identified by the usual coagulation screening tests. Disorders of primary hemostasis, including thrombocytopenia and von Willebrand disease, are particularly important to consider when evaluating women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Patients with acquired or congenital deficiencies of either coagulation factors or the regulators of the fibrinolytic system may also present with menorrhagia. Accurate diagnosis of a bleeding disorder is essential to the design of an appropriate therapeutic regimen and is likely to have important clinical implications beyond that of the presenting gynecologic complaint. PMID:8828560

Ewenstein, B M

1996-09-01

4

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

5

Cost-Effectiveness of Office Hysteroscopy for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Office diagnostic hysteroscopy allows physicians to directly view the endometrial cavity, tubal ostia, and endocervical canal without taking the patient to the operating room (OR). We sought to determine whether office hysteroscopy performed to evaluate abnormal uterine bleeding decreases the need for hysteroscopy performed in the OR and the associated financial and risk implications. Methods: One hundred thirty patients who underwent office diagnostic hysteroscopy between January 2009 and March 2012 at 2 outpatient clinics in an academic university setting were identified. Records were reviewed from paper charts and electronic medical records. Hospital charts for patients who required hysteroscopy in the OR were reviewed as well. Charge estimates were obtained from our billing department. These results were analyzed for review of the data. Results: Seventy-five of the 130 women who underwent diagnostic office hysteroscopy for abnormal bleeding did not need to undergo hysteroscopy in the OR. This represents estimated savings of $1498 per patient (95% confidence interval, $1051–$1923) in procedure charges. Among the 55 women who underwent OR hysteroscopy, there was 71% agreement between findings on hysteroscopy in the office and in the OR. Conclusion: Office hysteroscopy is a useful diagnostic tool that can help decrease the rate of diagnostic hysteroscopy in the OR under anesthesia when used in a select patient population. PMID:25392645

Santamaria, Estefania; Johnson, Megan; Shuster, Jonathan

2014-01-01

6

Application of 3D Ultrasonography in Detection of Uterine Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Structural pathologies in the uterine cavity such as müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) and intrauterine lesions (fibroids, polyps, synechiae) may have important roles in subinfertility, implantation failure and pregnancy outcome. Various imaging modalities such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), sonography, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are used in the evaluation of MDAs and intrauterine lesions. Recently, three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) has been introduced as a non-invasive, outpatient diagnostic modality. With increased spatial awareness, it is superior to other techniques used for the same purpose. PMID:24851173

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Niknejadi, Maryam; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad

2011-01-01

7

The role of transvaginal ultrasound in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common symptom. Modern management should be based on a “one-stop” approach to which transvaginal ultrasound is ideally suited as a primary diagnostic tool. In premenopausal women focal pathology, such as fibroids and polyps, as well as extra uterine pathology, can be accurately diagnosed. In postmenopausal women endometrial cancer can be excluded. In the majority of

Emeka Okaro; George Condous; Tom Bourne

2004-01-01

8

Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography in the Detection of Uterine Abnormalities in Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of uterine abnormalities has become a core part of the fertility work-up. A variety of modalities can be used for the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Objectives This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in uterine pathologies of infertile patients using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Reproductive Imaging at Royan Institute from October 2007 to October 2008. In this study, the medical documents of 719 infertile women who were investigated with transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and then hysteroscopy were reviewed. All women underwent hysteroscopy in the same cycle time after TVS. Seventy-six out of 719 patients were excluded from the study and 643 patients were studied. TVS was performed in the follicular phase after cessation of bleeding. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for TVS. Hysteroscopy served as the gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for TVS in the diagnosis of uterine abnormality was 79%, 82%, 84% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TVS in detection of polyp were 88.3% and 81.6%, respectively. These indices were 89.2% and 92.5%, respectively for fibroma, 67% and 98.3%, respectively for subseptated uterus and 90.9% and 100%, respectively for septated uterus. Adhesion and unicornuated uterus have the lowest sensitivity with a sensitivity of 35% and PPV of 57.1%. Conclusion TVS is a cost-effective and non-invasive method for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and septum. It is a valuable adjunctive to hysteroscopy with high accuracy for identification and characterization of intrauterine abnormalities. This may lead to a more precise surgery plan and performance. PMID:23329979

Niknejadi, Maryam; Haghighi, Hadieh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Vosough, Ahmad; Moenian, Deena

2012-01-01

9

Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology. Patients and methods The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis. Results Uterine leiomyoma (UL) was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8%) patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7%) patients. In 79 (49.1%) patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs. Conclusion UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound. PMID:24194648

Fonseca-Moutinho, José Alberto; Barbosa, Lígia Silva; Torres, Daniel Gonçalves; Nunes, Sara Morgado

2013-01-01

10

The FIGO classification of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years.  

PubMed

At this juncture, clinical management, education for medical providers, and the design and interpretation of clinical trials have been hampered by the absence of a consensus system for nomenclature for the description of symptoms as well as classification of causes or potential causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). To address this issue, the Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) has designed the PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy and Hyperplasia, Coagulopathy, Ovulatory Disorders, Endometrial Disorders, Iatrogenic Causes, and Not Classified) classification system for causes of AUB in the reproductive years. PMID:21496802

Munro, Malcolm G; Critchley, Hilary O D; Fraser, Ian S

2011-06-01

11

Decidualized Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Mediate Hemostasis, Angiogenesis, and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Factor VII binds trans-membrane tissue factor to initiate hemostasis by forming thrombin. Tissue factor expression is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells during the luteal phase. Long-term progestin only contraceptives elicit: 1) abnormal uterine bleeding from fragile vessels at focal bleeding sites, 2) paradoxically high tissue factor expression at bleeding sites; 3) reduced endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and enhancing reactive oxygen species levels; and 4) aberrant angiogenesis reflecting increased stromal cell-expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, decreased Angiopoietin-1 and increased endothelial cell-expressed Angiopoietin-2. Aberrantly high local vascular permeability enhances circulating factor VII to decidualized stromal cell-expressed tissue factor to generate excess thrombin. Hypoxia-thrombin interactions augment expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 by stromal cells. Thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor and interlerukin-8 synergis-tically augment angiogenesis in a milieu of reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial cell activation. The resulting enhanced vessel fragility promotes abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:19208784

Lockwood, Charles J.; Krikun, Graciela; Hickey, Martha; Huang, S. Joseph; Schatz, Frederick

2011-01-01

12

Aspirin and Preeclampsia Prevention in Patients With Abnormal Uterine Artery Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Background: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence varies between 10-25% among high-risk pregnant patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) reduces the incidence of preeclampsia among pregnant women with abnormal uterine artery flow. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 80 high-risk pregnant women with preeclampsia, who had abnormal findings on Doppler ultrasonography at 12-16 weeks of pregnancy (unilateral notch with RI ? 0.65 or bilateral notch with RI ? 0.55), were randomly divided into two groups; the intervention group was treated with ASA tablet 80 mg, one tablet per day, and the control group was given placebo. Then patients were followed until the end of their pregnancy period, and pregnancy outcomes, including development of preeclampsia, the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), prematurity, type of delivery, birth weight, and Apgar score at one and five minutes were assessed. Data were analyzed using the student's t-test, chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and multivariate logistic regression. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. There was a significant difference between the ASA and placebo groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (2.5% versus 22.5%), adjusting for the neonatal and maternal covariates. Conclusions: ASA prophylaxis can be used for prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk patients with abnormal uterine artery. PMID:25389483

Talari, Hamidreza; Mesdaghinia, Elahe; Abedzadeh Kalahroudi, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

13

Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. Aim: To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. Material and Methods: The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. Results: A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. Conclusion: A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management. PMID:24551634

Damle, Rajshri P.; Dravid, N.V.; Suryawanshi, Kishor H.; Gadre, Arundhati S.; Bagale, Priya S.; Ahire, Neelam

2013-01-01

14

Effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) has been used in the Iranian Traditional Medicine as a treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 30 women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Treatment comprised of giving 15 ml oral myrtle syrup daily (5 ml three times a day) for 7 days starting from the onset of bleeding. The myrtle syrup along with placebo was repeated for 3 consecutive menstrual periods. Menstrual duration and number of used pads were recorded by the Pictorial Blood loss Assessment Chart at the end of each menstrual period. The quality of life was also evaluated using the menorrhagia questionnaire. Results The mean number of bleeding days significantly declined from 10.6?±?2.7 days to 8.2?±?1.9 days after 3 months treatment with the syrup (p?=?0.01) and consequently the participants in the intervention group used fewer pads after 3 months (16.4?±?10.7) compared with the number of pads used at the beginning of the treatment (22.7?±?12.0, p?=?0.01). Bleeding days and number of pads used by the participants in the placebo group did not change significantly. Also significant changes of quality of life scores were observed in the intervention group after 3 months compared to the baseline. Conclusion Myrtle syrup is introduced as a potential remedy for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. PMID:24888316

2014-01-01

15

Correlation between cytological and histopathological examination of the endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common problem for which women seek gynecological consultation. Endometrial aspiration cytology (EAC) is an acceptable and valuable diagnostic procedure for screening the endometrial status. Materials and Methods: Endometrial aspiration using a menstrual regulation (MR) syringe and a 4 mm Karman's cannula was performed just prior to D and C in 100 women presenting with AUB. Smears were reviewed for cytomorphological findings and were correlated with the histopathological findings. These findings were categorized as benign endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, malignancy and inadequate smears. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 19 to 70 years. In our study, the accuracy in diagnosing benign conditions of endometrium, hyperplasia, and malignancy on aspiration cytology were 93.88%, 96.94% and 96.84%, respectively. Conclusions: Endometrial aspiration is an effective, useful and a minimally invasive procedure. With an experienced cytologist, it can be used routinely for the primary investigation of women with AUB, provided all the points of discrepancies are taken care of.

Kaur, Navjot; Chahal, Jagjit S; Bandlish, Usha; Kaul, Rashmi; Mardi, Kavita; Kaur, Harjit

2014-01-01

16

Portulaca oleracea L. in the treatment of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding: a pilot clinical trial.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common cause of referral to the gynecology clinic. Portulaca oleracea L., commonly named purslane, is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat AUB. To verify this use, ten premenopausal women with AUB comprising menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea and intermenstrual bleeding who had not responded to standard drugs and were candidates for hysterectomy participated in the clinical trial. Endometrial biopsies demonstrated the etiologies of AUB in six (60%) patients, fibroma; one (10%) patient, endometrial hyperplasia and one (10%) patient, endometrial cyst. Endometrial biopsies of two (20%) subjects were normal. The subjects took 5 g of purslane seeds powder in a glass of water every 4 h orally 48 h after the onset of menstruation for 3 days. The participants were requested to report the effects of seeds powder on the volume, duration and pattern of bleeding. Eight (80%) patients reported that the duration and volume of bleeding had reduced and their patterns of periods had normalized. The seeds powder was ineffective in two (20%) patients. One of the patients had endometrial hyperplasia and the other had fibroma. No adverse effects were reported. AUB did not recur in the patients responding to treatment for the duration of a 3 months follow-up. The results suggest that purslane seeds could be effective and safe in the treatment of AUB. PMID:19274703

Shobeiri, S F; Sharei, S; Heidari, A; Kianbakht, S

2009-10-01

17

Effects of age, parity, and pregnancy abnormalities on foal birth weight and uterine blood flow in the mare.  

PubMed

Color Doppler sonography has become routine for the evaluation of high-risk pregnancies in human medicine. Previous studies documenting uterine blood flow parameters in the pregnant mare have found a decrease in peripheral blood flow resistance in the first pregnancy weeks and an increase in uterine blood flow, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. However, these studies involved only a small number of mares. No naturally occurring pregnancy abnormalities occurred that would allow blood flow changes to be retrospectively examined and analyzed. The objective of the present study was to monitor the diameter of the uterine artery, uterine blood flow, and the combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) throughout gestation in a large number of pregnant mares of different age and parity. In the present study, 51 warmblood mares were examined by ultrasonography on Days 16 and 30, at monthly intervals until Day 300, and then every 10 days from Day 300 until parturition. After localization of the uterine artery ipsilateral and contralateral to the conceptus, the diameter of each artery, the uterine blood flow (pulsatility index [PI], blood flow volume [BFV], and the presence of early diastolic notch), and the CTUP were measured and correlated to placental and foal birth weight after delivery. Furthermore, the effect of age (3-7 years [n = 16], 8-11 years [n = 17], 12-16 years [n = 18]) and parity (0-2 foals [n = 22], 3-4 foals [n = 15], 5-8 foals [n = 14]) on these parameters were analyzed. The diameter of the uterine artery increased more than threefold in the ipsilateral artery (0.40 ± 0.07-1.33 ± 0.08 cm) and 2.7-fold in the contralateral artery (0.39 ± 0.07-1.07 ± 0.08 cm [P < 0.0001]). The early diastolic notch disappeared in the pulse waves in 98% of the ipsilateral arteries and 85.7% in the contralateral arteries on Day 150 when placentation is complete. Blood flow volume increased 50-fold in the ipsilateral artery during pregnancy and increased dramatically in the last trimester. The median foal weight was 52.6 kg. Mares with heavier foals (>52.6 kg) had a 1.38-fold higher BFV in the last 2 months (P < 0.05) compared with lighter foals. Pulsatility index decreased 2-fold until completion of placentation at around Day 150 and continued to decline until Day 240 where it then stayed constant and at a low level until delivery. Age predominantly influenced PI, whereas the diameter of the uterine arteries, which is correlated to BFV (r ipsilateral = 0.919, P < 0.0001 and r contralateral = 0.909, P < 0.000), was strongly affected by parity. Four mares spontaneously aborted (Days 200, 208, 213, and 246) and four mares spontaneously developed placentitis that was diagnosed by the presence of an increased CTUP and/or placental pathology after delivery. Although not statistically relevant, the aborting mares showed a slightly increased total BFV, but no differences in PI were seen compared with mares without abnormalities of pregnancy. Mares that developed placentitis had a late (Days 150-210) disappearance of the early diastolic notch and an increased PI in the first half of pregnancy. In conclusion, the study documented differences in uterine artery diameter and blood flow in a large number of pregnant mares. Furthermore, this is the first known report to document uteroplacental blood flow changes associated with naturally occurring placentitis and abortion in mares. PMID:25483867

Klewitz, Jutta; Struebing, Corinna; Rohn, Karl; Goergens, Alexandra; Martinsson, Gunilla; Orgies, Florian; Probst, Jeanette; Hollinshead, Fiona; Bollwein, Heinrich; Sieme, Harald

2015-03-01

18

[Epilepsy in patient with structural autosomal abnormality].  

PubMed

Few cases have been reported on the structural autosomal abnormality (SAA) focusing on epilepsy excluding those of Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. We investigated patients who had SAA with special reference to epilepsy. Various types of epilepsy were observed in its severity in our cases as well as previously reported cases. There was no correlation between the degree of mental retardation, motor dysfunction, brain damage on CT scan, and severity of epilepsy. Some cases had brain dysplasia, such as agenesis of corpus callosum, pachygyria, and mega cisterna magna. No correlation was found between these brain dysplasia and severity of epilepsy. It is important for a pediatrician to find a common epileptic syndrome or EEG abnormality in a SAA. An observation of symptoms in patients with the same chromosomal deletion or duplication will lead to identification of responsible gene for an epileptic symptom. PMID:7803078

Sugama, S; Atsukawa, K; Kusano, K; Akatsuka, A; Ochiai, Y; Tsuzura, S; Maekawa, K

1994-11-01

19

Uterine prolapse  

MedlinePLUS

Pelvic relaxation - uterine prolapse; Pelvic floor hernia; Prolapsed uterus ... Muscles, ligaments, and other structures hold the uterus in the ... into the vaginal canal. This is called prolapse. This condition ...

20

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... is taken from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). It is looked at under a microscope. What ... that occurs when the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows too much. Fibroids: Benign (noncancerous) growths that ...

21

Uterine structural anomalies and arthrogryposis-death of an urban legend.  

PubMed

In a review of 2,300 cases of arthrogryposis collected over the last 35 years, 33 cases of maternal uterine structural anomalies were identified (1.3%). These cases of arthrogryposis represent a very heterogeneous group of types of arthrogryposis. Over half of individuals affected with arthrogryposis demonstrated asymmetry and some responded to removal of constraint, 29 of the 33 cases of arthrogryposis whose mother had a uterine structural anomaly could be identified as having a specific recognizable type of arthrogryposis. Only two cases (0.08%) had primarily proximal contractures that returned to almost normal function within 1 year. Craniofacial asymmetry was the most striking finding in these two cases. A quarter of cases had ruptured membranes between 32 and 36 weeks and either oligohydramnios or prematurity. The pregnancy histories of the mothers with uterine structural anomalies were typical in having infertility, multiple miscarriages, and stillbirths. The finding of only two cases which are likely to have multiple congenital contractures on the basis of uterine constraint suggests that it is a very rare primary cause of arthrogryposis. PMID:23239599

Hall, Judith G

2013-01-01

22

DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS  

E-print Network

help identify how drug abuse impacts the human brain, and provide therapeutic targets for drug-induced brain injury. Figure 1. Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure. ...... #12;DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS 1 P.M. Thompson, 1 K

Thompson, Paul

23

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

24

Brief Report: Brain Mechanisms in Autism: Functional and Structural Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes results of research on functional and structural abnormalities of the brain in autism. The current concept of causation is seen to involve multiple biologic levels. A consistent profile of brain function and dysfunction across methods has been found and specific neuropathologic findings have been found; but some research…

Minshew, Nancy J.

1996-01-01

25

Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain  

PubMed Central

We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure. PMID:18991959

Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

2009-01-01

26

Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment. PMID:24771247

Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

2014-04-26

27

Cardiac ultrasonography in structural abnormalities and arrhythmias. Recognition and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Fetal cardiac ultrasonography has become an important tool in the evaluation of fetuses at risk for cardiac anomalies. It can both guide prenatal treatment and assist the management and timing of delivery. We recommend that a fetal echocardiogram be done when there is a family history of congenital heart disease; maternal disease that may affect the fetus; a history of maternal drug use, either therapeutic or illegal; evidence of other fetal abnormalities; or evidence of fetal hydrops. The optimal timing of evaluation is 18 to 22 weeks' gestation. An entire range of structural cardiac defects can be visualized prenatally, including atrioventricular septal defect, ventricular septal defect, cardiomyopathy, ventricular outlet obstruction, and complex cardiac defects. The outcome for a fetus with a recognized abnormality is unfavourable, with less than 50% surviving the neonatal period. Fetal cardiac arrhythmias are also a common occurrence, 15% in the series described here. Premature atrial or ventricular contractions are most commonly seen and usually require no treatment. Supraventricular tachycardia can result in hydrops and require in utero treatment to prevent fetal demise. Complete heart block, particularly in association with structural heart disease, has a poor prognosis for fetal survival. Images PMID:8236970

Brook, M M; Silverman, N H; Villegas, M

1993-01-01

28

Clinical pattern and spectrum of endometrial pathologies in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding in Pakistan: need to adopt a more conservative approach to treatment.  

PubMed

BackgroundAbnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common debilitating menstrual problems and has remained one of the most frequent indications for hysterectomy in developing countries. Approximately in 40% of hysterectomy specimens, no definite organic pathology could be established. The problem is common worldwide but causes may vary from one region to another. This study may help gynecologists in our population to improve their therapeutic strategies by promoting minimally invasive uterus sparing modalities such as endometrial ablation and hysteroscopic resection of early proliferative lesions.MethodsIt was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at Liaquat National Hospital from 15th January 2010 till 14th July 2011 over a period of 18 months. Women who underwent dilatation and curettage for endometrial sampling with complaints of AUB were included in the study and histopathologic spectrum was determined.ResultsPolymenorrhea was the most common presenting pattern (30%, 72/241) with reproductive age women being the most susceptible (49.3%,119/241). The commonest histopathological spectrum was normal menstrual pattern (34%, 82/241) and the commonest pathology was hormonal imbalance (27%, 65/241), followed by endometrial polyp (14%, 34/241), chronic endometritis (12%, 28/241), atrophic endometrium (6%, 15/241), endometrial hyperplasia (5%, 12/241), and endometrial carcinoma (2%, 5/241). Chronic endometritis was commonly seen in reproductive age (18%, 21/119); hormonal imbalance (45%, 35/77) and endometrial hyperplasia (6.5%, 5/77) in perimenopausal age; endometrial polyp (35.5%, 16/45) and endometrial carcinoma (9%, 4/45) in postmenopausal age.ConclusionFrequency of benign endometrial pathology is quite high in AUB, 236 participants (98%, 236/241). Histopathological spectrum in patients with AUB is quite variable with respect to age. The most common pattern of AUB was polymenorrhea. The most common pathology was hormonal imbalance. It is suggested that age was associated with more progressive lesions found in peri and postmenopausal age group such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Yet endometrial polyp was the most common pathology found in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the management strategy should be individualized, as in most cases a restrictive approach is appropriate in order to avoid unnecessary hysterectomies. PMID:25370003

Abid, Mariam; Hashmi, Atif; Malik, Babar; Haroon, Saroona; Faridi, Naveen; Edhi, Muhammad; Khan, Mehmood

2014-11-01

29

Retrospective database analysis of clinical outcomes and costs for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding among women enrolled in US Medicaid programs  

PubMed Central

Background Women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) may be treated surgically with hysterectomy or global endometrial ablation (GEA), an outpatient procedure. We compared the costs and clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures for AUB among women in Medicaid programs. Methods The Truven Health MarketScan® Medicaid Multi-State Database was used to identify Medicaid women aged 30–55 years with AUB who newly initiated GEA or hysterectomy (index event) during 2006–2010. Patients were required to have 12 months of continuous enrollment pre-index and post-index. Baseline characteristics were assessed in the pre-index period; health care utilization and costs (2011 USD), treatment complications, and reinterventions were assessed in the post-index period. Results Of 1,880 women who met the study criteria (mean age 40.7 years), 53.4% were Caucasian, 33.1% were African-American, and 2.3% were Hispanic; many (42.8%) received their Medicaid eligibility due to disability. Similar proportions received GEA (50.9%) or hysterectomy (49.1%). At baseline, both groups also had similar Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity scores (0.65), and use of antibiotics (69.4%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (56.3%), and oral contraceptives (5.3%). More hysterectomy patients than GEA patients had a treatment-related complication (52% versus 36%, respectively, P<0.001). Initial treatment costs were higher for hysterectomy ($11,270) than for GEA ($3,958, P<0.001); monthly gynecology-related costs in the remainder of the year were not significantly different for hysterectomy ($63) and GEA ($16, P=0.11). Conclusion Hysterectomy was nearly three times more costly than GEA for initial treatment of AUB, and associated with more treatment-related complications. These results may be informative in the context of new federal mandates for Medicaid expansion, which are likely to focus on cost savings through use of outpatient treatments such as GEA. PMID:25336979

Bonafede, Machaon M; Miller, Jeffrey D; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K; Lukes, Andrea S; Meyer, Nicole M; Lenhart, Gregory M

2014-01-01

30

Uterine factors.  

PubMed

Uterine anomalies are one of the most common parental causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, occurring in about 19% of patients. Congenital uterine anomalies are most likely caused by HOX gene mutations, although the mechanism is probably polygenic. There are no known environmental causes other than estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as diethylstilbestrol. Acquired uterine anomalies may result from uterine trauma (adhesions) or benign growths of the myometrium (fibroids) or endometrium (polyps). Although randomized controlled trials are lacking, surgical treatment is recommended for repair of uterine septa, and for removal of severe adhesions and submucosal fibroids, especially if no other causes are identified. PMID:24491984

Jaslow, Carolyn R

2014-03-01

31

Uterine Vascular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

2013-01-01

32

Specific binding of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites and other substances to bovine calf uterine estrogen receptor: structure-binding relationships.  

PubMed

The objectives of this research were: (1) to survey a wide variety of structurally diverse (and mostly chlorinated) aromatic chemicals for specific binding to the calf uterine estrogen receptor; (2) to develop a quantitative structure-binding relationship (QSBR) for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs). This report specifically includes data on substances that did not exhibit specific binding to ER thereby exploring the structural requirements for specific binding to the estrogen receptor. Although several other QSBRs for OH-PCBs have been reported, this study presents data on a larger, environmentally relevant set of OH-PCBs than previously reported. Fifty three chemicals were tested for the ability to bind specifically to calf uterine estrogen receptor. All but three OH-PCBs bound specifically to calf uterine ER. For DDT compounds, receptor binding affinity followed the pattern: o,p'-DDT > o,p'-DDE > o,p'-DDD (Not active). Also exhibiting measurable affinity were 17 beta-estradiol (a positive control and the native ligand of the estrogen receptor), 2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl and 4-chloro-2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol. Substances that did not bind to calf uterine estrogen receptor comprised several individual PCB congeners, chlorinated naphthalenes and naphthalenols, chlorinated bibenzyls, chlorinated phenols, and 9-chloro-retene. For 25 hydroxylated PCBs, a five parameter QSBR was developed using multiple linear regression and selection of the most parsimonius model from a total of seven molecular modeling parameters examined. The QSBR model predicted the ER binding log (IC50) to within one log unit. PMID:10492903

Kramer, V J; Giesy, J P

1999-08-15

33

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Structural Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The neuropathogenesis of bipolar disor- der remains poorly described. Previous work suggests that patients with bipolar disorder may have abnormalities in neural pathways that are hypothesized to modulate hu- man mood states. We examined differences in brain struc- tural volumes associated with these pathways between patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized with mania and healthy community volunteers. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Stephen M. Strakowski; Melissa P. DelBello; Kenji W. Sax; Molly E. Zimmerman; Paula K. Shear; John M. Hawkins; Eric R. Larson

1999-01-01

34

Abnormal Cerebral Structure Is Present at Term in Premature Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Long-term studies of the outcome of very prematurely born infants have clearly documented that the majority of such infants have sig- nificant motor, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. How- ever, there is a limited understanding of the nature of the cerebral abnormality underlying these adverse neuro- logic outcomes. Aim. The overall aim of this study was to define quantitatively the

Terrie E. Inder; Simon K. Warfield; Hong Wang; Petra S. Hüppi; Joseph J. Volpe

2005-01-01

35

Cholangiocarcinoma Presenting as Uterine Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the female genital tract are rare, with metastatic disease restricted to the uterus being even less frequent. The primary tumor is most often intragenital rather than extragenital. The diagnosis is usually made after occurrence of gynecological symptoms. We describe the case of a 26-year-old female, in whom a curettage for menorrhagia revealed a uterine malignancy, at first thought to be a carcinosarcoma. Biochemistry only showed iron deficiency anemia. Imaging showed discrepant results with liver lesions, suspect of neoplastic or inflammatory disease. She underwent an abdominal hysterectomy and, peroperatively, a frozen section of a mass in the liver hilus demonstrated a cholangiocarcinoma. The diagnosis of a uterine metastasized cholangiocarcinoma was made. We emphasize the fact that uterine metastases have to be excluded in every woman with abnormal uterine bleeding and a personal history of malignancy. However, our case also indicates that gynecological metastatic disease may be the first presentation of an extragenital primary neoplasm. PMID:25610676

Dendas, W.; Cappelle, L.; Verguts, J.; Orye, G.

2014-01-01

36

Uterine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

37

Uterine Fibroids  

MedlinePLUS

... it? How is it diagnosed? What are the treatments for it? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Uterine Fibroids: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ...

38

Particulate structures suggestive of viral infection, visualized in human uterine cervix cancer cells.  

PubMed

Various types of intranuclear particles and intramitochondrial inclusions of possibly viral nature are demonstrated by thin-section electron microscopy of uterine cervix cancer cells, as well as in mast cells infiltrating the tumor stroma, and their significance is briefly discussed. PMID:6218397

Georgescu, L; Teodorescu, M; Dr?gan, M; Diosi, P; Stefanovici-P?tra?cu, O

1982-01-01

39

Rare Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities in Prenatal Diagnosis; Clinical and Cytogenetic Findings on 10125 Prenatal Cases.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was presentation of the ultrasonographic findings and perinatal autopsy of cases with rare chromosomal abnormalities. Material and Method: A total of 10125 prenatal cases over 17 years including 8731 amniocentesis, 973 chorionic villus sampling, and 421 fetal blood sampling cases were evaluated for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Conventional cytogenetic studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies, and Array-CGH analysis techniques were used for genetic analysis. Results: A structural chromosomal abnormality was observed in 95 cases. The most frequently observed structural abnormalities were balanced translocations with a frequency of 53.7% (51 cases) followed by unbalanced translocations (16.8%), inversions (11.6%), supernumerary marker chromosomes (8.4%), duplications (4.2%), deletions and ring chromosomes (2.1%) and complex translocation (1.1%). Rare structural chromosomal abnormalities including de novo balanced translocations, unbalanced translocations, inversions, duplications, deletions, ring chromosomes, and supernumerary marker chromosomes were detected in 24 cases. Conclusion: The rate of rare chromosomal abnormalities varies from 2.4% (South East Ireland) to 12.9% (Northern England) in Europe with a total rate of 7.4/10 000 births. In our study, the overall rate of chromosomal abnormality in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was 3.7%, similar to South East Ireland. Ultrasonographic and perinatal autopsy findings of the cases with rare structural chromosomal abnormalities are important for proper genetic counseling for further similar cases. PMID:25301051

Yakut, Sezin; Cet?n, Zafer; S?m?ek, Mehmet; Mend?c?o?lu, Ibrahim Inanç; Toru, Havva Serap; Karaüzüm, Sibel Berker; Lülec?, Güven

2014-10-10

40

Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13  

SciTech Connect

A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

41

Sonohysterography is a useful diagnostic approach for uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of abnormal uterine bleeding; nevertheless, it is a potentially life-threatening condition when the diagnosis is not made. We report a case of uterine AVM with a secondary uterine hematoma diagnosed 2 weeks after curettage due to spontaneous abortion. Ultrasound examination revealed a mixed echogenic mass of approximately 4 cm × 1.5 cm with no blood flow and an additional contiguous heterogeneous mass with turbulent blood flow depicted by color Doppler. Transvaginal sonohysterography enabled us to exclude residual chorionic tissues and to make precise diagnosis of uterine AVM with a secondary hematoma. PMID:24888955

Mishina, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

2014-06-01

42

Neuropsychological Near Normality and Brain Structure Abnormality in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive deficits are prominent in schizophrenia. Patients have an average score one standard deviation below normal on a broad spectrum of cognitive tests. It has been repeatedly noted, however, that 20%–25% of patients differ from this general pattern and score close to normal on neuropsychological testing. This study used brain morphometry to 1) identify brain abnormalities associated with more severe cognitive deficits and 2) help determine whether cognitively relatively intact patients perform better because they have less severe illness or because they have a different illness. Method Patients were assigned to a neuropsychologically near normal (N=21) subgroup if they scored within 0.5 standard deviation of healthy comparison subjects (N=30) on four tests of attention and verbal and nonverbal working memory, and to a neuropsychologically impaired (N= 54) group if they scored at least 1.0 standard deviation below that of comparison subjects. Subgroup assignments were confirmed with the California Verbal Learning Test and degraded-stimulus Continuous Performance Test. Volumes of ventricular compartments, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, cerebellum, and regional cortical gray and white matter were dependent variables. Differences among groups were evaluated by using linear mixed-model multivariate analyses with gender, age, and height as covariates. Results Both neuropsychologically near normal and neuropsychologically impaired patients had markedly smaller gray matter and larger third ventricle volumes than healthy comparison subjects. Only neuropsychologically impaired patients, however, had significantly smaller white matter and larger lateral ventricle volumes than healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions Although both neuropsychologically impaired and neuropsycho-logically near normal patients have marked neuropathology in their gray matter, the relative absence of white matter pathology in the neuropsychologically near normal group suggests the possibility of differences in the disease process. PMID:18765481

Wexler, Bruce E.; Zhu, Hongtu; Bell, Morris D.; Nicholls, Sarah S.; Fulbright, Robert K.; Gore, John C.; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Amat, Jose; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S.

2015-01-01

43

Micropreparative electrophoresis of globin chains on cellulose acetate film in structural identification of abnormal human hemoglobins.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid micropreparative method for isolating 5 to 30 nmol of globin chain, followed by structural identification of abnormal human hemoglobins, is described. The method is based on the electrophoretic separation of globins on ordinary Cellogel films under denaturating conditions with subsequent cutting out of the protein zones and solubilization of Cellogel and the electrophoretic buffer components in a specially selected solvent in which the globin chain undergoes quantitative precipitation. The method makes it possible to simplify and speed up the structural identification of commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobins. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed along with its potential uses in structural protein chemistry. PMID:3407907

Spivak, V A; Lutsenko, I N

1988-05-15

44

Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

2013-01-01

45

Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide  

PubMed Central

Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

2014-01-01

46

Uterine Rbpj is required for embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual remodeling via Notch pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Coordinated uterine-embryonic axis formation and decidual remodeling are hallmarks of mammalian post-implantation embryo development. Embryonic-uterine orientation is determined at initial implantation and synchronized with decidual development. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these events remain elusive despite its discovery a long time ago. In the present study, we found that uterine-specific deletion of Rbpj, the nuclear transducer of Notch signaling, resulted in abnormal embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual patterning at post-implantation stages, leading to substantial embryo loss. We further revealed that prior to embryo attachment, Rbpj confers on-time uterine lumen shape transformation via physically interacting with uterine estrogen receptor (ER?) in a Notch pathway-independent manner, which is essential for the initial establishment of embryo orientation in alignment with uterine axis. While at post-implantation stages, Rbpj directly regulates the expression of uterine matrix metalloproteinase in a Notch pathway-dependent manner, which is required for normal post-implantation decidual remodeling. These results demonstrate that uterine Rbpj is essential for normal embryo development via instructing the initial embryonic-uterine orientation and ensuring normal decidual patterning in a stage-specific manner. Our data also substantiate the concept that normal mammalian embryonic-uterine orientation requires proper guidance from developmentally controlled uterine signaling. PMID:24971735

Zhang, Shuang; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Cheng, Xiaohong; Chen, Yongjie; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shumin; Lu, Jinhua; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco; Pear, Warren S; Han, Hua; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Qi; Duan, Enkui; Wang, Haibin

2014-08-01

47

Uterine Rbpj is required for embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual remodeling via Notch pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Coordinated uterine-embryonic axis formation and decidual remodeling are hallmarks of mammalian post-implantation embryo development. Embryonic-uterine orientation is determined at initial implantation and synchronized with decidual development. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these events remain elusive despite its discovery a long time ago. In the present study, we found that uterine-specific deletion of Rbpj, the nuclear transducer of Notch signaling, resulted in abnormal embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual patterning at post-implantation stages, leading to substantial embryo loss. We further revealed that prior to embryo attachment, Rbpj confers on-time uterine lumen shape transformation via physically interacting with uterine estrogen receptor (ER?) in a Notch pathway-independent manner, which is essential for the initial establishment of embryo orientation in alignment with uterine axis. While at post-implantation stages, Rbpj directly regulates the expression of uterine matrix metalloproteinase in a Notch pathway-dependent manner, which is required for normal post-implantation decidual remodeling. These results demonstrate that uterine Rbpj is essential for normal embryo development via instructing the initial embryonic-uterine orientation and ensuring normal decidual patterning in a stage-specific manner. Our data also substantiate the concept that normal mammalian embryonic-uterine orientation requires proper guidance from developmentally controlled uterine signaling. PMID:24971735

Zhang, Shuang; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Cheng, Xiaohong; Chen, Yongjie; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shumin; Lu, Jinhua; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco; Pear, Warren S; Han, Hua; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yan-ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Qi; Duan, Enkui; Wang, Haibin

2014-01-01

48

Early Abnormal Temperature Structure of X-ray Looptop Source of Solar Flares  

E-print Network

. In classical flare models, an energy releasing site (or the site of magnetic reconnection) is located aboveEarly Abnormal Temperature Structure of X-ray Looptop Source of Solar Flares Jinhua Shen1-ray looptop source at higher energy bands will be higher in altitude, for which we can define as normal

49

Abnormal cerebral structure in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy demonstrated with voxel-based analysis of MRI.  

PubMed

MRI scans of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) are normal on visual assessment. Using an interactive anatomical segmentation technique and volume-of-interest measurements of MRI, we showed recently that patients with IGE had significantly larger cortical grey matter than control subjects. Further, 40% of individual patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), a syndrome of IGE in adolescence, had significant abnormalities of cerebral structure. In this study, we applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of structural MRI from 20 patients with JME and 30 control subjects. The cortical grey matter of each individual JME patient and the group of JME patients was contrasted with that of the group of 30 normal subjects. The voxel-based SPM comparison between the group of JME patients and the control subjects showed an increase in cortical grey matter in the mesial frontal lobes of the patients. Analysis of individual patients revealed significant abnormalities of cortical grey matter in five out of 20 JME patients, four of whom had been shown to have widespread abnormalities using the previous volume of interest technique. These findings indicate a structural cerebral abnormality in JME, with involvement of mesiofrontal cortical structures. PMID:10545395

Woermann, F G; Free, S L; Koepp, M J; Sisodiya, S M; Duncan, J S

1999-11-01

50

Uterine & Ovarian Cancer I. Uterine Cancer  

E-print Network

to endometrial cancer C. Prevalence & Incidence D. Causes E. Risk factors F. Detection G. Treatment II. Ovarian Cancer A. Risk factors B. Symptoms C. Detection D. Treatment I. Endometrial Cancer ­ Uterine Cancer1 Uterine & Ovarian Cancer I. Uterine Cancer A. Atypical Hyperplasia B. From hyperplasia

Dever, Jennifer A.

