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Sample records for uterine structural abnormalities

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other than your normal monthly period. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered abnormal uterine bleeding. Very heavy bleeding during a period and/or bleeding that ...

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  3. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. PMID:26254516

  4. Outpatient versus inpatient uterine polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding: randomised controlled non-inferiority study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Natalie A M; Middleton, Lee; Diwakar, Lavanya; Smith, Paul; Denny, Elaine; Roberts, Tracy; Stobert, Lynda; Jowett, Susan; Daniels, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy with inpatient polypectomy. Design Pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority study. Setting Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics in 31 UK National Health Service hospitals. Participants 507 women who attended as outpatients for diagnostic hysteroscopy because of abnormal uterine bleeding and were found to have uterine polyps. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either outpatient uterine polypectomy under local anaesthetic or inpatient uterine polypectomy under general anaesthesia. Data were collected on women’s self reported bleeding symptoms at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Data were also collected on pain and acceptability of the procedure at the time of polypectomy. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was successful treatment, determined by the women’s assessment of bleeding at six months, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 25%. Secondary outcomes included generic (EQ-5D) and disease specific (menorrhagia multi-attribute scale) quality of life, and feasibility and acceptability of the procedure. Results 73% (166/228) of women in the outpatient group and 80% (168/211) in the inpatient group reported successful treatment at six months (intention to treat relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.02; per protocol relative risk 0.92, 0.82 to 1.02). Failure to remove polyps was higher (19% v 7%; relative risk 2.5, 1.5 to 4.1) and acceptability of the procedure was lower (83% v 92%; 0.90, 0.84 to 0.97) in the outpatient group Quality of life did not differ significantly between the groups. Four uterine perforations, one of which necessitated bowel resection, all occurred in the inpatient group. Conclusions Outpatient polypectomy was non-inferior to inpatient polypectomy. Failure to remove a uterine polyp was, however, more likely with outpatient polypectomy and acceptability of the procedure was slightly lower. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry 65868569. PMID:25801579

  5. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Endometrial Cancer: Hidden Pathology in a Patient with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Known Leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Sri, Trisha; Steren, Albert J; Stratton, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Uterine leiomyomas and endometrial pathology are both associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. We report a case in which a nulliparous woman with heavy uterine bleeding and leiomyomas had undergone two prior hysteroscopic myomectomies for benign leiomyomas. She was evaluated, but was ineligible for a clinical trial of a novel Magnetic Resonance guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgx200B;HIFU) device. The 8 cm, prolapsed submucosal leiomyoma hindered endometrial sampling and was inaccessible to HIFU treatment. Preoperatively, neither endometrial sampling nor saline sonohysterography was technically feasible. She underwent hysterectomy, and on histological examination of specimen, stage 1A grade 1 endometrial carcinoma was found on the endometrial side of the prolapsing fibroid. Endometrial pathology is an important consideration in the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding, even in women with large prolapsing leiomyoma. PMID:25634727

  7. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zafarani, F; Ahmadi, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-08-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  8. Ambulatory hysteroscopy and its role in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Natalie A M; Robinson, Lynne L L; Clark, T Justin

    2015-10-01

    Hysteroscopy is now an ambulatory procedure, having moved from a conventional day-case operating theatre environment to the outpatient clinic setting. Outpatient hysteroscopy can be used as a diagnostic test and as a therapeutic modality for women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. In many cases women can be diagnosed and treated efficiently during a single hospital appointment. This article reviews the development of ambulatory hysteroscopy and how it should optimally be performed and implemented. The contemporary role of this technology for investigating and treating women with abnormal uterine bleeding is then discussed. PMID:26399587

  9. Abnormal uterine and post-menopausal bleeding in the acute gynaecology unit.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Tommaso; Van den Bosch, Thierry; Condous, George

    2009-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common presentations in the acute gynaecology unit. The general principles of emergency care, including assessment of haemodynamic state, symptomatic relief as well as determination of underlying aetiology, apply to these women. We review different strategies in the diagnosis and investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) with colour Doppler is the cornerstone of initial management. TVS, in experienced hands, can reliably exclude the most common intra-cavitary pathologies including endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids. Their exclusion, in pre-menopausal women, aids in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. In post-menopausal women, the endometrial thickness reliably selects those who need further testing. If a thin and regular endometrium is visualised, malignancy is most unlikely. To allow for reliable evaluation of the endometrium, TVS has to be performed before endometrial sampling. Saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) is most valuable in the detection of focal intra-cavitary lesions. TVS with or without SIS can provide enough information to avoid an unnecessary hysteroscopy. In this review, we will also discuss an evidence-based algorithm for the work-up of women with post-menopausal bleeding. PMID:19576858

  10. Intra-cavitary uterine pathology in women with abnormal uterine bleeding: a prospective study of 1220 women

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bosch, T.; Ameye, L.; Van Schoubroeck, D.; Bourne, T.; Timmerman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our primary aim was to assess how patients’ characteristics, bleeding pattern, sonographic endometrial thickness (ET) and additional features at unenhanced ultrasound examination (UTVS) and at fluid instillation sonography (FIS) contribute to the diagnosis of intracavitary uterine pathology in women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). We further aimed to report the prevalence of pathology in women presenting with AUB. Methods: 1220 consecutive women presenting with AUB underwent UTVS, colour Doppler imaging (CDI) and FIS. Most women (n = 1042) had histological diagnosis. Results: Mean age was 50 years and 37% were postmenopausal. Of 1220 women 54% were normal, polyps were diagnosed in 26%, intracavitary fibroids in 11%, hyperplasia without atypia in 4% and cancer in 3%. All cancers were diagnosed in postmenopausal (7%) or perimenopausal (1%) women. ET had a low predictive value in premenopausal women (LR+ and LR- of 1.34 and 0.74, respectively), while FIS had a LR+ and LR- of 6.20 and 0.24, respectively. After menopause, ET outperformed all patient characteristics for the prediction of endometrial pathology (LR+ and LR- of 3.13 and 0.24). The corresponding LR+ and LR- were 10.85 and 0.71 for CDI and 8.23 and 0.26 for FIS. Conclusion: About half of the women presenting to a bleeding clinic will have pathology. In premenopausal women, benign lesions are often the cause of AUB. For the prediction of intracavitary pathology ET is of little value in premenopausal women. CDI and FIS substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25897368