51

Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1995-01-02

52

Uterine Health and Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonspecific uterine infections reduce the reproduc- tive efficiency of cows and the profit potential of dairy farms. Fortunately, most cows do not develop severe uterine infections. The term uterine infection indi- cates that the uterus is contaminated with pathogenic organisms. Actinomyces pyogenes, either alone or with other bacteria, is often associated with uterine infec- tions. When A. pyogenes was isolated

Gregory S. Lewis

1997-01-01

53

Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

2015-02-01

54

Exomic landscape of MED12 mutation-negative and -positive uterine leiomyomas.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomas are extremely common tumors originating from the smooth muscle cells of myometrium. We recently reported recurrent somatic mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) in the majority of these lesions, and analyzed chromosomal abnormalities in leiomyomas by whole-genome sequencing. The aim of our study was to examine in detail uterine leiomyoma exomes, to search for driver mutations in MED12 mutation-negative leiomyomas and to scrutinize MED12 mutation-positive leimyomas for additional contributing mutations. We analyzed whole exome sequencing data of 27 uterine leiomyomas (12 MED12 mutation-negative and 15 MED12 mutation-positive) and their paired normal myometrium. We searched for genes, which would be recurrently mutated. No such genes were identified in MED12 mutation-negative uterine leiomyomas. Similarly, MED12 mutation-positive leiomyomas displayed no additional recurrent changes. The complete lack of novel driver point mutations in the examined series highlights the unique role of MED12 mutations in genesis of uterine leiomyomas, and suggests that these mutations alone may be sufficient for tumor development. Additional factors that cannot be detected by exome sequencing, such as somatic structural rearrangements, epigenetic events and intronic variants, are likely to have a particular impact to the development of MED12 wild-type lesions. PMID:23913526

Mäkinen, Netta; Vahteristo, Pia; Bützow, Ralf; Sjöberg, Jari; Aaltonen, Lauri A

2014-02-15

55

Abnormal interactions between context, memory structure, and mood in schizophrenia: An ERP investigation.  

PubMed

This study used event-related potentials to examine interactions between mood, sentence context, and semantic memory structure in schizophrenia. Seventeen male chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy control subjects read sentence pairs after positive, negative, or neutral mood induction. Sentences ended with expected words (EW), within-category violations (WCV), or between-category violations (BCV). Across all moods, patients showed sensitivity to context indexed by reduced N400 to EW relative to both WCV and BCV. However, they did not show sensitivity to the semantic memory structure. N400 abnormalities were particularly enhanced under a negative mood in schizophrenia. These findings suggest abnormal interactions between mood, context processing, and connections within semantic memory in schizophrenia, and a specific role of negative mood in modulating semantic processes in this disease. PMID:25047946

Pinheiro, Ana P; Del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; Mezin, Jenna; Rezaii, Neguine; McCarley, Robert W; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

2015-01-01

56

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: a purely regulatory approach, or by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J. L.; Skocypec, R. D.; Thomas, R. K.

1993-09-01

57

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

1993-10-01

58

Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in end stage renal disease patients with elevated cardiac troponin T  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify in a prospective observational study the cardiac structural and functional abnormalities and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) with a raised cardiac troponin T (cTnT) concentration.Methods: 126 renal transplant candidates were studied over a two year period. Clinical, biochemical, echocardiographic, coronary angiographic, and dobutamine stress echocardiographic (DSE) data were examined in comparison with cTnT

R Sharma; D C Gaze; D Pellerin; R L Mehta; H Gregson; C P Streather; P O Collinson; S J D Brecker

2006-01-01

59

Cost effectiveness of endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® system versus other global ablation modalities and hysterectomy for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objectives Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) interferes with physical, emotional, and social well-being, impacting the quality of life of more than 10 million women in the USA. Hysterectomy, the most common surgical treatment of AUB, has significant morbidity, low mortality, long recovery, and high associated health care costs. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) provides a surgical alternative with reduced morbidity, cost, and recovery time. The NovaSure® system utilizes unique radiofrequency impedance-based GEA technology. This study evaluated cost effectiveness of AUB treatment with NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and versus hysterectomy from the US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Methods A health state transition (semi-Markov) model was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from commercial and Medicaid claims database analyses, supplemented by published literature. Three hypothetical cohorts of women receiving AUB interventions were simulated over 1-, 3-, and 5-year horizons to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for NovaSure, other GEA modalities, and hysterectomy. Results Model analyses show lower costs for NovaSure-treated patients than for those treated with other GEA modalities or hysterectomy over all time frames under commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. By Year 3, cost savings versus other GEA were $930 (commercial) and $3,000 (Medicaid); cost savings versus hysterectomy were $6,500 (commercial) and $8,900 (Medicaid). Coinciding with a 43%–71% reduction in need for re-ablation, there were 69%–88% fewer intervention/reintervention complications for NovaSure-treated patients versus other GEA modalities, and 82%–91% fewer versus hysterectomy. Furthermore, NovaSure-treated patients had fewer days of work absence and short-term disability. Cost-effectiveness metrics showed NovaSure treatment as economically dominant over other GEA modalities in all circumstances. With few exceptions, similar results were shown for NovaSure treatment versus hysterectomy. Conclusion Model results demonstrate strong financial favorability for NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and hysterectomy from commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. PMID:25610002

Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Bonafede, Machaon M; Basinski, Cindy M; Lukes, Andrea S; Troeger, Kathleen A

2015-01-01

60

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... Macy Ladd Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology Harvard Medical School Deputy Editor Kristen Eckler, MD, ... Health Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology Harvard Medical School Find 0 Find synonyms Find ...

61

Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

62

Genomic characterization of prenatally detected chromosomal structural abnormalities using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S; Florio, Joanne R; Rossi, Michael R; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J

2011-07-01

63

Asymptomatic uterine torsion in a pregnant woman.  

PubMed

Some degree rotation of the gravid uterus in the third trimester of pregnancy is not an abnormal finding. However, extreme uterine torsion of 180° around its cervical junction is a relatively rare event in obstetrical practice. We report here such a case that detected at laparotomy for an emergency cesarean section due to rapture of amniotic membrane. PMID:25278659

Farhadifar, Fariba; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Shahgheibi, Sholeh; Soofizadeh, Nasrin; Rezaie, Masomeh

2014-08-01

64

Pharmacological treatment of uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroids (UF) are common, benign gynecologic tumors, affecting one in three to four women, with estimates of up to 80%, depending on the population studied. Their etiology is not well established, but it is under the influence of several risk factors, such as early menarche, nulliparity and family history. More than 50% of affected women are asymptomatic, but the lesions may be related to bothersome symptoms, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain and bloating or urinary symptoms. The treatment of UF is classically surgical; however, various medical options are available, providing symptom control while minimizing risks and complications. A large number of clinical trials have evaluated commonly used medical treatments and potentially effective new ones. Through a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, through which we included 41 studies out of 7658 results, we thoroughly explored the different pharmacological options available for management of UF, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25364587

Moroni, Rm; Vieira, Cs; Ferriani, Ra; Candido-Dos-Reis, Fj; Brito, Lgo

2014-09-01

65

Postpartum uterine infection in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum uterine infections results from uterine contamination with bacteria during parturition. The prevalence of uterine infections varies considerably among studies. Uterine infection implies adherence of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa, colonization or penetration of the epithelium, and\\/or release of bacterial toxins that lead to establishment of uterine disease. The development of uterine disease depends on the immune response of the

O. I. Azawi

2008-01-01

66

Uterine Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Uterine cancer ...

67

Prompt Diagnosis and Treatment of Uterine Arcuate Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Post–partum haemorrhage is a major determinant of maternal mortality. Traditionally, cases of post–partum haemorrhage caused by arterial injuries were managed by caesarean hysterectomies or bilateral internal iliac artery ligations. The diagnosis of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations of uterine artery are often missed. Uterine curettage, caesarean section or vaginal delivery can result in uterine vascular anomalies like pseudo aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arteriovenous fistula and rupture of uterine vessels. Colour Doppler ultrasound pelvis allows detection of these vascular abnormalities. It helps in differentiating the vascular abnormalities that require embolization from non–vascular abnormalities which can be managed by uterine curretage. Vessel malformations can be treated safely with transcatheter uterine artery embolization, but they can develop disastrous consequences with inadvertent uterine curettage. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization after pelvic angiography is the treatment of choice for uterine artery malformations and it has the advantage of preserving the reproductive capacity. We recommend a routine use of colour Doppler ultrasound pelvis for evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:24298511

Sharma, Nidhi; Ganesh, Deepa; Devi, Lakshmi; Srinivasan, Jayashree; Ranga, Upasana

2013-01-01

68

Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy  

PubMed Central

The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

69

Center for Uterine Fibroids  

MedlinePLUS

... collaboration to search for the causes of and treatments for uterine fibroids. The Mission of the Center for Uterine Fibroids ... growth and development To develop and test innovative treatment options for uterine fibroids including growth factor-directed therapy and gene therapy ...

70

Abnormal crystal structure stability of nanocrystalline Sm2Co17 permanent magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal crystal structure stability is discovered in the single-phase nanocrystalline Sm2Co17 permanent magnet. Three kinds of crystal structures, namely the rhombohedral Th2Zn17-type (2:17 R), the hexagonal TbCu7-type (1:7 H), and the hexagonal Th2Ni17-type (2:17 H), are claimed to exist at room temperature in the Sm2Co17 alloy system. The strong dependence of the magnetic properties on the structure characteristics in the single-phase Sm2Co17 alloy is interpreted in view of the atom space occupancy and the exchange coupling between substructures especially in the nanocrystalline alloy.

Song, Xiaoyan; Lu, Nianduan; Seyring, Martin; Rettenmayr, Markus; Xu, Wenwu; Zhang, Zhexu; Zhang, Jiuxing

2009-01-01

71

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

Carss, Keren J.; Hillman, Sarah C.; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Kilby, Mark D.; Hurles, Matthew E.

2014-01-01

72

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound.  

PubMed

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

Carss, Keren J; Hillman, Sarah C; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J; Maher, Eamonn R; Kilby, Mark D; Hurles, Matthew E

2014-06-15

73

Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

2012-01-01

74

Membrane structural abnormalities in the stratum corneum of the autosomal recessive ichthyoses.  

PubMed

Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE) and classic lamellar ichthyosis (LI) are autosomal recessive disorders of cornification (DOC), distinguished previously by clinical, histologic, ultrastructural, and cell kinetic criteria. Whether there is further heterogeneity within the CIE group is uncertain. To address the issue of genetic heterogeneity, and to study the pathogenesis of these DOC, skin biopsies from eight CIE, three LI, and six normal subjects were assessed by electron microscopy, including ruthenium tetroxide postfixation with optical diffraction, to visualize and quantitate intercellular membrane domains. We found abnormal lamellar bodies in CIE and distinctive alterations in intercellular lamellar bilayer architecture among patients with CIE and three patients with LI. Two biopsies from two patients at different sites demonstrated the consistency of these findings. Moreover, in both CIE and the three LI patients, desmosomes persisted throughout the outer layers of the SC, indicative of impaired degradation. Our ultrastructural observations support the previously reported phenotypic distinction between CIE and LI, and the further likelihood of genetic heterogeneity within CIE. However, these studies do not support the division of the autosomal recessive ichthyoses into three subgroups based upon cytosolic structural abnormalities. Finally, these studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the autosomal recessive DOC. PMID:1469289

Ghadially, R; Williams, M L; Hou, S Y; Elias, P M

1992-12-01

75

Neurobehavioral comorbidities of pediatric epilepsies are linked to thalamic structural abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose Neurobehavioral comorbidities are common in pediatric epilepsy with enduring adverse effects on functioning, but their neuroanatomical underpinning is unclear. Striatal and thalamic abnormalities have been associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, suggesting that epilepsy-related changes in the subcortical circuit might be associated with the combordities of children with epilepsy. We aimed to compare subcortical volumes and their relationship with age in children with complex partial seizures (CPS), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and healthy controls (HC). We examined the shared versus unique structural-functional relationships of these volumes with behavior problems, intelligence, language, peer interaction, and epilepsy variables in these two epilepsy syndromes. Methods We investigated volumetric differences of caudate, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus in children with CPS (N= 21), CAE (N=20), and HC (N=27). Study subjects underwent structural MRI, intelligence, and language testing. Parent-completed Child Behavior Checklists provided behavior problem and peer interaction scores. We examined the association of age, IQ, language, behavioral problems, and epilepsy variables with subcortical volumes that were significantly different between the children with epilepsy and HC. Results Both children with CPS and CAE exhibited significantly smaller left thalamic volume compared to HC. In terms of developmental trajectory, greater thalamic volume was significantly correlated with increasing age in children with CPS and CAE but not in HC. With regard to the comorbidities, reduced left thalamic volumes were related to more social problems in children with CPS and CAE. Smaller left thalamic volumes in children with CPS were also associated with poor attention, lower IQ and language scores, and impaired peer interaction. Significance Our study is the first to directly compare and detect shared thalamic structural abnormalities in children with CPS and CAE. These findings highlight the vulnerability of the thalamus and provide important new insights on its possible role in the neurobehavioral comorbidities of childhood-onset epilepsy. PMID:24304435

Lin, Jack J.; Siddarth, Prabha; Riley, Jeffrey D.; Gurbani, Suresh G.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Toga, Arthur W.; Caplan, Rochelle

2013-01-01

76

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

77

Neuroanatomy of "hearing voices": a frontotemporal brain structural abnormality associated with auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Auditory hallucinations are a frequent symptom in schizophrenia. While functional imaging studies have suggested the association of certain patterns of brain activity with sub-syndromes or single symptoms (e.g. positive symptoms such as hallucinations), there has been only limited evidence from structural imaging or post-mortem studies. In this study, we investigated the relation of local brain structural deficits to severity of auditory hallucinations, particularly in perisylvian areas previously reported to be involved in auditory hallucinations. In order to overcome certain limitations of conventional volumetric methods, we used deformation-based morphometry (DBM), a novel automated whole-brain morphometric technique, to assess local gray and white matter deficits in structural magnetic resonance images of 85 schizophrenia patients. We found severity of auditory hallucinations to be significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with volume loss in the left transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl (primary auditory cortex) and left (inferior) supramarginal gyrus, as well as middle/inferior right prefrontal gyri. This demonstrates a pattern of distributed structural abnormalities specific for auditory hallucinations and suggests hallucination-specific alterations in areas of a frontotemporal network for processing auditory information and language. PMID:14654460

Gaser, Christian; Nenadic, Igor; Volz, Hans-Peter; Büchel, Christian; Sauer, Heinrich

2004-01-01

78

Management of Bleeding Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Bilateral Uterine Artery Embolization  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a first-line therapeutic option for bleeding uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Materials and Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 19 patients were diagnosed with acquired uterine AVM clinically and through imaging studies. The clinical characteristics, angiographic features, technical success rate of embolization, procedure-related complications, imaging, and clinical follow-up data were assessed. Clinical success was defined as immediate symptomatic resolution with disappearance of vascular abnormality on subsequent imaging studies. Results A total of 20 bilateral UAE, with or without embolization of extra-uterine feeders, were performed as the first-line treatment. Technical and clinical success rate was 90.0% (18/20) and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. Embolization was incomplete in two patients who had residual extra-uterine fine feeders to the AVM or a procedure-related complication (ruptured uterine artery); the former showed slow regression of the vascular malformation during the observation period, while the latter underwent a successful second bilateral UAE. Immediate clinical success was achieved in the remaining 17 patients after a single session and no recurrence of bleeding was found. Recovery to normal menstrual cycle was seen in all 17 patients with clinical success within one or two months, two of whom subsequently had uneventful intrauterine pregnancies carried to term. Conclusion Bilateral UAE is a safe and effective first-line therapeutic option for the management of bleeding uterine AVMs. However, incomplete embolization due to unembolizable feeders or difficult access into the uterine artery may lead to suboptimal treatment. PMID:24532505

Kim, Taehwan; Kim, Jinoo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Yang, Heechul; Sung, Kyu-Bo

2014-01-01

79

Uterine fibroids: clinical manifestations and contemporary management.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroids (leiomyomata) are extremely common lesions that are associated with detrimental effects including infertility and abnormal uterine bleeding. Fibroids cause molecular changes at the level of endometrium. Abnormal regulation of growth factors and cytokines in fibroid cells may contribute to negative endometrial effects. Understanding of fibroid biology has greatly increased over the last decade. Although the current armamentarium of Food and Drug Administration-approved medical therapies is limited, there are medications approved for use in heavy menstrual bleeding that can be used for the medical management of fibroids. Emergence of the role of growth factors in pathophysiology of fibroids has led researchers to develop novel therapeutics. Despite advances in medical therapies, surgical management remains a mainstay of fibroid treatment. Destruction of fibroids by interventional radiological procedures provides other effective treatments. Further experimental studies and clinical trials are required to determine which therapies will provide the greatest benefits to patients with fibroids. PMID:24819877

Doherty, Leo; Mutlu, Levent; Sinclair, Donna; Taylor, Hugh

2014-09-01

80

Paralimbic structural abnormalities in psychopathy : a voxel-based morphometry study.  

E-print Network

??Previous functional neuroimaging studies of psychopathy have demonstrated abnormal functioning in several brain regions associated with emotion and decision-making, including amygdala, orbital frontal cortex, insula,… (more)

Cope, Lora

2009-01-01

81

[Neuronal structure abnormality in the orbito-frontal cortex of schizophrenics].  

PubMed

Changes were described in the neuronal structure of neurones, impregnated after the method of Golgi-Bubenaite in schizophrenic patients. Investigations were done in area 11 (Brodmann 1909) of patients with paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia. Control cases were patients without any clinical or morphological brain diseases and patients with catatonic schizophrenia. 1.1 We investigated numerous typical triangle cells in lamina VI of patients with paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia. Only few were seen in the controls. 1.2 In the paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia brains there are lamina VI pyramidal cells with ramified apical dendrites reaching lamina II. 2. In lamina V there are many pyramidal cells with two to five apical dendrites, such cells were never seen in controls, these pyramids have only one main apical dendrite. 3. A small group of L III pyramids have atypical long spines. A lot of these spines have splitted spine heads. The spine number is significantly increased. 4. There is an atypical simplified angioarchitecture in paranoid hallucinatory schizophrenia-patients and no normal arborization of the brain vessels in three planes, like in controls. We think that the abnormal findings in paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia are not the consequence of specific therapeutics. We interpret our findings as possible variabilities of a normal brain structure. PMID:1791296

Senitz, D; Winkelmann, E

1991-01-01

82

Left Temporal Lobe Structural and Functional Abnormality Underlying Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

In this article, we have reviewed recent findings from our laboratory, originally presented in Hugdahl et al. (2008). These findings reveal that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia should best be conceptualized as internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the ‘voices’ and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented together with a review of behavioral, structural, and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. We have proposed a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to neuronal abnormality in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks. PMID:19753095

Hugdahl, Kenneth; Løberg, Else-Marie; Nygård, Merethe

2008-01-01

83

Combined hepatoid and serous carcinoma of the uterine corpus: an undescribed phenomenon.  

PubMed

We report the first case of combined hepatoid and serous adenocarcinoma arising in the uterine corpus here. The patient is a 63-year-old Japanese woman. She presented with vaginal abnormal bleeding and subsequent imaging analysis disclosed a mass in the uterine corpus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25393224

Kuroda, Naoto; Moritani, Suzuko; Ichihara, Shu

2014-11-12

84

Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27.  

PubMed

Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype-phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7?Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies. PMID:24736736

Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene M F; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

2015-01-01

85

Filaggrin Genotype in Ichthyosis Vulgaris Predicts Abnormalities in Epidermal Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

Although it is widely accepted that filaggrin (FLG) deficiency contributes to an abnormal barrier function in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, the pathomechanism of how FLG deficiency provokes a barrier abnormality in humans is unknown. We report here that the presence of FLG mutations in Caucasians predicts dose-dependent alterations in epidermal permeability barrier function. Although FLG is an intracellular protein, the barrier abnormality occurred solely via a paracellular route in affected stratum corneum. Abnormal barrier function correlated with alterations in keratin filament organization (perinuclear retraction), impaired loading of lamellar body contents, followed by nonuniform extracellular distribution of secreted organelle contents, and abnormalities in lamellar bilayer architecture. In addition, we observed reductions in corneodesmosome density and tight junction protein expression. Thus, FLG deficiency provokes alterations in keratinocyte architecture that influence epidermal functions localizing to the extracellular matrix. These results clarify how FLG mutations impair epidermal permeability barrier function. PMID:21514438

Gruber, Robert; Elias, Peter M.; Crumrine, Debra; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Brandner, Johanna M.; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Presland, Richard B.; Fleckman, Philip; Janecke, Andreas R.; Sandilands, Aileen; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Fritsch, Peter O.; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Schmuth, Matthias

2011-01-01

86

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2012-01-01

87

Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

2014-01-01

88

Uterine leiomyoma: understanding the impact of symptoms on womens’ lives  

PubMed Central

Background Most women report negative experience about the symptoms of uterine leiomyoma (UL) in their lives, such as abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pain. Many studies have been conducted about efficacy of UL treatment, but little research has been performed about womens health related quality of life (HRQL). Methods This is a semi-structured, descriptive, observational, qualitative study that was performed during eight months. Focus group (FG) interviews were performed with women attending at a tertiary hospital in Brazil, who were consecutively included in the study. Seventy women with symptomatic UL were recruited to this study. FG duration was one hour with mediators with 5-6 women at each group. Collected data from discussions was processed according to thematic analysis and stored at a qualitative software. Results Women were negatively influenced by the presence of symptomatic UL. The major themes that were noticed during analysis were: beliefs and attitudes towards UL; limitation to social and professional activities; sensation of fear/unfairness/discouragement towards the symptoms and adverse effects during treatment with GnRH analogs. Conclusions Symptomatic UL has a negative impact on womens HRQL. Health providers should consider such impact when counseling women on their treatment options, since it may have an important influence in these patients’ decision-making process. While current pharmacological treatments may improve disease specific outcomes, such as bleeding intensity and tumor volume, they fail on actually improving quality of life. PMID:24476380

2014-01-01

89

Association of heart structure and function abnormalities with laboratory findings in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Conventional risk factors of coronary artery disease fail to explain the increased frequency of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The study was conducted to determine possible association between the heart structure and function abnormalities with established prognostic value assessed by non-invasive imaging techniques and markers of autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena typical for SLE. Echocardiography and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT; Tc-99m-MIBI) at rest were performed in 60 SLE patients in a stable clinical condition of their disease. Laboratory evaluation included serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C3c and C4 components and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The latter included serum anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-?2-glycoprotein I (anti?2GPI) antibodies, both of IgG and IgM class, and lupus anticoagulant (LA) in plasma. Echocardiography revealed pathologic thickening of valvular leaflets and/or pericardium in more than 60% of patients. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was elevated (>30?mmHg) in 16.7%. Myocardial perfusion defects were present in 36.7% of patients, despite normal ECG recordings and a lack of clinical symptoms of myocardial ischaemia. There was a significant association between thickening of valvular leaflets and/or pericardium and high CRP and low C3c and C4 concentrations. On the other hand, increased RVSP and the presence of myocardial perfusion defects were associated with the presence of anticardiolipin and anti?2GPI antibodies of the IgG class. Increased anticardiolipin IgG levels predicted perfusion defects in SPECT study with 100% sensitivity and 68% specificity, whereas elevated anti?2GPI IgG levels predicted RVSP elevation (>30?mmHg) with 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity. In stable SLE patients pericardial and valve abnormalities may be associated with markers of an ongoing inflammation. Also, pulmonary systolic pressure elevation and myocardial perfusion defects are combined with elevated levels of anticardiolipin and anti?2GPI antibodies of the IgG class. These results indicate that even clinically silent pulmonary hypertension and myocardial perfusion defects in SLE patients could be causally related to the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:21636627

Plazak, W; Gryga, K; Milewski, M; Podolec, M; Kostkiewicz, M; Podolec, P; Musial, J

2011-08-01

90

Uterine fibroids: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman’s menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K

2014-01-01

91

Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients  

SciTech Connect

Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

2003-11-10

92

Abnormal structure of fear circuitry in pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Structural brain studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in fear regulatory areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus. Surprisingly, neither finding has been reported in pediatric PTSD. One possibility is that they represent age-dependent effects that are not fully apparent until adulthood. In addition, lower-resolution MRI and image processing in prior studies may have limited detection of such differences. Here we examine fear circuitry GMV, including age-related differences, using higher-resolution MRI in pediatric PTSD vs healthy youth. In a cross-sectional design, 3?T anatomical brain MRI was acquired in 27 medication-free youth with PTSD and 27 healthy non-traumatized youth of comparable age, sex, and IQ. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV in a priori regions including the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala/hippocampus. Compared with healthy youth, PTSD youth had reduced GMV but no age-related differences in anterior vmPFC (BA 10/11, Z=4.5), which inversely correlated with PTSD duration. In contrast, although there was no overall group difference in hippocampal volume, a group × age interaction (Z=3.6) was present in the right anterior hippocampus. Here, age positively predicted hippocampal volume in healthy youth but negatively predicted volume in PTSD youth. Within the PTSD group, re-experiencing symptoms inversely correlated with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, Z=3.7) and right anterior hippocampus (Z=3.5) GMV. Pediatric PTSD is associated with abnormal structure of the vmPFC and age-related differences in the hippocampus, regions important in the extinction and contextual gating of fear. Reduced anterior vmPFC volume may confer impaired recovery from illness, consistent with its role in the allocation of attentional resources. In contrast, individual differences in sgACC volume were associated with re-experiencing symptoms, consistent with the role of the sgACC in fear extinction. The negative relationship between age and hippocampal volume in youth with PTSD may suggest an ongoing neurotoxic process over development, which further contributes to illness expression. Future studies employing a longitudinal design would be merited to further explore these possibilities. PMID:25212487

Keding, Taylor J; Herringa, Ryan J

2015-02-01

93

Novel structure and abnormal electronic properties of ultra-thin BC2N nanotubes from first-principles investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we employed first-principles calculations to investigate the structure, stability and electronic properties of ultra-thin BC2N nanotubes. We obtained a novel, screwy, helicoidal and cyclical (as the structure of DNA molecule) structure that had not been reported in previous studies. Further, we found the stability of ultra-thin BC2N nanotubes depends on not only the number of Bsbnd N bonds but also the arrange modes of CNT and BNNT segments. Our results also showed the electronic properties of ultra-thin BC2N nanotubes are tunable and abnormal when compared to the relative big ones.

Wang, Yue; Zhou, Baoyan; Yao, Xinhua; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Qingyi

2014-11-01

94

Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry  

PubMed Central

Background Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT) modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24) and nonresponders (n=15) to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion These results suggest that the brain structures in several areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cingulate bundles, are related to the lack of a response to BT in patients with OCD. The use of a voxel-based morphometry approach may be advantageous to understanding differences in brain abnormalities between responders and nonresponders to BT. PMID:25349476

Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Sato, Junko; Kasai, Harumasa; Nakamae, Takashi; Narumoto, Jin; Miyata, Jun; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

2014-01-01

95

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Docetaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

2015-01-22

96

Uterine fibroid embolization  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review evidence supporting the use of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) as an alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy for managing uterine fibroids. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the MeSH terms embolization, therapeutic; leiomyoma; treatment outcome; pregnancy; and clinical trials. Most published studies on use of UFE for management of uterine fibroids provide level II evidence. MAIN MESSAGE For 71% to 92% of patients, UFE is effective at alleviating fibroid-related symptoms. After UFE, fibroids are reduced in size by 42% to 83%. Patients’ satisfaction with the procedure is high (>90%), and UFE is safe and has a low rate of major complications (1.25%). When compared with hysterectomy, UFE is associated with fewer major complications, shorterhospital stays, and faster recovery. Although successful pregnancy following UFE is possible, there is insufficient evidence to advocate use of UFE over myomectomy for management of uterine fibroids in women wishing to preserve fertility. CONCLUSION For treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, UFE is a safe and effective nonsurgical alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy. PMID:17872642

Raikhlin, Antony; Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Asch, Murray R.

2007-01-01

97

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

98

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

99

Karyotype Evolution in a Case of Uterine Angioleiomyoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal karyotypic alterations of a uterine angioleiomyoma of a 41-year-old woman are reported. Cytogenetically a stemline of the tumor and two related subclones with additional abnormalities due to karyotypic evolution were identified: 46,X,t(X;11)(p11.4;p15)\\/46,idem,inv(2)(p15q13)\\/46, idem,inv(2)(p15q13),t(5;20)(q13;q13.2). None of the aberrations observed in the present case has been reported in uterine smooth muscle tumors before.

Yvonne Hennig; Jörg Caselitz; Corinna Stern; Sabine Bartnitzke; Jörn Bullerdiek

1999-01-01

100

Uterine leiomyosarcoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare uterine malignancy that arises from the smooth muscles of uterine wall. It accounts for only 1-2% of uterine malignancies. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with postmenopausal bleeding and was diagnosed later to be a case of leiomyosarcoma of uterus. The diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma is made by histopathological examination, and surgery is the only treatment. The prognosis for female with uterine sarcoma primarily depends on the extent of disease at the time of diagnosis and the mitotic index.

Kaur, Khushpreet; Kaur, Parneet; Kaur, Arvinder; Singla, Atish

2014-01-01

101

Bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate in rat uterine stromal cells: structural characterization and specific esterification of docosahexaenoic acid.  

PubMed Central

In rat uterine stromal cells (U(III) cells), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was esterified extensively in alkenylacyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine and in an unknown phospholipid accounting for only 0.7% of the total phospholipid. The latter was identified as a bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (BMP) using MS. Incorporation studies using C(18:3)n-3 and C(20:5)n-3 demonstrated that BMP had a high specificity to incorporate DHA and C(22) polyunsaturated fatty acids of the (n-3) series. By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the (n-6) series were never incorporated into BMP. Incubation of U(III) cells with 5 microM DHA for 24 h increased the DHA content of BMP from 36 to 71% of the total acyl chains. [(3)H]DHA-labelled BMP purified as a single TLC spot was resolved into three peaks using HPLC. These peaks were also observed when cells were labelled with [(3)H]phosphatidylglycerol, an exogenous BMP precursor, and with [(33)P]P(i). Electrospray MS of BMP from control cells showed that the first two peaks contained the same molecular species (mainly C(22:6)n-3/C(22:6)n-3 and C(18:1)n-9/C(22:6)n-3) while the third peak mainly contained the C(18:1)n-9/C(18:1)n-9 species. The stereoconfiguration analysis of the compounds revealed an sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol configuration for the first peak and sn-glycero-1-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol configurations for the other two. BMP from rat testis was used to establish the positions of the acyl groups. More than 70% of its acyl chains were C(22:5) n-6. It was separated on HPLC into three peaks that co-migrated with the three peaks of BMP from U(III) cells. Lipase activity and NMR analysis of the second peak showed that fatty acids esterified the primary alcohol group on each glycerol moiety. We conclude that the three peaks are stereoisomeric compounds with different acyl-chain locations and may be the result of different metabolic fates depending on subcellular localization. PMID:11042136

Luquain, C; Dolmazon, R; Enderlin, J M; Laugier, C; Lagarde, M; Pageaux, J F

2000-01-01

102

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

103

Structural chromosomal abnormalities detected during CVS analysis and their role in the prenatal ascertainment of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements.  

PubMed

Mosaic structural chromosomal abnormalities observed along the trophoblast-mesenchyme-fetal axis, although rare, pose a difficult problem for their prognostic interpretation in prenatal diagnosis. Additional issues are raised by the presence of mosaic imbalances of the same chromosome showing different sizes in the different tissues, that is, deletions and duplications in the cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme of chorionic villi (CV). Some of these cytogenetic rearrangements originate from the post-zygotic breakage of a dicentric chromosome or of the product of its first anaphasic breakage. Selection of the most viable cell line may result in confined placental mosaicism of the most severe imbalance, favoring the presence of the cell lines with the mildest duplications or deletions in the fetal tissues. We document three cases of ambiguous results in CV analysis due to the presence of different cell lines involving structural rearrangements of the same chromosome which were represented differently in the trophoblast and the mesenchyme. Observation by conventional karyotype of a grossly rearranged chromosome in one of the CV preparations (direct or culture) was crucial to call attention to the involved chromosomal region in other tissues (villi or amniotic fluid), allowing the prenatal diagnosis through molecular cytogenetic methods of subtelomeric rearrangements [del(7)(q36qter); del(11)(q25qter); del(20)(p13pter)]. This would have surely been undiagnosed with the routine banding technique. In conclusion, the possibility to diagnose complex abnormalities leading to cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements, together with a better knowledge of the initial/intermediate products leading to the final abnormal cryptic deletion should be added to the advantages of the CV sampling technique. PMID:23922197

Pittalis, Maria Carla; Mattarozzi, Angela; Menozzi, Cristina; Malacarne, Michela; Baccolini, Ilaria; Farina, Antonio; Pompilii, Eva; Magini, Pamela; Percesepe, Antonio

2013-10-01

104

Frequency, prognosis and surgical treatment of structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging in childhood epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions identified by MRI; (ii) clinical factors associated with ‘positive’ MRI scans; and (iii) the utilization of comprehensive epilepsy evaluations and neurosurgery. Of the original cohort of 613 children, 518 (85%) had usable MRI scans. Eighty-two (16%) had MRI abnormalities potentially relevant to epilepsy (‘positive’ scans). Idiopathic epilepsy syndromes were identified in 162 (31%) of whom 3% had positive scans. The remainder had non-idiopathic epilepsy syndromes of which 22% had positive MRI findings. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified non-idiopathic epilepsy and abnormal motor-sensory (neurological) examinations as predictors of a positive MRI scan. Of the non-idiopathic patients with normal neurological exams and who were not pharmacoresistant, 10% had positive MRI scans, including four patients with gliomas. Evaluations at comprehensive epilepsy centres occurred in 54 pharmacoresistant cases. To date 5% of the imaged cohort or 8% of non-idiopathic epilepsy patients have undergone surgical procedures (including vagal nerve stimulator implantation) to treat their epilepsy (n = 22) or for tumours (n = 6) without being drug resistant. Applying our findings to the general population of children in the USA, we estimate that there will be 127/1 000 000 new cases per year of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, and 52/1 000 000 childhood-onset epilepsy patients undergoing epilepsy evaluations. In addition, approximately 27/1 000 000 will have an epilepsy-related surgical procedure. These findings support recommendations for the use of MRI in evaluating newly diagnosed paediatric epilepsy patients, especially with non-idiopathic syndromes, and provide estimates on the utilization of comprehensive evaluations and surgery. PMID:19638447

Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

2009-01-01

105

Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.  

PubMed

Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

2015-01-15

106

Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed

In Finland, the incidence of cervical cancer has shown a decreasing tendency since the 1960s. The same trend, however, has not been noticed in the incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma. The reason for this is not known, although many studies have shown differences in the cause, epidemiology, and biology of the epidermoid and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A total of 106 new patients with cervical adenocarcinoma were treated at our institution from 1976 to 1980, which represents 20.4% of all cervical carcinomas treated. The mean age of the patients was 58.1 years (range, 29 to 82 years) and the peak incidence was in the group 60 to 69 years of age. Most of the patients were postmenopausal (71.7%) and the main symptom was abnormal vaginal bleeding (78.3%). The proportion of Stage I was 61.3%. Combined operative and radiation therapy was used in 74.5% of the patients. The overall 5-year survival rate was 65.1% (corrected 74.5%), which did not differ from that of patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The most significant prognostic factors were the size of the tumor, presence of pelvic lymph node metastases, and the stage of the disease. PMID:2293870

Leminen, A; Paavonen, J; Forss, M; Wahlström, T; Vesterinen, E

1990-01-01

107

Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications.

Yuan, Xin-Cai; Tang, Jin-Long; Zeng, Hui-Zhong; Wei, Xian-Hua

2014-05-01

108

Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure.  

PubMed

This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications. PMID:24940181

Yuan, Xin-Cai; Tang, Jin-Long; Zeng, Hui-Zhong; Wei, Xian-Hua

2014-01-01

109

Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure  

PubMed Central

This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications. PMID:24940181

2014-01-01

110

Combining mid-trimester maternal plasma homocysteine with uterine artery doppler velocimetry: is it useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the possible association between mid-trimester maternal plasma homocysteine concentration, uterine artery Doppler\\u000a measurements in a two-stage screening strategy, and outcome of pregnancy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This prospective observational study was conducted on healthy women undergoing screening for pre-eclampsia by uterine artery\\u000a Doppler velocimetry at 20–22 and 24–26 weeks of gestation. Abnormal uterine artery blood flow was defined as an average

Melih A. Guven; Ibrahim Egemen Ertas; Metin Kilinc; Ayhan Coskun; Hasan Ekerbicer

2007-01-01

111

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

112

Uterine artery embolization and infertility.  