  11. Endometrial cancer after endometrial ablation versus medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Dood, Robert L.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Sammel, Mary D.; Haynes, Kevin; Senapati, Suneeta; Strom, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To investigate whether endometrial ablation carries an increased risk or delayed diagnosis of endometrial cancer compared to medical management for abnormal uterine bleeding. Design A multi-centered retrospective cohort study comparing rates of endometrial cancer in women who underwent treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. Design Classification Canadian Task-Force Classification II-2 Setting This study was conducted using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a representative population-based cohort of patients in 495 outpatient General Practitioner practices in the UK. Participants Women >25 years of age with an abnormal uterine bleeding diagnosis between June 1994 and September 2010. Interventions Endometrial ablation, medical management, or both. Measurements and Main Results A total of 234,721 women met study inclusion and exclusion criteria, 4,776 of whom underwent endometrial ablation and the remaining 229,945 underwent medical management. Cox models compared endometrial cancer rates between ablation and medical management groups using hazard ratios (HRs). To investigate a possible diagnostic delay, the median time from bleeding diagnosis to endometrial cancer diagnosis among women who developed endometrial cancer was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. All statistical tests were two-tailed with ?=.05. Over a median observation time of 4.07 years (IQR, 1.88-7.17), three and 601 women developed endometrial cancer in the ablation and medical management groups, respectively (ablation HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.15-1.40; p=.17). Median time to diagnosis was 237 and 299 days (ablation IQR, 155-1350; medical management IQR, 144-1,133.5; p=.99) in the ablation and medical management groups, respectively. Adjusted and sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Conclusions No difference was seen in endometrial cancer rates, nor was there a delay in diagnosis when comparing endometrial ablation versus medical management. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of prior ablation exposure on histology or cancer stage at presentation of endometrial cancer. PMID:24590007

  12. Aspirin and Preeclampsia Prevention in Patients With Abnormal Uterine Artery Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Talari, Hamidreza; Mesdaghinia, Elahe; Abedzadeh Kalahroudi, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence varies between 10-25% among high-risk pregnant patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) reduces the incidence of preeclampsia among pregnant women with abnormal uterine artery flow. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 80 high-risk pregnant women with preeclampsia, who had abnormal findings on Doppler ultrasonography at 12-16 weeks of pregnancy (unilateral notch with RI ? 0.65 or bilateral notch with RI ? 0.55), were randomly divided into two groups; the intervention group was treated with ASA tablet 80 mg, one tablet per day, and the control group was given placebo. Then patients were followed until the end of their pregnancy period, and pregnancy outcomes, including development of preeclampsia, the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), prematurity, type of delivery, birth weight, and Apgar score at one and five minutes were assessed. Data were analyzed using the student's t-test, chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and multivariate logistic regression. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. There was a significant difference between the ASA and placebo groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (2.5% versus 22.5%), adjusting for the neonatal and maternal covariates. Conclusions: ASA prophylaxis can be used for prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk patients with abnormal uterine artery. PMID:25389483

  13. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena): An emerging tool for conservative treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, Pallavi C.; Anuradha, K.; Saxena, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To study the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena) in conservative management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Materials and Methods: Seventy women between 30 and 55 years with AUB were included in a study conducted over a period of 3 years. Response was assessed monthly for first 4 months and then yearly for maximum 2 years. Results: Mirena caused a 80% decrease in median menstrual blood loss (MBL) at 4 months, 95% decrease in MBL by 1 year, and 100% decrease (amenorrhea) by 2 years. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) % showed a significant rise of 7.8% from baseline 4 months post Mirena insertion. Mirena acted as an effective contraceptive in women not using any other form of contraception. Hysterectomy could be avoided in most of the women. Conclusion: Mirena provides an incredible nonsurgical alternative in treatment of menorrhagia. Its effects are reversible and it is an excellent fertility-sparing device. It is also an effective contraceptive. PMID:25861205

  14. Effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) has been used in the Iranian Traditional Medicine as a treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 30 women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Treatment comprised of giving 15 ml oral myrtle syrup daily (5 ml three times a day) for 7 days starting from the onset of bleeding. The myrtle syrup along with placebo was repeated for 3 consecutive menstrual periods. Menstrual duration and number of used pads were recorded by the Pictorial Blood loss Assessment Chart at the end of each menstrual period. The quality of life was also evaluated using the menorrhagia questionnaire. Results The mean number of bleeding days significantly declined from 10.6?±?2.7 days to 8.2?±?1.9 days after 3 months treatment with the syrup (p?=?0.01) and consequently the participants in the intervention group used fewer pads after 3 months (16.4?±?10.7) compared with the number of pads used at the beginning of the treatment (22.7?±?12.0, p?=?0.01). Bleeding days and number of pads used by the participants in the placebo group did not change significantly. Also significant changes of quality of life scores were observed in the intervention group after 3 months compared to the baseline. Conclusion Myrtle syrup is introduced as a potential remedy for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. PMID:24888316