PubMed

As the acceptance of uterine artery embolization as a treatment option for uterine fibroids grows among patients and physicians, it appears that new questions are being asked about the patient selection criteria used for this procedure. In particular, patients with infertility issues or concerns about preserving fertility after fibroid treatment are often being evaluated for uterine artery embolization. This article was prepared to summarize the available literature regarding fertility preservation after both myomectomy and uterine artery embolization and to provide the reader with an algorithm for evaluating these patients and making literature-based treatment decisions. PMID:17145479

Domenico, Louis; Siskin, Gary P

2006-03-01

113

The inwardly rectifying K+ channel KIR7.1 controls uterine excitability throughout pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abnormal uterine activity in pregnancy causes a range of important clinical disorders, including preterm birth, dysfunctional labour and post-partum haemorrhage. Uterine contractile patterns are controlled by the generation of complex electrical signals at the myometrial smooth muscle plasma membrane. To identify novel targets to treat conditions associated with uterine dysfunction, we undertook a genome-wide screen of potassium channels that are enriched in myometrial smooth muscle. Computational modelling identified Kir7.1 as potentially important in regulating uterine excitability during pregnancy. We demonstrate Kir7.1 current hyper-polarizes uterine myocytes and promotes quiescence during gestation. Labour is associated with a decline, but not loss, of Kir7.1 expression. Knockdown of Kir7.1 by lentiviral expression of miRNA was sufficient to increase uterine contractile force and duration significantly. Conversely, overexpression of Kir7.1 inhibited uterine contractility. Finally, we demonstrate that the Kir7.1 inhibitor VU590 as well as novel derivative compounds induces profound, long-lasting contractions in mouse and human myometrium; the activity of these inhibitors exceeds that of other uterotonic drugs. We conclude Kir7.1 regulates the transition from quiescence to contractions in the pregnant uterus and may be a target for therapies to control uterine contractility. PMID:25056913

McCloskey, Conor; Rada, Cara; Bailey, Elizabeth; McCavera, Samantha; van den Berg, Hugo A; Atia, Jolene; Rand, David A; Shmygol, Anatoly; Chan, Yi-Wah; Quenby, Siobhan; Brosens, Jan J; Vatish, Manu; Zhang, Jie; Denton, Jerod S; Taggart, Michael J; Kettleborough, Catherine; Tickle, David; Jerman, Jeff; Wright, Paul; Dale, Timothy; Kanumilli, Srinivasan; Trezise, Derek J; Thornton, Steve; Brown, Pamela; Catalano, Roberto; Lin, Nan; England, Sarah K; Blanks, Andrew M

2014-01-01

114

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

115

Investigating brain community structure abnormalities in bipolar disorder using PLACE (Path Length Associated Community Estimation)  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present PLACE, a comprehensive framework for studying node-level community structure. Instead of the well-known Q modularity metric, PLACE utilizes a novel metric, ?PL, which measures the difference between inter-community versus intra-community path lengths. We compared community structures in human healthy brain networks generated using these two metrics, and argued that ?PL may have theoretical advantages. PLACE consists of the following: 1) extracting community structure using top-down hierarchical binary trees, where a branch at each bifurcation denotes a collection of nodes that form a community at that level, 2) constructing and assessing mean group community structure, and 3) detecting node-level changes in community between groups. We applied PLACE and investigated the structural brain networks obtained from a sample of 25 euthymic bipolar I subjects versus 25 gender and age matched healthy controls. Results showed community structural differences in posterior default mode network (DMN) regions, with the bipolar group exhibiting left-right decoupling. PMID:23798337

GadElkarim, Johnson J.; Ajilore, Olusola; Schonfeld, Dan; Zhan, Liang; Thomspon, Paul M.; Feusner, Jamie D.; Kumar, Anand; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leow, Alex D.

2014-01-01

116

Uterine rupture after the uterine fundal pressure maneuver.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To clarify the incidence of uterine fundal pressure at delivery and its effect on uterine rupture. Study design: A questionnaire was sent to 2518 institutions in Japan. We received a response from 1430. Results: Of reporting institutions, 89.4% used fundal pressure in at least some of their deliveries. Among the 347,771 women who delivered vaginally in this study, 38,973 (11.2%) were delivered with the assistance of fundal pressure. There were six cases of uterine rupture associated with uterine fundal pressure, with one case resulting in maternal death secondary to amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusion: Since uterine fundal pressure may potentially cause serious injury to either the mother and/or neonates, the indications for application need to be clearly elucidated, and obstetric care providers also need comprehensive education and training. PMID:25389983

Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

2014-11-01

117

Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Uterine Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

2015-01-16

118

Running in the family? : structural brain abnormalities in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies conducted in this thesis explored brain structures in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis that Boos and colleagues performed showed that relatives of patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampal volumes, smaller gray matter volumes and larger third ventricle volumes compared to controls. These volumetric differences are similar to the areas that are affected in patients with

H. B. M. Boos

2011-01-01

119

Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques.Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted

Boris Schiffer; Thomas Peschel; Thomas Paul; Elke Gizewski; Michael Forsting; Norbert Leygraf; Manfred Schedlowski; Tillmann H. C. Krueger

2007-01-01

120

Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

Liu, Huili [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shi, Xun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Uher, Ctirad [University of Michigan; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS); Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2013-01-01

121

Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. PMID:20978945

Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

2010-01-01

122

Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies.  

PubMed

A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular. PMID:24753775

Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

2014-01-01

123

DEFINING POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE IN CATTLE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...

124

Ultra-structural morphological abnormalities of the urinary bladder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ultra-structural changes in the urinary bladder of diabetic rats in relation to disease duration since the morphological bases of diabetes-induced bladder dysfunction are poorly understood. Urinary bladders were examined chronologically by electron microscopy in a female Wistar-rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and compared to control samples. Numerous dark mitochondria with swollen cristae and electron lucent, large, calcified and degenerated mitochondria were observed first in the urothelium. Intraepithelial capillaries surrounded by thick collagen were also present. Gap junctions between myocytes were interrupted or extensively widened with reduced mitochondria and caveolae. Collagen accumulation, degenerated nerve fibres and myelin bodies were seen between myocytes with increased collagen content and frequent mast cells, phagocytes and lymphocyte aggregates in the stroma. All ultra-structural lesions became augmented with longer duration of diabetes. Diabetes induces time-dependent pathologic changes in the urinary bladder of rats that might account for bladder dysfunction. PMID:16021327

Rizk, Diaa E E; Padmanabhan, Rengasamy K; Tariq, Saeed; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ijaz

2006-02-01

125

Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.  

PubMed

Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are rare neoplasms of unknown etiology. Only 67 cases have been reported in the literature, to our knowledge, so far. The neoplasm usually occurs in middle-aged women. Most patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding and/or abdominal pain, along with an enlarged uterus or a palpable uterine mass. There is no specific imaging finding, and the diagnosis is made exclusively on histopathologic examination. A multitude of architectural patterns are described, which include plexiform cords, anastomosing trabeculae, watered-silk, microfollicle, macrofollicle, tubules, retiform, solid cellular islands, and diffuse pattern of growth. The neoplastic cells are usually small with round to ovoid nuclei, nuclear monotony, mild nuclear hyperchromasia, and inconspicuous nucleoli with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Nuclear grooves are rare. Mitotic figures are infrequent, and necrosis is mostly absent. This tumor depicts a diverse immunohistochemical profile with expression of sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle lineages markers. Sex cord markers, such as inhibin, calretinin, CD99, WT1, and MART-1; epithelial markers, such as pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen; smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle actin, desmin, and histone deacetylase 8; and miscellaneous markers, such as CD10, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, S100, and CD117, are often coexpressed. Immunoexpression for calretinin and at least for one of the other sex cord markers is required to establish a diagnosis of UTROSCT. Hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is usually the treatment for UTROSCT. Although most UTROSCTs behave benignly, some do recur, and thus, this entity should be considered as a tumor of low malignant potential. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on UTROSCT and its clinical relevance. PMID:24283865

Pradhan, Dinesh; Mohanty, Sambit K

2013-12-01

126

Does abnormal glycogen structure contribute to increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy?  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K(+) by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K(+) and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K(+) homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy. PMID:24643875

Dinuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

2014-03-19

127

Structural connectivity abnormality in children with acute mild traumatic brain injury using graph theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

The traumatic biomechanical forces associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) typically impart diffuse, as opposed to focal, brain injury potentially disrupting the structural connectivity between neural networks. Graph theoretical analysis using diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess injury-related differences in structural connectivity between 23 children (age 11-16 years) with mTBI and 20 age-matched children with isolated orthopedic injuries (OI) scanned within 96 h postinjury. The distribution of hub regions and the associations between alterations in regional network measures and symptom burden, as assessed by the postconcussion symptom scale score (PCSS), were also examined. In comparison to the OI group, the mTBI group was found to have significantly higher small-worldness (P?

Yuan, Weihong; Wade, Shari L; Babcock, Lynn

2014-11-01

128

The Extracellular Matrix Contributes to Mechanotransduction in Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanotransduction as an important signaling factor in the human uterus is just beginning to be appreciated. The ECM is not only the substance that surrounds cells, but ECM stiffness will either compress cells or stretch them resulting in signals converted into chemical changes within the cell, depending on the amount of collagen, cross-linking, and hydration, as well as other ECM components. In this review we present evidence that the stiffness of fibroid tissue has a direct effect on the growth of the tumor through the induction of fibrosis. Fibrosis has two characteristics: (1) resistance to apoptosis leading to the persistence of cells and (2) secretion of collagen and other components of the ECM such a proteoglycans by those cells leading to abundant disposition of highly cross-linked, disoriented, and often widely dispersed collagen fibrils. Fibrosis affects cell growth by mechanotransduction, the dynamic signaling system whereby mechanical forces initiate chemical signaling in cells. Data indicate that the structurally disordered and abnormally formed ECM of uterine fibroids contributes to fibroid formation and growth. An appreciation of the critical role of ECM stiffness to fibroid growth may lead to new strategies for treatment of this common disease. PMID:25110476

Leppert, Phyllis C.; Jayes, Friederike L.; Segars, James H.

2014-01-01

129

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3?+/-mice, GSK-3? mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3? gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3? KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3? gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19925672

2009-01-01

130

Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders.  

PubMed

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms. PMID:20950634

Schumann, Cynthia M; Bauman, Melissa D; Amaral, David G

2011-03-01

131

Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms. PMID:20950634

Schumann, Cynthia M.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

2010-01-01

132

Uterine arteriovenous malformation caused by intrauterine instrumentation for laparoscopic surgery due to left tubal pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare entity in gynecology with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Due to abnormal connection between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary system, recurrent and profuse vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom which can be potentially life-threatening. Uterine AVM can be either congenital or acquired. Acquired AVM is reported as a consequence of previous uterine trauma such as curettage procedures, caesarean section or pelvic surgery. It is also associated with infection, retained product of conception, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy and exposure to diethlystilboestrol. We herein report a case of acquired uterine AVM located on the right lateral wall after intrauterine instrumentation for laparoscopic left salpingectomy due to left tubal pregnancy. The patient was successfully treated with embolization. PMID:25264537

Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Park, Jong-Kyu; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hong-Bae

2014-01-01

133

Uterine sarcoma: a report of 57 cases over a 16-year period analysis.  

PubMed

Uterine sarcomas comprese approximately 4-9% of all uterine malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. We report 57 cases of sarcoma originating in the uterus treated from 1990 to 2006 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Democritus University of Thrace, Greece and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Aschaffenburg Hospital, Germany. The median age of occurrence was 49 years with the commonest symptom being abnormal uterine bleeding. Forty-nine patients underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy whereas 17 cases underwent radical lymphadenectomy. During the last followup (December 2006), six patients were alive and well with no evidence of disease, 23 patients had died of undercurrent disease, and 28 were alive with recurrence of disease. These rare cancers can be aggressive, and account for a greatly disproportionate number of deaths from uterine cancers. Treatment for this rare disease should be performed according to international protocols in order to have the most updated information. PMID:18459545

Tsikouras, P; Liberis, V; Galazios, G; Savidis, A; Grapsa, A; Grapsas, X; Teichmann, A T; Maroulis, G

2008-01-01

134

Partial regeneration and reconstruction of the rat uterus through recellularization of a decellularized uterine matrix.  

PubMed

Despite dramatic progress in infertility treatments and assisted reproduction, no effective therapies exist for complete loss of uterine structure and/or function. For such patients, genetic motherhood is possible only through gestational surrogacy or uterine transplantation. However, many ethical, social, technical and safety challenges accompany such approaches. A theoretical alternative is to generate a bioartificial uterus, which requires engineering of uterine architecture and appropriate cellular constituents. Here, rat uteri decellularization by aortic perfusion with detergents produced an underlying extracellular matrix together with an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture. Uterine-like tissues were then regenerated and maintained in vitro for up to 10 d through decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) reseeding with adult and neonatal rat uterine cells and rat mesenchymal stem cells followed by aortic perfusion in a bioreactor. Furthermore, DUM placement onto a partially excised uterus yielded recellularization and regeneration of uterine tissues and achievement of pregnancy nearly comparable to the intact uterus. These results suggest that DUM could be used for uterine regeneration, and provides insights into treatments for uterine factor infertility. PMID:25043501

Miyazaki, Kaoru; Maruyama, Tetsuo

2014-10-01

135

Somatic MED12 mutations in uterine leiomyosarcoma and colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Mediator complex participates in transcriptional regulation by connecting regulatory DNA sequences to the RNA polymerase II initiation complex. Recently, we discovered through exome sequencing that as many as 70% of uterine leiomyomas harbour specific mutations in exon 2 of mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12). In this work, we examined the role of MED12 exon 2 mutations in other tumour types. Methods: The frequency of MED12 exon 2 mutations was analysed in altogether 1158 tumours by direct sequencing. The tumour spectrum included mesenchymal tumours (extrauterine leiomyomas, endometrial polyps, lipomas, uterine leiomyosarcomas, other sarcomas, gastro-intestinal stromal tumours), hormone-dependent tumours (breast and ovarian cancers), haematological malignancies (acute myeloid leukaemias, acute lymphoid leukaemias, myeloproliferative neoplasms), and tumours associated with abnormal Wnt-signalling (colorectal cancers (CRC)). Results: Five somatic alterations were observed: three in uterine leiomyosarcomas (3/41, 7% Gly44Ser, Ala38_Leu39ins7, Glu35_Leu36delinsVal), and two in CRC (2/392, 0.5% Gly44Cys, Ala67Val). Conclusion: Somatic MED12 exon 2 mutations were observed in uterine leiomyosarcomas, suggesting that a subgroup of these malignant tumours may develop from a leiomyoma precursor. Mutations in CRC samples indicate that MED12 may, albeit rarely, contribute to CRC tumorigenesis. PMID:23132392

Kämpjärvi, K; Mäkinen, N; Kilpivaara, O; Arola, J; Heinonen, H-R; Böhm, J; Abdel-Wahab, O; Lehtonen, H J; Pelttari, L M; Mehine, M; Schrewe, H; Nevanlinna, H; Levine, R L; Hokland, P; Böhling, T; Mecklin, J-P; Bützow, R; Aaltonen, L A; Vahteristo, P

2012-01-01

136

Uterine Artery Anatomy Relevant to Uterine Leiomyomata Embolization  

SciTech Connect

To categorize the anatomic variants of uterine arteries, and determine the incidence of menopausal symptoms where the tubo-ovarian branches were seen prior to embolization. Between July 1997 and June 2000, 257 (n = 257) uterine fibroid embolizations were performed at our institution. Arteriograms were retrospectively evaluated. Uterine arteries were classified into groups: type I (the uterine artery as first branch of the inferior gluteal artery), type II (the uterine artery as second or third branch of the inferior gluteal artery), type III (the uterine artery, the inferior gluteal and the superior gluteal arteries arising as a trifurcation), type IV (the uterine artery as first branch of the hypogastric artery), inconclusive, or not studied. Tubo-ovarian branches were recorded if visualized prior to and/or after embolization. Menopausal symptoms were recorded (n = 175 at 3 months, n = 139 at 6 months, n = 98 at 1 year, n = 22 at 2 years) using written questionnaires. Five hundred and fourteen uterine arteries (n = 514) were evaluated. There were 38% classifiable types, 23% inconclusive, and 39% not studied. Classification was as follows: type I, 45%; type II, 6%; type III, 43%; type IV, 6%. Among 256 patients, tubo-ovarian arteries were seen in 36 prior to embolization, but not afterwards. In this group, 25 patients reported transient menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, amenorrhea). Five patients did not report any menopausal symptoms. Six patients did not answer the questionnaires. Type I is the most common type of anatomy, followed by type III. The tubo-ovarian arteries may be visualized prior to and/or after embolization. The embolization was monitored to avoid embolization of the tubo-ovarian branches. Menopausal symptoms were transient all patients when the tubo-ovarian branches were seen prior to embolization.

Gomez-Jorge, Jackeline [University of Miami School of Medicine, PO Box 016960 (R-109), Miami, FL 33101, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: igomez2@med.miami.edu; Keyoung, Andrew [Georgetown University Hospital, CCC Building Ground Floor, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, Department of Radiology (United States); Levy, Elliot B.; Spies, James B. [University of Miami School of Medicine, PO Box 016960 (R-109), Miami, FL 33101, Department of Radiology (United States)

2003-11-15

137

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor C Is Upregulated in Human Uterine Fibroids and Regulates Uterine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth1  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomata uteri (i.e., uterine fibroids) are benign tumors arising from the abnormal growth of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We show here that the expression of platelet-derived growth factor C (PDGFC) is higher in approximately 80% of uterine fibroids than in adjacent myometrial tissues examined. Increased expression of PDGFC is also observed in fibroid-derived SMCs (fSMCs) relative to myometrial-derived SMCs (mSMCs). Recombinant bioactive PDGFCC homodimer stimulates the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and prolongs the survival of fSMCs in Matrigel plugs implemented subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice. The knockdown of PDGF receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) through lentiviral-mediated RNA interference reduces the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and in Matrigel implants. Furthermore, two small molecule inhibitors of the PDGFR tyrosine kinase (i.e., imatinib and dasatinib) exerted negative effects on fSMC and mSMC growth in ex vivo cultures, albeit at concentrations that cannot be achieved in vivo. These results suggest that the PDGFCC/PDGFRA signaling module plays an important role in fSMC and mSMC growth, and that the upregulation of PDGFC expression may contribute to the clonal expansion of fSMCs in the development of uterine fibroids. PMID:19553600

Suo, Guangli; Jiang, Yong; Cowan, Bryan; Wang, Jean Y.J.

2009-01-01

138

Platelet-derived growth factor C is upregulated in human uterine fibroids and regulates uterine smooth muscle cell growth.  

PubMed

Leiomyomata uteri (i.e., uterine fibroids) are benign tumors arising from the abnormal growth of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We show here that the expression of platelet-derived growth factor C (PDGFC) is higher in approximately 80% of uterine fibroids than in adjacent myometrial tissues examined. Increased expression of PDGFC is also observed in fibroid-derived SMCs (fSMCs) relative to myometrial-derived SMCs (mSMCs). Recombinant bioactive PDGFCC homodimer stimulates the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and prolongs the survival of fSMCs in Matrigel plugs implemented subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice. The knockdown of PDGF receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) through lentiviral-mediated RNA interference reduces the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and in Matrigel implants. Furthermore, two small molecule inhibitors of the PDGFR tyrosine kinase (i.e., imatinib and dasatinib) exerted negative effects on fSMC and mSMC growth in ex vivo cultures, albeit at concentrations that cannot be achieved in vivo. These results suggest that the PDGFCC/PDGFRA signaling module plays an important role in fSMC and mSMC growth, and that the upregulation of PDGFC expression may contribute to the clonal expansion of fSMCs in the development of uterine fibroids. PMID:19553600

Suo, Guangli; Jiang, Yong; Cowan, Bryan; Wang, Jean Y J

2009-10-01

139

How Are Uterine Fibroids Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... it? How is it diagnosed? What are the treatments for it? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español How are uterine fibroids diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ...

140

Automatic detection of multi-level acetowhite regions in RGB color images of the uterine cervix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method used to detect cancer precursors and cancer of the uterine cervix, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the metaplastic epithelium on the cervix for certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. A contrast agent, a 3-5% acetic acid solution, is used, causing abnormal and metaplastic epithelia to turn white. The colposcopist considers diagnostic features such as the acetowhite, blood vessel structure, and lesion margin to derive a clinical diagnosis. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD, a complex image analysis system that at its core assesses the same visual features as used by colposcopists. The acetowhite feature has been identified as one of the most important individual predictors of lesion severity. Here, we present the details and preliminary results of a multi-level acetowhite region detection algorithm for RGB color images of the cervix, including the detection of the anatomic features: cervix, os and columnar region, which are used for the acetowhite region detection. The RGB images are assumed to be glare free, either obtained by cross-polarized image acquisition or glare removal pre-processing. The basic approach of the algorithm is to extract a feature image from the RGB image that provides a good acetowhite to cervix background ratio, to segment the feature image using novel pixel grouping and multi-stage region-growing algorithms that provide region segmentations with different levels of detail, to extract the acetowhite regions from the region segmentations using a novel region selection algorithm, and then finally to extract the multi-levels from the acetowhite regions using multiple thresholds. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated using human subject data.

Lange, Holger

2005-04-01

141

Current Evidence on Uterine Embolization for Fibroids  

PubMed Central

Strong evidence for both safety and effectiveness of uterine fibroid embolization has been generated since the procedure's introduction. This review will focus on the key articles representing the best evidence to summarize the outcomes from uterine embolization. This review will attempt to answer three important questions associated with uterine embolization. First, does uterine embolization relieve symptoms caused by uterine fibroids? Second, how well does the improvement in symptoms and quality of life after uterine embolization compare with standard surgical options for fibroids? Finally, how durable is the improvement in fibroid-related symptoms and quality of life after embolization? PMID:24436560

Spies, James B.

2013-01-01

142

Sequencing of a Patient with Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities and Neurodevelopmental Disease Identifies Disruption of Multiple High Risk Loci by Structural Variation  

PubMed Central

Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

2014-01-01

143

Structural Abnormalities in Early Tourette Syndrome Children: A Combined Voxel-Based Morphometry and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study  

PubMed Central

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM) and white matter (WM) has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post- central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV) in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS), and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children. PMID:24098769

Wang, Jieqiong; Gao, Peiyi; Yin, Guangheng; Zhang, Liping; Lv, Chuankai; Ji, Zhiying; Yu, Tong; Sabel, B. A.; He, Huiguang; Peng, Yun

2013-01-01

144

Temporary balloon occlusion of the uterine arteries to control hemorrhage during hysterectomy in a case of uterine arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous fistula is any abnormal connection between an artery and a vein that bypasses the normal capillary bed and shunts arterial blood directly to the venous circulation. Uterine arteriovenous fistula (UAVF) is a potentially life-threatening condition by causing massive bleeding. This report describes a case of UAVF with massive hemorrhage. Prior to surgery, endovascular catheters for balloon occlusion were placed within bilateral uterine arteries. During surgery, the surgeon requested temporary balloon inflation for navigating and identifying inflow arteries. The balloon was kept inflated during the ligation of the vessels. Once ligation was completed, the balloon was deflated to confirm hemostasis. A total hysterectomy with removal of the UAVF was successfully achieved without significant blood loss. The fistula, in the resected specimen, was confirmed histologically with Elastica van Gieson staining. The preoperative placement of endovascular balloon-occlusion catheters should be considered when hysterectomy is planned where UAVF is located at the cardinal ligament. PMID:25227922

Yamamoto, Naoko; Koga, Kaori; Akahane, Masaaki; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

2015-02-01

145

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

2015-01-16

146

A metaanalysis of home uterine activity monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess by metaanalysis the evidence from randomized clinical trials regarding home uterine activity monitoring.STUDY DESIGN: Six randomized controlled trials of home uterine activity monitoring, the same six trials reviewed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force on home uterine activity monitoring, were studied. Data were extracted from published reports of the six trials. In addiiton,

Theodore Colton; Herbert L. Kayne; Yuqing Zhang; Timothy Heeren

1995-01-01

147

The Pryor technique of uterine morcellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: An efficient, yet largely forgotten technique of transvaginal uterine wedge morcellation developed by William Pryor at the turn of the century is described. Method: Pryor's technique of transvaginal wedge morcellation was employed to reduce uterine size in four cases of vaginal hysterectomy and in 10 cases of laparoscopicssisted vaginal hysterectomy in 14 patients with symptomatic uterine enlargement. Result: Operating

M. A. Pelosi; M. A. Pelosia

1997-01-01

148

Effect of frozen semen on the uterus of mares with pathological uterine changes.  

PubMed

Pregnancy rates after frozen semen inseminations (AI), particularly in older and problem mares, are lower than after fresh semen AI. Uterine contractility and the inflammatory reaction after frozen semen insemination were studied in two groups of mares: the abnormal group comprised of 6 old barren mares categorized in biopsy category IIB or III, and the control group including 6 reproductively normal young maiden mares in biopsy category I or IIA. All 12 mares were inseminated in the first cycle with 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in their second cycle with 2 mL of frozen semen containing 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa. Before and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 20 to 24 h after this treatment, all mares were examined by ultrasonography for intrauterine fluid accumulations (IUFA). The examinations were videotaped to count the number of uterine contractions later. Uterine fluid was obtained by tampon before treatment, and by the tampon method followed by uterine lavage after the last examination. Fluids were cultured bacteriologically, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were counted. Trypsin-inhibitor capacity (TIC), lysozyme concentration, and beta-glucuronidase (BGase) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities were determined in frozen-thawed tampon and lavage fluids. Both treatments induced significant neutrophilia in the uterine lumen. Although PMN concentrations were numerically higher after frozen semen AI than after PBS-treatment, the difference was not significant. There was not any difference between the mare groups either. The amount of IUFA differed only in the normal group between frozen semen AI and PBS treatment, and between 0- and 24-h samples for frozen semen AI. Although abnormal mares showed consistently more fluid than normal mares, this difference was not significant. Uterine contractions and enzyme concentrations between groups did not differ. None of the variables showed significant differences between the normal and abnormal mares in their reaction to frozen semen AI. PMID:15460163

Güvenc, Kazim; Reilas, Tiina; Katila, Terttu

2004-01-01

149

Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490

Heertum, Kristin Van; Barmat, Larry

2014-11-01

150

Shrinkage effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment on uterine leiomyomas and t(12;14).  

PubMed

Specific chromosomal abnormalities, e.g. del(7q), t(12;14), 12 trisomy, and the rearrangement of 6p, are seen in approximately 30% of uterine leiomyomas. We investigated the association between the shrinkage effect of GnRH agonist on uterine leiomyomas and t(12;14), the second most frequent chromosomal abnormality in myomas. This study involved 42 women with uterine leiomyomas treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist before surgery. The volume of the largest myoma nodule was measured by MRI before and at 12 weeks after the beginning of GnRH agonist treatment, and the percentage change in volume was calculated. A specific chromosomal abnormality, t(12;14), was examined on thin sections of frozen leiomyomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probes. Of the 42 tumors, 8 (19%) showed translocation. The mean (+/- SD) percentages change in volume of the largest myomas without and with translocation were -32+/-24 and 23+/-60%, respectively (p=0.006). The myomas showing translocation had significantly less reduction in size with GnRH treatment than did those without translocation. No myoma with trisomy 12 was found. On the basis of our results, we assumed that uterine leiomyomas showing t(12;14) are not so dependent on ovarian hormones for growth. PMID:11788889

Takahashi, Kumiyo; Kawamura, Naoki; Ishiko, Osamu; Ogita, Sachio

2002-02-01

151

New treatments for uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of uterine artery embolization as a minimally invasive treatment option for uterine fibroids, there has been a great deal of effort made toward developing other options for these patients. These options approach the problem differently, either with direct targeting of individual fibroids, organ-wide targeting of multiple fibroids, and systemic therapy to address the problem of fibroids using a hormonal approach. This review will focus on the different techniques and different philosophies that have been applied to the treatment of fibroids during the past decade. PMID:17145480

Siskin, Gary

2006-03-01

152

Changes in Mouse Uterine Transcriptome in Estrus and Proestrus1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Changes in the CD-1 mouse uterine transcriptome during proestrus and estrus were investigated to help elucidate mechanisms of uterine tissue remodeling during the estrus cycle and their regulation by estrogen and progesterone in preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Mice were staged beginning at 6 weeks of age, and uterine horns were harvested after monitoring two estrus cycles. Microarray analysis of whole uterine horn RNA identified 2428 genes differentially expressed in estrus compared to proestrus, indicating there is extensive remodeling of mouse uterus during the estrus cycle, affecting ?10% of all protein-encoding genes. Many (?50%) of these genes showed the same differential expression in independent analyses of isolated uterine lumenal epithelial cells. Changes in gene expression associated with structural alterations of the uterus included remodeling of the extracellular matrix, changes in cell keratins and adhesion molecules, activation of mitosis and changes in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) presentation, complement and coagulation cascades, and cytochrome P450 expression. Signaling pathways regulated during the estrus cycle, involving ligand-gated channels, Wnt and hedgehog signaling, and transcription factors with poorly understood roles in reproductive tissues, included several genes and gene networks that have been implicated in pathological states. Many of the molecular pathways and biological functions represented by the genes differentially expressed from proestrus to estrus are also altered during the human menstrual cycle, although not necessarily at the corresponding phases of the cycle. These findings establish a baseline for further studies in the mouse model to dissect mechanisms involved in uterine tissue response to endocrine disruptors and the development of reproductive tract diseases. PMID:23740946

Yip, Kerri Stanley; Suvorov, Alexander; Connerney, Jeannette; Lodato, Nicholas J.; Waxman, David J.

2013-01-01

153

Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems  

PubMed Central

Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

Cooke, Paul S.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Bartol, Frank F.; Hayashi, Kanako

2013-01-01

154

Uterine cavity assessment in infertile women: Sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional Hysterosonography versus Hysteroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background: Assessment of uterine abnormalities is a core part in infertility evaluation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional hysterosonography (3-DHS) in the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities in infertile women. Materials and Methods: The infertile women who visited Royan Institute and referred to 3-DHS consecutively, prior to in vitro fertilization, from 2010-2011 included in this cross-sectional study. For patients who underwent hysteroscopy in addition to 3-DHS (214/977), the verification bias adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS which were calculated by global sensitivity analysis method. Hysteroscopy was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Histological diagnosis of resected endometrial tissues by hysteroscopy was assessed and the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detection of polyp or hyperplasia were determined. Histopathologic results were considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of polyp or hyperplasia. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity for 3-DHS in diagnosis of uterine anomalies considering hysteroscopy as the gold standard were 68.4% and 96.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of hysteroscopy in diagnose of polyp or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.3% and 81.4% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS in diagnosis polyps or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.4% and 80.2 % respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study proved that, compared to hysteroscopy; 3-DHS has a reliable specificity for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detecting polyp or hyperplasia regarding histopathology as the gold standard was the same. PMID:24639723

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Rashidy, Zohreh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Akhoond, Mohamadreza; Niknejadi, Maryam; Hemat, Mandana; ShamsiPour, Mansour

2013-01-01

155

The Value of Perioperative Imaging in Patients with Uterine Sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the yield and impact of perioperative imaging on management among patients undergoing surgical resection and treatment of uterine sarcomas. Methods A retrospective chart review was done for women with histologically confirmed uterine sarcomas treated at Barnes Jewish Hospital/Washington University from 2001–2007. Descriptive statistics, Cox multivariate models, and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to evaluate associations and survival. Results A total of 92 patients were identified and 55(60%) were diagnosed with stage III–IV disease. Perioperative imaging was obtained in 84 (91%) cases, including chest x-ray in 66 (72%), computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis in 59 (64%), chest CT in 33 (36%), positron emission tomography (PET) in 8 (9%), and CT of the head, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or bone scan in a total of 2 (2.2%). Imaging identified abnormalities concerning for metastases in 30 (32%) studies. Thirty-four recurrences have been documented, and 21 (62%) of these treatment failures were extrapelvic. Multivariate analysis of this series noted that tomographic evidence of extrauterine disease predicted recurrence (p=0.028) and incomplete surgical resection (p=0.003, HR 6.0 95% CI 1.9–19.9) predicted disease free survival. Imaging contributed to change in surgical and postsurgical treatment decisions in 8 (9%) patients. Conclusion Pretreatment imaging studies change management in a minority of patients with newly diagnosed uterine sarcomas. PMID:19577795

Nugent, Elizabeth K; Zighelboim, Israel; Case, Ashley S; Gao, Feng; Thaker, Premal H; Rader, Janet S; Mutch, David G; Massad, L Stewart

2015-01-01

156

Genetic heterogeneity among uterine leiomyomata: insights into malignant progression.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomata (UL), also known as fibroids, are the most common pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age and are the primary indication for hysterectomy in the USA. Many lines of evidence indicate a strong genetic component to the development of these tumors. In fact, approximately 40% of UL have non-random, tumor-specific chromosome abnormalities which have allowed classification into well-defined subgroups (deletion of portions of 7q, trisomy 12 or rearrangements of 12q15, 6p21 or 10q22) as well as identification of candidate genes for UL predisposition. Although benign, UL have been linked to malignancy through two genomic regions on chromosome 1. Mutation of fumarate hydratase (FH) at 1q43 is known to cause the Mendelian syndromes of multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata (MCL) and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), and recently, FH mutations have been detected in some non-syndromic UL. In addition, transcriptional profiling suggests that loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 in cellular leiomyomata, an uncommon histological variant of UL, may account in part for the presumed yet rare malignant transformation of UL to uterine leiomyosarcoma. PMID:17613550

Hodge, Jennelle C; Morton, Cynthia C

2007-04-15

157

Abnormal subcortical components of the corticostriatal system in young adults with DLI: a combined structural MRI and DTI study.  

PubMed

Developmental Language Impairment (DLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 12% to 14% of the school-age children in the United States. While substantial studies have shown a wide range of linguistic and non-linguistic difficulty in individuals with DLI, very little is known about the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this disorder. In the current study, we examined the subcortical components of the corticostriatal system in young adults with DLI, including the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus, and the thalamus. Additionally, the four cerebral lobes and the hippocampus were also comprised for an exploratory analysis. We used conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure regional brain volumes, as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess water diffusion anisotropy as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA). Two groups of participants, one with DLI (n=12) and the other without (n=12), were recruited from a prior behavioral study, and all were matched on age, gender, and handedness. Volumetric analyses revealed region-specific abnormalities in individuals with DLI, showing pathological enlargement bilaterally in the putamen and the nucleus accumbens, and unilaterally in the right globus pallidus after the intracranial volumes were controlled. Regarding the DTI findings, the DLI group showed decreased FA values in the globus pallidus and the thalamus but these significant differences disappeared after controlling for the whole-brain FA value, indicating that microstructural abnormality is diffuse and affects other regions of the brain. Taken together, these results suggest region-specific corticostriatal abnormalities in DLI at the macrostructural level, but corticostriatal abnormalities at the microstructural level may be a part of a diffuse pattern of brain development. Future work is suggested to investigate the relationship between corticostriatal connectivity and individual differences in language development. PMID:23896446

Lee, Joanna C; Nopoulos, Peggy C; Bruce Tomblin, J

2013-09-01

158

Structural rearrangements of chromosome 13 as additional abnormalities in Burkitt lymphoma and type 3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

We report three cases of chromosome 13 rearrangements as additional abnormalities in two patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and one with type 3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Involvement of chromosome 13 has been reported most often as 13q+, without identification of the supplementary chromosomal material; in our three cases with 13q+, we identified two duplications: dup(13)(q13q22) and dup(13)(q21q22). PMID:1606568

Barin, C; Valtat, C; Briault, S; Bremond, J L; Petit, A; Lejars, O; Linassier, C; Gaschard, P; Moraine, C

1992-06-01

159

Effect of placental resistance, arterial diameter, and blood pressure on the uterine arterial velocity waveform: a computer modeling approach.  

PubMed

A computer model was used to simulate velocity waveforms that can be visualized in the human uterine artery using Doppler ultrasound. It was found that increasing uteroplacental vascular resistance from normal caused an increase in the systolic/diastolic velocity ratio (S/D) and pulsatility index (PI) of the waveform. Increasing uteroplacental resistance also caused the appearance of a dicrotic notch. Reducing the uterine artery radius increased the S/D and PI and this effect was accentuated at high placental resistance. In contrast, increasing mean arterial pressure in the uterine artery had little effect on S/D and PI. Results suggest that waveform shape abnormalities observed in obstetric patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension are primarily caused by high uteroplacental vascular resistance and a reduced uterine arterial diameter. PMID:2675446

Adamson, S L; Morrow, R J; Bascom, P A; Mo, L Y; Ritchie, J W

1989-01-01

160

Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate uterine artery embolization as an emerging minimally invasive technique in the treatment of patients symptomatic from uterine leiomyomata. Methods: Twenty patients (ages 31–52 years) underwent uterine artery embolization with permanent polyvinyl alcohol particles. Patients were assessed by the same examiner for uterine size and symptomatology. A questionnaire was answered as well as interval ultrasonography to assess uterine

Amy E. Young; L. Russel Malinak; Andrew Harper; Merle H. Barth; George Soltes; Jet Brady

2000-01-01

161

Features of Postmenopausal Uterine Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is a „cancer until proven otherwise”. Endometrial cancer is a typical disease among postmenopause woman, because every bleeding in this age etiology associated with endometrial cancer (10-30%). The lifespan of women today has been extended and post menopause today last one third of a woman’s life. Early diagnosis of endometrial cancer has a very high cure rate. Screening for this cancer has limits in practice and is necessary given the definition of high-risk groups would be subject to primary and secondary prevention. Goal: Primary to evaluate the leading causes of postmenopausal uterine bleeding among patients at risk for endometrial cancer (diabetes, obesity, nulliparity, late menopause (after 55 years) and compared them with the causes of postmenopausal uterine bleeding patients without this risk. Material and methods: A retrospective, descriptive study with a targeted sample of 50 consecutive patients who had registered postmenopausal uterine bleeding in high-risk groups (cohorts) and the same number of patients with postmenopausal uterine bleeding that does not belong to the risk group (control group). Each patient underwent clinical examination, then fractionated curettements and its histopathological verification and assessment of treated clinical stage of disease with PH analysis of the resected specimens. Results: The patients of the studied risk group were significantly affected by endometrial cancer compared with the control group (RR=2.45, 95% CI 1.2 4.6, p=0.005). Endocervical pathology did not differ between groups. Clinical forms of bleeding: for those that are profuse bleeding cancer was present in 54.6% of cases. With intermittent bleeding cancer is verified in the 33.3% of patients. Risk patient groups with cancer frequently suffer from clinically more advanced stages of histologically aggressive endometrial cancer (serous adenocarcinoma–type II, low differentiated cancer).