  15. Effects of age, parity, and pregnancy abnormalities on foal birth weight and uterine blood flow in the mare.

    PubMed

    Klewitz, Jutta; Struebing, Corinna; Rohn, Karl; Goergens, Alexandra; Martinsson, Gunilla; Orgies, Florian; Probst, Jeanette; Hollinshead, Fiona; Bollwein, Heinrich; Sieme, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Color Doppler sonography has become routine for the evaluation of high-risk pregnancies in human medicine. Previous studies documenting uterine blood flow parameters in the pregnant mare have found a decrease in peripheral blood flow resistance in the first pregnancy weeks and an increase in uterine blood flow, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. However, these studies involved only a small number of mares. No naturally occurring pregnancy abnormalities occurred that would allow blood flow changes to be retrospectively examined and analyzed. The objective of the present study was to monitor the diameter of the uterine artery, uterine blood flow, and the combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) throughout gestation in a large number of pregnant mares of different age and parity. In the present study, 51 warmblood mares were examined by ultrasonography on Days 16 and 30, at monthly intervals until Day 300, and then every 10 days from Day 300 until parturition. After localization of the uterine artery ipsilateral and contralateral to the conceptus, the diameter of each artery, the uterine blood flow (pulsatility index [PI], blood flow volume [BFV], and the presence of early diastolic notch), and the CTUP were measured and correlated to placental and foal birth weight after delivery. Furthermore, the effect of age (3-7 years [n = 16], 8-11 years [n = 17], 12-16 years [n = 18]) and parity (0-2 foals [n = 22], 3-4 foals [n = 15], 5-8 foals [n = 14]) on these parameters were analyzed. The diameter of the uterine artery increased more than threefold in the ipsilateral artery (0.40 ± 0.07-1.33 ± 0.08 cm) and 2.7-fold in the contralateral artery (0.39 ± 0.07-1.07 ± 0.08 cm [P < 0.0001]). The early diastolic notch disappeared in the pulse waves in 98% of the ipsilateral arteries and 85.7% in the contralateral arteries on Day 150 when placentation is complete. Blood flow volume increased 50-fold in the ipsilateral artery during pregnancy and increased dramatically in the last trimester. The median foal weight was 52.6 kg. Mares with heavier foals (>52.6 kg) had a 1.38-fold higher BFV in the last 2 months (P < 0.05) compared with lighter foals. Pulsatility index decreased 2-fold until completion of placentation at around Day 150 and continued to decline until Day 240 where it then stayed constant and at a low level until delivery. Age predominantly influenced PI, whereas the diameter of the uterine arteries, which is correlated to BFV (r ipsilateral = 0.919, P < 0.0001 and r contralateral = 0.909, P < 0.000), was strongly affected by parity. Four mares spontaneously aborted (Days 200, 208, 213, and 246) and four mares spontaneously developed placentitis that was diagnosed by the presence of an increased CTUP and/or placental pathology after delivery. Although not statistically relevant, the aborting mares showed a slightly increased total BFV, but no differences in PI were seen compared with mares without abnormalities of pregnancy. Mares that developed placentitis had a late (Days 150-210) disappearance of the early diastolic notch and an increased PI in the first half of pregnancy. In conclusion, the study documented differences in uterine artery diameter and blood flow in a large number of pregnant mares. Furthermore, this is the first known report to document uteroplacental blood flow changes associated with naturally occurring placentitis and abortion in mares. PMID:25483867

  16. Role of morphologic characteristics of the uterine septum in the prediction and prevention of abnormal healing outcomes after hysteroscopic metroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ludwin, A.; Ludwin, I.; Pity?ski, K.; Banas, T.; Jach, R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can morphologic measurements (width, length and surface area) of the uterine septum predict healing-dependent abnormal anatomic results [ARs; residual septum (RS) and intrauterine adhesions in other locations (IUA-OLs)] after complete hysteroscopic metroplasty (HM)? SUMMARY ANSWER Significant predictors of ARs are the septal width and, to a lesser extent, septal surface area. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Anatomic results after hysteroscopic metroplasty have very large variation. A RS >1 cm and IUA-OLs can aggravate reproductive outcomes, resulting in the need for reoperation. New criteria for diagnosing a uterine septum according to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) have been suggested (ESHRE-ESGE criteria). Autocross-linked hyaluronic acid gel (autocross-linked polysaccharide) has an antiadhesive effect. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective, observational cohort study was performed with 96 women consecutively enrolled between 2007 and 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women who had uterine septum and previous miscarriage or infertility presented for evaluation at a university hospital, private hospital or private medical center were included. Preoperative septal width, length and surface area were determined with three-dimensional sonohysterography. Women were treated by hysteroscopy in a standardized manner with three- or four-dimensional transrectal ultrasound guidance (complete resection). Patients received either no adhesion barrier (49 patients) or adhesion barrier with autocross-linked polysaccharide (47 patients). Anatomic results were assessed with three-dimensional sonohysterography and second-look hysteroscopy. Healing-dependent ARs were reported using both American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) criterion of RS length >1 cm (ASRM>1 cm criterion) and ESHRE-ESGE criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of RS, IUA-OLs and ARs. MAIN RESULTS AND ROLE OF CHANCE In patients who had no adhesion barrier, ARs were diagnosed in 11 of 49 patients (23%) using the ASRM > 1 cm criterion and in 20 of 49 patients (41%) using the ESHRE-ESGE criteria for RS [odds ratio (OR)ESHRE-ESGE:ASRM, 2.4, P = 0.05]. In the patients who had autocross-linked polysaccharide, ARsASRM > 1 cm were diagnosed in 2 of 47 patients (4%) and ARsESHRE-ESGE in 4 of 47 patients (9%). RSESHRE-ESGE was diagnosed significantly more often than RSASRM > 1 cm 19 of 96 (20%) versus 5 of 96 (5%) in all patients (ORESHRE-ESGE:ASRM > 1 cm = 4.5, P < 0.01). In patients who had no adhesion barrier, logistic regression with ASRM > 1 cm and ESHRE-ESGE criteria showed that the width and surface area were predictors of ARs. Models adjusted by patient group confirmed the significance of width as a predictor of ARsASRM > 1 cm [OR for width, 3.5 (P < 0.01); OR for group, 0.22 (P < 0.01)], width as a predictor of ARsESHRE-ESGE [OR for width, 2.2 (P < 0.01); OR for group, 0.26 (P < 0.01)] and surface area as a predictor of ARsASRM > 1 cm [OR for surface area, 1.5 (P < 0.01)]; OR for group, 0.32 (P < 0.01). In patients who had autocross-linked polysaccharide, these predictors were not significant. Receiver-operating characteristic curves showed cutoff values for ARsASRM > 1 cm (septal width, 3.42 cm; septal surface area, 4.68cm2) and ARsESHRE-ESGE (septal width, 3.42 cm; septal surface area, 3.51cm2). LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Patients were enrolled in the adhesion barrier group in a time-dependent, consecutive and non-randomized manner. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS A wide septum and large surface area may be indications for adhesion barrier. The use of autocross-linked polysaccharide reduces the risk of ARs. The ESHRE-ESGE criteria may cause greater frequency of recognition of RS than the ASRM > 1 cm criterion, which could result in more frequent reoperations with use of the ESHRE-ESGE criteria, possibly without any significant ef