Izetbegovic, Sebija; Stojkanovic, Goran; Ribic, Nihad; Mehmedbasic, Eldar

2013-01-01

162

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

2012-01-01

163

Application of Detergents or High Hydrostatic Pressure as Decellularization Processes in Uterine Tissues and Their Subsequent Effects on In Vivo Uterine Regeneration in Murine Models  

PubMed Central

Infertility caused by ovarian or tubal problems can be treated using In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET); however, this is not possible for women with uterine loss and malformations that require uterine reconstruction for the treatment of their infertility. In this study, we are the first to report the usefulness of decellularized matrices as a scaffold for uterine reconstruction. Uterine tissues were extracted from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and decellularized using either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at optimized conditions. Histological staining and quantitative analysis showed that both SDS and HHP methods effectively removed cells from the tissues with, specifically, a significant reduction of DNA contents for HHP constructs. HHP constructs highly retained the collagen content, the main component of extracellular matrices in uterine tissue, compared to SDS constructs and had similar content levels of collagen to the native tissue. The mechanical strength of the HHP constructs was similar to that of the native tissue, while that of the SDS constructs was significantly elevated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no apparent denaturation of collagen fibers in the HHP constructs compared to the SDS constructs. Transplantation of the decellularized tissues into rat uteri revealed the successful regeneration of the uterine tissues with a 3-layer structure 30 days after the transplantation. Moreover, a lot of epithelial gland tissue and Ki67 positive cells were detected. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the regenerated tissues have a normal response to ovarian hormone for pregnancy. The subsequent pregnancy test after 30 days transplantation revealed successful pregnancy for both the SDS and HHP groups. These findings indicate that the decellularized matrix from the uterine tissue can be a potential scaffold for uterine regeneration. PMID:25057942

Hirota, Yasushi; Aizawa, Masanori; Yoshino, Osamu; Kishida, Akio; Osuga, Yutaka; Saito, Shigeru; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S.

2014-01-01

164

The Role of Radical Surgery in the Management of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Background Acquired arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can develop after uterine instrumentation. The increased risks of vascular changes, including abnormal placentation, after repeated cesarean sections are well studied. Herein, we describe a patient with delayed hemorrhage from a uterine AVM, following dilation and curettage for a cesarean scar pregnancy. Case A 32-year-old G3P2 presented with a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy managed with dilation and curettage, which incurred a 1,500-ml blood loss. Within 6 weeks, she returned with 2 episodes of vaginal bleeding. Initial angiography demonstrated a high-flow arteriovenous fistula, which was coiled. Vaginal hemorrhage recurred; repeat angiography demonstrated a large AVM. Gelfoam embolization of the bilateral internal iliac arteries reduced the vascularity of the AVM. The AVM's location, starting at the left lateral apex of the cesarean scar and extending into the parametrium, necessitated a radical hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed a placenta percreta extending into the parametrium. Conclusion The prevalence of uterine AVMs has increased with the rise in surgical obstetrics. In patients with a failed prior interventional procedure, surgical management is necessary to prevent life-threatening hemorrhage. The location of the AVM within the abnormal uterine scar tissue requires familiarity with radical pelvic surgical techniques that are normally used in cancer surgery in order to definitively treat this delayed obstetrical complication. PMID:23898273

Moulder, Janelle K.; Garrett, Leslie A.; Salazar, Gloria M.; Goodman, Annekathryn

2013-01-01

165

Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Results Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P <0.01). In multivariable analyses, popliteal cysts were significantly associated with increased osteophytes in both medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments while subgastrocnemius bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Conclusions Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities. PMID:24581327

2014-01-01

166

The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery mechanics  

E-print Network

The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery and large arteries, to determine the effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on the entire uterine into arterial size and stiffness, and index of wave reflection (RW), which reflects the effects of taper

Chesler, Naomi C.

167

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

168

Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Maurizio Mandala (University of Calabria)

2009-02-01

169

Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour.  

PubMed

Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

2014-01-01

170

Investigation of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere by microwave ground-based sensing over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of the lower atmosphere structure and stability is required for studying the processes of the convection in the atmosphere, determining the mutual influence of global climate change trends and the current state of regional climate systems, which have an impact on the appearance of dangerous meteorological events (heavy rains, thunderstorms, hail, floods, squalls, tornadoes, etc). There are many methods of measuring structure of the atmosphere: contact (rocket and balloon), contactless - active (lidar) and passive (radiometric), with the placement of the instrumentation on the satellite, airplanes and the Earth's surface (ground-based). For the convection processes study in order to predict dangerous meteorological events the ground-based radiometric sensing of the structure of the lower atmosphere seems to be the most suitable due to higher time and spatial resolution. This report discusses the peculiarities of the structure of the lower atmosphere over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during the abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014 retrieved from measurements by radiometric complex HATPRO-G3 by Radiometer Physics GmbH. This complex gives vertical thermal and water vapor profiles of the lower atmosphere (0 - 10 km) with time resolution of a few minutes, horizontally resolution of about 10 kilometers and vertically resolution of about 100 meters. The analysis of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere is based on the vertical distribution of virtual potential temperature derived from these measurements under the hydrostatic approximation. Also the comparison of the results for the abnormally winter 2013 - 2014 and the data computed from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (http://www.wrf-model.org) for winter 2011 - 2012 is discussed.

Karashtin, Dmitriy; Berezin, Evgeny; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

2014-05-01

171

Paclitaxel and Intraperitoneal Carboplatin Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Uterine Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

2015-02-10

172

Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

173

Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

1980-01-01

174

An electron microscopic analysis on the ultra structural abnormalities in sperm of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. inhabiting a polluted lake, Umiam (Meghalaya, India).  

PubMed

The present communication reports the ultra structural abnormalities in sperm of a fish species Cyprinus carpio inhabiting a polluted lake, Umiam in North-East India. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed absence of differentiation between head and midpiece (neck) of some sperm while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed some sperm tails with highly reduced length and some sperm with folded tail. Abnormal shape of some sperm head was also revealed by Scanning electron microscopy. Detachment of membrane from some parts of the sperm head and an outward expansion of the same was observed from Transmission electron micrographs of transverse section of sperm head. The well developed mitochondria surrounding the cytoplasmic channel in the sperm tail, as observed in control were found to be drastically disorganized in fish inhabiting the polluted lake. The study suggests that the fish C. carpio inhabiting the polluted lake Umiam is under severe stress as far as its male reproductive system is concerned. The study further suggests that Electron microscopic approach is extremely important in the assessment of adverse effects of environmental pollution on fish tissue. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21509904

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, K

2011-11-01

175

High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Assess Brain Structural Abnormalities in the Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Model  

PubMed Central

High-resolution microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (?MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed to characterize brain structural abnormalities in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). ?MRI demonstrated a decrease in the volume of anterior commissure and corpus callosum and a slight increase in the volume of the hippocampus in MPS VII vs. wild-type mice. DTI indices were analyzed in gray and white matter. In vivo and ex vivo DTI demonstrated significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, external capsule and hippocampus in MPS VII vs. control brains. Significantly increased mean diffusivity was also found in the anterior commissure and corpus callosum from ex-vivo DTI. Significantly reduced linear anisotropy was observed from the hippocampus from in-vivo DTI, whereas significantly decreased planar anisotropy and spherical anisotropy were observed in the external capsule from only ex-vivo DTI. There were corresponding morphological differences in the brains of MPS VII mice by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated less intense staining of the corpus callosum and external capsule; myelin abnormalities in the corpus callosum were also demonstrated quantitatively in toluidine blue-stained sections and confirmed by electron microscopy. These results demonstrate the potential for ?MRI and DTI for quantitative assessment of brain pathology in murine models of brain diseases. PMID:24335527

Poptani, Harish; Kumar, Manoj; Nasrallah, Ilya M; Kim, Sungheon; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Pickup, Stephen; Li, Joel; Parente, Michael K; Wolfe, John H.

2014-01-01

176

III. Uterine fibroid embolization: Pain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conscious sedation and analgesia are integral components of successful uterine fibroid embolization (UFE), both in providing comfort to the anxious patient undergoing an elective procedure and for providing relief of the severe pelvic pain, cramps, and nausea that may result from acute uterine ischemia and the postembolization syndrome that may follow. The agents used are typically those with which interventional

Gary P. Siskin; Joseph Bonn; Robert L. Worthington-Kirsch; Steven J. Smith; Richard Shlansky-Goldberg; Lindsay S. Machan; Robert T. Andrews; Scott C. Goodwin; David M. Hovsepian

2002-01-01

177

Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Myomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroid disease is common and causes significant health problems in women of childbearing age. Over the past several years, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment for symptomatic uterine myomata. Embolotherapy is effective in relieving myoma-related symptoms in 80% to 90% of patients. It requires shorter hospitalizations than traditional surgical therapies for myoma disease and is

Robert L. Worthington-Kirsch; Gary P. Siskin

2004-01-01

178

Fibroid treatment by transient uterine ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since its introduction in 1995 as a treatment for uterine fibroids, uterine artery embolization has proven to be effective as an alternative to hysterectomy. Techniques for occluding these vessels include Gelfoam, Ivalon (PVA) particles, and coils. The success rate of these procedures is remarkable (>85%). Menorrhagia symptoms are generally relieved within 24 hours. The major roadblock to broad-based implementation

Fred Burbank; Greig Altieri; Mike Jones; Jill Uyeno

2000-01-01

179

Occult uterine rupture: role of ultrasonography.  

PubMed Central

This article presents a case of occult spontaneous uterine rupture complicated by pelvic infection and peritonitis in the postpartum period. Ultrasonography played a primary role in the diagnosis of this complication and clearly demonstrated the uterine wall defect. This finding was confirmed later by computed tomography and by surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9640909

Cadet, J. J.

1998-01-01

180

Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus. PMID:24326433

Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

2013-01-01

181

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

182

Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L. [Services de Radiologie B et Gynecologie, hopital G. Montpied, CHU Clermont Ferrand (France)], E-mail: lboyer@chu-clermont-ferrand.fr

2008-05-15

183

Uterine angioleiomyoma: a rare variant of uterine leiomyoma.  

PubMed

Uterine angioleiomyoma is an extremely rare and unique variant of leiomyoma. It usually occurs in middle-aged women, who commonly present with menorrhagia, abdominal pain, or abdominal mass. The lesions are either single or multiple and manifest as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal whorled nodules. Microscopy of the individual nodule shows interlacing fascicles of spindle cells swirling around thick-walled blood vessels. Angioleiomyoma usually lacks mitotic figures, pleomorphism, or necrosis, although cases with marked nuclear atypia and multinucleated giant cells have been reported. The tumor cells are immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, and progesterone receptor, with a low Ki-67 labeling index. Because these lesions are vascular, they may undergo spontaneous rupture and pose a life-threatening emergency, especially in pregnancy. There are no specific imaging findings; therefore, a preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. It is important to recognize this entity and differentiate it from a malignancy, particularly when angioleiomyoma shows significant cytologic atypia or raised cancer antigen 125 levels by thorough sampling. When required, a proper immunohistochemical panel should be used to arrive at a correct diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on uterine angioleiomyoma and its clinical relevance. PMID:25076303

Garg, Garima; Mohanty, Sambit K

2014-08-01

184

Bmp2 Is Critical for the Murine Uterine Decidual Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of implantation, necessary for all viviparous birth, consists of tightly regulated events, including apposition of the blastocyst, attachment to the uterine lumen, and differentiation of the uterine stroma. In rodents and primates the uterine stroma undergoes a process called decidualization. Decidualization, the process by which the uterine endometrial stroma proliferates and differentiates into large epithelioid decidual cells, is

Kevin Y. Lee; Jae-Wook Jeong; Jinrong Wang; Lijiang Ma; James F. Martin; Sophia Y. Tsai; John P. Lydon; Francesco J. DeMayo

2007-01-01

185

Evaluation of subcortical grey matter abnormalities in patients with MRI-negative cortical epilepsy determined through structural and tensor magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Although many studies have found abnormalities in subcortical grey matter (GM) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or generalised epilepsies, few studies have examined subcortical GM in focal neocortical seizures. Using structural and tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we evaluated subcortical GM from patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy without visible lesion on MRI. Our aims were to determine whether there are structural abnormalities in these patients and to correlate the extent of any observed structural changes with clinical characteristics of disease in these patients. Methods Twenty-four people with epilepsy and 29 age-matched normal subjects were imaged with high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor MR scans. The patients were characterised clinically by normal brain MRI scans and seizures that originated in the neocortex and evolved to secondarily generalised convulsions. We first used whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect density changes in subcortical GM. Volumetric data, values of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) for seven subcortical GM structures (hippocampus, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, thalamus and amygdala) were obtained using a model-based segmentation and registration tool. Differences in the volumes and diffusion parameters between patients and controls and correlations with the early onset and progression of epilepsy were estimated. Results Reduced volumes and altered diffusion parameters of subcortical GM were universally observed in patients in the subcortical regions studied. In the patient-control group comparison of VBM, the right putamen, bilateral nucleus accumbens and right caudate nucleus of epileptic patients exhibited a significantly decreased density Segregated volumetry and diffusion assessment of subcortical GM showed apparent atrophy of the left caudate nucleus, left amygdala and right putamen; reduced FA values for the bilateral nucleus accumbens; and elevated MD values for the left thalamus, right hippocampus and right globus pallidus A decreased volume of the nucleus accumbens consistently related to an early onset of disease. The duration of disease contributed to the shrinkage of the left thalamus. Conclusions Patients with neocortical seizures and secondary generalisation had smaller volumes and microstructural anomalies in subcortical GM regions. Subcortical GM atrophy is relevant to the early onset and progression of epilepsy. PMID:24885823

2014-01-01

186

Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

2010-01-01

187

Facial Structure Alterations and Abnormalities of the Paranasal Sinuses on Multidetector Computed Tomography Scans of Patients with Treated Mucosal Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is a progressive disease that affects cartilage and bone structures of the nose and other upper respiratory tract structures. Complications associated with ML have been described, but there is a lack of studies that evaluate the structural changes of the nose and paranasal sinuses in ML using radiological methods. In this study, we aimed to assess the opacification of the paranasal sinuses in patients with treated ML and any anatomical changes in the face associated with ML using multidetector computed tomography scans (MDCT) of the sinuses. We compared the findings with a control group. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated 54 patients with treated ML who underwent CT scans of the sinuses and compared them with a control group of 40 patients who underwent orbital CT scans. The degree of sinus disease was assessed according to the Lund-Mackay criteria. Forty of the 54 patients with a history of ML (74.1%) had a tomographic score compatible with chronic sinusitis (Lund-Mackay ?4). CT scans in the leishmaniasis and control groups demonstrated significant differences in terms of facial structure alterations. Patients from the ML group showed more severe levels of partial opacification and pansinus mucosal thickening (42.6%) and a greater severity of total opacification. Patients from the ML group with a Lund-Mackay score ?4 presented longer durations of disease before treatment and more severe presentations of the disease at diagnosis. Conclusion/Significance CT scans of the sinuses of patients with ML presented several structural alterations, revealing a prominent destructive feature of the disease. The higher prevalence in this study of chronic rhinosinusitis observed in CT scans of patients with treated ML than in those of the control group suggests that ML can be considered a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis in this population (p<0.05). PMID:25080261

de Camargo, Raphael Abegão; Nicodemo, Antonio C.; Sumi, Daniel Vaccaro; Gebrim, Eloisa Maria Mello Santiago; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; de Camargo, Lázaro Manoel; Imamura, Rui; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga

2014-01-01

188

Neonatal uterine prolapse - a case report.  

PubMed

Uterine prolapse is commonly seen in the geriatric age group. Congenital vaginouterine prolapse is a rare condition occurring in neonates and is usually associated with spinal cord malformations in about 85% of cases. Several modalities of treatment have been described for neonatal uterine prolapse. Conservative treatment in the form of simple digital reposition, use of pessary or other self-retaining device is usually sufficient to treat this condition, which is self-limiting and regressive. Here we report our first case of neonatal uterine prolapse, managed successfully with simple digital reposition. PMID:24858176

Saha, D K; Hasan, K M; Rahman, S M; Majumder, S K; Zahid, M K; Chakraborty, A K; Bari, M S

2014-04-01

189

Holoprosencephaly due to Numeric Chromosome Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.; Meck, Jeanne M.; Muenke, Maximilian

2009-01-01

190

Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

2011-03-01

191

Retained uterine fundus after vaginal hysterectomy.  

PubMed

We report a case of retained uterine fundus after vaginal hysterectomy that was subsequently removed at laparoscopy. The patient had undergone vaginal hysterectomy 8 years previously and came to our hospital with abdominal pain. Examination revealed a supravesical mass. Laparoscopy was performed and showed the uterine fundus with its cornual attachments. The mass was excised and sent for histopathologic analysis, which confirmed that it was uterine tissue. Retained uterine tissue or myoma tissue has been reported, usually after morcellation. However, to our knowledge, our case is only the second reported case of retained fundus after complete vaginal hysterectomy. Because of adhesions, it is possible that the uterus was not completely removed. In such cases, laparoscopic assistance is extremely useful. PMID:20129338

Sinha, Rakesh; Lakhotia, Smita; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Manaktala, Gayatri; Shah, Parul; Mahajan, Chaitali

2010-01-01

192

What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids?  

MedlinePLUS

... it? How is it diagnosed? What are the treatments for it? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ...

193

Novel therapeutic strategy for uterine endometrial cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, tumors induce angiogenic factors specific to them, which leads to angiogenesis with tumor progression. However,\\u000a angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers is complicated because the hormone dependency in their growth also modifies the\\u000a angiogenic potential. Therefore, angiogenic potential in uterine endometrial cancers must be thoroughly analyzed. The upstream\\u000a of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene conserves estrogen-responsive elements.

Jiro Fujimoto

2008-01-01

194

Arterial embolisation to treat uterine myomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemorrhage, probably related to hypervascularisation, is the commonest complication of uterine myomata and is difficult to treat. 16 patients, aged 34-48 years, with symptomatic uterine myomata, for which a major surgical procedure was planned after failure of medical treatment, were treated by selective free-flow arterial embolisation of the myomata with Ivalon particles. With a mean follow-up of 20 months (range

J. H. Ravina; N. Ciraru-Vigneron; J. M. Bouret; D. Herbreteau; E. Houdart; A. Aymard; J. J. Merland

1995-01-01

195

Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.  

PubMed

Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis. PMID:25415217

Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

2015-01-01

196

Broad gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disrupts uterine preparation for embryo implantation in mice.  

PubMed

Gap junctions have an important role in cell-to-cell communication, a process obviously required for embryo implantation. Uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is the first contact for an implanting embryo and is critical for the establishment of uterine receptivity. Microarray analysis of the LE from peri-implantation mouse uterus showed low-level expression of 19 gap junction proteins in preimplantation LE and upregulation of gap junction protein, beta 2 (GJB2, connexin 26, Cx26) in postimplantation LE. Time course study using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed upregulation of GJB2 in the LE surrounding the implantation site before decidualization. Similar dynamic expression of GJB2 was observed in the LE of artificially decidualized mice but not pseudopregnant mice. To determine the potential function of uterine gap junctions in embryo implantation, carbenoxolone (CBX), a broad gap junction blocker, was injected i.p. (100 mg/kg) or via local uterine fat pad (10 mg/kg) into pregnant mice on Gestation Day 3 at 1800 h, a few hours before embryo attachment to the LE. These CBX treatments disrupted embryo implantation, suggesting local effects of CBX in the uterus. However, i.p. injection of glycyrrhizic acid (100 mg/kg), which shares similar structure and multiple properties with CBX but is ineffective in blocking gap junctions, did not affect embryo implantation. Carbenoxolone also inhibited oil-induced artificial decidualization, concomitant with suppressed molecular changes and ultrastructural transformations associated with uterine preparation for embryo implantation, underscoring the adverse effect of CBX on uterine preparation for embryo implantation. These data demonstrate that uterine gap junctions are important for embryo implantation. PMID:23843229

Diao, Honglu; Xiao, Shuo; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Zhao, Fei; Li, Rong; Ard, Mary B; Ye, Xiaoqin

2013-08-01

197

Ovarian steroid hormone-regulated uterine remodeling occurs independently of macrophages in mice.  

PubMed

Macrophages are abundant in the uterine stroma and are intimately juxtaposed with other cell lineages comprising the uterine epithelial and stromal compartments. We postulated that macrophages may participate in mediating or amplifying the effects of ovarian steroid hormones to facilitate the uterine remodeling that is a characteristic feature of every estrus cycle and is essential for pregnancy. Using the Cd11b-Dtr transgenic mouse model with an ovariectomy and hormone replacement strategy, we depleted macrophages to determine their role in hormone-driven proliferation of uterine epithelial and stromal cells and uterine vascular development. Following diphtheria toxin (DT) administration, approximately 85% of EMR1-positive (EMR1(+)) macrophages, as well as 70% of CD11C(+) dendritic cells, were depleted from Cd11b-Dtr mice. There was no change in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into epithelial cells induced to proliferate by administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized mice or into stromal cells induced to proliferate in response to E2 and progesterone (P4), and the resulting sizes and structures of the luminal epithelial and stromal cell compartments were not altered compared with those of leukocyte replete controls. Depletion of CD11B(+) myeloid cells failed to alter the density or pattern of distribution of uterine blood vessels, as identified by staining PECAM1-positive endothelial cells in the uterine stroma of E2- or E2 combined with P4 (E2P4)-treated ovariectomized mice. These experiments support the interpretation that macrophages are dispensable to regulation of proliferative events induced by steroid hormones in the cycling and early pregnant mouse uterus to establish the epithelial, stromal, and vascular architecture which is critical for normal reproductive competence. PMID:25061095

Care, Alison S; Ingman, Wendy V; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A

2014-09-01

198

Uterine myoma as a cause of iliac vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: common disease, rare complication  

PubMed Central

Uterine myoma is a common condition among women, which may very rarely be associated with deep venous thrombosis (VT). Few reports of myoma with associated VT have been reported in the English language and, of those, only three were associated with embolic events. This manuscript reports the case of a 29-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary embolism due to iliac VT secondary to extrinsic compression by a uterine myoma. Considering the high prevalence of myoma in the population, it is advisable to specifically consider this hypothesis in the case of female patients with pulmonary embolism or limb VT and menstrual abnormalities. This will help to avoid extensive thrombophilia investigation and to accurately determine the correct cause of VT.

Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Dinardo, Carla Luana; Terra-Filho, Mario

2014-01-01

199

Do DNA copy number changes differentiate uterine from non-uterine leiomyosarcomas and predict metastasis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA copy number changes were investigated in 51 (19 uterine and 32 nonuterine) primary leiomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization. The aim was to evaluate whether true biological differences exist between uterine and nonuterine leiomyosarcoma and whether changes revealed by comparative genomic hybridization have prognostic value. Genomic imbalances were found in 48 (94%) cases. The most frequent DNA copy number changes

Catarina Svarvar; Marcelo L Larramendy; Carl Blomqvist; Massimiliano Gentile; Riitta Koivisto-Korander; Arto Leminen; Ralf Bützow; Tom Böhling; Sakari Knuutila

2006-01-01

200

Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy. Methods: Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20–40 years. The data were collected through review

Man Deuk Kim; Nahk Keun Kim; Hee Jin Kim; Mee Hwa Lee

2005-01-01

201

Case report: pregnancy outcome following unilateral uterine artery embolisation for uterine arterio-venous malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine arterio-venous malformation (UAVM) is an extremely rare but serious cause of genital tract bleeding and experience in its management is limited. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has been reported to be a successful treatment in women seeking to retain their fertility potential. However, data on pregnancy outcomes following UAE for UAVM are scarce with less than 30 such cases reported.The

CL Khoo; GL Stephen; JA Davies; AJ Bellis

2010-01-01

202

Dietary Glutamate Supplementation Ameliorates Mycotoxin-Induced Abnormalities in the Intestinal Structure and Expression of Amino Acid Transporters in Young Pigs  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with glutamic acid has beneficial effects on growth performance, antioxidant system, intestinal morphology, serum amino acid profile and the gene expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in growing swine fed mold-contaminated feed. Fifteen pigs (Landrace×Large White) with a mean body weight (BW) of 55 kg were randomly divided into control group (basal feed), mycotoxin group (contaminated feed) and glutamate group (2% glutamate+contaminated feed). Compared with control group, mold-contaminated feed decreased average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed conversion rate (FCR). Meanwhile, fed mold-contaminated feed impaired anti-oxidative system and intestinal morphology, as well as modified the serum amino acid profile in growing pigs. However, supplementation with glutamate exhibited potential positive effects on growth performance of pigs fed mold-contaminated feed, ameliorated the imbalance antioxidant system and abnormalities of intestinal structure caused by mycotoxins. In addition, dietary glutamate supplementation to some extent restored changed serum amino acid profile caused by mold-contaminated feed. In conclusion, glutamic acid may be act as a nutritional regulating factor to ameliorate the adverse effects induced by mycotoxins. PMID:25405987

Wu, Miaomiao; Liao, Peng; Deng, Dun; Liu, Gang; Wen, Qingqi; Wang, Yongfei; Qiu, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wu, Xingli; Ren, Wenkai; Tan, Bie; Chen, Minghong; Xiao, Hao; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Nyachoti, Charles M.; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yin, Yulong

2014-01-01

203

Chromosome breakage in human preimplantation embryos from carriers of structural chromosomal abnormalities in relation to fragile sites, maternal age, and poor sperm factors.  

PubMed

Chromosome breakage is a fairly widespread phenomenon in preimplantation embryos affecting at least 10% of day 3 cleavage stage embryos. It may be detected during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). For carriers of structural chromosomal abnormalities, PGD involves the removal and testing of single blastomeres from cleavage stage embryos, aiming towards an unaffected pregnancy. Twenty-two such couples were referred for PGD, and biopsied blastomeres on day 3 and untransferred embryos (day 5/6) were tested using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with appropriate probes. This study investigated whether chromosome breakage (a) was detected more frequently in cases where the breakpoint of the aberration was in the same chromosomal band as a fragile site and (b) was influenced by maternal age, sperm parameters, reproductive history, or the sex of the carrier parent. The frequency of breakage seemed to be independent of fragile sites, maternal age, reproductive history, and sex of the carrier parent. However, chromosome breakage was very significantly higher in embryos from male carriers with poor sperm parameters versus embryos from male carriers with normal sperm parameters. Consequently, embryos from certain couples were more prone to chromosome breakage, fragment loss, and hence chromosomally unbalanced embryos, independently of meiotic segregation. PMID:22179562

Xanthopoulou, L; Ghevaria, H; Mantzouratou, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Delhanty, J D A

2012-01-01

204

Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Forty women aged 39-56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after UAE were evaluated. Clinical failure was defined as no symptomatic improvement or second invasive therapy after UAE. Results were stratified by the extent of uterine adenomyosis at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Patients were followed for a median of 40 months (range 5-102 months). UAE led to symptomatic control after UAE in 29 (72.5%) of 40 patients while 11 women underwent hysterectomy (n = 10) or dilatation and curettage (n = 1) for therapy failure. No significant difference between women with pure uterine adenoymosis and women with uterine adenomyosis combined with uterine leiomyomata was observed. Best results were shown for UAE in uterine adenomyosis with uterine leiomyomata predominance as opposed to predominant uterine adenomyosis with minor fibroid disease (clinical failure 0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.058). Throughout the study group, HRQOL score values increased and symptom severity scores decreased after UAE. Least improvement was noted for women with pure adenomyosis. Conclusions: UAE is clinically effective in the long term in most women with uterine adenomyosis. Symptomatic control and HRQOL were highest in patients with combined disease of uterine adenomyosis but leiomyomata predominance.

Froeling, V., E-mail: Vera.Froeling@charite.de; Scheurig-Muenkler, C., E-mail: Christian.Scheurig@charite.de; Hamm, B., E-mail: Bernd.Hamm@charite.de; Kroencke, T. J., E-mail: thomas.kroencke@charite.de [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2012-06-15

205

Uterine infarction in a patient with uterine adenomyosis following biochemical pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Adenomyosis is a common gynecological disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma deep within the myometrium associated with myometrial hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Focal uterine infarction after IVF-ET in a patient with adenomyosis following biochemical pregnancy has not been previously reported, although it occurs after uterine artery embolization in order to control symptoms caused by fibroids or adenomyosis. We report a case of a nulliparous woman who had uterine adenomyosis presenting with fever, pelvic pain and biochemical abortion after undergoing an IVF-ET procedure and the detection of a slightly elevated serum hCG. Focal uterine infarction was suspected after a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated preserved myometrium between the endometrial cavity and inner margin of the necrotic myometrium. This case demonstrates that focal uterine infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and infectious signs in women experiencing biochemical abortion after an IVF-ET procedure. PMID:25599041

Lee, Jae-Yeon; Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Da-Yong; Jeon, Hye-Won; Moon, Min-Hwan

2014-01-01

206

Abnormal Cone Structure in Foveal Schisis Cavities in X-Linked Retinoschisis from Mutations in Exon 6 of the RS1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate macular cone structure in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) caused by mutations in exon 6 of the RS1 gene. Methods. High-resolution macular images were obtained with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in two patients with XLRS and 27 age-similar healthy subjects. Retinal structure was correlated with best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, fundus-guided microperimetry, full-field electroretinography (ERG), and multifocal ERG. The six coding exons and the flanking intronic regions of the RS1 gene were sequenced in each patient. Results. Two unrelated males, ages 14 and 29, with visual acuity ranging from 20/32 to 20/63, had macular schisis with small relative central scotomas in each eye. The mixed scotopic ERG b-wave was reduced more than the a-wave. SD-OCT showed schisis cavities in the outer and inner nuclear and plexiform layers. Cone spacing was increased within the largest foveal schisis cavities but was normal elsewhere. In each patient, a mutation in exon 6 of the RS1 gene was identified and was predicted to change the amino acid sequence in the discoidin domain of the retinoschisin protein. Conclusions. AOSLO images of two patients with molecularly characterized XLRS revealed increased cone spacing and abnormal packing in the macula of each patient, but cone coverage and function were near normal outside the central foveal schisis cavities. Although cone density is reduced, the preservation of wave-guiding cones at the fovea and eccentric macular regions has prognostic and therapeutic implications for XLRS patients with foveal schisis. (Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00254605.) PMID:22110067

Ratnam, Kavitha; Birch, David G.; Sundquist, Sanna M.; Lucero, Anna S.; Zhang, Yuhua; Meltzer, Meira; Smaoui, Nizar; Roorda, Austin

2011-01-01

207

Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine  

PubMed Central

To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

2012-01-01

208

Propagation of electrical activity in uterine muscle during pregnancy: a review.  

PubMed

The uterine muscle (the myometrium) plays its most evident role during pregnancy, when quiescence is required for adequate nourishment and development of the foetus, and during labour, when forceful contractions are needed to expel the foetus and the other products of conception. The myometrium is composed of smooth muscle cells. Contraction is initiated by the spontaneous generation of electrical activity at the cell level in the form of action potentials. The mechanisms underlying uterine quiescence during pregnancy and electrical activation during labour remain largely unknown; as a consequence, the clinical management of preterm contractions during pregnancy and inefficient uterine contractility during labour remains suboptimal. In an effort to improve clinical management of uterine contractions, research has focused on understanding the propagation properties of the electrical activity of the uterus. Different perspectives have been undertaken, from animal and in vitro experiments up to clinical studies and dedicated methods for non-invasive parameter estimation. A comparison of the results is not straightforward due to the wide range of different approaches reported in the literature. However, previous studies unanimously reveal a unique complexity as compared to other organs in the pattern of uterine electrical activity propagation, which necessarily needs to be taken into consideration for future studies to be conclusive. The aim of this review is to structure current variegated knowledge on the properties of the uterus in terms of pacemaker position, pattern, direction and speed of the electrical activity during pregnancy and labour. PMID:25393600

Rabotti, C; Mischi, M

2015-02-01

209

Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types  

SciTech Connect

We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

1988-03-01

210

Knowledge of, Perception of, and Attitude towards Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended. PMID:24757580

Adegbesan-Omilabu, M A; Okunade, K S; Gbadegesin, A

2014-01-01

211

Knowledge of, Perception of, and Attitude towards Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended. PMID:24757580

Adegbesan-Omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.

2014-01-01

212

Postpartum Prolapsed Leiomyoma with Uterine Inversion Managed by Vaginal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function. PMID:25379314

Pieh-Holder, Kelly L.; DeVente, James E.

2014-01-01

213

What Are the Key Statistics about Uterine Sarcoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for uterine sarcoma? What are the key statistics about uterine sarcoma? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

214

Multivisceral (cluster) transplants, their spinoffs, and uterine transplants.  

PubMed

In this presentation, we sought to update the information on cluster transplants and their spinoffs. In addition, we explain why we believe that uterine transplantation is a project worth pursuing as an option for women with uterine infertility. PMID:24635791

Tzakis, Andreas

2014-03-01

215

Treatment of adenomyomectomy in women with severe uterine adenomyosis using a novel technique.  

PubMed

The advised treatment for severe adenomyosis is hysterectomy, but for patients wishing to preserve their uterus, novel conservative surgery, adenomyomectomy, can be performed. The technique needs to be developed to reduce spontaneous uterine rupture, adhesion and recurrence rates. This study aimed to investigate the safety and therapeutic outcomes of adenomyomectomy. Prospectively, 103 Iranian patients with documented severe adenomyosis were candidates for adenomyomectomy over a period of 7 years (from April 2004 to March 2011). The surgical procedure involved resection of adenomatosis lesions with a thin (? 0.5 cm) margin (wedge-shaped removal) after sagittal incision in the uterine body. Reconstruction of the layers was performed and inverted sutures were used for the serosal layer ends. Of 103 patients, 55.34% presented with infertility, 16.50% with IVF failure, 8.74% with recurrent abortion and 19.42% with abnormal uterine bleeding. Of 70 patients who attempted pregnancy, naturally (n=21) or by assisted reproduction treatment (n=49), 30% achieved a clinical pregnancy, and 16 resulted in a full-term live birth. Dysmenorrhoea and hypermenorrhoea were reduced post surgery. Only one patient had relapsed adenomyosis. Adenomyomectomy is a conservative and effective treatment for adenomyosis. This study describes an efficient procedure to treat severe adenomyosis. Adenomyosis is uterine thickening that occurs when endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, moves into the outer muscular walls of the uterus. The advised treatment for the severe forms of adenomyosis is hysterectomy (removal of the patient's uterus), but for the patient who wishes to preserve her uterus, a novel conservative surgery referred to as 'adenomyomectomy' (removal of the abnormal tissues) can be performed. This technique must be developed for reduction of spontaneous uterine rupture, adhesions and recurrence rate. This study aims to investigate the safety and therapeutic outcomes of adenomyomectomy. Prospectively, 103 Iranian patients with documented severe adenomyosis were candidates for adenomyomectomy over a period of 7 years (from April 2004 to March 2011). The surgical procedure was resection of adenomatosis lesions with a thin margin. Of 103 patients, 55.34% presented with infertility, 16.50% with IVF failure, 8.74% with recurrent abortion and 19.42% with abnormal uterus bleeding. Of 70 patients who attempted pregnancy either naturally (n=21) or using assisted reproduction technology (n=49), 30% became pregnant, and 16 pregnancies reached full term. There was a significant reduction in dysmenorrhoea and hypermenorrhoea. Only one patient had relapsed adenomyosis. Based on these results, we conclude that adenomyomectomy is the conservative and effective option to treat adenomyosis with preservation of the uterus. The procedure described in this study can be an efficient procedure to treat severe adenomyosis. PMID:24768558

Saremi, AboTaleb; Bahrami, Homa; Salehian, Pirooz; Hakak, Nasrin; Pooladi, Arash

2014-06-01

216

Myocytes, myometrium, and uterine contractions.  

PubMed

The pregnant uterus is unique because of the dramatic functional changes that occur in the peripartum period. To promote the concept that we have a relatively poor understanding of the physiology of parturition, we will posit 10 facts that are so obvious and so clearly accepted as facts that they probably are not even facts at all. (1) The laboring uterus undergoes peristalsis to dilate the cervix, deliver the fetus, and expel the placenta. (2) The human uterus is composed of longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle. (3) The functional cells of the uterus are the myocytes, which are a homogeneous cell type responsible for the generation of contraction forces, passage of action potentials, and control of contractility. (4) The phasic contractions of the uterus are typical for visceral smooth muscle. (5) The primary, and perhaps only, role of gap junctions is to allow passage of action potentials through the tissue. (6) Action potential propagation as the mechanism for global communication (over many centimeters throughout the uterus) is sufficient to recruit all regions and all myocytes of the uterus. (7) Slow waves pace the contractions of human myometrium. (8) Calcium-activated potassium channels are responsible for repolarization of the membrane potential that terminates each contraction. (9) Chloride channels are not important in uterine electrophysiology. (10) With enough computing power, it would be straightforward to build a closed model of human labor, given our current understanding of the components of myometrium. This manuscript discusses each point to stimulate questions for future investigation. PMID:17442780

Young, Roger C

2007-04-01

217

Nanomedicine for Uterine Leiomyoma Therapy  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this work was to engineer polymeric nanoparticles to encapsulate and deliver 2-methoxyestradiol, a potential antitumor drug for treatment of uterine leiomyoma (fibroids), the most common hormone-dependent pathology affecting women of reproductive age. Materials & Methods Encapsulation efficiency and drug release from the nanoparticles were monitored by HPLC. Cell morphology and in vitro cytotoxicity experiments were carried out in a human leiomyoma cell line (huLM). Results The nanoparticles displayed high encapsulation efficiency (>86%), which was verified by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Excellent long-term stability of the nanoparticles and gradual drug release without burst were also observed. Cellular uptake of fluorescent nanoparticles was confirmed by confocal imaging. The drug-loaded poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity in huLM cells to a significantly greater extent than the free drug at 0.35 ?M. Conclusion This novel approach represents a potential fertility-preserving alternative to hysterectomy. PMID:23343157

Ali, Hazem; Kilic, Gokhan; Vincent, Kathleen; Motamedi, Massoud; Rytting, Erik

2013-01-01

218

Uterine biology in pigs and sheep  

PubMed Central

There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

2012-01-01

219

Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.  