  17. Uterine sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Leiomyosarcoma; Endometrial stromal sarcoma; Undifferentiated sarcomas; Uterine cancer-sarcoma ... Past radiation therapy. A few women develop uterine sarcoma 5 to 25 years after they had radiation ...

  18. DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS 1 P.M. Thompson, 1 K of Medicine, Los Angeles CA 90095 We detected a pattern of brain structure deficits in chronic methamphetamine surface vertex, we fitted a general linear model to assess methamphetamine effects on gray matter density

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Global Endometrial Ablation vs. Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Gregory M.; Bonafede, Machaon M.; Lukes, Andrea S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cost-effectiveness modeling studies of global endometrial ablation (GEA) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) from a US perspective are lacking. The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of GEA vs. hysterectomy for treatment of AUB in the United States from both commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. The study team developed a 1-, 3-, and 5-year semi-Markov decision-analytic model to simulate 2 hypothetical patient cohorts of women with AUB—1 treated with GEA and the other with hysterectomy. Clinical and economic data (including treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, direct costs, and productivity costs) came from analyses of commercial and Medicaid claims databases. Analysis results show that cost savings with simultaneous reduction in treatment complications and fewer days lost from work are achieved with GEA versus hysterectomy over almost all time horizons and under both the commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. Cost-effectiveness metrics also favor GEA over hysterectomy from both the commercial payer and Medicaid payer perspectives—evidence strongly supporting the clinical-economic value about GEA versus hysterectomy. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. (Population Health Management 2015;18:373–382) PMID:25714906

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Global Endometrial Ablation vs. Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Bonafede, Machaon M; Lukes, Andrea S; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K

    2015-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness modeling studies of global endometrial ablation (GEA) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) from a US perspective are lacking. The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of GEA vs. hysterectomy for treatment of AUB in the United States from both commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. The study team developed a 1-, 3-, and 5-year semi-Markov decision-analytic model to simulate 2 hypothetical patient cohorts of women with AUB-1 treated with GEA and the other with hysterectomy. Clinical and economic data (including treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, direct costs, and productivity costs) came from analyses of commercial and Medicaid claims databases. Analysis results show that cost savings with simultaneous reduction in treatment complications and fewer days lost from work are achieved with GEA versus hysterectomy over almost all time horizons and under both the commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. Cost-effectiveness metrics also favor GEA over hysterectomy from both the commercial payer and Medicaid payer perspectives-evidence strongly supporting the clinical-economic value about GEA versus hysterectomy. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. (Population Health Management 2015;18:373-382). PMID:25714906

  1. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  2. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A.; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs) offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s) in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2) or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO) or E2+ progesterone (P4) were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q)-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA) treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs) treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR-mediated transcription. The resultant PR and/or GR-mediated functional withdrawal may contribute to associated endometrial inflammation, aberrant angiogenesis, and bleeding. PMID:26436918

  3. In utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: structural and epithelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Noller, K L

    1983-01-01

    Soon after the reported association between diethylstilbestrol (DES) and clear-cell adenocarcinoma, large numbers of women exposed in utero to DES underwent screening examinations. Almost no cases of cancer were detected during this screening, but various epithelial abnormalities were found in many exposed women. Cervical and vaginal epithelial and structural abnormalities found in many DES-exposed women are described. Some of these abnormalities can be seen only with the aid of the colposcope, but many are visible to the naked eye. The identification of potentially exposed women should become a part of every physician's pelvic examination of women born since 1940. The 1st part of the examination of any DES-exposed women should be palpation of the vaginal vault with the index finger. This is done before speculum examination to identify any ridges, constrictions, or masses so that these can be visually inspected. Following vaginal palpation a bivalve speculum is introduced into the vagina in the routine fashion. At this point it is sometimes possible to observe a structural abnormality of the vagina and/or cervix. Any reddened area in the vagina or on the cervix is suspicious for the presence of glandular epithelium. Cytologic specimens should be obtained; it is important to sample all abnormal areas. Many DES-exposed women require sampling of the complete cervix, cervical side walls, vaginal fornices, and the vaginal vault to the point at which normal glycogenated squamous epithelium appears. The largest DES project in the US, "The DESAD Project," recommends taking 1 sample from the cervix wall and a separate sample from the vagina in those women who have vaginal abnormalities. These specimens should be handled in the usual way. It is recommended that whenever a cytologic sample from a DES-exposed woman is reported as being abnormal, the sample be sent to a DES center where it can be reviewed by a cytologist who has seen many samples from exposed women. Colposcopy has been a useful technique for the examination of DES-exposed women, but the findings are often confusing since many "abnormal" areas may be seen in women in whom no pathology is demonstrated. The 1st finding that will be seen by the colposcopist is a widened transformation zone. This may be located only on the cervix or may extend quite far into the vagina. When the glandular epithelium begins to mature, areas stimulating intraepithelial neoplasms may be seen. The areas of vaginal squamous metaplasia may mature with time. PMID:12266371

  4. Uterine prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic relaxation - uterine prolapse; Pelvic floor hernia; Prolapsed uterus ... Tightening the pelvic floor muscles using Kegel exercises helps to strengthen the muscles and reduces the risk of uterine prolapse. Estrogen therapy after ...

  5. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  6. Uterine Carcinosarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    A rare cancer, uterine carcinosarcoma makes up less than five percent of all uterine cancers.2 In the U.S., about two per 100,000 women develop uterine carcinosarcoma annually.3 Roughly only 35 percent of patients survive five years after diagnosis.

  7. Retrospective database analysis of clinical outcomes and costs for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding among women enrolled in US Medicaid programs

    PubMed Central

    Bonafede, Machaon M; Miller, Jeffrey D; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K; Lukes, Andrea S; Meyer, Nicole M; Lenhart, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Background Women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) may be treated surgically with hysterectomy or global endometrial ablation (GEA), an outpatient procedure. We compared the costs and clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures for AUB among women in Medicaid programs. Methods The Truven Health MarketScan® Medicaid Multi-State Database was used to identify Medicaid women aged 30–55 years with AUB who newly initiated GEA or hysterectomy (index event) during 2006–2010. Patients were required to have 12 months of continuous enrollment pre-index and post-index. Baseline characteristics were assessed in the pre-index period; health care utilization and costs (2011 USD), treatment complications, and reinterventions were assessed in the post-index period. Results Of 1,880 women who met the study criteria (mean age 40.7 years), 53.4% were Caucasian, 33.1% were African-American, and 2.3% were Hispanic; many (42.8%) received their Medicaid eligibility due to disability. Similar proportions received GEA (50.9%) or hysterectomy (49.1%). At baseline, both groups also had similar Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity scores (0.65), and use of antibiotics (69.4%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (56.3%), and oral contraceptives (5.3%). More hysterectomy patients than GEA patients had a treatment-related complication (52% versus 36%, respectively, P<0.001). Initial treatment costs were higher for hysterectomy ($11,270) than for GEA ($3,958, P<0.001); monthly gynecology-related costs in the remainder of the year were not significantly different for hysterectomy ($63) and GEA ($16, P=0.11). Conclusion Hysterectomy was nearly three times more costly than GEA for initial treatment of AUB, and associated with more treatment-related complications. These results may be informative in the context of new federal mandates for Medicaid expansion, which are likely to focus on cost savings through use of outpatient treatments such as GEA. PMID:25336979

  8. Advanced age increases chromosome structural abnormalities in human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Templado, Cristina; Donate, Anna; Giraldo, Jesús; Bosch, Mercè; Estop, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between sperm structural aberrations and age by using a multicolor multichromosome FISH strategy that provides information on the incidence of duplications and deletions on all the autosomes. ToTelvysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Abbott Park, IL, USA) with telomere-specific probes was used. We investigated the sperm of 10 male donors aged from 23 to 74 years old. The donors were divided into two groups according to age, a cohort of five individuals younger than 40 and a cohort of five individuals older than 60 years. The goal of this study was to determine (1) the relationship between donor age and frequency and type of chromosome structural abnormalities and (2) chromosomes more frequently involved in sperm structural aberrations. We found that the older patients had a higher rate of structural abnormalities (6.6%) compared with the younger cohort (4.9%). Although both duplications and deletions were seen more frequently in older men, our findings demonstrate the presence of an excess of duplications versus deletions in both groups at a ratio of 2 to 1. We demonstrate that the distribution of duplications and deletions was not linear along the chromosomes, although a trend toward a higher rate of abnormalities in larger chromosomes was observed. This work is the first study addressing the frequencies of sperm chromosome structural aberrations of all autosomes in a single assay thus making a contribution to the clarification of the amount and origin of damage present in human spermatozoa and in relation to age. PMID:21045871

  9. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  10. Factor structure of neurologic examination abnormalities in unmedicated schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sanders, R D; Keshavan, M S; Forman, S D; Pieri, J N; McLaughlin, N; Allen, D N; van Kammen, D P; Goldstein, G

    2000-09-11

    The heterogeneity and uncertain significance of neurologic exam abnormalities in schizophrenia prompted us to evaluate their factor structure. We administered a modified version of the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) to 103 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. Data were distilled by combining right- and left-side scores, and by eliminating superfluous, rarely abnormal and unreliable items from the analysis. Exploratory principal components analysis yielded four factors: repetitive motor tasks (fist-ring, fist-edge-palm, alternating fist-palm, dysdiadochokinesis); cognitive-perceptual tasks (memory, audiovisual integration, right-left orientation, face-hand test, rhythm tapping reproduction); balancing tasks (Romberg, tandem gait); and the palmomental reflex. Evaluation of the relationship between these factors and clinical and demographic variables revealed a robust correlation between the cognitive-perceptual factor and full-scale IQ score. This analysis is a step toward developing empirical subscales of a modified NES, which may provide insights into the nature of neurologic impairment in schizophrenia and may prove clinically useful. PMID:10974362

  11. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and being physically active. • Taking progesterone (the other female hormone) if you are taking estrogen to replace hormones during menopause. Are there tests that can find uterine cancer early? The Pap test does not screen for ...