PubMed

Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF(fam )were inhibitory (positive inhibition value) vs. 25 out of 34 (74%) THPs from C, P < 0.05. In conclusion, severely recurrent calcium stone formers with a positive family history excrete more THP than healthy controls, and their THP molecules elute later from an analytical column and contain more SA. Such increasingly aggregated THP molecules predispose to exaggerated calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, an important prerequisite for urinary stone formation. PMID:17345077

Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

2007-04-01

220

Risk Factors for Uterine Fibroids Among Women Undergoing Tubal Sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomas are reported to be the most common benign gynecologic tumors affecting premenopausal women, and they are often associated with considerable morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for uterine fibroids among women undergoing tubal sterilization. Cases comprised women aged 17-44 years whose uterine fibroids were first visualized at the time of tubal sterilization (1978-1979

Chao-Ru Chen; Germaine M. Buck; Norman G. Courey; Kimberly M. Perez; Jean Wactawski-Wende

2001-01-01

221

Steroidal regulation of uterine resistance to bacterial infection in livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum uterine infections reduce reproductive efficiency and have significant animal welfare and economic consequences. Postpartum uterine infections are classified as nonspecific, but Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli are usually associated with them in cattle and sheep. Pyometra is the most common type of uterine infection in dairy cattle, and it is detected almost exclusively in cows with active corpora lutea.

Gregory S Lewis

2003-01-01

222

Inherited susceptibility to uterine leiomyomas and renal cell cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein we report the clinical, histopathological, and molecular features of a cancer syndrome with predisposition to uterine leiomyomas and papillary renal cell carcinoma. The studied kindred included 11 family members with uterine leiomyomas and two with uterine leiomyosarcoma. Seven individuals had a history of cutaneous nodules, two of which were confirmed to be cutaneous leiomyomatosis. The four kidney cancer cases

Virpi Launonen; Outi Vierimaa; Maija Kiuru; Jorma Isola; Stina Roth; Eero Pukkala; Pertti Sistonen; Riitta Herva; Lauri A. Aaltonen

2001-01-01

223

Comprehensive evaluation of cortical structure abnormalities in drug-naïve, adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a surface-based morphometry study.  

PubMed

The study objective was to comprehensively evaluate drug-naïve, adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) for cortical structure abnormalities in comparison with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study of case-control design, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1-mm) was performed in drug-naïve OCD patients (N = 50) & age- sex-, education- and handedness-matched healthy controls (N = 40). We examined cortical volume, thickness, surface area & local Gyrification Index (LGI) through a completely automated surface-based morphometric analysis using FreeSurfer software. OCD symptoms and insight were assessed using Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom (Y-BOCS) check-list and severity scale. Illness severity was assessed using Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) Scale. OCD patients had significantly deficient volume, thickness and surface area of right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Right lingual gyrus surface area was found to be significantly decreased in patients. Y-BOCS obsession score had significant negative correlation with left frontal pole volume. Y-BOCS compulsion score had significant negative correlations with right ACG volume and surface area and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex LGI. CGI-Severity score had significant negative correlations with right lingual gyrus volume, thickness and surface area as well as right lateral orbitofrontal area. Y-BOCS insight score showed a significant negative correlation with LGI of left medial OFC and left rostral ACG. Identification of novel deficits involving occipital brain regions and first-time observations of relevant correlations between various illness characteristics and cortical measures in OCD patients supports a network involving anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and occipital brain regions in the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:22770508

Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Zutshi, Amit; Jindal, Sachin; Srikanth, Subbamma G; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Kumar, J Keshav; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

2012-09-01

224

Multiple Structural and Functional Abnormalities in the P450 Aromatase Expressing Transgenic Male Mice Are Ameliorated by a P450 Aromatase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to analyze the effect of a P450 aromatase inhibitor (finrozole) on 4-month-old transgenic mice expressing human P450 aromatase (P450arom) under the human ubiquitin C promoter (AROM+). AROM+ mice present several dysfunctions, such as adrenal and pituitary hyperplasia, cryptorchidism, Leydig cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and gynecomastia. The present study demonstrates that these abnormalities were efficiently treated by administration of a P450arom inhibitor, finrozole. The treatment normalized the reduced intratesticular and serum testosterone levels, while those of estradiol were decreased. The body weight and several affected organ weights were normalized with the treatment. Histological analysis revealed that both the pituitary and adrenal hyperplasia were diminished. Furthermore, the cryptorchid testes present in the untreated AROM+ males descended to scrotum, 4 to 15 days after inhibitor treatment. In addition, the disrupted spermatogenesis was recovered and qualitatively complete spermatogenesis appeared with the inhibitor treatment. This was associated with normalized structure of the interstitial tissue, as analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for Leydig cells and macrophages. One of the features was that the Leydig cell hypertrophy was markedly diminished in the treated mice. AROM+ mice also present with severe gynecomastia, while the development and differentiation of the mammary gland in AROM+ males was markedly diminished with the inhibitor treatment. Interestingly, the mammary gland involution was associated with the induction of androgen receptor in the epithelial cells, while estrogen receptors were still detectable in the epithelium. The data show that AROM+ mouse model is a novel tool to further analyze the use of P450arom inhibitors in the treatment of the dysfunctions in males associated with misbalanced estrogen to androgen ratio, such as pituitary adenoma, testicular dysfunction, and gynecomastia. PMID:14982857

Li, Xiangdong; Strauss, Leena; Mäkelä, Sari; Streng, Tomi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Santti, Risto; Poutanen, Matti

2004-01-01

225

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

226

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

227

Use of Cyclosporine in Uterine Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Uterine transplantation has been proposed as a possible solution to absolute uterine factor infertility untreatable by any other option. Since the first human attempt in 2000, various teams have tried to clarify which immunosuppressant would be most suitable for protecting the allogeneic uterine graft while posing a minimal risk to the fetus. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant widely used by transplant recipients. It is currently being tested as a potential immunosuppressant to be used during UTn. Its effect on the mother and fetus and its influence upon the graft during pregnancy have been of major concern. We review the role of CsA in UTn and its effect on pregnant transplant recipients and their offspring. PMID:22132302

Saso, Srdjan; Logan, Karl; Abdallah, Yazan; Louis, Louay S.; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. Richard; Del Priore, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

228

Uterine cirsoid aneurysm: MRI and MRA  

SciTech Connect

Uterine cirsoid aneurysm is uncommon. It is important to make a diagnosis of this disease preoperatively, because repeated curettages may induce life-threatening massive genital bleeding. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with uterine cirsoid aneurysm in whom MRI and MRA were very useful for the preoperative diagnosis. The radiologic appearances on ultrasonography, CT, conventional SE MRI, MRA, dynamic MRI, and pelvic angiography are presented. Conventional SE T1-weighted and T2-weighted images demonstrated multiple flow voids in the uterus and bilateral adnexal regions. MRA demonstrated a cluster of distinct, tortuous, and coiled vascular channels in the pelvis. MRA could obtain images almost equal to angiography and was considered to be an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of uterine cirsoid aneurysm. 28 refs., 7 figs

Joja, Ikuo; Asakawa, Mari; Motoyama, Kazumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan)] [and others] [Okayama Univ. (Japan); and others

1996-03-01

229

Uterine artery embolization for symptomatic myomata.  

PubMed

Fibroid disease is common and causes significant health problems in women of childbearing age. Over the past several years, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment for symptomatic uterine myomata. Embolotherapy is effective in relieving myoma-related symptoms in 80% to 90% of patients. It requires shorter hospitalizations than traditional surgical therapies for myoma disease and is associated with faster recovery and lower complication risks than surgery. Patient selection, the UAE procedure, and post-UAE management are reviewed. PMID:15035751

Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L; Siskin, Gary P

2004-01-01

230

Uterine Prolapse: From Antiquity to Today  

PubMed Central

Uterine prolapse is a condition that has likely affected women for all of time as it is documented in the oldest medical literature. By looking at the watershed moments in its recorded history we are able to appreciate the evolution of urogynecology and to gain perspective on the challenges faced by today's female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons in their attempts to treat uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. “He who cannot render an account to himself of at least three thousand years of time, will always grope in the darkness of inexperience” —Goethe, Translation of Panebaker PMID:22262975

Downing, Keith T.

2012-01-01

231

Increased expression of electron transport chain genes in uterine leiomyoma.  

PubMed

The etiology and pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas, benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus, are not well understood. To evaluate the role of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma, we compared electron transport gene expressions of uterine leiomyoma tissue with myometrium tissue in six uterine leiomyoma patients by RT-PCR array. Our results showed an average of 1.562 (±0.445) fold increase in nuclear-encoded electron transport genes. These results might suggest an increase in size, number, or activity of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. PMID:25361934

Tuncal, Akile; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; Askar, Niyazi; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Akdemir, Ali; Ak, Handan

2014-01-01

232

Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.  

PubMed

To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

2014-01-01

233

Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes  

PubMed Central

To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

2014-01-01

234

MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

Das, Raj, E-mail: rajdas@nhs.net; Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)] [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Manyonda, Issac [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Gynaecology (United Kingdom)] [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Gynaecology (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)] [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-10-15

235

[Morphofunctional disorders of uterine-placenta blood flow in multiple uterine myomas].  

PubMed

Results of the right uterine artery dopplerometry at pregnancy 39-39 weeks and those of subsequent histotopographic and immunomorphologic study of the placental bed in the amputated uteri were compared in 50 pregnant women. Morphofunctional equivalent of a considerable reduction of the uterine-placental circulation depending on the myomatous tissue spread and particularly in rare observations of "the placenta on the node" were found. Pathogenesis of these disturbances is determined by deficiency of the second wave of interstitial cytotrophoblast invasion, by phenomenon of the uterine-placental circulation decrease due to arterial supply of myomatous nodes and local hormonal changes produced by alterations of cellular-tissular correlations in the uterine-placental bed. PMID:9854608

Milovanov, A P; Sidorova, I S; Trushina, O I; Kadyrov, M

1998-01-01

236

Placenta increta as an important cause of uterine mass after first-trimester Curettage (case report)  

PubMed Central

Placenta increta during the first trimester of pregnancy is very rare. This report describes two cases of placenta increta that caused prolonged vaginal bleeding after a first-trimester abortion. We were encountered two cases of placenta increta in October 2012 and May 2013. Case I: A 35-year-old patient with continues vaginal bleeding from 2 months after curettage due to missed abortion in the first trimester. The uterus was large, the human chorionic gonadotropin (BHCG) level was 112 mUI/mL and ultrasound showed an echogenic mass in the lower segment of the uterine cavity. She was a candidate for curettage but received hysterectomy because of massive vaginal bleeding. Pathology reported placenta increta. Case II: A 32-year-old patient in the 12th week of gestation with missed abortion. After 6 weeks from curettage, she returned with continues vaginal bleeding, BHCG = 55 mUI/mL and sonography showing mixed echo lesion in the uterine cavity like hydatiform mole. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed. Pathology reported placenta increta. In patients with a history of recent first-trimester abortion presenting with prolonged vaginal bleeding, uterine mass and low-level BHCG, a diagnosis of abnormal placentaion should be kept in mind. PMID:25538926

Rouholamin, Safoura; Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam

2014-01-01

237

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

238

Anastomoses of the Ovarian and Uterine Arteries: A Potential Pitfall and Cause of Failure of Uterine Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Four women with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated by uterine artery embolization (UAE). In all cases both uterine arteries were embolized via a single femoral puncture with polyvinyl alcohol using a selective catheter technique. In three cases, the ovarian artery was not visible on the initial angiogram before embolization, but appeared after the second uterine artery had been treated. In one case of clinical failure following UAE, a repeat angiogram demonstrated filling of the fibroids from the ovarian artery. Anastomoses between uterine and ovarian arteries may cause problems for radiologists performing UAE and are a potential cause of treatment failure.

Matson, Matthew [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 OQT (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Anthony [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 OQT (United Kingdom)

2000-09-15

239

Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of chromosome 7 in uterine leiomyoma  

SciTech Connect

Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors which arise clonally from smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. Cytogenetic studies of uterine leiomyomas revealed that about 50% have chromosome abnormalities and that deletion 7q is a common finding. This observation suggest the possible location of a growth suppressor gene within the 7q21-q22 region. Molecular genetic analysis of cytogenetically normal tumors has frequently revealed somatic loss of specific tumor suppressor genes detected by loss of heterozygosity in the critical region (RB1 in retinoblastoma and WT1 in Wilms tumor). To test the hypothesis that chromosome region 7q21-q22 contains a growth suppressor gene involved in the development of leiomyomas, we tested 67 leiomyomas for allelic loss of 7q markers spanning the cytogenetically defined critical region. Nineteen tumors with cytogenetically defined 7q deletion and 48 tumors without cytogenetically visible 7q deletion were examined for allelic loss of loci D7S487, D7S440, D7S492, D7S518, D7S471, D7S466 and D7S530. Loss of heterozygosity for one or more of these loci was observed in 14/19 (73.7%) of tumors with deletion 7q and no evidence of allelic loss was observed in tumors without cytogenetic deletion. The tumors with deletion 7q but no loss of 7q21-q22 markers were tumors which were mosaics with only a minority of cells showing chromosome 7q deletion. The critical region of loss is defined by markers D7S518 and D7S471, each showing loss in 56% of informative cases. These markers define a 10cM region of 7q21.2-q22 consistent with the cytogenetically defined smallest region of overlap. These markers exclude loss of the MET oncogene locus and WNT1, the murine mammary tumor virus integration site, from the critical region. These results define a region that is consistently lost in leiomyomas with abnormalities in chromosome 7q and may define the location of a gene involved in the development of a subset of leiomyomas.

Ishwad, C.; Ferrell, R.E.; Davare, J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

240

Original article Limiting effects of uterine crowding  

E-print Network

.1 g vs N: 54.1 ± 0.7 g; P live pups at birth (H: 46.5 ± 1-linear relationship between the total number of pups at birth and the total weight of live pups was detected. Negative and the minimum individual weight of live pups at birth were detected. uterine crowding I hemiovariectomy I birth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

IV. Uterine fibroid embolization: Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients generally notice some relief of both menorrhagia and mass-effect symptoms during the first few weeks after uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Shrinkage of the fibroids continues to take place over several months, peaking somewhere between 3 and 6 months, with measurable shrinkage sometimes noted for up to 1 year. The timing of follow-up visits is intended to coincide with the

John C. Lipman; Steven J. Smith; James B. Spies; Gary P. Siskin; Lindsay S. Machan; Joseph Bonn; Robert L. Worthington-Kirsch; Scott C. Goodwin; David M. Hovsepian

2002-01-01

242

II. Uterine fibroid embolization: Technical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful superselective catheterization of the uterine artery requires familiarity with female pelvic arterial anatomy, knowledge of effective catheter and guidewire combinations, and a few tricks. A learning curve can be expected for each of these elements, although it is assumed that the operator will already have experience in basic catheter techniques. Safe transcatheter delivery, understanding of embolization end points, and

Robert L. Worthington-Kirsch; Robert T. Andrews; Gary P. Siskin; Richard Shlansky-Goldberg; John C. Lipman; Scott C. Goodwin; Joseph Bonn; David M. Hovsepian

2002-01-01

243

Original article Uterine blood flow in sows  

E-print Network

are lighter at birth. sow / pregnancy / uterus / blood flow / foetus / litter size Résumé -- Débit sanguin, the efficiency of the uterus is higher in hyperprolific Large-White � Meis- han than in standard Large White sows], the foetuses that exceed uterine capac- ity die after day 25 of pregnancy. Available space in the uterus [44

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Effects of different sexual stimuli on oxytocin release, uterine activity and receptive behavior in estrous sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess effects of exogenous oxytocin (OT) on uterine activity, and to compare three different sexual stimuli in their effects on OT release, uterine activity and receptive behavior in estrous sows. Uterine activity was recorded nonsurgically, by transcervical insertion of an open-end catheter into the caudal part of the uterine lumen. After recording spontaneous uterine activity,

P. Langendijk; E. G. Bouwman; D. Schams; N. M. Soede; B. Kemp

2003-01-01

245

Uterine Leiomyoma in a Guyanese Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus sciureus)  

PubMed Central

An adult female squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) presented with a 3.0 × 2.5 cm firm mass palpable within the caudal abdomen. Differentiation of the organs or structures involved with the mass could not be achieved with radiography or ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass within the lumen of the uterus; the mass was removed by partial hysterectomy. On gross examination, the mass was a focally extensive, unencapsulated, firm, solitary tumor. Histologic examination revealed that the mass was composed of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells with little fibrous stroma. The cells were elongated with poorly delineated borders and cigar-shaped nuclei, each containing a single, small nucleolus. Fewer than 1 mitosis per 20 high-power (magnification, × 400) fields were present. These gross and histologic findings supported a diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Although leiomyomas are the most common tumor of the reproductive tract in nonhuman primates, to our knowledge the current lesion is the first uterine leiomyoma reported to occur in a squirrel monkey. PMID:20353700

Long, C Tyler; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Albertelli, Megan A

2010-01-01

246

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

247

Uterine Serous Carcinoma: Increased Familial Risk for Lynch-Associated Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Serous uterine cancer is not a feature of any known hereditary cancer syndrome. This study evaluated familial risk of cancers for serous uterine carcinoma patients, focusing on Lynch syndrome malignancies. Experimental design Fifty serous or mixed serous endometrial carcinoma cases were prospectively enrolled. Pedigrees were developed for 29 probands and tumors were assessed for DNA mismatch repair abnormalities. Standardized incidence ratios for cancers in relatives were estimated. A second stage analysis was undertaken using data from GOG-210. Incidence data for cancers reported in relatives of 348 serous and mixed epithelial and 624 endometrioid carcinoma patients were compared. Results Nineteen of 29 (65.5%) patients in the single institution series reported a Lynch-related cancer in relatives. Endometrial and ovarian cancers were significantly over-represented and a high number of probands (6/29, 20.7%) reported pancreatic cancers. None of the probands’ tumors had DNA mismatch repair abnormalities. There was no difference in endometrial or ovarian cancer incidence in relatives of serous and endometrioid cancer probands in the case-control study. Pancreatic cancers were, however, significantly more common in relatives of serous cancer patients (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.06–5.38). Conclusions We identified an excess of endometrial, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers in relatives of serous cancer patients in a single institution study. Follow-up studies suggest only pancreatic cancers are over-represented in relatives. DNA mismatch repair defects in familial clustering of pancreatic and other Lynch-associated malignancies are unlikely. The excess of pancreatic cancers in relatives may reflect an as yet unidentified hereditary syndrome that includes uterine serous cancers. PMID:22246618

Dewdney, Summer B; Kizer, Nora T; Andaya, Abegail A; Babb, Sheri A; Luo, Jingqin; Mutch, David G; Schmidt, Amy P.; Brinton, Louise A; Broaddus, Russell R; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Huettner, Phyllis C; McMeekin, D Scott; Darcy, Kathleen; Ali, Shamshad; Judson, Patricia L.; Mannel, Robert S.; Lele, Shashikant B.; O’Malley, David M; Goodfellow, Paul J

2012-01-01

248

A model of preeclampsia in rats: the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is defined as new-onset hypertension with proteinuria after 20 wk gestation and is hypothesized to be due to shallow trophoblast invasion in the spiral arteries thus resulting in progressive placental ischemia as the fetus grows. Many animal models have been developed that mimic changes in maternal circulation or immune function associated with preeclampsia. The model of reduced uterine perfusion pressure in pregnant rats closely mimics the hypertension, immune system abnormalities, systemic and renal vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress in the mother, and intrauterine growth restriction found in the offspring. The model has been successfully used in many species; however, rat and primate are the most consistent in comparison of characteristics with human preeclampsia. The model suffers, however, from lack of the ability to study the mechanisms responsible for abnormal placentation that ultimately leads to placental ischemia. Despite this limitation, the model is excellent for studying the consequences of reduced uterine blood flow as it mimics many of the salient features of preeclampsia during the last weeks of gestation in humans. This review discusses these features. PMID:22523250

Li, Jing; LaMarca, Babbette

2012-01-01

249

Etiology and pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas: a review.  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent a major public health problem. It is believed that these tumors develop in the majority of American women and become symptomatic in one-third of these women. They are the most frequent indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Although the initiator or initiators of fibroids are unknown, several predisposing factors have been identified, including age (late reproductive years), African-American ethnicity, nulliparity, and obesity. Nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities have been found in about 40% of tumors examined. Estrogen and progesterone are recognized as promoters of tumor growth, and the potential role of environmental estrogens has only recently been explored. Growth factors with mitogenic activity, such as transforming growth factor- (subscript)3(/subscript), basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I, are elevated in fibroids and may be the effectors of estrogen and progesterone promotion. These data offer clues to the etiology and pathogenesis of this common condition, which we have analyzed and summarized in this review. PMID:12826476

Flake, Gordon P; Andersen, Janet; Dixon, Darlene

2003-01-01

250

Mathematical Approach for Modeling the Uterine Electrical Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of physiological modeling of the uterine electrical activity generated at cellular level is to understand the main physiological uterine contractile mechanisms, in particular, the propagation mechanisms and their relationship with the uterine EMG signal recorded externally from the abdominal wall of the pregnant women. In this present paper, we model the electrical activity simulated at its cellular level. This model is built in three steps: first we built a model based on the formulation of Hodgkin and Huxley and adapted to the specificities of the uterine cell. The second step was the integration of the cellular model in a two-dimensional propagation model by using the reactiondiffusion equations in order to simulate the propagation of the uterine activity at the tissue level. Finally, a simplified version of the space-time integration of the electrical activity was used to build a first example of the uterine EMG.

Chkeir, Aly; Moslem, Bassam; Rihana, Sandy; Germain, Guy; Marque, Catherine

251

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

252

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

253

Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

254

II. Uterine fibroid embolization: technical aspects.  

PubMed

Successful superselective catheterization of the uterine artery requires familiarity with female pelvic arterial anatomy, knowledge of effective catheter and guidewire combinations, and a few tricks. A learning curve can be expected for each of these elements, although it is assumed that the operator will already have experience in basic catheter techniques. Safe transcatheter delivery, understanding of embolization end points, and avoidance of nontarget embolization are essential. Equally important are knowledge of the properties of the embolic agents currently available and their indications for use. Uterine fibroid embolization unavoidably results in radiation exposure to the uterus and ovaries, and adherence to meticulous fluoroscopic technique is crucial to keep the absorbed dose as low as possible. PMID:12098105

Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L; Andrews, Robert T; Siskin, Gary P; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard; Lipman, John C; Goodwin, Scott C; Bonn, Joseph; Hovsepian, David M

2002-03-01

255

III. Uterine fibroid embolization: pain management.  

PubMed

Conscious sedation and analgesia are integral components of successful uterine fibroid embolization (UFE), both in providing comfort to the anxious patient undergoing an elective procedure and for providing relief of the severe pelvic pain, cramps, and nausea that may result from acute uterine ischemia and the postembolization syndrome that may follow. The agents used are typically those with which interventional radiologists already have extensive experience in the performance of a variety of invasive procedures. Immediate postprocedure care benefits greatly from the use of narcotic delivered via PCA (patient-controlled analgesia) pump. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also particularly useful for treating the pain and cramping caused by UFE and help reduce the amount of narcotic necessary for pain relief during the recovery period. Detailed instructions for the first week of convalescence are necessary to insure comfort and avoid complications. PMID:12098106

Siskin, Gary P; Bonn, Joseph; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L; Smith, Steven J; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard; Machan, Lindsay S; Andrews, Robert T; Goodwin, Scott C; Hovsepian, David M

2002-03-01

256

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

257

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

258

Ultrastaging of lymph node in uterine cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and a criterion for adjuvant therapy in uterine cancers. While detection of micrometastases by ultrastaging techniques is correlated to prognosis in several other cancers, this remains a matter of debate for uterine cancers. The objective of this review on sentinel nodes (SN) in uterine cancers was to determine the contribution of ultrastaging to detect micrometastases. Methods Review of the English literature on SN procedure in cervical and endometrial cancers and histological techniques including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, serial sectioning, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular techniques to detect micrometastases. Results In both cervical and endometrial cancers, H&E and IHC appeared insufficient to detect micrometastases. In cervical cancer, using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of macrometastases varied between 7.1% and 36.3% with a mean value of 25.8%. The percentage of women with micrometastases ranged from 0% and 47.4% with a mean value of 28.3%. In endometrial cancer, the rate of macrometastases varied from 0% to 22%. Using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of micrometastases varied from 0% to 15% with a mean value of 5.8%. In both cervical and endometrial cancers, data on the contribution of molecular techniques to detect micrometastases are insufficient to clarify their role in SN ultrastaging. Conclusion In uterine cancers, H&E, serial sectioning and IHC appears the best histological combined technique to detect micrometastases. Although accumulating data have proved the relation between the risk of recurrence and the presence of micrometastases, their clinical implications on indications for adjuvant therapy has to be clarified. PMID:20092644

2010-01-01

259

Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of uterine neoplasms in nine dogs.  

PubMed

The records of nine female intact dogs with histologically confirmed uterine tumors were reviewed retrospectively, and the related radiographic and ultrasonographic signs of the lesions detected were recorded. Radiography revealed a soft-tissue opacity between the urinary bladder and colon in six of seven dogs with uterine body and/or cervical tumors, and a soft-tissue opacity in the midventral abdomen in two dogs with uterine horn tumors. Ultrasonography revealed masses in all dogs with uterine body/cervical tumors and could delineate the origin of the mass in one of two dogs with uterine horn tumors. The mass was characterized ultrasonographically as solid in three dogs (all leiomyomas), solid with cystic component in four dogs (two adenocarcinomas, one leiomyoma, and one fibroleiomyoma), and cystic in two (both leiomyomas). Hyperechoic foci in the mass were observed in three dogs. Ultrasonography was a useful method for demonstrating uterine body and/or cervical tumors. However, it was not possible to ascertain sonographically that a mass originated in a uterine horn unless there was associated evidence of uterine horn to which the mass could be traced. The ultrasonographic appearance of uterine tumors was variable, and the type of neoplasm could only be determined by taking biopsies of the mass. PMID:25028432

Patsikas, Michail; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Papaioannou, Nikolaos G; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi L; Soultani, Christina B; Chryssogonidis, Ioannis A; Kouskouras, Konstantinos A; Tziris, Nikolaos E; Charitanti, Afroditi A

2014-01-01

260

Uterine disorders and pregnancy complications: insights from mouse models  

PubMed Central

Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), gene-manipulated mice are considered by many the most useful tool for mechanistic analysis, and numerous studies have identified many similarities in female reproduction between the two species. This Review brings together information from studies using animal models, in particular mouse models, that shed light on normal and pathologic aspects of uterine biology and pregnancy complications. PMID:20364098

Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Wang, Haibin

2010-01-01

261

Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

262

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

263

Relationship between bacteriological findings in the second and fourth weeks postpartum and uterine infection in dairy cows considering bacteriological results.  

PubMed

The uterine lumen in early postpartum dairy cows is contaminated with different bacteria. The most relevant uterine pathogens are Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes. Prevalence of ?-hemolytic streptococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) is also high; however, these pathogens are considered opportunistic. The overall objective of this study was to investigate effects of the intrauterine presence of E. coli, T. pyogenes, ?-hemolytic streptococci, or CNS at 10±1 d in milk (DIM) on the type of bacteria 2 wk later and their influence on uterine infections and subsequent reproductive performance. Furthermore, we set out to quantify 2 relevant methodological factors (i.e., laboratory and sampling instrument). Bacteriological samples were collected at 10±1 and 24±1 DIM from the uterine lumen using a cytobrush (CB). Vaginal mucus was classified by vaginoscopy. In a subsample, bacteriological results of 3 different laboratories and of CB and cotton swabs (CS) were compared. Samples of uterine discharge were collected at 10±1 DIM and bacteriological samples were taken using CB and CS. Bacteria were identified and bacterial growth quantified on a 4-point scale. Animals infected with E. coli or T. pyogenes at 10±1 DIM had a higher risk for an infection with the same bacterial species at 24±1 DIM [E. coli relative risk (RR)=3.7 and T. pyogenes RR=2.9]. Moreover, the risk of being diagnosed with abnormal vaginal discharge at 24±1 DIM increased in cows with E. coli (RR=1.7) or T. pyogenes (RR=1.7) at 10±1 DIM. Uterine infection with ?-hemolytic streptococci or CNS did not increase the risk of an infection with T. pyogenes or E. coli or abnormal vaginal discharge 2 wk later. Cows with E. coli at 10±1 DIM or T. pyogenes at 24±1 DIM had greater days to first artificial insemination than cows positive for the 3 remaining bacterial species. Cows with T. pyogenes at 10±1 DIM had more days to pregnancy and more cows were culled when positive for E. coli at 10±1 DIM. Agreement of bacteriological results of 3 different laboratories were significant for laboratory A + B and A + C for the CB and CS. The highest agreement considering the bacterial species was for E. coli. All results for laboratory A + B and A + C for the CB and CS were significant. The results generated from samples collected with CB agreed nicely with those from CS from each laboratory (laboratory A: 250/272; laboratory B: 264/272; laboratory C: 253/272). PMID:23021749

Werner, A; Suthar, V; Plöntzke, J; Heuwieser, W

2012-12-01

264

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

265

Relationships between uterine and fetal traits in rabbits selected on uterine capacity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether uterine capacity (UC) in rabbits was related to uterine horn length and weight and whether these uterine traits and vascular supply were related to fetal development and survival. Data from 48 unilaterally ovariectomized (ULO) does of the High and 52 ULO does of the Low UC lines of a divergent selection experiment on UC were used. Does were slaughtered on d 25 of fifth gestation. The High line showed higher ovarian weight (0.08 g, P < 0.05) linked to a higher ovulation rate (1 ovum, P < 0.05) and greater length of the empty uterine horn. There were no differences between lines in the remaining doe traits. The number of implanted embryos and live fetuses, fetal survival, and uterine weight and length were positively associated and explained most of the observed variation. Average weights of the live fetuses and their fetal and maternal placentae were not related to uterine weight and length. The linear regression coefficient of full uterine horn length on the number of live fetuses was 2.43 +/- 0.21. The weight of the full uterine horn showed a small quadratic relationship (P < 0.05) with the number of live fetuses. Full uterine horn length, after adjusting for the number of embryos, was negatively associated (P < 0.001) with the number of dead fetuses. The linear regression coefficient of average fetal placental weight of the live fetuses on number of implanted embryos was higher (P < 0.10) in the Low line (-0.23 +/- 0.04 vs. -0.12 +/- 0.04). The linear regression coefficient of average weight of the live fetuses on the average weight of their fetal placentae was higher (P < 0.10) in the High line (2.56 +/- 0.47 vs. 1.27 +/- 0.57). The High line was more efficient, most likely because an increase in intrauterine crowding has a lesser effect on the development of fetal placentae and fetuses. The fetal position within the uterus did not affect the proportion of dead embryos. Fetuses with placentae receiving a single blood vessel had a higher probability of death (P < 0.001) and the lowest weight. There was no difference between lines for individual weight of the live fetuses, but the High line showed higher individual weights of fetal (P < 0.01) and maternal placentae (P < 0.10). Live fetuses in the midportion of the uterus were lighter in weight (P < 0.05) than in the oviductal and cervical regions (20.3 vs. 21.6 and 21.7g). Increasing uterine capacity increases uterine length and decreases weights of fetus and fetal placenta in rabbits. PMID:12772854

Argente, M J; Santacreu, M A; Climent, A; Blasco, A

2003-05-01

266

The Effect of Uterine Motion and Uterine Margins on Target and Normal Tissue Doses in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy of Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cervical cancer, uterine motion can be larger than cervix motion, requiring a larger clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin around the uterine fundus. This work simulates different motion models and margins to estimate the dosimetric consequences. A virtual study used image sets from 10 patients. Plans were created with uniform margins of 1cm (PTVA) and 2.4cm (PTVC), and a margin tapering from 2.4cm at the fundus to 1cm at the cervix (PTVB). Three inter-fraction motion models (MM) were simulated. In MM1, all structures moved with normally distributed rigid body translations. In MM2, CTV motion was progressively magnified as one moved superiorly from the cervix to the fundus. In MM3, both CTV and normal tissue motion was magnified as in MM2, modeling the scenario where normal tissues move into the void left by the mobile uterus. Plans were evaluated using static and percentile DVHs (PDVHS). For a conventional margin (PTVA), quasi-realistic uterine motion (MM3) reduces fundus dose by about 5Gy and increases normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50Gy by ?5%. A tapered CTV-to-PTV margin can restore fundus and CTV dose, but will increase normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50Gy by a further ?5%. PMID:21490387

Gordon, J.J.; Weiss, E.; Abayomi, O.K.; Siebers, J.V.; Dogan, N.

2011-01-01

267

The effect of uterine motion and uterine margins on target and normal tissue doses in intensity modulated radiation therapy of cervical cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cervical cancer, uterine motion can be larger than cervix motion, requiring a larger clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin around the uterine fundus. This work simulates different motion models and margins to estimate the dosimetric consequences. A virtual study used image sets from ten patients. Plans were created with uniform margins of 1 cm (PTVA) and 2.4 cm (PTVC), and a margin tapering from 2.4 cm at the fundus to 1 cm at the cervix (PTVB). Three inter-fraction motion models (MM) were simulated. In MM1, all structures moved with normally distributed rigid body translations. In MM2, CTV motion was progressively magnified as one moved superiorly from the cervix to the fundus. In MM3, both CTV and normal tissue motion were magnified as in MM2, modeling the scenario where normal tissues move into the void left by the mobile uterus. Plans were evaluated using static and percentile DVHs. For a conventional margin (PTVA), quasi-realistic uterine motion (MM3) reduces fundus dose by about 5 Gy and increases normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50 Gy by ~5%. A tapered CTV-to-PTV margin can restore fundus and CTV doses, but will increase normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50 Gy by a further ~5%.

Gordon, J. J.; Weiss, E.; Abayomi, O. K.; Siebers, J. V.; Dogan, N.

2011-05-01

268

Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Evaluation of Uterine Blood Flow in Cynomolgus Macaque  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine blood flow is an important factor in uterine viability, but the number of blood vessels required to maintain viability is uncertain. In this study, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging was used to examine uterine hemodynamics and vessels associated with uterine blood flow in cynomolgus macaque. Methods The uterus of a female cynomolgus macaque was cut from the vaginal canal to mimic a situation during trachelectomy or uterine transplantation surgery in which uterine perfusion is maintained only with uterine and ovarian vessels. Intraoperative uterine hemodynamics was observed using ICG fluorescence imaging under conditions in which various nutrient vessels were selected by clamping of blood vessels. A time-intensity curve was plotted using imaging analysis software to measure the Tmax of uterine perfusion for selected blood vessel patterns. Open surgery was performed with the uterus receiving nutritional support only from uterine vessels on one side. The size of the uterus after surgery was monitored using transabdominal ultrasonography. Results The resulting time-intensity curves displayed the average intensity in the regions of the uterine corpus and uterine cervix, and in the entire uterus. Analyses of the uterine hemodynamics in the cynomolgus macaque showed that uterine vessels were significantly related to uterine perfusion (P?=?0.008), whereas ovarian vessels did not have a significant relationship (P?=?0.588). When uterine vessels were clamped, ovarian vessels prolonged the time needed to reach perfusion maximum. Postoperative transabdominal ultrasonography showed that the size of the uterus was not changed 2 months after surgery, with recovery of periodic menstruation. The cynomolgus macaque has got pregnant with favorable fetus well-being. Conclusion Uterine vessels may be responsible for uterine blood flow, and even one uterine vessel may be sufficient to maintain uterine viability in cynomolgus macaque. Our results show that ICG fluorescence imaging is useful for evaluation of uterine blood flow since this method allows real-time observation of uterine hemodynamics. PMID:22606213

Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Lin, Li-Yu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yanokura, Megumi; Hara, Hisako; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Abe, Takayuki; Kouyama, Keisuke; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

2012-01-01

269

Polytocus focus: Uterine position effect is dependent upon horn size.  

PubMed

Understanding the variability caused by uterine position effects in polytocus species, such as rats, may enhance prenatal animal models for the study of drug and environmental agents. The primiparous litters of 42 intact female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Uterine position, fetal body weight, and fetal brain (wet) weight were recorded on gestation day (GD) 20 (GD 0=sperm positive). Uterine position effect for brain and body weight varied depending upon horn size. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between horn size (and, to a lesser extent, litter size) and fetal weight applied to both body and brain weight measures. There were no statistical differences in brain and body weights between the left and right uterine horns. The position of the uterine horn (left vs. right) and litter size did not influence the uterine position effect in the rat. Collectively, the present data suggest the presence of a significant uterine position effect. Prenatal differences based on uterine position provide an untapped opportunity to increase our understanding of developmental neurotoxicological and teratological studies that employ a polytocus species as an animal model. PMID:25447787

McLaurin, Kristen A; Mactutus, Charles F

2015-02-01

270

Quality Improvement Guidelines for Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is assuming an important role in the treatment of women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata worldwide. The following guidelines, which have been jointly published with the Society of Interventional Radiology in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, are intended to ensure the safe practice of UAE by identifying the elements of appropriate patient selection, anticipated outcomes,

David M. Hovsepian; Gary P. Siskin; Joseph Bonn; John F. Cardella; Timothy W. I. Clark; Leo E. Lampmann; Donald L. Miller; Reed A. Omary; Jean-Pierre Pelage; Dheeraj Rajan; Marc S. Schwartzberg; Richard B. Towbin; Woodruff J. Walker; David Sacks

2004-01-01

271

FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF EWE UTERINE FLUID  

E-print Network

FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF EWE UTERINE FLUID UNDER VARIOUS HORMONAL TREATMENTS DURING EARLY Recherches zootechniques, I. N. R. A., i'8350 Jouy en Josas SUMMARY Free amino acids are dosed in ewe uterine secretions are very rich in free amino acids, especially glutamic acid + glutamine and glycine. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Sex steroid-dependent angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, tumors induce angiogenic factors specific to them, which leads to angiogenesis with advancement. However, angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers is complicated because hormone dependency in growth also modifies the angiogenic potential. Therefore, anti-angiogenic therapy for tumor dormancy in uterine endometrial cancers must be thoroughly considered. The upstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene conserves estrogen-responsive elements. Progesterone

Jiro Fujimoto; Hiroshi Toyoki; Israt Jahan; Syed Mahfuzul Alam; Hideki Sakaguchi; Eriko Sato; Teruhiko Tamaya

2005-01-01

273

Matrix production and remodeling as therapeutic targets for uterine leiomyoma.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyoma, commonly known as fibroids, is a benign neoplasm of smooth muscle in women. The incidence of clinically symptomatic fibroids in reproductive-age women is approximately 20 %, with nearly 80 % of black women suffering from this condition. Symptoms include severe pain and hemorrhage; fibroids are also a major cause of infertility or sub-fertility in women. Uterine leiomyoma consist of hyperplastic smooth muscle cells and an excess deposition of extracellular matrix, specifically collagen, fibronectin, and sulfated proteoglycans. Extracellular matrix components interact and signal through integrin-?1 on the surface of uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells, provide growth factor storage, and act as co-receptors for growth factor-receptor binding. ECM and growth factor signaling through integrin-?1 and growth factor receptors significantly increases cell proliferation and ECM deposition in uterine leiomyoma. Growth factors TGF-?, IGF, PDGF, FGF and EGF are all shown to promote uterine leiomyoma progression and signal through multiple pathways to increase the expression of genes encoding matrix or matrix-modifying proteins. Decreasing integrin expression, reducing growth factor action and inhibiting ECM action on uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells are important opportunities to treat uterine leiomyoma without use of the current surgical procedures. Both natural compounds and chemicals are shown to decrease fibrosis and uterine leiomyoma progression, but further analysis is needed to make inroads in treating this common women's health issue. PMID:25012731

Fujisawa, Caitlin; Castellot, John J

2014-09-01

274

Uterine anomalies and in vitro fertilization: what are the results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the influence of uterine anomalies on the implantation rates after embryo transfer. Study design: A retrospective, multicentric study. This study compare patients presenting a uterine anomaly (septate uterus, unicornuate, pseudonicornuate, bicornuate uterus) having attempted FIVETE between 1987 and 1992 with the normal population treated by IVF, as well as with FIVNAT results. Results: Thirty-eight patients were part

N. Lavergne; J. Aristizabal; V. Zarka; R. Erny; B. Hedon

1996-01-01

275

Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J. [Eastbourne District General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hugh.Anderson@esht.nhs.uk

2007-11-15

276

Do DNA copy number changes differentiate uterine from non-uterine leiomyosarcomas and predict metastasis?  

PubMed

DNA copy number changes were investigated in 51 (19 uterine and 32 nonuterine) primary leiomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization. The aim was to evaluate whether true biological differences exist between uterine and nonuterine leiomyosarcoma and whether changes revealed by comparative genomic hybridization have prognostic value. Genomic imbalances were found in 48 (94%) cases. The most frequent DNA copy number changes were losses in 10q (35%), 13q (57%), and 16q (41%), gains in 1q (41%), and gains and high-level amplifications in 17p (39%). Gains were nearly as frequent as losses in both uterine and nonuterine leiomyosarcoma. Correlation-based tree modeling revealed two clusters that segregated significantly a group of uterine (gains at 1q11-q24) and a group of nonuterine (losses at 13q14-q34, 16q11.1-q24, and 10q21-q26) cases. The nonuterine cluster was associated with subcutaneous origin and a trend toward increased metastasis-free survival. Further explorative analyses identified aberrations associated with shorter metastasis-free survival time, including losses at 2q32.1-q37 and gains at 8q24.1-q24.3, whereas the cases with losses at 6cen-p25 showed longer metastasis-free survival time. PMID:16648866

Svarvar, Catarina; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Blomqvist, Carl; Gentile, Massimiliano; Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Leminen, Arto; Bützow, Ralf; Böhling, Tom; Knuutila, Sakari

2006-08-01

277

Synchronous Uterine Artery Embolization and Laparoscopic Myomectomy for Massive Uterine Leiomyomas  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas remain the commonest cause of menorrhagia and frequently cause pressure symptoms. Management of leiomyomas depends on the presenting symptoms, size, location, number of myomas, and the patient's desire to retain her uterus, fertility, or both. We present the first case of laparoscopic myomectomy for a fibroid measuring 30cm in maximum diameter. PMID:20529536

Kamran, Waseem; Walker, Woodruff; Butler-Manuel, Simon

2010-01-01

278

Impact of the PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism on left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

The Gly482Ser polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1? (PPARGC1A) has been reported to contribute to the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Little is known, however, about its possible impact on cardiac dysfunction. Enhanced myocardial fibrosis accompanying increased LV mass might represent a link with coexisting functional abnormalities. We investigated the association between the PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism and LV morphology and performance in essential hypertension, with special consideration of fibrosis intensity. A total of 205 hypertensive patients (60±8 years) underwent echocardiography with assessment of cardiac morphology, LV systolic (strain and strain rate) and diastolic function (peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity/peak late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) ratio, peak early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em), and E/e' ratio (where e' is the peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity)), evaluation of serum procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) and procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP)-markers of fibrosis and the PPARGC1A Gly482Ser genotyping. Subjects with the Ser-Ser genotype demonstrated more profound LV hypertrophy and diastolic function impairment, and higher PICP/PIIINP than the Ser-Gly and Gly-Gly groups. In multivariable analysis, the presence of the Ser-Ser allele was an independent correlate of E/e' (?=0.17, P<0.02), Em (?=-0.18, P<0.01) and LV mass index (?=0.28, P<0.001). In conclusion, in hypertensive patients, the PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism is associated with LV hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, with the presence of the Ser-Ser allele promoting these abnormalities. One of the possible mechanisms mediating the adverse effect on diastolic performance might be a relative increase in the anabolism of rigid collagen type I over that of the more elastic collagen type III, as indicated by an increased ratio of PICP to PIIINP. PMID:24718382

Rojek, A; Cielecka-Prynda, M; Przewlocka-Kosmala, M; Laczmanski, L; Mysiak, A; Kosmala, W

2014-09-01

279

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

280

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

281

Caenorhabditis elegans histone deacetylase hda-1 is required for morphogenesis of the vulva and LIN-12/Notch-mediated specification of uterine cell fates.  

PubMed

Chromatin modification genes play crucial roles in development and disease. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the class I histone deacetylase family member hda-1, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, has been shown to control cell proliferation. We recovered hda-1 in an RNA interference screen for genes involved in the morphogenesis of the egg-laying system. We found that hda-1 mutants have abnormal vulva morphology and vulval-uterine connections (i.e., no uterine-seam cell). We characterized the vulval defects by using cell fate-specific markers and found that hda-1 is necessary for the specification of all seven vulval cell types. The analysis of the vulval-uterine connection defect revealed that hda-1 is required for the differentiation of the gonadal anchor cell (AC), which in turn induces ventral uterine granddaughters to adopt ? fates, leading to the formation of the uterine-seam cell. Consistent with these results, hda-1 is expressed in the vulva and AC. A search for hda-1 target genes revealed that fos-1 (fos proto-oncogene family) acts downstream of hda-1 in vulval cells, whereas egl-43 (evi1 proto-oncogene family) and nhr-67 (tailless homolog, NHR family) mediate hda-1 function in the AC. Furthermore, we showed that AC expression of hda-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of the lin-12/Notch ligand lag-2 to specify ? cell fates. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of hda-1 in the formation of the vulva and the vulval-uterine connection. Given that hda-1 homologs are conserved across the phyla, our findings are likely to provide a better understanding of HDAC1 function in development and disease. PMID:23797102

Ranawade, Ayush Vasant; Cumbo, Philip; Gupta, Bhagwati P

2013-08-01

282

Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoints in uterine leiomyomata, pulmonary chondroid hamartoma, and lipoma: Physical mapping of the 12q14-q15 breakpoint region in uterine leiomyomata  

SciTech Connect

Uterine leiomyomata are the most common tumors in women and can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. Approximately 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the U.S. to relieve patients of the medical sequelae of these benign neoplasms. Our efforts have focused on cloning the t(12;14)(q14-q15;q23-q24) breakpoint in uterine leiomyoma to further our understanding of the biology of these tumors. Thirty-nine YACs and six cosmids mapping to 12q14-q15 have been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to tumor metaphase chromosomes containing a t(12;14). One YAC spanned the translocation breakpoint and was mapped to tumor metaphases from a pulmonary chondroid hamartoma containing a t(12;14)(q14-q15;q23-q24) and a lipoma containing a t(12;15)(q15;q24); this YAC also spanned the breakpoint in these two tumors, suggesting that the same gene on chromosome 12 may be involved in the pathobiology of these distinct benign neoplasms. 41 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Fejzo, M.S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yoon, S.J.; Kucherlapati, R.S. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others] [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); and others

1995-03-20

283

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

284

Bilateral segmental aplasia with unilateral uterine horn torsion in a Pomeranian bitch.  

PubMed

Bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with unilateral pyometra and uterine horn torsion were diagnosed in a Pomeranian bitch that presented with chronic abdominal distension and an acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Because radiographic and ultrasonographic findings revealed the presence of markedly enlarged bilateral uterine horns filled with fluid in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of either pyometra or hydrometra with uterine horn torsion was made. Exploratory laparotomy showed bilateral, segmentally distended uterine horns with unilateral uterine horn torsion. Ovariohysterectomy was performed, and bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with the development of unilateral uterine horn torsion was diagnosed histopathologically. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of uterine horn torsion in conjunction with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn in a bitch. PMID:22843825

Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Noboru; Aoshima, Keisuke; Kimura, Takashi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

2012-01-01

285

Radiation-induced uterine changes: MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

To assess the capability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to demonstrate postirradiation changes in the uterus, MR studies of 23 patients who had undergone radiation therapy were retrospectively examined and compared with those of 30 patients who had not undergone radiation therapy. MR findings were correlated with posthysterectomy histologic findings. In premenopausal women, radiation therapy induced (a) a decrease in uterine size demonstrable as early as 3 months after therapy ended; (b) a decrease in signal intensity of the myometrium on T2-predominant MR images, reflecting a significant decrease in T2 relaxation time, demonstrable as early as 1 month after therapy; (c) a decrease in thickness and signal intensity of the endometrium demonstrable on T2-predominant images 6 months after therapy; and (d) loss of uterine zonal anatomy as early as 3 months after therapy. In postmenopausal women, irradiation did not significantly alter the MR imaging appearance of the uterus. These postirradiation MR changes in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal uteri appeared similar to the changes ordinarily seen on MR images of the nonirradiated postmenopausal uterus.

Arrive, L.; Chang, Y.C.; Hricak, H.; Brescia, R.J.; Auffermann, W.; Quivey, J.M.

1989-01-01

286

Delayed uterine fluid clearance and reduced uterine perfusion in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and clinical management with postmating antibiotic.  

PubMed

In many species a transient uterine inflammatory response follows mating and is proposed to remove excess spermatozoa, bacteria, and other contaminants from the uterus. Similar events have been documented in the bitch involving increased uterine contractions, polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx and uterine artery vasodilation. Some healthy bitches with endometrial hyperplasia have increased numbers of uterine luminal polymorphonuclear neutrophils after mating and reduced fertility; it is purported that this represents a presumed postmating endometritis. This study used B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography at the time of mating to measure uterine contractions, clearance of ejaculated fluid, and uterine artery velocity in normal bitches and those with endometrial hyperplasia. Mating resulted in an increase in the number of uterine contractions, although fewer mating-induced contractions were noted in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, uterine fluid cleared significantly more slowly after mating from the bitches with endometrial hyperplasia than the normal bitches (P = 0.01). In a further study, Doppler ultrasonography showed that in normal bitches there was a significant increase in uterine artery blood velocity (P = 0.04) and a decrease in the resistance index after mating (P = 0.04), indicating vasodilation. In bitches with endometrial hyperplasia the baseline resistance index was significantly higher than normal bitches (P = 0.05), and furthermore, although there was a significant decrease in resistance index after mating, in the bitches with endometrial hyperplasia this was of a smaller magnitude that in normal bitches. These findings indicate lower baseline uterine perfusion, and a blunted vasodilation response to mating in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia. Short-duration postmating administration of systemic antibiotic increased pregnancy rates in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia (P < 0.01). Litter sizes in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia were lower than those of normal bitches both before and after treatment with postmating antibiotic (P = 0.04 and < 0.01, respectively). Mating-induced endometritis in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia appears to affect fertility by reducing the uterine vasodilatory response to mating and delaying clearance of uterine fluid as a result of decreased uterine contractions but the effect can be ameliorated in part by the postmating administration of antibiotic. PMID:22980089

England, G C W; Moxon, R; Freeman, S L

2012-10-15

287

Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion.  

PubMed

Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or reinversion is observed should be kept in mind. PMID:25564634

Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian

2015-01-01

288

Intestinal adhesion due to previous uterine surgery as a risk factor for delayed diagnosis of uterine rupture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Uterine rupture is a life-threatening condition both to mothers and fetuses. Its early diagnosis and treatment may save their lives. Previous myomectomy is a high risk factor for uterine rupture. Intestinal adhesion due to previous myomectomy may also prevent early diagnosis of uterine rupture. Case presentation A 38-year-old primiparous non-laboring Japanese woman with a history of myomectomy was admitted in her 34th week due to lower abdominal pain. Although the pain was slight and her vital signs were stable, computed tomography revealed massive fluid collection in her abdominal cavity, which led us to perform a laparotomy. Uterine rupture had occurred at the site of the previous myomectomy; however, the small intestine was adhered tightly to the rupture, thus masking it. The baby was delivered through a low uterine segment transverse incision. The ruptured uterine wall was reconstructed. Conclusion Intestinal adhesion due to a prior myomectomy occluded a uterine rupture, possibly masking its symptoms and signs, which may have prevented early diagnosis. PMID:22018094

2011-01-01

289

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

290

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

291

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

292

The viral theory of schizophrenia revisited: abnormal placental gene expression and structural changes with lack of evidence for H1N1 viral presence in placentae of infected mice or brains of exposed offspring.  

PubMed

Researchers have long noted an excess of patients with schizophrenia were born during the months of January and March. This winter birth effect has been hypothesized to result either from various causes such as vitamin D deficiency (McGrath, 1999; McGrath et al., 2010), or from maternal infection during pregnancy. Infection with a number of viruses during pregnancy including influenza, and rubella are known to increase the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring (Brown, 2006). Animal models using influenza virus or Poly I:C, a viral mimic, have been able to replicate many of the brain morphological, genetic, and behavioral deficits of schizophrenia (Meyer et al., 2006, 2008a, 2009; Bitanihirwe et al., 2010; Meyer and Feldon, 2010; Short et al., 2010). Using a murine model of prenatal viral infection, our laboratory has shown that viral infection on embryonic days 9, 16, and 18 leads to abnormal expression of brain genes and brain structural abnormalities in the exposed offspring (Fatemi et al., 2005, 2008a,b, 2009a,b). The purpose of the current study was to examine gene expression and morphological changes in the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex as a result of viral infection on embryonic day 7 of pregnancy. Pregnant mice were either infected with influenza virus [A/WSN/33 strain (H1N1)] or sham-infected with vehicle solution. At E16, placentas were harvested and prepared for either microarray analysis or for light microscopy. We observed significant, upregulation of 77 genes and significant downregulation of 93 genes in placentas. In brains of exposed offspring following E7 infection, there were changes in gene expression in prefrontal cortex (6 upregulated and 24 downregulated at P0; 5 upregulated and 14 downregulated at P56) and hippocampus (4 upregulated and 6 downregulated at P0; 6 upregulated and 13 downregulated at P56). QRT-PCR verified the direction and magnitude of change for a number of genes associated with hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, and autism. Placentas from infected mice showed a number of morphological abnormalities including presence of thrombi and increased presence of immune cells. Additionally, we searched for presence of H1N1 viral-specific genes for M1/M2, NA, and NS1 in placentas of infected mice and brains of exposed offspring and found none. Our results demonstrate that prenatal viral infection disrupts structure and gene expression of the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex potentially explaining deleterious effects in the exposed offspring without evidence for presence of viral RNAs in the target tissues. PMID:21277874

Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D; Rooney, Robert J; Mori, Susumu; Kornfield, Tess E; Reutiman, Teri J; Kneeland, Rachel E; Liesch, Stephanie B; Hua, Kegang; Hsu, John; Patel, Divyen H

2012-03-01

293

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis Reveals a Potential Mechanism for the Pathogenesis and Development of Uterine Leiomyomas  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas, the most common benign tumor in women, remains unclear. Since acquired factors such as obesity, hypertension and early menarche place women at greater risk for uterine leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas may be associated with epigenetic abnormalities that are caused by unfavorable environmental exposures. Principal Findings Profiles of genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression were investigated in leiomyomas and in myometrium with and without leiomyomas. Profiles of DNA methylation and mRNA expression in the myometrium with and without leiomyomas were quite similar while those in leiomyomas were distinct. We identified 120 genes whose DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns differed between leiomyomas and the adjacent myometrium. The biological relevance of the aberrantly methylated and expressed genes was cancer process, including IRS1 that is related to transformation, and collagen-related genes such as COL4A1, COL4A2 and COL6A3. We also detected 22 target genes of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, including apoptosis-related genes, that have aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter, suggesting that the aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes contributes to the aberrant response to estrogen. Conclusions Aberrant DNA methylation and its related transcriptional aberration were associated with cancer processes, which may represent a critical initial mechanism that triggers transformation of a single tumor stem cell that will eventually develop into a monoclonal leiomyoma tumor. The aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes also may contribute to the aberrant response to estrogen, which is involved in the development of uterine leiomyomas after menarche. PMID:23818951

Maekawa, Ryo; Sato, Shun; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Asada, Hiromi; Tamura, Isao; Lee, Lifa; Okada, Maki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takaki, Eiichi; Nakai, Akira; Sugino, Norihiro

2013-01-01

294

Lipopolysaccharides upregulate calcium concentration in mouse uterine smooth muscle cells through the T-type calcium channels.  

PubMed

Infection is a significant cause of preterm birth. Abnormal changes in intracellular calcium signals are the ultimate triggers of early uterine contractions that result in preterm birth. T?type calcium channels play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, as well as endocrine and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are limited studies on their role in uterine contractions and parturition. In the present study, mouse uterine smooth muscle cells were isolated and treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to mimic the microenvironment of uterine infection in vitro to investigate the role of T?type calcium channels in the process of infection?induced preterm birth. The results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed that LPS significantly induced the expression of the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 subtypes of T?type calcium channels. Measurements of intracellular calcium concentration showed a significant increase in response to LPS. However, these effects can be reversed by T?type calcium channel blockers. Western blot analysis further indicated that LPS induced the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)??B signaling pathway, and endothelin?1 (ET?1) was significantly upregulated, whereas NF??B inhibitors significantly inhibited the LPS?induced upregulation of Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and ET?1 expression. In addition, ET?1 directly induced Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 expression, whereas ET?1 antagonists inhibited the LPS?induced upregulation of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 expression. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that infection triggers the upregulation of T?type calcium channels and promotes calcium influx. This process relies on the activation of the NF??B/ET?1 signaling pathway. The T?type calcium channel is expected to become an effective target for the prevention of infection?induced preterm birth. PMID:25573237

Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Jingyi; Zheng, Dongming; Liu, Sishi; Liu, Caixia

2015-03-01

295

Uterine contractility of plants used to facilitate childbirth in Nigerian ethnomedicine  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Pregnant women in Nigeria use plant preparations to facilitate childbirth and to reduce associated pain. The rationale for this is not known and requires pharmacological validation. Aim of study Obtain primary information regarding the traditional use of plants and analyze their uterine contractility at cellular level. Materials and methods Semi-structured, open interviews using questionnaires of traditional healthcare professionals and other informants triggered the collection and identification of medicinal plant species. The relative traditional importance of each medicinal plant was determined by its use-mention index. Extracts of these plants were analyzed for their uterotonic properties on an in vitro human uterine cell collagen model. Result The plants Calotropis procera, Commelina africana, Duranta repens, Hyptis suaveolens, Ocimum gratissimum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea, Sida corymbosa and Vernonia amygdalina were documented and characterized. Aqueous extracts from these nine plants induced significant sustained increases in human myometrial smooth muscle cell contractility, with varying efficiencies, depending upon time and dose of exposure. Conclusion The folkloric use of several plant species during childbirth in Nigeria has been validated. Seven plants were for the first time characterized to have contractile properties on uterine myometrial cells. The results serve as ideal starting points in the search for safe, longer lasting, effective and tolerable uterotonic drug leads. PMID:22766472

Attah, Alfred F.; O'Brien, Margaret; Koehbach, Johannes; Sonibare, Mubo A.; Moody, Jones O.; Smith, Terry J.; Gruber, Christian W.

2012-01-01

296

Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

2014-12-01

297

Uterine fluid from bitches with mating-induced endometritis reduces the attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium.  

PubMed

Persistence of free fluid in the uterine lumen of bitches with endometrial hyperplasia appears to be diagnostic for mating-induced endometritis and is associated with reduced chances of pregnancy. This study investigated the possibility that reduced fertility might be associated with an effect of uterine fluid on sperm. Uterine lavage fluid was collected pre- and post-insemination from normal bitches without ultrasonographically-detectable luminal fluid (n=4), and previously non-pregnant bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and luminal fluid (n=4). Concentrations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were measured and the effect of the fluid on the attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium was studied using medium (M) 199 as a control. To elucidate whether any effect was accounted for by the presence of PMNs, attachment was also measured in M199 with PMNs added at the concentration found in lavage fluid. Pre-insemination lavage fluid from both groups contained low concentrations of PMNs which increased post-insemination; the increase was larger for bitches with uterine fluid. Compared with M199 controls, lavage fluid reduced the attachment of spermatozoa; fluid from bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and uterine fluid had a greater effect than normal bitches, and post-insemination fluid had a greater effect than pre-insemination fluid. Spermatozoal attachment was reduced by a similar magnitude for M199 with added PMNs, although post-insemination fluid from bitches with endometrial hyperplasia reduced attachment more than M199 with added PMNs. Poor fertility in bitches with uterine luminal fluid might be partially associated with impaired attachment of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium, mediated principally, but not solely, by PMN influx into the uterine lumen. PMID:23981353

Freeman, S L; Green, M J; England, G C W

2013-10-01

298

Copper corrosion-simulated uterine solutions.  

PubMed

We studied the copper corrosion and product layers originating in a simulated uterine solution at pH values 6.3 and 8.0 for 15, 65, 180, and 360 days at 37 degrees C. Absorbance measurements were performed. Corrosion product layers on the copper surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, and x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy techniques. Copper release for pH 6.3 and 8.0 was 3.4-4.5 microg/day for 15 days and 0.1-0.3 microg/day for 360 days. Of the order of 30%-40% of dissolved cupric ions were trapped in the product layers. The main compounds identified were cuprite (Cu(2)O), calcite (CaCO(3)), and phosphates. PMID:10958884

Bastidas, J M; Cano, E; Mora, N

2000-06-01

299

What Are the Risk Factors for Uterine Sarcoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... t mean that you won't get the disease. Only a few factors are known to change the risk of developing a uterine sarcoma. Pelvic radiation therapy High-energy (ionizing) radiation used to treat some cancers can damage ...

300

Thermal conductivity of uterine tissue in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermotherapy of the uterus has emerged as an alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of menorrhagia, from whence it follows that the thermal properties of uterine tissue have become of importance. This study presents measurements of the thermal conductivity and the water content of uterine tissue in vitro. A steady-state thermal conductivity apparatus, based on the comparison of test samples with a material with known thermal conductivity, is described. Measurements were conducted on tissue samples from eleven patients, directly after hysterectomy. Samples with and without endometrium, as well as coagulated samples, were examined. The thermal conductivity of myometrial tissue was found to be and the corresponding water content was % . Measurements on samples with both endometrium and myometrium showed similar thermal conductivity (, ) and water content (%, ). It was also indicated that coagulation causes dehydration, resulting in a lower thermal conductivity.

Olsrud, Johan; Friberg, Britt; Ahlgren, Mats; Persson, Bertil R. R.

1998-08-01

301

Quality improvement guidelines for uterine artery embolization for symptomatic leiomyomata.  

PubMed

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is assuming an important role in the treatment of women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata worldwide. The following guidelines, which have been jointly published with the Society of Interventional Radiology in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, are intended to ensure the safe practice of UAE by identifying the elements of appropriate patient selection, anticipated outcomes, and recognition of possible complications and their timely address. PMID:15346204

Hovsepian, David M; Siskin, Gary P; Bonn, Joseph; Cardella, John F; Clark, Timothy W I; Lampmann, Leo E; Miller, Donald L; Omary, Reed A; Pelage, Jean-Pierre; Rajan, Dheeraj; Schwartzberg, Marc S; Towbin, Richard B; Walker, Woodruff J; Sacks, David

2004-01-01

302

?Np63 protein expression in uterine cervical and endometrial cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose\\u000a   To investigate the significance of p63 expression in uterine cervical and endometrial cancers.\\u000a Materials and methods\\u000a   ?Np63 protein expression was studied in a variety of 127 cases of uterine cervical lesions (20 non-neoplastic cervices, 43 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN], 54 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 40 adenocarcinomas, and 13 other histologic types) and 30 endometrioid type of endometrial adenocarcinomas by

Zhenhua Lin; Mingzhu Liu; Zhuhu Li; Changheon Kim; Eungseok Lee; Insun Kim

2006-01-01

303

Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

1998-04-01

304

[Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: an unusual cause of postpartum hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of cesarean section. It can lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage. We report three cases of pseudoaneurysm diagnosed late after cesarean delivery, one followed by hemorrhagic shock. Ultrasound may point to the diagnosis, but arteriography of uterine arteries is decisive for the diagnosis. Selective artery embolization is recommended for treatment. Main advantages are complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm and fertility preservation. PMID:24656739

Delesalle, C; Dolley, P; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G

2015-01-01

305

Quality Improvement Guidelines for Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Leiomyomata  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is assuming an important role in the treatment of women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata worldwide. The following guidelines, which have been jointly published with the Society of Interventional Radiology in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, are intended to ensure the safe practice of UAE by identifying the elements of appropriate patient selection, anticipated outcomes, and recognition of possible complications and their timely address.

Hovsepian, David M. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail: hovsepiand@mir.wustl.edu; Siskin, Gary P. [Albany Medical College, Department of Vascular Radiology (United States); Bonn, Joseph [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)] (and others)

2004-08-15

306

The significance of ultrastructural abnormalities of human cilia.  

PubMed

The electronmicroscopic structure of cilia was studied from the inferior turbinate of the nose in 22 adults, and in 84 biopsies from the bronchial tree of 40 adults. The incidence of compound cilia and abnormal microtubular structures was assessed. There were significant variations in the incidence of abnormalities in different parts of the airways and even within different areas of the same electronmicroscopic section. The focal nature of differences in structure of cilia indicate that abnormalities found in a single biopsy do not necessarily reflect a generalized change in the bronchial tree. Thus, such a finding should not be used as evidence that the abnormalities of cilia are the cause of decrease in mucociliary clearance or that they play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis and sinusitis. PMID:7307613

Fox, B; Bull, T B; Makey, A R; Rawbone, R

1981-12-01

307

Reproductive Outcome Following Hysteroscopic Treatment of Uterine Septum  

PubMed Central

Background: Septate uterus is the most common uterine anomaly and a cause for miscarriage and infertility. Existing data suggested a better reproductive outcome of uterine septum following hysteroscopic septum resection. Objective: Current study was administered to share our experience in hystroscopic septum resection for reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic treatment of uterine septum and specifically focusing on different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic septum resection. Methods& materials: This study was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data that was obtained from medical records of infertile women who had undergone transvaginal hysteroscopy and used different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic correction of uterine septum in Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center between April 2005 and February 2014. Results: The total number of infertile women underwent hysteroscopy uterine septoplasty was 106. The hysteroscopy septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 67% and a live birth 57.5%. Pregnancy rate for patients who had not male infertility was 92.1%. The chi-square test did not reveal any statistically significant difference in side affect, pregnancy, live birth, abortion, preterm deliveries, and term deliveries rate between these patients either with consistent hormone therapy plus IUD insertion or with alternate hormone therapy plus IUD after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated hysteroscopic septum resection to remove a uterine septum in women with infertility is safe and may be an efficacious procedure. Treatment following hysteroscopic septum resection, either the consistent or the alternate protocol is both beneficial to improve pregnancy rate.

Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Andarieh, Maryam Ghanbari

2014-01-01

308

Abnormal oxidant sensitivity and beta-chain structure of spectrin in hereditary spherocytosis associated with defective spectrin-protein 4.1 binding.  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is an inherited disorder of erythrocyte shape associated with spectrin deficiency and hemolytic anemia. In a subset of patients with the autosomal dominant form of HS, spectrin displays a reduced capacity to bind protein 4.1 and, therefore, actin; both functions that are critical to the membrane skeleton. A specific structural defect has not been identified in the spectrin from these patients. Chymotryptic digestion of the isolated spectrin chains shows impaired cleavage of the distal peptide of the beta subunit, the beta IV domain. In previous work, we have shown that mild oxidation markedly diminishes the binding capacity of normal spectrin for protein 4.1. Here we observe that chemical reduction of freshly isolated, untreated HS spectrin dramatically improves its function. Thus, a primary structural defect in the beta subunit of spectrin in this subtype of HS may lead to oxidant sensitivity, and secondarily, to a functional defect in the binding of spectrin to protein 4.1 and actin. Images PMID:3611357

Becker, P S; Morrow, J S; Lux, S E

1987-01-01

309

Reproductive outcome after IVF following hysteroscopic division of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine reproductive outcome after in-vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with primary infertility following hysteroscopic septoplasty of incomplete uterine septum or arcuate uterine anomaly. Methods: This is a historical cohort study. The study group consisted of 156 consecutive patients who underwent a total of 221 cycles of IVF/ET following hysteroscopic septoplasty of an incomplete uterine septum or arcuate anomaly (Group 1). The control group included 196 consecutive patients with normal endometrial cavity on hysteroscopy who underwent a total of 369 cycles of IVF/ET (Group 2). The reproductive outcome after the first cycle of IVF-ET and the best reproductive outcome of all the cycles the patient underwent were calculated. In addition, we compared the reproductive outcome in the study group based on the type of the anomalies (septum versus arcuate). Results: In the first fresh cycle, following septoplasty, there were significantly higher clinical pregnancy and delivery rates in Group 1 (60.3% and 51.3% respectively) compared to Group 2 (38.8% and 33.2% respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy (74.4% vs. 67.3%) or in the delivery (65.4% vs. 60.2%) rates per patient, respectively. There was no significant difference in the reproductive outcome after IVF-ET between patients who previously had arcuate uterine anomaly versus incomplete uterine septum. Conclusion: Reproductive outcome of IVF-ET after hysteroscopic correction of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility is no different from women with normal uterine cavity. PMID:25593694

Abuzeid, M.; Ghourab, G.; Abuzeid, O.; Mitwally, M.; Ashraf, M.; Diamond, M.

2014-01-01

310

"Ears of the lynx" sign in a marchiafava-bignami patient: structural basis and fiber-tracking DTI contribution to the understanding of this imaging abnormality.  

PubMed

The "ears of the lynx" sign was previously reported as a neuroimaging finding observed in patients with autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia in association with a thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC). We report a patient with a chronic form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) that presented with this imaging feature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber-tracking data support that this finding is a consequence of the structural derangement, which enlarges a preexisting border zone of the bundles of fibers from the corpus callosum (CC) genu to the forceps minor and anterior corona radiata. Therefore, we assume that despite their pathological differences, damage to the anterior portion of the CC is responsible for the imaging similarities between MBD and ARHSP-TCC. PMID:23216703

Pacheco, Felipe Torres; Rego, Milena Morais; do Rego, Jose Iram Mendonça; da Rocha, Antonio J

2014-01-01

311

Skeletal Muscle Expression of the Adhesion-GPCR CD97: CD97 Deletion Induces an Abnormal Structure of the Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum but Does Not Impair Skeletal Muscle Function  

PubMed Central

CD97 is a widely expressed adhesion class G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR). Here, we investigated the presence of CD97 in normal and malignant human skeletal muscle as well as the ultrastructural and functional consequences of CD97 deficiency in mice. In normal human skeletal muscle, CD97 was expressed at the peripheral sarcolemma of all myofibers, as revealed by immunostaining of tissue sections and surface labeling of single myocytes using flow cytometry. In muscle cross-sections, an intracellular polygonal, honeycomb-like CD97-staining pattern, typical for molecules located in the T-tubule or sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR), was additionally found. CD97 co-localized with SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a constituent of the longitudinal SR, but not with the receptors for dihydropyridine (DHPR) or ryanodine (RYR), located in the T-tubule and terminal SR, respectively. Intracellular expression of CD97 was higher in slow-twitch compared to most fast-twitch myofibers. In rhabdomyosarcomas, CD97 was strongly upregulated and in part more N-glycosylated compared to normal skeletal muscle. All tumors were strongly CD97-positive, independent of the underlying histological subtype, suggesting high sensitivity of CD97 for this tumor. Ultrastructural analysis of murine skeletal myofibers confirmed the location of CD97 in the SR. CD97 knock-out mice had a dilated SR, resulting in a partial increase in triad diameter yet not affecting the T-tubule, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial structure. Despite these obvious ultrastructural changes, intracellular Ca2+ release from single myofibers, force generation and fatigability of isolated soleus muscles, and wheel-running capacity of mice were not affected by the lack of CD97. We conclude that CD97 is located in the SR and at the peripheral sarcolemma of human and murine skeletal muscle, where its absence affects the structure of the SR without impairing skeletal muscle function. PMID:24949957

Zyryanova, Tatiana; Schneider, Rick; Adams, Volker; Sittig, Doreen; Kerner, Christiane; Gebhardt, Claudia; Ruffert, Henrik; Glasmacher, Stefan; Hepp, Pierre; Punkt, Karla; Neuhaus, Jochen; Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela

2014-01-01

312

Abnormal hemoglobins in a quarter million people.  

PubMed

Hemolysates of erythrocytes from more than a quarter million people in Alabama were electrophoresed on cellulose acetate, pH 8.4, and those samples exhibiting an abnormality were also electrophoresed in citrate agar, pH 6.0. The globin chains of mutants other than Hb S and C were electrophoresed in urea-mercaptoethanol buffers at both pH 8.9 and pH 6.0, and 60 of them were also analyzed structurally. Of about 6000 samples from whites, only three contained abnormal hemoglobins--Hb D Los Angeles, Hb J Baltimore, and one unidentified. Of 249,000 samples from blacks, about 29,000 contained electrophoretically detectable abnormalities, most of them associated with Hb S or C, present in a frequency of about 9% and 3%, respectively. About 1000 samples resolved into patterns of potential clinical significance. Twenty other mutant hemoglobins were detected, in various genetic combinations in 164 kindreds; four of these-Hb Alabama, Montgomery, Titusville, and Mobile--were previously unknown. The methods used are rapid, economical, and well suited for large scale surveys. They provide highly specific characterizations of many mutant hemoglobins, and no discrepancies were found between the presumptive identifications based on these characterizations and the definitive identifications obtained from structural analyses. PMID:974261

Schneider, R G; Hightower, B; Hosty, T S; Ryder, H; Tomlin, G; Atkins, R; Brimhall, B; Jones, R T

1976-11-01

313

Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

2014-01-01

314

Suppression of trophoblast uterine spiral artery remodeling by estrogen during baboon pregnancy: impact on uterine and fetal blood flow dynamics  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to determine the impact of suppressing trophoblast remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries by prematurely elevating estrogen levels in the first trimester of baboon pregnancy on uterine and umbilical blood flow dynamics. Uteroplacental blood flow was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography after acute administration of saline (basal state) and serotonin on days 60, 100, and 160 of gestation (term: 184 days) to baboons in which uterine spiral artery remodeling had been suppressed by the administration of estradiol on days 25–59 of gestation. Maternal blood pressure in the basal state was increased (P < 0.01), and uterine artery diastolic notching and the umbilical artery pulsatility index and systolic-to-diastolic ratio, reflecting downstream flow impedance, were increased (P < 0.01) after serotonin administration on day 160, but not earlier, in baboons treated with estradiol in early gestation. These changes in uteroplacental flow dynamics in serotonin-infused, estradiol-treated animals were accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05) in uterine and umbilical artery volume flow and fetal bradycardia. The results of this study show that suppression of uterine artery remodeling by advancing the rise in estrogen from the second trimester to the first trimester disrupted uteroplacental blood flow dynamics and fetal homeostasis after vasochallenge late in primate pregnancy. PMID:22427518

Aberdeen, Graham W.; Bonagura, Thomas W.; Harman, Chris R.; Pepe, Gerald J.