  12. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  13. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... uterus and other pelvic organs. Hysteroscopy uses a slender device (the hysteroscope) to see the inside of ... picture of the uterine lining. Laparoscopy uses a slender device (the laparoscope) to help the doctor see ...

  14. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... These are called pedunculated (pronounced ped-UN-kyoo-lay-ted ) fibroids. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2007). Management of uterine fibroids: An update of the evidence (AHRQ Publication No. 07-E011). Retrieved December 8, 2011, from ...

  15. Uterine fibroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms of uterine fibroids are: Bleeding between periods Heavy bleeding during your period, sometimes with blood clots ... may include: Birth control pills to help control heavy periods Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones to ...

  16. [THE PECULIARITIES OF UTERINE STRUCTURE AFTER DELIVERY IN RATS WITH THE MYOMETRIAL SCAR].

    PubMed

    Maiborodin, I V; Pekarev, O G; Yakimova, N V; Pekareva, Ye O; Maiborodina, V I; Perminova, Ye I

    2015-01-01

    The uterine tissues of female rats (n=30) with a scarred myometrium were examined by methods of light microscopy after the delivery. 1.5-2 months after the delivery no significant differences in the parameters of blood and lymph flow in the deep layers of the endometrium, myometrium and the myometrial scar tissue were found between the intact rats, nulliparous rats with a scarred uterus, rats that gave birth after laparotomy only and those that gave birth under the conditions of myometrial scar. In the course of pregnancy and labor activity, the damage of the tissues was observed not in the uterine scar proper, but at its borders with the myometrium. This is supported by the old hemorrhages and lymphostasis phenomena, greater number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and erythrocytes. In determining the indications and contraindications to vaginal childbirth in women with scarred uterus it is necessary to examine not only the scar proper, but also its border with the myometrium. The myometrial scar by itself, is not an absolute contraindication to vaginal delivery, the natural delivery is feasible in the absence of cavities with liquid and hemorrhages in the tissues of the uterine scar and at its border with myometrium. PMID:26234040

  17. What Is Uterine Sarcoma?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... key statistics about uterine sarcoma? What is uterine sarcoma? Uterine sarcoma is a cancer of the muscle ... type of cell they developed from: Endometrial stromal sarcomas develop in the supporting connective tissue ( stroma ) of ...

  18. Uterine sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sait, Hesham K.; Anfinan, Nisrin M.; Sayed, Mohamed E. El; Alkhayyat, Shadi S.; Ghanem, Ahmed T.; Abayazid, Reem M.; Sait, Khalid H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics, with the prognostic factors, treatment outcome, pattern of relapse, and survival analysis of uterine sarcoma patient Methods: All patients with histologically proven uterine sarcoma were identified using the database at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2000 and December 2012. Results: A total of 36 patients with uterine sarcoma were reviewed. The median age of all patients was 57 years, and the mean age was 57.72±13.17 years. Carcinosarcoma was reported in 21 patients (58%), leiomyosarcoma in 7 (19%), undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma in 6 (17%), and rhabdomyosarcoma in 2 (6%). Approximately half of the patients were stages III and IV (28% and 25%), while 15 patients (41%) were stage I; only 2 patients (6%) were stage II. The surgical treatment was hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy (H+BSO) plus staging in 18 patients (50%), while in 4 patients (19%), H+BSO plus debulking was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 24 (69%) and adjuvant radiotherapy in 5 (14%) cases, At a median follow-up period of 13.5 months, 8 patients (22%) relapsed. The 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 22% and the 5-year was 14%. In the multivariate analysis, the advanced stages (p=0.015) and lymph vascular invasion (p=0.0001) were associated with poor DFS, while the use of chemotherapy significantly improved the DFS (p=0.027). Conclusions: The poor outcome of high-grade uterine sarcoma patients was identified, and only one third of patients (30%) survived for 2 years. This finding necessitates the need for more aggressive tools to fight this disease. PMID:25316466

  19. Medical Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail. PMID:22378865

  20. Modeling the thermal and structural response of engineered systems to abnormal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.; Moya, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is engaged actively in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to thermal and structural abnormal environments. Abnormal environments that will be addressed in this paper include: fire, impact, and puncture by probes and fragments, as well as a combination of all of the above. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the survivability of engineered systems to abnormal environments using a balanced approach between numerical simulation and testing. It is necessary to determine the response of engineered systems in two cases: (1) to satisfy regulatory specifications, and (2) to enable quantification of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). In a regulatory case, numerical simulation of system response is generally used to guide the system design such that the system will respond satisfactorily to the specified regulatory abnormal environment. Testing is conducted at the regulatory abnormal environment to ensure compliance.

  1. Structural brain imaging abnormalities associated with schizophrenia and partial trisomy of chromosome 5

    PubMed Central

    HONER, WILLIAM G.; BASSETT, ANNE S.; MacEWAN, G. WILLIAM; HURWITZ, TREVOR; LI, DAVID K.B.; HILAL, SADEK; PROHOVNIK, ISAK

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Chromosomal abnormalities occurring in association with mental illness provide a unique opportunity to study the interaction of genetic abnormalities and the brain in mental illness. Four individuals from a family in which schizophrenia was found to cosegregate with a partial trisomy of chromosome 5 were studied with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal lobe atrophy was found in the two trisomic males and in the asymptomatic balanced translocation female. In addition, a large cavum septum pellucidum and a cavum vergae were found in the older trisomic individual. Scans from the normal male were free of abnormalities. These results suggest that molecular studies of the translocation breakpoints in this chromosomal abnormality may be of interest, and encourage further studies of brain structure in other chromosomal abnormalities associated with psychosis. PMID:1615118

  2. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I.