2012-01-01

315

Whole Exome Sequencing in a Random Sample of North American Women with Leiomyomas Identifies MED12 Mutations in Majority of Uterine Leiomyomas  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroids) arise from smooth muscle tissue in the majority of women by age 45. It is common for these clonal tumors to develop from multiple locations within the uterus, leading to a variety of symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility. We performed whole exome sequencing on genomic DNA from five pairs of leiomyomas and corresponding normal myometrium to determine genetic variations unique to leiomyomas. Whole exome sequencing revealed that the gene encoding transcription factor MED12 (Mediator complex subunit 12) harbored heterozygous missense mutations caused by single nucleotide variants in highly conserved codon 44 of exon 2 in two of five leiomyomas. Sanger re-sequencing of MED12 among these five leiomyomas confirmed the two single nucleotide variants and detected a 42 base-pair deletion within exon 2 of MED12 in a third leiomyoma. MED12 was sequenced in an additional 143 leiomyomas and 73 normal myometrial tissues. Overall, MED12 was mutated in 100/148 (67%) of the genotyped leiomyomas: 79/148 (53%) leiomyomas exhibited heterozygous missense single nucleotide variants, 17/148 (11%) leiomyomas exhibited heterozygous in-frame deletions/insertion-deletions, 2/148 (1%) leiomyomas exhibited intronic heterozygous single nucleotide variants affecting splicing, and 2/148 (1%) leiomyomas exhibited heterozygous deletions/insertion-deletions spanning the intron 1-exon 2 boundary which affected the splice acceptor site. Mutations were not detected in MED12 in normal myometrial tissue. MED12 mutations were equally distributed among karyotypically normal and abnormal uterine leiomyomas and were identified in leiomyomas from both black and white American women. Our studies show an association between MED12 mutations and leiomyomas in ethnically and racially diverse American women. PMID:22428002

McGuire, Megan M.; Yatsenko, Alexander; Hoffner, Lori; Jones, Mirka; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

2012-01-01

316

Uterine Artery Embolization Versus Laparoscopic Uterine Artery Occlusion: The Outcomes of a Prospective, Nonrandomized Clinical Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of two different types of occlusive therapy of uterine fibroids. Methods: Women with fibroid(s) unsuitable for laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) were treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) or laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO). Results: Before the procedure, patients treated with UAE (n = 100) had a dominant fibroid greater in size (68 vs. 48 mm) and a mean age lower (33.1 vs. 34.9 years) than surgically treated patients (n = 100). After 6 months, mean shrinkage of fibroid volume was 53 % after UAE and 39 % after LUAO (p = 0.063); 82 % of women after UAE, but only 23 % after LUAO, had complete myoma infarction (p = 0.001). Women treated with UAE had more complications (31 vs. 11 cases, p = 0.006) and greater incidence of hysteroscopically verified intrauterine necrosis (31 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001). Both groups were comparable in markers of ovarian functions and number of nonelective reinterventions. The groups did not differ in pregnancy (69 % after UAE vs. 67 % after LUAO), delivery (50 vs. 46 %), or abortion (34 vs. 33 %) rates. The mean birth weight of neonates was greater (3270 vs. 2768 g, p = 0.013) and the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction lower (13 vs. 38 %, p = 0.046) in post-UAE patients. Conclusion: Both methods are effective in the treatment of women with future reproductive plans and fibroids not suitable for LM. UAE is more effective in causing complete ischemia of fibroids, but it is associated with greater risk of intrauterine necrosis. Both methods have low rate of serious complications (except for a high abortion rate).

Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.kubinova@gmail.com [General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Czech Republic); Maskova, Jana [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Horak, Petr [General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Czech Republic); Belsan, Tomas [Central Military Hospital, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Kuzel, David [General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Czech Republic)

2012-10-15

317

Increased angiogenesis in the uterine cervix associated with human papillomavirus infection.  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between angiogenesis (using the CD34 antibody), the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, HPV E6 protein expression and the accumulation of p53 protein at various phases of tumour progression in the uterine cervix. Expression of CD34, p53 and HPV E6 protein was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Presence of the mutant p53 was detected using a mutant specific ELISA, and the type of HPV was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. A total of 230 cervical tissue samples were analyzed and included 40 cases of apparently normal cervical epithelium, 37 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), 43 high grade SILs, 36 well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (DSCC), 31 moderately differentiated (MDSCC) and 43 poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDSCC). There was an excellent correlation between the extent of angiogenesis and histological abnormality (r = 0.912, p = 0.000004). The least extent of angiogenesis was seen in normal cervical tissue and low grade SILs where the mean (low power) intra lesional vascular density (ILVD) was 12 +/- 1.13 and 25.66 +/- 5.20, respectively. In high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), the mean ILVD value was 80.84 +/- 25.57. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (WDSCC's) the mean value was 144.22 +/- 28.67 while in moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (MDSCC's) the mean value was 166.29 +/- 34.95 and in poorly differentiated tumours (PDSCC's) 192.42 +/- 27.98. The extent of angiogenesis also correlated to presence of HPV (r = 0.505, p = 0.00001). Increased CD34 expression was associated with the presence of HPV types 16 and 18. A similar correlation was also evident in HPV, 16/18 infected cases expressing the E6 protein (r = 0.612, p = 0.000001). CD34 expression also correlated well with p53 accumulation (r = 0.859, p = 0.000002). Presence of HPV infection significantly correlated with the extent of histological abnormality (r = 0.467, p = 0.00001). Expression of E6 also showed this significant correlation (r = 0.644, p = 0.00002). Accumulation of p53 was significantly more elevated in HPV 16-infected lesions (r = 0.518, p = 0.00001) and E6-expressing cells (r = 0.650, p = 0.000004). Only 12 of the 230 cases analyzed showed presence of the mutant p53 protein. Angiogenesis appears to increase with histological abnormality in the uterine cervix. Angiogenesis also appears to be influenced by high risk HPV infection, the expression of the E6 transforming protein and the p53 tumour suppressor protein. PMID:10220796

Nair, P; Gangadevi, T; Jayaprakash, P G; Nair, M B; Nair, M K; Pillai, M R

1999-01-01

318

A novel uterine manipulator incorporating non-local controls and lateral motion  

E-print Network

The work described in the paper was driven by a clinical need for a better uterine manipulator during laparoscopic gynecological procedures, including both hysterectomy and hysteroscopy. The primary purpose of the uterine ...

Tsai, Wan-Ni

2013-01-01

319

A contemporary review of uterine cancer management.  

PubMed

Cancer of the uterine corpus is the most common of all the gynaecological cancers. Whilst most are sporadic, a small proportion may develop as a consequence of genetic predisposition, most commonly hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. The surgical management remains resection of the uterus with some short-term advantages for a minimally invasive approach. Surgical staging to define the extent of disease may be advocated but its ability to affect survival has not been demonstrated. If surgical staging is undertaken, the routine performance of a para-aortic lymph node dissection must be questioned. Adjuvant radiation therapy whilst reducing locoregional recurrence has not been shown to improve survival. Whilst the definitions of risk vary, grade 1 and 2 tumours, invading <50% into the myometrium, are considered low risk and should not be offered adjuvant therapy. Women with grade 3 tumours invading >50% into the myometrium have an increased risk of regional nodal spread and distant spread and recurrence. In these high-risk cases, pelvic radiation therapy will reduce local and regional recurrence but will not impact upon survival. The addition of systemic therapy in this group is an attractive proposition with limited supportive evidence. All other patients are of intermediate risk of recurrence, and the addition of vaginal vault brachytherapy will reduce vaginal vault recurrences. Whilst there is no evidence to support a role for adjuvant hormonal therapy in apparent early-stage disease, progestin therapy does have a role in nonlocalised advanced or recurrent disease. PMID:23829412

Carter, Jonathan

2013-12-01

320

IV. Uterine fibroid embolization: follow-up.  

PubMed

Patients generally notice some relief of both menorrhagia and mass-effect symptoms during the first few weeks after uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Shrinkage of the fibroids continues to take place over several months, peaking somewhere between 3 and 6 months, with measurable shrinkage sometimes noted for up to 1 year. The timing of follow-up visits is intended to coincide with the time course of improvement so that diagnostic imaging and intervention can be performed if symptoms worsen or relief does not appear to be on schedule. The amount of shrinkage of fibroids correlates neither with the intensity of immediate postprocedure symptoms or the degree of symptom relief. Affected fibroids undergo hyaline degeneration, a process in which the hard, cellular tumor is replaced by softer, acellular material. A nationwide registry has been constructed for the accumulation of procedural and follow-up data so that success and complication rates can be accurately determined and long-term issues about the durability of UFE and possible side effects can be addressed. PMID:12098107

Lipman, John C; Smith, Steven J; Spies, James B; Siskin, Gary P; Machan, Lindsay S; Bonn, Joseph; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L; Goodwin, Scott C; Hovsepian, David M

2002-03-01

321

[Mycoplasmas and dysplasia of the uterine cervix].  

PubMed

The Authors report a case-list of 395 patients vaginal specimens who were never treated with chemo-antibiotic therapy. Cell dysplastic impairments were found in 213 cases. About these dysplastic alterations, 133 are of slight type, 53 intermediate type and 27 are in advanced phase. We can say, about the last 27 cases, that the concomitance of pH greater than 6.1 in 67% of the cases and the absence of Lactobacillus acidophilus in 81.4% of the cases is not casual. Furthermore, we can notice that vaginal pH suffers an increase in dysplastic patients with a smaller colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus that, in dysplastic advanced phase is absent in 81.4% of the cases. It is also to remark a significant increase of cases Trichomonas-positive and Mycoplasmas-positive in dysplastic patients, as compared with normal women. The results of the case-list, even if preliminary, seem to be indicative for an evolution of the studies on the relationship between uterine cervix cells and Mycoplasmas and eventual possibility the Mycoplasmas can act as carriers of oncogenic viruses such as Herpes and Papova Virus. PMID:6258612

Averna, R; Martelli, D; Migliorini, D; Saudelli, M

1980-09-30

322

Light delivery schemes for uterine photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of photodynamic therapy in the removal of the endometrial layer of the uterus provides the possibility of a rapid and effective treatment of menorrhagia avoiding the difficulties and complications of conventional methods. A treatment is proposed in which topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid to the inner surface of the uterus is followed by illumination at 630 nm. The surface layer would in this way be rendered necrotic to slough off over subsequent days. The removal of the entire endometrium must be achieved in order to prevent the return of the original condition, which demands that a therapeutic dose of both light and photosensitizer must be achieved throughout the depth of the tissue. This work presents a method of light delivery suitable for intra-uterine PDT along with in vitro optical phantom and ex vivo tissue measurements that aid in the characterization of the light field prior to treatment. These measurements allow the prediction of a treatment time suitable for the delivery of an effective light dose.

Stringer, Mark R.; Hudson, Emma J.; Dunkley, Colin P.; Boyce, Jeanetta C.; Gannon, Michael J.; Smith, Michael A.

1994-03-01

323

[Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].  

PubMed

Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous women<25 years old. Insertion must be effected with usual precautions and short or SL IUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation. PMID:24861439

Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H

2014-06-01

324

Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

2015-03-01

325

Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.

Wijesekera, N. T., E-mail: n.wijesekera@doctors.net.uk; Padley, S. P.; Kazmi, F.; Davies, C. L.; McCall, J. M. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

326

3D ultrasound image guidance system used in RF uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding ablation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese women. Many women lose their fertility from these diseases. Currently, a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode is being used in Chinese hospitals to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding. In this paper, we report on a 3D US guidance system developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localization of the tumor position during treatment. A 3D US imaging system using a rotational scanning approach of an abdominal probe was built. In order to reduce the distortion produced when the rotational axis is not collinear with the central beam of the probe, a new 3D reconstruction algorithm is used. Then, a fast 3D needle segmentation algorithm is used to find the electrode. Finally, the tip of electrode is determined along the segmented 3D needle and the whole electrode is displayed. Experiments with a water phantom demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

Ding, Mingyue; Luo, Xiaoan; Cai, Chao; Zhou, Chengping; Fenster, Aaron

2006-03-01

327

Increased Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common gynaecological benign tumors in premenopausal women. Evidences support the role of oxidative stress in the development of uterine leiomyoma. We have analysed oxidative stress markers (thiols, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites) in preoperative sera from women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital. Fifty-nine women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma and ninety-two leiomyoma-free control women have been enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Preoperative serum samples were obtained from all study participants to assay serum thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites. Concentrations of serum protein carbonyl groups and AOPP were higher in leiomyoma patients than in the control group (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). By contrast, serum thiol levels were lower in leiomyoma patients (p<0.001). We found positive correlations between serum AOPP concentrations and total fibroids weight (r=0.339; p=0.028), serum AOPP and serum protein carbonyls with duration of infertility (r=0.762; p=0.006 and r=0.683; p=0.021, respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study, for the first time, reveals a significant increase of protein oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from women with uterine leiomyoma. PMID:23951284

Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Lemaréchal, Herve; Leconte, Mahaut; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frédéric

2013-01-01

328

Genetic correlations among reproductive traits and uterine dimensions in mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to identify relationships among reproductive and uterine traits in mice having normal or crowded uterine conditions. Littermate females were randomly assigned to be either unilaterally ovariectomized (ULO) or to remain intact (C) and to be killed either 3 d after mating (PM) or 4 d after parturition (PP) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Measurements taken were ovulation rate (OR) and uterine length (UL), wet weight (UWW), dry weight (UDW) and displacement (UDP) in PM females and number born (NB) and implantation rate (IMP) in PP females. Heritability estimates from full-sib correlations were .18, .01, .33, .04, .14, .47 and .06 for OR, IMP, NB, UL, UWW, UDW and UDP, respectively. Phenotypic correlations among uterine measurements were moderate to high and positive. Genetic correlations for C and ULO females for OR with NB were .62 and .73, respectively. Genetic correlations between C and ULO females were .53 for NB and 1.05 for OR. Genetic correlations of UL and UWW with NB were high for C (.70 and .59, respectively) and moderate for ULO (.47 and .36, respectively). Genetic correlations between NB and other uterine dimensions were lower. PMID:2005042

Long, C R; Lamberson, W R; Bates, R O

1991-01-01

329

Modified Uterine Allotransplantation and Immunosuppression Procedure in the Sheep Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model. Methods In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe) revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis. Conclusion We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus) is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research. PMID:24278415

Yang, Hong; Zhao, Guang-Yue; Zhang, Geng; Lu, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Liang, Sheng-Ru; Yang, Fang; Chen, Bi-Liang

2013-01-01

330

Quantification of delineation errors of the gross tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging in uterine cervical cancer using pathology data and deformation correction.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. To safely optimize target volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for uterine cervical cancer radiation therapy, MRI findings need to be validated. The aim of this study was to correlate pre-operatively acquired MRI and surgical specimen imaging for uterine cervical cancer patients using deformable image registration and quantify gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation discrepancies. Material and methods. For 16 retrospectively selected early-stage uterine cervical cancer patients, the cervix-uterus structure, uterine cavity and the GTV were delineated on 2D pathology photos after macroscopic intersection and corresponding pre-operatively acquired T2-weighted 2D sagittal MR images. Segmentations of pathology photos and MR images were simultaneously registered using a three-step multi-image registration strategy. The registration outcome was evaluated by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the surface distance error (SDE). In addition, GTV expansions within the cervix-uterus structure needed to obtain 95% GTV coverage were determined. Results. After three-step multi-image registration, the median DSC and median SDE were 0.98 and 0.4 mm (cervix-uterus) and 0.90 and 0.4 mm (uterine cavity), respectively. The average SDE around the GTV was 0.7 mm (range, 0.1 mm - 2.6 mm). An underestimation of MRI-based GTV delineations was found when no margin was applied, indicated by a mean GTV coverage of 61%. To obtain 95% GTV coverage for 90% of the patients, a minimum 12.0 mm margin around MRI-based GTVs was needed. Conclusion. The presented three-step multi-image registration strategy was suitable and accurate to correlate MRI and pathology data for uterine cervical cancer patients. To cover the pathology-based GTV, a margin of at least 12.0 mm around GTV delineations on T2-weighted MRI is needed. PMID:25437811

van de Schoot, Agustinus J A J; de Boer, Peter; Buist, Marrije R; Stoker, Jaap; Bleeker, Maaike C G; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Rasch, Coen R N; Bel, Arjan

2015-02-01

331

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

332

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-08-01

333

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

334

Human Uterine Smooth Muscle and Leiomyoma Cells Differ in Their Rapid 17 -Estradiol Signaling  

E-print Network

Human Uterine Smooth Muscle and Leiomyoma Cells Differ in Their Rapid 17 -Estradiol Signaling Uterine leiomyomas, benign uterine smooth muscle tumors that affect 30% of reproductive-aged women-activatedcytoplasmicsignalingeventsinthepromotionofleiomyo- mas. Western blot analysis revealed that E2 rapidly increases levels of phosphorylated protein

McLachlan, John

335

Modulation of rat uterine contractility by mast cells and their mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to test the possibility that mast cells play a role in the regulation of uterine contractility. Study Design: Histamine and rat mast cell protease II levels were determined by radioenzymatic assay and standard radial immunodiffusion techniques, respectively, in uterine tissues from Wistar rats with timed pregnancies. Isolated uterine strips from nonsensitized and ovalbumin-sensitized nonpregnant and

Robert E. Garfield; Egle Bytautiene; Yuri P. Vedernikov; Jean S. Marshall; Roberto Romero

2000-01-01

336

Plausible Linkage of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) in Uterine Endometrial Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Angiogenesis is essential for the development, growth and advancement of solid tumors. Angiogenesis is induced by hypoxia with the angiogenic transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). This prompted us to study the clinical implications of HIF relative to angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers. Methods: Sixty patients underwent curative resection for uterine endometrial cancers. In the tissue of 60 uterine endometrial

Jiro Fujimoto; Eriko Sato; Syed Mahfuzul Alam; Israt Jahan; Hiroshi Toyoki; Bao Li Hong; Hideki Sakaguchi; Teruhiko Tamaya

2006-01-01

337

Sonographic appearance of uterine lymphoma: Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Uterine lymphoma is rare and tends to be misdiagnosed due to lack of specific radiologic features. Few reports have been published on the sonographic characteristics of uterine lymphoma. We present a case report of uterine lymphoma manifested by a fast growing uterus and describe the sonographic findings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 43:59-63, 2015. PMID:24796529

Hadi, Efrat; Bruchim, Ilan; Helman, Ilana; Shehtman, Itshak; Stackievicz, Rodica; Tepper, Ronnie; Hershkovitz, Reli

2015-01-01

338

The relationship between uterine pathogen growth density and ovarian function in the postpartum dairy cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cattle, the first postpartum dominant follicle grows slower and produces less oestradiol in animals with high numbers of bacteria contaminating the uterine lumen. However, only bacteria that are uterine pathogens are correlated with severe clinical disease and an increased inflammatory response. It is unknown whether the effect on the ovary in relation to uterine bacterial contamination is associated with

E. J. Williams; D. P. Fischer; D. E. Noakes; G. C. W. England; A. Rycroft; H. Dobson; I. M. Sheldon

2007-01-01

339

Placental accommodations for transport and metabolism during intra-uterine crowding in pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Litter size and birth weights are limited by uterine capacity, defined as the ability of the uterus to maintain the appropriate development of some number of conceptuses. Uterine capacity is the result of the combined effects of uterine, placental and embryo/fetal function. The number of living conc...

340

Patient Presentation and Management of Labial Ulceration Following Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Nontarget embolization of adjacent internal iliac artery branches is a reported complication of uterine artery embolization. The following report describes the presentation and management of ulcerations of the labium minora due to nontarget embolization of the internal pudendal artery.

Gonsalves, Carin, E-mail: Carin.Gonsalves@jefferson.edu; Franciosa, Stefan V.; Shah, Suken; Bonn, Joseph; Wu, Christine [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (United States)

2007-11-15

341

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

342

Embolization of uterine fibroids from the point of view of the gynecologist: pros and cons  

PubMed Central

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive procedure with large symptomatic potential in treatment of women with uterine leiomyomas. Due to specificities of this method and possible complications the appropriate indication is crucial. Patient’ symptoms, age, plans for pregnancy, and surgical and reproductive history play a major role in decision-making regarding appropriate subjects for UAE. Close cooperation between the gynecologist and the interventional radiologist is necessary. UAE is usually offered as an alternative to surgical treatment. In patients with no fertility plans, it is a less invasive option than abdominal hysterectomy, with a comparable effect on fibroid-related symptoms and quality of life. The need for reintervention is markedly greater in patients after UAE (up to 35% within 5 years) than after hysterectomy. Women with large symptomatic fibroids wishing to retain the uterus and ineligible for minimally invasive (laparoscopic or vaginal) hysterectomy are good candidates for UAE. However, studies comparing UAE with minimally invasive hysterectomy are lacking. Use of UAE in younger women desiring pregnancy is more controversial, mainly because of the significant risk of miscarriage (as high as 64% in some studies) as well as the increased risk of other complications of pregnancy, such as preterm delivery, abnormal placentation, and post-partum hemorrhage. The risk of infertility or subfertility following UAE is unknown. Even poor candidates for myomectomy should be carefully selected for UAE after counseling about all possible adverse effects on fertility. Good prospective studies focused on fertility comparing UAE with no treatment or with myomectomy are needed but would be ethically questionable. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the benefits and potential risks of UAE from the point of view of the gynecologist, who should be responsible for proper indication of this treatment. PMID:25018653

Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna

2014-01-01

343

Conservative Treatment of a Gossypiboma Causing Uterine Wound Dehiscence  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case with gossypiboma following cesarean section which led to uterine wound dehiscence. A 30-year-old woman had been submitted to an emergency cesarean section 4 months previously at another hospital. Clinical and ultrasound findings revealed a large intra-abdominal mass and diffuse peritonitis. At laparotomy, a gossypiboma causing an abscess and uterine wound dehiscence with necrosis of the margins was detected. We performed repetitive wound debridements under broad-spectrum antibiotic cover and eventually resutured the incision. Although hysterectomy has so far been the choice of treatment in the literature once a uterine wound dehiscence had occurred, it was possible in this case to preserve the uterus. PMID:24106624

Usta, Taner A.; Ozyurek, Sefik E.; Gundogdu, Elif C.

2013-01-01

344

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

345

Total and acute uterine inversion after delivery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Uterine inversion is a rare obstetric emergency that can lead to hypovolemic shock or even maternal death. There are many management strategies, but they are poorly described and dispersed in the medical literature. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of complete acute uterine inversion and a review of the literature. Case presentation The authors describe a case of complete uterine inversion after a normal delivery with fundal placenta and without cord traction, in a 33-year-old Caucasian woman. After the diagnosis was made and after several attempts of manual correction of the inversion, the patient was taken immediately to the operating room and a laparotomy was performed. With opposing pressures in the cervical ring through the abdominal cavity and on the uterus fundus through her vagina, the inversion was resolved. An incision on the cervical ring was unnecessary. Due to incomplete detachment of the placenta the bleeding was mild. She recovered without complications and the histological examination of placenta was unremarkable. In this case, the only risk factor for uterine inversion was the fundal implantation of the placenta. Conclusions The low incidence of uterine inversion leads to sparse experience in resolving this obstetrical emergency. The best prognosis occurs in situations where the diagnosis and maneuvers for uterine reversal are made at an early stage. The authors concluded that opposing pressures in the cervical ring through the abdominal cavity and on the uterus fundus through the vagina can resolve the inversion without the need of other surgical techniques. It is essential to keep in mind this diagnosis, and be updated about the strategies required to solve this complication. PMID:25326075

2014-01-01

346

MR Venography of Deep Veins: Changes with Uterine Fibroid Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Deep veins (DVs) can be compressed by a uterus enlarged with fibroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a myomatous uterus, and the change in DV narrowing in women with symptomatic fibroids after embolization using time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Twenty-nine consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent TOF-MRV and pelvic MRI before and 4 months after embolization. Based on the TOF-MRV, we evaluated the luminal narrowing of three DVs, including the inferior vena cava, and the bilateral common and external iliac veins, and divided the findings into three grades. The scores for each DV were added for each patient (lowest, 0; highest, 6). DV scores and symptom severity (SS) scores were compared between the baseline and 4 months after embolization using the paired t-test. The relationship between DV scores and uterine volume was investigated using Pearson's test. DV scores decreased significantly, from 1.52 {+-} 1.70 at baseline to 0.93 {+-} 1.56 at 4 months after embolization (p = 0.004). The uterine volume decreased from 948 {+-} 647 mL at baseline to 617 {+-} 417 mL at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). DV score correlated with uterine volume (r = 0.856, p < 0.001). SS scores decreased from 54.5 {+-} 14.6 at baseline to 26.8 {+-} 15.4 at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a uterus with fibroids is correlated with the uterine volume. Uterine artery embolization may induce an improvement of luminal narrowing of DVs due to a reduction of the myomatous uterus volume.

Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Tsuchida, Yoko; Nara, Yoshinori [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2009-03-15

347

Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.  

PubMed

To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

2014-12-01

348

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

349

Cervical myomectomy with uterine artery ligation at its origin.  

PubMed

This study was performed to examine the feasibility, blood loss, duration of surgery, and complications in patients with cervical myomas in whom the uterine artery was ligated before myomectomy. Laparoscopic cervical myomectomy was performed in 12 women with cervical myomas and menorrhagia. The uterine artery was ligated at its origin from the internal iliac as an initial step to reduce the blood loss. Myomectomy was subsequently performed, and the myomas were enucleated by incising the capsule anteriorly or posteriorly depending on their location. Hysterectomy was not necessary in any patient. Even large cervical myomas were removed with minimal blood loss. Laparoscopic cervical myomectomy is a minimally invasive and technically safe procedure. PMID:19835802

Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Lakhotia, Smita; Hegde, Aparna

2009-01-01

350

Chronic carbon monoxide inhalation during pregnancy augments uterine artery blood flow and uteroplacental vascular growth in mice.  

PubMed

End-tidal breath carbon monoxide (CO) is abnormally low in women with preeclampsia (PE), while women smoking during pregnancy have shown an increase in CO levels and a 33% lower incidence of PE. This effect may be, in part, due to lowered sFLT1 plasma levels in smokers, and perhaps low-level CO inhalation can attenuate the development of PE in high-risk women. Our previous work showed maternal chronic CO exposure (<300 ppm) throughout gestation had no maternal or fetal deleterious effects in mice. Our current study evaluated the uteroplacental vascular effects in CD-1 maternal mice that inhaled CO (250 ppm) both chronically, gestation day (GD) 0.5 to 18.5, and acutely, 2.5 h on each of GD 10.5 and 14.5. We demonstrated, using microultrasound measurements of blood velocity and microcomputed tomography imaging of the uteroplacental vasculature, that chronic maternal exposure to CO doubled uterine artery blood flow and augmented uteroplacental vascular diameters and branching. This finding may be of benefit to women with PE, as they exhibit uteroplacental vascular compromise. The ratio of VEGF protein to its FLT1 receptor was increased in the placenta, suggesting a shift to a more angiogenic state; however, maternal circulating levels of VEGF, sFLT1, and their ratio were not significantly changed. Doppler blood velocities in the maternal uterine artery and fetal umbilical artery and vein were unaltered. This study provides in vivo evidence that chronic inhalation of 250 ppm CO throughout gestation augments uterine blood flow and uteroplacental vascular growth, changes that may protect against the subsequent development of preeclampsia. PMID:23986360

Venditti, Carolina C; Casselman, Richard; Murphy, Malia S Q; Adamson, S Lee; Sled, John G; Smith, Graeme N

2013-10-15

351

A mathematical model of the growth of uterine myomas.  

PubMed

Uterine myomas or fibroids are common, benign smooth muscle tumours that can grow to 10  cm or more in diameter and are routinely removed surgically. They are typically slow- growing, well-vascularised, spherical tumours that, on a macro-scale, are a structurally uniform, hard elastic material. We present a multi-phase mathematical model of a fully vascularised myoma growing within a surrounding elastic tissue. Adopting a continuum approach, the model assumes the conservation of mass and momentum of four phases, namely cells/collagen, extracellular fluid, arterial and venous phases. The cell/collagen phase is treated as a poro-elastic material, based on a linear stress-strain relationship, and Darcy's law is applied to describe flow in the extracellular fluid and the two vascular phases. The supply of extracellular fluid is dependent on the capillary flow rate and mean capillary pressure expressed in terms of the arterial and venous pressures. Cell growth and division is limited to the myoma domain and dependent on the local stress in the material. The resulting model consists of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations with two moving boundaries. Numerical solutions of the model successfully reproduce qualitatively the clinically observed three-phase "fast-slow-fast" growth profile that is typical for myomas. The results suggest that this growth profile requires stress-induced resistance to growth by the surrounding tissue and a switch-like cell growth response to stress. Analysis of large-time solutions reveal that while there is a functioning vasculature throughout the myoma, exponential growth results, otherwise power-law growth is predicted. An extensive survey of the effect of parameters on model solutions is also presented, and in particular, the enhanced growth caused by factors such as oestrogen is predicted by the model. PMID:25466579

Chen, C Y; Ward, J P

2014-12-01

352

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduces Extracellular Matrix-Associated Protein Expression in Human Uterine Fibroid Cells1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign tumors associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins that increase fibroid tumorigenicity. Herein, we determined the expression levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein in human uterine fibroids and compared these levels to those in adjacent normal myometrium. Using Western blot analysis, we found that more than 60% of uterine fibroids analyzed (25 of 40) expressed low levels of VDR. We also found that the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3), which functions via binding to its nuclear VDR, induced VDR in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced ECM-associated fibrotic and proteoglycans expression in immortalized human uterine fibroid cell line (HuLM). At 1–10 nM concentrations, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly induced (P < 0.05) nuclear VDR, which was further stimulated by higher concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 in HuLM cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 at 10 nM also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the protein expression of ECM-associated collagen type 1, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HuLM cells. We also found that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced mRNA and protein expressions of proteoglycans such as fibromodulin, biglycan, and versican in HuLM cells. Moreover, the aberrant expression of structural smooth muscle actin fibers was reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in a concentration-dependent manner in HuLM cells. Taken together, our results suggest that human uterine fibroids express reduced levels of VDR compared to the adjacent normal myometrium and that treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 can potentially reduce the aberrant expression of major ECM-associated proteins in HuLM cells. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 might be an effective, safe, nonsurgical treatment option for human uterine fibroids. PMID:24174578

Halder, Sunil K.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2013-01-01

353

Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

Kim, Man Deuk [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mdkim@cha.ac.kr; Kim, Nahk Keun [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Obstetric and Gynecology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mee Hwa [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Obstetric and Gynecology (Korea, Republic of)

2005-06-15

354

Fertility-Preserving Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) Followed by Laparoscopic Resection.  

PubMed

Herein is presented a fertility-preserving approach in the management of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The patient had a documented AVM and underwent 2 uterine artery embolization procedures, with subsequent recurrence of symptoms. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated recanalization of the AVM. Ultimately, laparoscopic resection of the AVM was performed after laparoscopic ligation of the uterine arteries. Postoperatively, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Laparoscopic resection of a uterine AVM may offer a fertility-preserving alternative to hysterectomy in patients in whom endovascular management has failed. PMID:25117839

Patton, Elizabeth W; Moy, Irene; Milad, Magdy P; Vogezang, Robert

2015-01-01

355

Does Size Really Matter? Analysis of the Effect of Large Fibroids and Uterine Volumes on Complication Rates of Uterine Artery Embolisation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diameter of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as {>=}10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as {>=}750 cm{sup 3}; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with {>=}4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.

Parthipun, A. A., E-mail: aneeta@hotmail.co.uk; Taylor, J. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Manyonda, I. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (United Kingdom); Belli, A. M. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

356

Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) with the KTP 532 laser for the treatment of uterine adenomyosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adenomyosis is a condition in which the myometrium is infiltrated by endometrial glands and stroma. This results in myometrial hyperplasia, uterine enlargement and causes menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia for which there is no known cure other than hysterectomy. The success of LITT in the treatment of uterine leiomyomata suggested that this might also be effective for the treatment of adenomyosis. Initially LITT was carried out on patients with adenomyosis prior to hysterectomy, then on patients who had completed child-bearing and finally on those who desired a family. Not only were symptoms relieved but pregnancies occurred spontaneously. The KTP 532 nm component of the KTP/YAG laser, which is absorbed by red pigment, was used with a 600 micrometer fiber with a bare tip via a needle microstat at laparoscopy. Holes were drilled in the abnormal tissue 3 cm apart and the laser fiber then slowly withdrawn, the object being to coagulate the surrounding blood vessels and adenomyotic tissue. The number of joules required depended on the volume of tissue treated.

Chapman, Roxana; Chapman, Kenneth

1997-05-01

357

Ablation of paternal accessory sex glands imparts physical and behavioural abnormalities to the progeny: an in vivo study in the golden hamster.  

PubMed

The functional significance of male accessory sex glands (ASG) remains unclear. This study explored their importance in reproduction. In previous investigations, embryos sired by males with ASG either totally or partially removed had a shift in the cell cycle and delayed cleavage during preimplantation development, higher incidence of apoptosis, early oviductal-uterine transit, higher proportion of embryo degeneration, lower implantation rate, and ultimately reduced fertility and fecundity. Some pups were born alive; but would they be normal? We hypothesized that the first generation offspring (F1) could also bear undesirable traits. To test our hypothesis, we raised and studied these F1 pups from birth to 8 weeks. We monitored physical growth and assessed behaviour such as nest patch odor preference, acoustic startle response (ASR) and exploratory activity. We detected deviations from the norm in physical growth, a premature cessation of nest patch odor preferences, accelerated acoustic startle habituation and more frequent rearing when exposed to a novel environment. In terms of structure, we found one incidence of diphallus with duplicated urethra. We concluded that sperm lacking contact with ASG secretions gave rise to progeny with abnormal traits. PMID:17597198

Wong, C L; Lee, K H; Lo, K M; Chan, O C; Goggins, W; O, W S; Chow, P H

2007-09-01

358

Effects of abnormal cannabidiol on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractility.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal cannabidiol (abn-cbd) on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractility occurring during pregnancy. Isometric tension recordings were performed in isolated myometrial strips from biopsies obtained at elective cesarean section. The effects of cumulative doses of abn-cbd (10(-9)-10(-5) M) on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractions alone, and on those following pre-incubation with SR 144528, AM 251, methylene blue, and iberiotoxin were measured, and dose-response curves were constructed. The pD(2) (-log EC(50)) values and the maximal inhibitory (MMI) values that were achieved were compared for each tissue type. Abn-cbd exerted a potent relaxant effect on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractions in vitro. Pre-incubation with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor, methylene blue, and the BK(Ca) channel antagonist, iberiotoxin, significantly attenuated this effect (for pD(2), P<0.01; for MMI, P<0.01). Abn-cbd exerts a potent inhibitory effect on human uterine contractility. This effect is partially mediated through modulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of BK(Ca) channel activity. These findings have implications for physiologic regulation of myometrial quiescence. PMID:20068032

Houlihan, Diarmaid D; Dennedy, Michael C; Morrison, John J

2010-04-01

359

Genome-wide acquired uniparental disomy as well as chromosomal gains and losses in an uterine epithelioid leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Background Epitheloid leiomyoma is a rare subtype of benign smooth muscle tumors. Results Herein, we present the results of classical cytogenetics, MED12 mutation analysis, and copy number variation array evaluation in one such case. Whereas cytogenetic did not show evidence for clonal chromosome abnormalities and no MED12 mutation in the “fibroid hot spot” region was detected, array hybridization revealed multiple abnormalities. Most noteworthy, almost all chromosomes showed copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. As examples of further abnormalities, trisomies of chromosomes 8, 12, 20, and X were noted. Discussion The data presented suggest a near-haploid karyotype of the tumor as the initial genetic alteration followed by secondary duplications of large parts of the genome. The absence of any clonal karyotypic alterations after performing classical cytogenetics is likely explained by a reduced ability of the tumor cells to proliferate in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an uterine leiomyoma showing extended uniparental disomy. It remains to be determined if this is a more common phenomenon in epithelioid leiomyomas or even subsets of “ordinary” leiomyomas. PMID:24593849

2014-01-01

360

Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

361

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...display of the uterine contraction data at the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer and monitor that receive, process, and display data. This device is intended for use in women with a...

2013-04-01

362

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...display of the uterine contraction data at the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer and monitor that receive, process, and display data. This device is intended for use in women with a...

2012-04-01

363

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...display of the uterine contraction data at the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer and monitor that receive, process, and display data. This device is intended for use in women with a...

2011-04-01

364

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

...display of the uterine contraction data at the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer and monitor that receive, process, and display data. This device is intended for use in women with a...

2014-04-01

365

21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...display of the uterine contraction data at the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer and monitor that receive, process, and display data. This device is intended for use in women with a...

2010-04-01

366

Original article Embryo survival, uterine fluids and tubal SEM  

E-print Network

Original article Embryo survival, uterine fluids and tubal SEM in progesterone, NY 14853-4801, USA (Received 2 August 1999; accepted 1 December 1999) Abstract -- Survival of embryos, but caused severe embryo mortality, were studied. In exper- iment 1, 332 morulae were cultured for 24 h

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Transvaginal ultrasound, uterine biopsy and hysteroscopy for postmenopausal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the importance of endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound in patients with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: Eighty patients with postmenopausal bleeding were submitted to transvaginal ultrasound followed by endometrial biopsy. Hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage were carried out to confirm normality of the uterine cavity. Results: The endometrial echo could be visualized in all patients with postmenopausal bleeding. The

M. G. Giusa-Chiferi; W. J. Gonçalves; E. G. Baracat; L. Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Neto; C. C. R. Bortoletto; G. Rodrigues de Lima

1996-01-01

368

Improvement in uterine artery doppler indices via hysteroscopic metroplasty  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective the objective of our research was to study uterine artery doppler indices and their evolution over time after metroplasty and subsequent pregnancy in patients whose septate uterus was the only explanation for infertility. Materials and Methods a retrospective study. The uterine arteries of 78 patients with septate uteri were evaluated using endovaginal color doppler ultrasound before and after metroplasty. Fifty-one patients became pregnant after metroplasty and were selected as study group, pregnancy occurred within 17 months. By comparing uterine artery doppler indices before and after metroplasty, we observed that the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) post surgery were significantly lower compared to premetroplasty levels. Results all pregnant women in the study group showed uterine resistive indexes within normal ranges, they all underwent scheduled cesarean in-tervention. Gestational evolution was normal in all patients (mean score of Apgar and birth weight); no neonatal complications were observed. Conclusion metroplastic intervention in women with septate uterus as the sole cause of infertility may be a plausible alternative for patients wishing to carry a pregnancy. PMID:23991276

Pace, Sebastiano; Cerekja, Albana; Dillon, Kathleen Comalli; Pace, Giulia; Piazze, Juan

2013-01-01

369

Clostridium hathewayi bacteraemia and surgical site infection after uterine myomectomy.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old woman with uterine fibroids underwent myomectomy. She developed postoperative sepsis and bloodstream infection with Clostridium hathewayi secondary to an infected haematoma. The patient was readmitted after failure of oral antibiotic therapy and underwent intrauterine drainage followed by prolonged parenteral antibiotic therapy. The patient was followed for 1 year and did not have any relapse of infection. PMID:24596408

Dababneh, Ala S; Nagpal, Avish; Palraj, Bharath Raj Varatharaj; Sohail, M Rizwan

2014-01-01

370

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE UTERINE EPITHELIUM IN THE RABBIT  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the uterine epithelium has been studied in estrous, ovariectomized, pregnant, and pseudopregnant rabbits. Tissue for light microscopy was fixed in Bouin's solution and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, by the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) method, and with methylene blue. Tissue for electron microscopy was fixed in 1 per cent osmium tetroxide in White's saline and embedded in Araldite. The uterine epithelium in estrus is comprised of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. After ovariectomy the epithelium becomes reduced in height and PAS-positive material disappears. Multinucleated cells are formed in the epithelium in pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, and in the non-pregnant horn in unilateral pregnancy. They degenerate during the 3rd week of pseudopregnancy and during the 4th week of pregnancy in the non-pregnant horn. The formation of multinucleated cells is believed to be under hormonal control. The uterine epithelium in contact with the blastocyst changes into a "symplasma," presumably under the influence of a local (chemical?) effect produced by the blastocyst. This change is not seen in pseudopregnancy nor in the non-pregnant horn in unilateral pregnancy. A complex infolding of the basal cell membrane of the epithelium accompanies the "symplasmic" change. The remaining uterine epithelium in pregnancy shows a well developed ergastoplasm suggesting a production of secretion materials, some of which may be available for absorption by the fetus through the yolk sac or paraplacental chorion. PMID:14462496

Larsen, Jørgen Falck

1962-01-01

371

Impact of Selection for Uterine Capacity on the Placental Transcriptome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Direct single trait selection for 11 generations resulted in a 1.6 pig advantage for uterine capacity (UC) while average birth and placental weights at term remained unchanged. A serial slaughter experiment conducted throughout gestation determined the critical time period for the line difference ...

372

THE INFLUENCE OF UTERINE FUNCTION ON EMBRYONIC AND FETAL SURVIVAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The secretion rate of growth factors and the delivery rate of nutrients by the uterus to the conceptus affects the growth rate, development and survival of the conceptus. Many growth factors are products of uterine tissue. Transport of some nutrients is aided by specific transporter molecules on the...

373

Normal and abnormal skin color.  

PubMed

The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. PMID:23522626

Ortonne, J P

2012-12-01

374

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide and requires lifelong therapy. Hyperfunction of the\\u000a dopaminergic system has long been hypothesized as the underlying cause of schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis explains\\u000a mostly the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence point to the glutamatergic system and\\u000a suggest that abnormalities in this system may play a crucial role

Yogesh Dwivedi; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

375

[The morphological features of the uterine body adenocarcinoma].  

PubMed

The anthors studied the morphological features of uterine adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical methods. The endometrial tissue was studed resulting from surgery - hysterectomy with oophorectomy in 103 patients aged 45-76 years with a clinical diagnosis of endometrial cancer. To exclude false-positive and false-negative results, we carry out same investigation on 12 patients with morphological diagnosis easy-glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium. The results showed that the endometrioid adenocarcinomas exhibit the high and moderate expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and low rate of the proliferation marker Ki-67. For serous-paapillary andenocarcionoma of the uterine body the negative ER-PR-receptor over expression phenotype and proliferation marker Ki-67 superexpression are characteristic. The results showed that in a simple-glandular endometrial hyperplasia is determined a moderate expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, as for the Ki-67 proliferation marker an expression was found only in the single arears with an average of 5-8% of findings. Based at shis study it may be concluded thate the use of immunohistochemical studies particularly a detection of negative estrogen and progesterone resceptor phenotype and high expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 is an additional defferential diagnostic eriterion for the diagnosis of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine body thet will ensure adepuate therapeutis approach to patients suffering from this disorder. Given he fact that serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common neoplesm of the rarer forms of endometrial cancer with an extremely peculiar aggressive coures a ssurgical treatment as in overian cancer is recommended for this parthology, including a hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy, lymphadenectomy, omentektomy, cytological examination of the abdomend and biopsy of suspicious areas of the abdominal cavity, with adjuvant treatment including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors on serous-papilary adenocarcinoma of the uterine body justifies the inadvisability of hormone therapy in these patients. Since the patients with serous-papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine body need a larger voluve surgical treatment the patients with ?ndometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine body. We consider that this morphological type of uterine cancer should be diagnosed preoperatively. PMID:25020177

2014-06-01

376

Eye Movement Abnormalities in Joubert Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Joubert syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by hypoplasia of the midline cerebellum and deficiency of crossed connections between neural structures in the brain stem that control eye movements. The goal of the study was to quantify the eye movement abnormalities that occur in Joubert syndrome. Methods Eye movements were recorded in response to stationary stimuli and stimuli designed to elicit smooth pursuit, saccades, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and vergence using video-oculography or Skalar search coils in 8 patients with Joubert syndrome. All patients underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results All patients had the highly characteristic molar tooth sign on brain MRI. Six patients had conjugate pendular (n = 4) or see-saw nystagmus (n = 2); gaze holding was stable in four patients. Smooth-pursuit gains were 0.28 to 1.19, 0.11 to 0.68, and 0.33 to 0.73 at peak stimulus velocities of 10, 20, and 30 deg/s in six patients; smooth pursuit could not be elicited in four patients. Saccade gains in five patients ranged from 0.35 to 0.91 and velocities ranged from 60.9 to 259.5 deg/s. Targeted saccades could not be elicited in five patients. Horizontal OKN gain was uniformly reduced across gratings drifted at velocities of 15, 30, and 45 deg/s. VOR gain was 0.8 or higher and phase appropriate in three of seven subjects; VOR gain was 0.3 or less and phase was indeterminate in four subjects. Conclusions The abnormalities in gaze-holding and eye movements are consistent with the distributed abnormalities of midline cerebellum and brain stem regions associated with Joubert syndrome. PMID:19443711

Weiss, Avery H.; Doherty, Dan; Parisi, Melissa; Shaw, Dennis; Glass, Ian; Phillips, James O.

2011-01-01

377

Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

378

Outcomes After Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization: A Retrospective Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) is considered necessary to provide effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Occasionally, only unilateral embolization is performed, and this study evaluates these outcomes. Materials and Methods. As part of a prospective observational study of more than 1600 patients treated with UAE since 1996, there have been 48 patients in whom unilateral embolization has been performed. This study retrospectively reviews clinical response as assessed by our standard questionnaire and radiological response assessed by either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Results. Two principal groups emerged: the largest, where only the dominant unilateral arterial supply was electively embolized (30 patients); and the second, where there was technical failure to catheterize the second uterine artery as a result of anatomical constraints (12 patients). Favorable clinical response with a reduction in menorrhagia at 1 year was seen in 85.7% (18/21) of those patients with a dominant arterial supply to the fibroid(s). In contrast, in those patients where there was technical failure to embolize one uterine artery, there was a high rate of clinical failure requiring further intervention in 58.3% (7/12). Comparison of the technical failure group with the dominant uterine artery group demonstrated a statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) difference in the proportion of patients with evidence of persistent fibroid vascularity (p < 0.001) and requiring repeat intervention (p < 0.01). Conclusion. We conclude that unilateral UAE can achieve a positive clinical result in the group of patients where there is a dominant unilateral artery supplying the fibroid(s), in contrast to the poor results seen following technical failure.

Bratby, M. J. [St George's Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Hussain, F. F.; Walker, W. J. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wj.walker@virgin.net

2008-03-15

379

Gene expression signatures of primary and metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common uterine sarcoma. Although the disease is relatively rare, it is responsible for considerable mortality due to frequent metastasis and chemoresistance. The molecular events related to LMS metastasis are unknown to date. The present study compared the global gene expression patterns of primary uterine LMSs and LMS metastases. Gene expression profiles of 13 primary and 15 metastatic uterine LMSs were analyzed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To identify differently expressed genes between primary and metastatic tumors, we performed one-way analysis of variance with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. This led to identification of 203 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the 2 tumor groups by greater than 1.58-fold with P < .01, of which 94 and 109 were overexpressed in primary and metastatic LMSs, respectively. Genes overexpressed in primary uterine LMSs included OSTN, NLGN4X, NLGN1, SLITRK4, MASP1, XRN2, ASS1, RORB, HRASLS, and TSPAN7. Genes overexpressed in LMS metastases included TNNT1, FOLR3, TDO2, CRYM, GJA1, TSPAN10, THBS1, SGK1, SHMT1, EGR2, and AGT. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant anatomical site-related differences in FOLR3, OSTN, and NLGN4X levels; and immunohistochemistry showed significant differences in TDO2 expression. Gene expression profiling differentiates primary uterine LMSs from LMS metastases. The molecular signatures unique to primary and metastatic LMSs may aid in understanding tumor progression in this cancer and in providing a molecular basis for prognostic studies and therapeutic target discovery. PMID:24485798

Davidson, Ben; Abeler, Vera Maria; Førsund, Mette; Holth, Arild; Yang, Yanqin; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Chen, Lily; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

2014-04-01

380

Peritoneal Dissemination Complicating Morcellation of Uterine Mesenchymal Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background Power morcellation has become a common technique for the minimally invasive resection of uterine leiomyomas. This technique is associated with dissemination of cellular material throughout the peritoneum. When morcellated uterine tumors are unexpectedly found to be leiomyosarcomas or tumors with atypical features (atypical leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential), there may be significant clinical consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical consequence of intraperitoneal dissemination of these neoplasms. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2005–2010, 1091 instances of uterine morcellation were identified at BWH. Unexpected diagnoses of leiomyoma variants or atypical and malignant smooth muscle tumors occurred in 1.2% of cases using power morcellation for uterine masses clinically presumed to be “fibroids” over this period, including one endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS), one cellular leiomyoma (CL), six atypical leiomyomas (AL), three smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs), and one leiomyosarcoma (LMS). The rate of unexpected sarcoma after the laparoscopic morcellation procedure was 0.09%, 9-fold higher than the rate currently quoted to patients during pre-procedure briefing, and this rate may increase over time as diagnostically challenging or under-sampled tumors manifest their biological potential. Furthermore, when examining follow-up laparoscopies, both from in-house and consultation cases, disseminated disease occurred in 64.3% of all tumors (zero of one ESS, one of one CL, zero of one AL, four of four STUMPs, and four of seven LMS). Only disseminated leiomyosarcoma, however, was associated with mortality. Procedures are proposed for pathologic evaluation of morcellation specimens and associated follow-up specimens. Conclusions/Significance While additional study is warranted, these data suggest uterine morcellation carries a risk of disseminating unexpected malignancy with apparent associated increase in mortality much higher than appreciated currently. PMID:23189178

Seidman, Michael A.; Oduyebo, Titilope; Muto, Michael G.; Crum, Christopher P.; Nucci, Marisa R.; Quade, Bradley J.

2012-01-01

381

Nongenomic uterine relaxing effect of RU 486 (mifepristone) prior to its antiprogesterone activity in the human pregnancy.  

PubMed

The antiprogestin mifepristone (RU 486) is used for termination of pregnancy, as RU 486 blocks the quiescent action of progesterone, increases uterine contractility, sensitizes the myometrium to prostaglandins, and elicits cervical ripening. Since RU 486 represents a class of compound that is structurally related to steroid hormones, some of which possess a nongenomic uterine relaxing effect, we investigated the potential nongenomic relaxing action of RU 486 on the human pregnant myometrium. Myometrial tissues were obtained from pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section at term and were isometrically recorded. RU 486 caused relaxation on spontaneous contractility and high potassium-induced contractions with lower relaxing efficacy than progesterone. The progesterone receptor-blocking activity of RU 486 did not antagonize the uterine relaxation of progesterone. Moreover, contractions induced by oxytocin or different prostaglandins (PGF(2alpha), PGE(2), and a prostaglandin analogue, misoprostol) were inhibited rather than increased by RU 486. RU 486 induced a rapid and reversible relaxing effect, which was unaffected by inhibitors of protein synthesis and transcription, implying that RU 486 acts through a nongenomic mechanism. This study reveals that RU 486: (i) reduced high potassium-induced contraction and prevented calcium-induced contraction in depolarized tissue; and (ii) relaxed the oxytocin- and prostaglandin-induced contractions, indicating a blockade of voltage- and receptor-operated calcium channels by RU 486. These data show that this antiprogestin may induce a rapid nongenomic antiuterotonic effect prior to its antiprogesterone action. PMID:19464306

Perusquía, Mercedes; Espinoza, Julia; Navarrete, Erika

2009-10-01

382

Gene expression fingerprint of uterine serous papillary carcinoma: identification of novel molecular markers for uterine serous cancer diagnosis and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine serous papillary cancer (USPC) represents a rare but highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic tumour in women. We used oligonucleotide microarrays that interrogate the expression of some 10 000 known genes to profile 10 highly purified primary USPC cultures and five normal endometrial cells (NEC). We report that unsupervised analysis of mRNA fingerprints readily distinguished

A D Santin; F Zhan; S Bellone; M Palmieri; M Thomas; A Burnett; J J Roman; M J Cannon; J Shaughnessy; S Pecorelli

2005-01-01

383

The uterine gland knock-out ewe: a model to study the role of endometrial glands in uterine function  

E-print Network

; 2) the role of endometrial glands in the uterine-dependent estrous cycle; and 3) the role of endometrial glands in the ability of the uterus to support establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The first study determined the mechanism by which...

Gray, Catherine Allison

2000-01-01

384

CORRELATED RESPONSES IN GRAVID UTERINE, FARROWING AND WEANING TRAITS TO SELECTION OF PIGS FOR OVULATION RATE OR UTERINE CAPACITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred six gilts of each line were randomly assigned to either UHO or intact groups in each of two seasons (March and September) of 1999 and 2000. Gilts were UHO at 160 days of age, mated within line, and slaughtered at 105 days of gestation. At slaughter, the remaining gravid uterine horn and...

385

Pregnancy Ameliorates the Inhibitory Effects of 2-Methoxyestradiol on Angiogenesis in Primary Sheep Uterine Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The estrogen metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) is one of the most potent antiangiogenic and proapoptotic endogenous steroids. Herein, we investigate the effects of 2-ME2 on angiogenesis of cultured primary ovine uterine artery endothelial cells (UAECs) from nonpregnant follicular (F-UAECs), nonpregnant luteal (L-UAECs), and pregnant ewes (P-UAECs). Uterine artery endothelial cells were treated with vehicle control, 10?8 mol/L 17?-estradiol (17?E2), or 10?9 to 10?6 mol/L 2-ME2. Angiogenesis, apotosis, and cell morphology were assessed by capillary tube formation, flowcytometry, and immunohistochemistry. 17?E2 stimulated while 10?6 mol/L 2-ME2 inhibited capillary tube formation in F-UAECs (P < .05). The inhibitory effects of 2-ME2 on angiogenesis were minimal in L-UAECs and were absent in P-UAECs when compared to controls. 10?6 mol/L 2-ME2 increased apoptosis and inhibited microtubular structure equally in pregnant and nonpregnant UAECs when compared to control or 17?E2 treatments. Thus, 2-ME2 inhibit capillary tube formation in F-UAECs while L-UAECs and P-UAECs are relatively unresponsive to the inhibitory effects of 2ME2 indicating that the pregnancy phenotypic state of the UAECs may modulate the action of 2-ME2 on capillary angiogenesis. PMID:21421897

Salih, Sana M.; Kapur, Arvinder; Albayrak, Samet; Salama, Salama A.; Magness, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

386

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

387

Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE. PMID:25383319

McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

2014-01-01

388

Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2008-01-01

389

Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

2005-01-01

390

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

391

Correlated expression of HMGA2 and PLAG1 in thyroid tumors, uterine leiomyomas and experimental models.  

PubMed

In pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands (PASG) recurrent chromosomal rearrangements affecting either 8q12 or 12q14?15 lead to an overexpression of the genes of the genuine transcription factor PLAG1 or the architectural transcription factor HMGA2, respectively. Both genes are also affected by recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in benign adipocytic tumors as e. g. lipomas and lipoblastomas. Herein, we observed a strong correlation between the expression of HMGA2 and PLAG1 in 14 benign and 23 malignant thyroid tumors. To address the question if PLAG1 can be activated by HMGA2, the expression of both genes was quantified in 32 uterine leiomyomas 17 of which exhibited an overexpression of HMGA2. All leiomyomas with HMGA2 overexpression also revealed an activation of PLAG1 in the absence of detectable chromosome 8 abnormalities affecting the PLAG1 locus. To further investigate if the overexpression of PLAG1 is inducible by HMGA2 alone, HMGA2 was transiently overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. An increased PLAG1 expression was observed 24 and 48 h after transfection. Likewise, stimulation of HMGA2 by FGF1 in adipose tissue-derived stem cells led to a simultaneous increase of PLAG1 mRNA. Altogether, these data suggest that HMGA2 is an upstream activator of PLAG1. Accordingly, this may explain the formation of tumors as similar as lipomas and lipoblastomas resulting from an activation of either of both genes by chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:24516594

Klemke, Markus; Müller, Marietta Henrike; Wosniok, Werner; Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Nimzyk, Rolf; Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Bullerdiek, Jörn

2014-01-01

392

Correlated Expression of HMGA2 and PLAG1 in Thyroid Tumors, Uterine Leiomyomas and Experimental Models  

PubMed Central

In pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands (PASG) recurrent chromosomal rearrangements affecting either 8q12 or 12q14?15 lead to an overexpression of the genes of the genuine transcription factor PLAG1 or the architectural transcription factor HMGA2, respectively. Both genes are also affected by recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in benign adipocytic tumors as e. g. lipomas and lipoblastomas. Herein, we observed a strong correlation between the expression of HMGA2 and PLAG1 in 14 benign and 23 malignant thyroid tumors. To address the question if PLAG1 can be activated by HMGA2, the expression of both genes was quantified in 32 uterine leiomyomas 17 of which exhibited an overexpression of HMGA2. All leiomyomas with HMGA2 overexpression also revealed an activation of PLAG1 in the absence of detectable chromosome 8 abnormalities affecting the PLAG1 locus. To further investigate if the overexpression of PLAG1 is inducible by HMGA2 alone, HMGA2 was transiently overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. An increased PLAG1 expression was observed 24 and 48 h after transfection. Likewise, stimulation of HMGA2 by FGF1 in adipose tissue-derived stem cells led to a simultaneous increase of PLAG1 mRNA. Altogether, these data suggest that HMGA2 is an upstream activator of PLAG1. Accordingly, this may explain the formation of tumors as similar as lipomas and lipoblastomas resulting from an activation of either of both genes by chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:24516594

Klemke, Markus; Müller, Marietta Henrike; Wosniok, Werner; Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Nimzyk, Rolf; Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Bullerdiek, Jörn

2014-01-01

393

Underlying karyotype abnormalities in IVF/ICSI patients.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic investigations are performed in couples asking for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. These serve a diagnostic purpose because male or female infertility might have a chromosomal origin. Chromosomal aberrations found in these patients include numerical abnormalities, such as Klinefelter syndrome, XYY karyotype or Turner syndrome and its variants; sex reversions, such as XX males or XY females; and also structural abnormalities, such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations and inversions. Finding the chromosomal origin of infertility in a patient also has a prognostic value because it aids the management of pregnancies obtained after IVF or ICSI and may lead to a proposal of prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:18413060

Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Ravel, C; Siffroi, J P

2008-04-01

394

Lung Metastasis after an Eighteen-Years-Long Disease-Free Period since Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an uncommon malignancy that accounts for one-third of uterine sarcomas and represents 1% of all uterine malignancies, with an incidence averaging 0.5–1/100,000/year. The prognosis is poor due to its intrinsic aggressiveness and its characteristic high metastatic potential with reported distant metastatic spread in lung, abdomen, soft tissue, and brain. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman with lung metastasis after eighteen years since uterine leiomyosarcoma diagnosis and its following surgical resection. The diagnosis of pulmonary metastases was obtained by reviewing the histology of the previous uterine tumor: the tumor cells were immunoreactive for CD10, PR, and smooth muscle actin (SMA), but negative for desmin, S100, CD34, CD 117, cytokeratins AE1AE3, CD68R, and ER. To our knowledge, this disease-free interval is the longest among previous reports of pulmonary metastasis of uterine leiomyosarcoma. PMID:24744931

Guazzaroni, M.; Tosti, D.; Rascioni, M.; Mataloni, M.; Citraro, D.; Simonetti, G.

2014-01-01

395

Short communication: acute phase proteins in Holstein cows diagnosed with uterine infection.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to monitor the pattern of serum acute phase proteins [paraoxonase (PON), haptoglobin (Hp) and albumin] during the peripartum period of normal healthy cows (n=16) compared to that in cows diagnosed with uterine infection (n=15). Albumin concentrations were lower at 21 days before expected calving in cows subsequently diagnosed with uterine infection and predicted the occurrence of uterine infection with an accuracy of 79.3%. Cows diagnosed with uterine infection had a postpartum reduction in serum PON activity and the concentration of Hp increased at 7 DIM for multiparous uterine infected cows. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with uterine infection had reduced serum albumin concentration 21 days before calving, lower PON activity at 7 days after calving, and increased Hp in multiparous cows at 7 DIM compared to healthy cows. PMID:23540606

Schneider, A; Corrêa, M N; Butler, W R

2013-08-01

396

Lower extremity abnormalities in children.  

PubMed

Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829

Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

2003-08-01

397

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

398

Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concurrent presence of cirrhosis seems to retard the occurrence of overt heart failure. Even nonalcoholic cirrhosis may be associated with latent cardiomyopathy, although overt heart failure is not observed. Tense ascites is associated with some cardiac compromise, and removing or mobilizing ascitic fluid by paracentesis or peritoneovenous shunting results in short-term increases in cardiac output. Cirrhosis also appears to be associated with a decreased risk of major coronary atherosclerosis and an increased risk of bacterial endocarditis. Small hemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusions may be seen in ascitic patients. The release of atrial natriuretic peptide appears to be unimpaired in cirrhosis, although the kidney may be hyporesponsive to its natriuretic effects. PMID:2690463

Lee, S S

1989-01-01

399

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

400

Storage and Release of Spermatozoa from the Pre-Uterine Tube Reservoir  

PubMed Central

In mammals, after coitus a small number of spermatozoa enter the uterine tube and following attachment to uterine tube epithelium are arrested in a non-capacitated state until peri-ovulatory signalling induces their detachment. Whilst awaiting release low numbers of spermatozoa continually detach from the epithelium and the uterine tube reservoir risks depletion. There is evidence of attachment of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium in several species which might form a potential pre-uterine tube reservoir. In this study we demonstrate that: (1) dog spermatozoa attach to uterine epithelium and maintain flagellar activity, (2) in non-capacitating conditions spermatozoa progressively detach with a variety of motility characteristics, (3) attachment is not influenced by epithelial changes occurring around ovulation, (4) attachment to uterine epithelium slows capacitation, (5) capacitated spermatozoa have reduced ability to attach to uterine epithelium, (6) under capacitating conditions increased numbers of spermatozoa detach and exhibit transitional and hyperactive motility which differ to those seen in non-capacitating conditions, (7) detachment of spermatozoa and motility changes can be induced by post-ovulation but not pre-ovulation uterine tube flush fluid and by components of follicular fluid and solubilised zona pellucida, (8) prolonged culture does not change the nature of the progressive detachment seen in non-capacitating conditions nor the potential for increased detachment in capacitating conditions. We postulate that in some species binding of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium is an important component of the transport of spermatozoa. Before ovulation low numbers of spermatozoa continually detach, including those which are non-capacitated with fast forward progressive motility allowing the re-population of the uterine tube, whilst around the time of ovulation, signalling from as-yet unknown factors associated with follicular fluid, oocytes and uterine tube secretion promotes the detachment of large numbers of capacitated spermatozoa with hyperactive motility that may contribute to the fertilising pool. PMID:23451135

Freeman, Sarah L.; England, Gary C.W.

2013-01-01

401

Variation in the Incidence of Uterine Leiomyoma Among Premenopausal Women by Age and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify the incidence of uterine leiomyoma confirmed by hysterectomy, ultrasound, or pelvic examination according to age and race among premenopausal women.Methods: From September 1989 through May 1993, 95,061 premenopausal nurses age 25–44 with intact uteri and no history of uterine leiomyoma were followed to determine incidence rates of uterine leiomyoma. The self-reported diagnosis was confirmed in 93% of

Lynn M Marshall; Donna Spiegelman; Robert L Barbieri; Marlene B Goldman; JoAnn E Manson; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett; David J Hunter

1997-01-01

402

Current status in the management of uterine corpus cancer in Korea  

PubMed Central

Uterine corpus cancer has increased in prevalence in Korean women over the last decade. Recently, elegant studies have been reported from many institutes. To improve treatment strategies, a review of our own data is warranted. This work will discuss the risks and prognostic factors for uterine corpus cancer, and the radiologic evaluation, prediction of lymph node metastasis, systematic lymphadenectomy, minimally invasive surgery, ovarian-saving surgery, fertility-sparing treatment, and adjuvant treatment in women with uterine cancer. PMID:20922137

Jeong, Nan-Hee; Lee, Seon-Kyung

2010-01-01

403

Neurological abnormalities in caveolin-1 knock out mice.  

PubMed

Caveolin-1 is the defining structural protein in caveolar vesicles, which regulate signal transduction and cholesterol trafficking in cells. In the brain, cav-1 is highly expressed in neurons and glia, but its function in those cell types is unclear. Mice deficient in cav-1 (CavKO) have been developed to test functional roles for cav-1 in various tissues. However, neurological phenotypes associated with loss of cav-1 in mice have not been evaluated. Here, we report the results of motor and behavioral testing of CavKO mice. We find that mice deficient in cav-1 have reduced brain weight and display a number of motor and behavioral abnormalities. CavKO mice develop neurological phenotypes including clasping, abnormal spinning, muscle weakness, reduced activity, and gait abnormalities. These data suggest that cav-1 is involved in maintaining cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-pontine pathways associated with motor control. PMID:16750274

Trushina, Eugenia; Du Charme, Jordan; Parisi, Joseph; McMurray, Cynthia T

2006-09-15

404

Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

2011-05-01

405

Uterine prolapse with associated rupture in a Podengo bitch.  

PubMed

A case of uterine prolapse coexisting with uterine horn rupture in a 3-year-old Portuguese Podengo bitch, which is an uncommon occurrence, is described. The female was presented with a history of recent parturition, with delivery of four healthy puppies that were normally tended and nursed. The situation developed after an uneventfully pregnancy, and no direct causative factor was identified. The duration of the prolapse was unknown, but considered to be recent because of the swollen reddish appearance of the tubular everted mass. No foetus was found in the uterus or the abdominal cavity. The female was presented in good physical condition, without signs of shock or haemorrhage. During surgical treatment, the uterus was replaced to its normal position followed by ovary-hysterectomy at 12 h from admittance. PMID:22117748

Payan-Carreira, R; Albuquerque, C; Abreu, H; Maltez, L

2012-08-01

406

Approach to concomitant rectal and uterine prolapse: case report  

PubMed Central

The classic description of rectal prolapse is a protrusion of the rectum beyond the anus. Peaks of occurrences are noted in the fourth and seventh decades of life, and most patients (80–90%) are women. The condition is often concurrent with pelvic floor descent and prolapse of other pelvic floor organs, such as the uterus or the bladder. In this study, two cases having contraindication to general anesthesia with rectal and uterine prolapse are presented. These cases were operated on under local anesthesia with support of sedation by Leforte and Delorme’s operation at the same time. In conclusion; pelvic floor disorders should be considered as a whole, and surgical correction of rectal prolapse and uterine prolapse may be done at the same time under local anesthesia with the support of sedation. Performance of these operations by experienced and trained pelvic reconstructive surgeons may be advocated. PMID:24627680

Karateke, Ate?; Batu, P?nar; Aso?lu, Mehmet Re?it; Selçuk, Selçuk; Çam, Çetin

2012-01-01

407

Laparoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids measuring less than 6 cm underwent laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using multiprobe-array electrodes. Follow-up of the treated fibroids was performed with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patients' symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews. The procedure was initially technically successful in 3 of the 4 patients and MRI studies at 1 month demonstrated complete fibroid ablation. Symptom improvement, including a decrease in menstrual bleeding and pain, was achieved in 2 patients at 3 months. At 7 months, 1 of these 2 patients experienced symptom worsening which correlated with recurrent fibroid on MRI. The third, initially technically successfully treated patient did not experience any symptom relief after the procedure and was ultimately diagnosed with adenomyosis. Our preliminary results suggest that RFA is a technically feasible treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids in appropriately selected patients.

Milic, Andrea [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging (Canada); Asch, Murray R. [Lakeridge Health Corporation, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Canada)], E-mail: masch@lakeridgehealth.on.ca; Hawrylyshyn, Peter A.; Allen, Lisa M. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Canada); Colgan, Terence J. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology (Canada); Kachura, John R. [Toronto General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Hayeems, Eran B. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada)

2006-08-15

408

Uterine Fibroids: Pathogenesis and Interactions with Endometrium and Endomyometrial Junction  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas) are benign tumors of uterus and clinically apparent in a large part of reproductive aged women. Clinically, they present with a variety of symptoms: excessive menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms such as a sensation of bloatedness, increased urinary frequency, and bowel disturbance. In addition, they may compromise reproductive functions, possibly contributing to subfertility, early pregnancy loss, and later pregnancy complications. Despite the prevalence of this condition, myoma research is underfunded compared to other nonmalignant diseases. To date, several pathogenetic factors such as genetics, microRNA, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components have been implicated in the development and growth of leiomyoma. This paper summarizes the available literature regarding the ultimate relative knowledge on pathogenesis of uterine fibroids and their interactions with endometrium and subendometrial myometrium. PMID:24163697

Stortoni, Piergiorgio; Montik, Nina; Giannubilo, Stefano R.; Litta, Pietro; Islam, Md. Soriful; Tranquilli, Andrea L.; Reis, Fernando M.

2013-01-01

409

MED12 exon 2 mutations in histopathological uterine leiomyoma variants.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most common human tumors. Based on histopathology, they can be divided into common leiomyomas and various relatively rare subtypes that mimic malignancy in one or more aspects. Recently, we showed that exon 2 of mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) is mutated in up to 70% of common fibroids. To investigate the frequency of MED12 exon 2 mutations in histopathological uterine leiomyoma variants, we screened altogether 206 lesions, including 69 histopathologically common leiomyomas, 59 cellular (23 cellular and 36 highly cellular), 18 atypical and 26 mitotically active leiomyomas, as well as 34 uterine fibroid samples from 14 hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer patients with a heterozygous germ line mutation in fumarate hydratase (FH). The uterine leiomyoma variants harbored MED12 exon 2 mutations significantly less frequently than common leiomyomas (P=2.93 × 10(-8)). In all, 6 mutations were detected among cellular fibroids (6/67; 8.96%), 3 among atypical fibroids (3/18; 16.67%) and 10 among mitotically active fibroids (10/26; 38.46%). Only mitotically active fibroids displayed a mutation frequency that was not statistically different from common leiomyomas (P=0.11). Three MED12 exon 2 mutations were detected among 34 tumors with a heterozygous germ line FH mutation (P=5.28 × 10(-7)). None of these tumors displayed biallelic inactivation of FH. Our results suggest that MED12 mutation positivity is a key characteristic of common leiomyomas. Cellular and atypical fibroids, in particular, may arise through different molecular mechanisms. The results also propose that MED12 and biallelic FH mutations may be mutually exclusive. PMID:23443020

Mäkinen, Netta; Vahteristo, Pia; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Arola, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Aaltonen, Lauri A

2013-11-01

410

MED12 exon 2 mutations in histopathological uterine leiomyoma variants  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most common human tumors. Based on histopathology, they can be divided into common leiomyomas and various relatively rare subtypes that mimic malignancy in one or more aspects. Recently, we showed that exon 2 of mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) is mutated in up to 70% of common fibroids. To investigate the frequency of MED12 exon 2 mutations in histopathological uterine leiomyoma variants, we screened altogether 206 lesions, including 69 histopathologically common leiomyomas, 59 cellular (23 cellular and 36 highly cellular), 18 atypical and 26 mitotically active leiomyomas, as well as 34 uterine fibroid samples from 14 hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer patients with a heterozygous germ line mutation in fumarate hydratase (FH). The uterine leiomyoma variants harbored MED12 exon 2 mutations significantly less frequently than common leiomyomas (P=2.93 × 10?8). In all, 6 mutations were detected among cellular fibroids (6/67; 8.96%), 3 among atypical fibroids (3/18; 16.67%) and 10 among mitotically active fibroids (10/26; 38.46%). Only mitotically active fibroids displayed a mutation frequency that was not statistically different from common leiomyomas (P=0.11). Three MED12 exon 2 mutations were detected among 34 tumors with a heterozygous germ line FH mutation (P=5.28 × 10?7). None of these tumors displayed biallelic inactivation of FH. Our results suggest that MED12 mutation positivity is a key characteristic of common leiomyomas. Cellular and atypical fibroids, in particular, may arise through different molecular mechanisms. The results also propose that MED12 and biallelic FH mutations may be mutually exclusive. PMID:23443020

Mäkinen, Netta; Vahteristo, Pia; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Arola, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Aaltonen, Lauri A

2013-01-01

411

Molecular markers of endometrial carcinoma detected in uterine aspirates.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. Although usually detected in its initial stages, a 20% of the patients present with advanced disease. To date, no characterized molecular marker has been validated for the diagnosis of EC. In addition, new methods for prognosis and classification of EC are needed to combat this deadly disease. We thus aimed to identify new molecular markers of EC and to evaluate their validity on endometrial aspirates. Gene expression screening on 52 carcinoma samples and series of real-time quantitative PCR validation on 19 paired carcinomas and normal tissue samples and on 50 carcinoma and noncarcinoma uterine aspirates were performed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of EC. Candidate markers were further confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We identified ACAA1, AP1M2, CGN, DDR1, EPS8L2, FASTKD1, GMIP, IKBKE, P2RX4, P4HB, PHKG2, PPFIBP2, PPP1R16A, RASSF7, RNF183, SIRT6, TJP3, EFEMP2, SOCS2 and DCN as differentially expressed in ECs. Furthermore, the differential expression of these biomarkers in primary endometrial tumors is correlated to their expression level in corresponding uterine fluid samples. Finally, these biomarkers significantly identified EC with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic values ranging from 0.74 to 0.95 in uterine aspirates. Interestingly, analogous values were found among initial stages. We present the discovery of molecular biomarkers of EC and describe their utility in uterine aspirates. These findings represent the basis for the development of a highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive method for screening ECs. PMID:21207424

Colas, Eva; Perez, Cristina; Cabrera, Silvia; Pedrola, Nuria; Monge, Marta; Castellvi, Josep; Eyzaguirre, Fernando; Gregorio, Jesus; Ruiz, Anna; Llaurado, Marta; Rigau, Marina; Garcia, Marta; Ertekin, Tugçe; Montes, Melania; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Carreras, Ramon; Xercavins, Jordi; Ortega, Alicia; Maes, Tamara; Rosell, Elisabet; Doll, Andreas; Abal, Miguel; Reventos, Jaume; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

2011-11-15

412

Reduced uterine perfusion pressure induces hypertension in the pregnant mouse.  

PubMed

Despite preeclampsia being one of the leading causes of maternal death and a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. Growing evidence indicates that reduced uteroplacental perfusion and the resulting placental ischemia triggers the cascade of events leading to this maternal disorder. While the well-established rat model of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) is providing invaluable insight into the etiology of preeclampsia, the aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of reduced uterine perfusion to expand mechanistic investigation by incorporation with novel gene-targeted mice. To accomplish this aim, a sham surgical procedure or a restriction of blood flow at the abdominal aorta and the ovarian arteries was initiated at day 13 of gestation in C57BL/6J mice. Mean arterial pressure measured in conscious, chronically instrumented mice was significantly elevated in the RUPP (120 ± 4 mmHg) compared with the sham (104 ± 4 mmHg) mice at day 18 of gestation (P < 0.01). Placental ischemia reduced fetal weights (0.95 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.02 g; RUPP vs. Sham, respectively; P < 0.02) an