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  3. Ring X and other structural X chromosome abnormalities: X inactivation and phenotype.

    PubMed

    Leppig, K A; Disteche, C M

    2001-06-01

    Patients who carry a structural abnormality of the X chromosome are a fascinating group who have provided opportunities to evaluate genotype/phenotype correlation in relation to X chromosome content and inactivation. Turner syndrome (TS) is most commonly associated with a 45,X karyotype and presents with an array of phenotypes, the main ones being poor viability in utero, ovarian failure and infertility, short stature, lymphedema, and other congenital malformations but usually not mental retardation. In some TS patients the karyotype shows both a normal X and a structurally rearranged X chromosome. These structural abnormalities, which include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, are associated with chromosome breaks and significant imbalance of gene content of the X chromosome. However, such abnormalities are generally well tolerated because of the preferential inactivation of the abnormal X, which can restore, at least in part, a balanced genetic makeup. This beneficial effect of X inactivation results in a mild phenotype in most patients with structural abnormalities of the X, similar to that found in TS patients with a 45,X karyotype. However, in cases of ring X chromosomes and of X/autosome translocations the incidence of mental retardation and other congenital abnormalities can be significantly higher than in TS. These abnormal phenotypes can be ascribed to failed or partial X inactivation and/or incomplete selection in favor of cells with normal balance of gene expression. In this article, we present phenotype/genotype correlation in female patients with structural abnormalities of the X and address the role of X inactivation and cell selection in the phenotypic findings. Our review emphasizes a subset of rare patients with ring X chromosomes who have provided evidence of a direct role for X inactivation in determining phenotypes. PMID:11480912

  4. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  5. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. PMID:26456104

  6. Uterine sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Belgrad, R; Elbadawi, N; Rubin, P

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-four cases of uterine sarcoma were studied with regard to their pathologic characteristics and response to treatment. Pathologic features did not always correlate with subsequent course. Combined therapy seems to enhance two-year survival in endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS), although some patients may have low-grade tumors and hence represent a more favorable group. Adjuvant irradiation may improve local control rates in some mixed mesodermal sarcomas (MMS), but does not add appreciably to survival. It is of doubtful benefit in the leiomyosarcoma (LMS) group. When irradiation is employed, preoperative therapy is preferred except in the highly malignant mixed mesodermal sarcomas where prompt surgery seems indicated first. Supplemental brachytherapy may also be employed. PMID:1208858

  7. A case of Taenia saginata (tape worm) infestation of the uterus presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Sadiah; Zia, Samiah Ahsan; Ahmed, Jameel

    2006-08-01

    There are many reported causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. We report an unusual case of uterine bleeding caused by tapeworm infestation, mimicking retained products of conception in a 35 year old multipara. PMID:16967792

  8. Uterine health and disorders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G S

    1997-05-01

    Nonspecific uterine infections reduce the reproductive efficiency of cows and the profit potential of dairy farms. Fortunately, most cows do not develop severe uterine infections. The term uterine infection indicates that the uterus is contaminated with pathogenic organisms. Actinomyces pyogenes, either alone or with other bacteria, is often associated with uterine infections. When A. pyogenes was isolated from uterine fluids after d 21 postpartum, cows developed severe endometritis and were infertile at first service. However, the exact causes of uterine infections are unknown but are associated with several factors. Cows with dystocia, retained placenta, twins or still-births, and various metabolic disorders are more likely to develop metritis than are other cows. Aberrant immune function before and after calving seems to predispose cows to severe uterine infections. Few cows die from uterine infections, but cows with uterine infections are more likely to be culled for poor reproductive performance. Also, uterine infections can reduce milk production, and some treatments contaminate milk. Because they are nonspecific, uterine infections are difficult to prevent; attention to sanitation and periparturient hygiene, especially during assisted calving, may be the best defense. Evidence that aberrant immuno function predisposes cows to uterine infections indicates that methods for regulating immune function in periparturient cows have the potential for preventing or treating uterine infections. PMID:9178140

  9. Cost effectiveness of endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® system versus other global ablation modalities and hysterectomy for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Bonafede, Machaon M; Basinski, Cindy M; Lukes, Andrea S; Troeger, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) interferes with physical, emotional, and social well-being, impacting the quality of life of more than 10 million women in the USA. Hysterectomy, the most common surgical treatment of AUB, has significant morbidity, low mortality, long recovery, and high associated health care costs. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) provides a surgical alternative with reduced morbidity, cost, and recovery time. The NovaSure® system utilizes unique radiofrequency impedance-based GEA technology. This study evaluated cost effectiveness of AUB treatment with NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and versus hysterectomy from the US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Methods A health state transition (semi-Markov) model was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from commercial and Medicaid claims database analyses, supplemented by published literature. Three hypothetical cohorts of women receiving AUB interventions were simulated over 1-, 3-, and 5-year horizons to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for NovaSure, other GEA modalities, and hysterectomy. Results Model analyses show lower costs for NovaSure-treated patients than for those treated with other GEA modalities or hysterectomy over all time frames under commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. By Year 3, cost savings versus other GEA were $930 (commercial) and $3,000 (Medicaid); cost savings versus hysterectomy were $6,500 (commercial) and $8,900 (Medicaid). Coinciding with a 43%–71% reduction in need for re-ablation, there were 69%–88% fewer intervention/reintervention complications for NovaSure-treated patients versus other GEA modalities, and 82%–91% fewer versus hysterectomy. Furthermore, NovaSure-treated patients had fewer days of work absence and short-term disability. Cost-effectiveness metrics showed NovaSure treatment as economically dominant over other GEA modalities in all circumstances. With few exceptions, similar results were shown for NovaSure treatment versus hysterectomy. Conclusion Model results demonstrate strong financial favorability for NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and hysterectomy from commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. PMID:25610002

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UpToDate, Inc. ("UpToDate"), in consideration of the subscription fee and acceptance of this Agreement, grants you a ... or your Institution have agreed to pay subscription fees. At the end of this period, your license ...

  11. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M.

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ovarian Prostate Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women ...

  13. Symptoms of Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links Uterine Cancer Basic Information What Are the Risk Factors? What ... What Should I Know About Screening? How Is Uterine Cancer Treated? Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates ...

  14. Abnormal Pup 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    samples, appropriate reference genes were needed that showed stable, non-fluctuating levels in both normal and abnormal kidney tissue and urine sediment in dogs. Tested genes included Glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 40S ribosomal... into the pathogenesis and treatment of CKD in dogs. 3 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Primary glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both humans and animals. These disorders are characterized by abnormal structure and function...

  15. Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

  16. Proteoglycans of uterine fibroids and keloid scars: similarity in their proteoglycan composition.

    PubMed

    Carrino, David A; Mesiano, Sam; Barker, Nichole M; Hurd, William W; Caplan, Arnold I

    2012-04-15

    Fibrosis is the formation of excess and abnormal fibrous connective tissue as a result of either a reparative or reactive process. A defining feature of connective tissue is its extracellular matrix, which provides structural support and also influences cellular activity. Two common human conditions that result from fibrosis are uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) and keloid scars. Because these conditions share a number of similarities and because their growth is due primarily to excessive extracellular matrix deposition, we compared the proteoglycans of uterine fibroids and keloid scars with corresponding normal tissues. Our analysis indicates that uterine fibroids and keloid scars contain higher amounts of glycosaminoglycans relative to normal myometrium and normal adult skin respectively. Proteoglycan composition is also different in the fibrotic tissues. Compared with unaffected tissues, uterine fibroids and keloid scars contain higher relative amounts of versican and lower relative amounts of decorin. There is also evidence for a higher level of versican catabolism in the fibrotic tissues compared with unaffected tissues. These qualitative and quantitative proteoglycan differences may play a role in the expansion of these fibroses and in their excessive matrix deposition and matrix disorganization, due to effects on cell proliferation, TGF (transforming growth factor)-? signalling and/or collagen fibril formation. PMID:22257180

  17. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  18. Structural and Functional Small Fiber Abnormalities in the Neuropathic Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Christopher H.; Bonyhay, Istvan; Benson, Adam; Wang, Ningshan; Freeman, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the neuropathology, clinical phenotype, autonomic physiology and differentiating features in individuals with neuropathic and non-neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Methods Twenty-four subjects with POTS and 10 healthy control subjects had skin biopsy analysis of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), quantitative sensory testing (QST) and autonomic testing. Subjects completed quality of life, fatigue and disability questionnaires. Subjects were divided into neuropathic and non-neuropathic POTS, defined by abnormal IENFD and abnormal small fiber and sudomotor function. Results Nine of 24 subjects had neuropathic POTS and had significantly lower resting and tilted heart rates; reduced parasympathetic function; and lower phase 4 valsalva maneuver overshoot compared with those with non-neuropathic POTS (P<0.05). Neuropathic POTS subjects also had less anxiety and depression and greater overall self-perceived health-related quality of life scores than non-neuropathic POTS subjects. A sub-group of POTS patients (cholinergic POTS) had abnormal proximal sudomotor function and symptoms that suggest gastrointestinal and genitourinary parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance POTS subtypes may be distinguished using small fiber and autonomic structural and functional criteria. Patients with non-neuropathic POTS have greater anxiety, greater depression and lower health-related quality of life scores compared to those with neuropathic POTS. These findings suggest different pathophysiological processes underlie the postural tachycardia in neuropathic and non-neuropathic POTS patients. The findings have implications for the therapeutic interventions to treat this disorder. PMID:24386408

  19. Expression of an epidermal keratin protein in liver of transgenic mice causes structural and functional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To examine the role of keratin intermediate filament proteins in cell structure and function, transgenic mice were isolated that express a modified form of the human K14 keratin protein in liver hepatocytes. A modified K14 cDNA (K14.P) sequence was linked downstream of the mouse transthyretin (TTR) gene promoter and enhancer elements to achieve targeted expression in hepatocytes. Hepatocytes expressing high levels of the transgene were found to have abnormal keratin filament networks as detected by indirect immunofluorescence using an antibody specific for the transgene product. Light and electron microscopic level histological analysis of isolated liver tissue showed in many cases degenerative changes that included inflammatory infiltration, ballooning degeneration, an increase in fat containing vacuoles, and glycogen accumulation. These changes were most evident in older mice over four months of age. No indication of typical Mallory body structures were identified at either the light or electron microscopic level. To evaluate secretory function in transgenic livers, bile acid secretion rates were measured in isolated perfused liver and found to be approximately twofold lower than aged-matched controls. These findings indicate that expression of an abnormal keratin in liver epithelial cells in the in vivo setting can alter the structure and function of a tissue and suggest a role of the keratin network in cellular secretion. PMID:7529766

  20. Uterine Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePLUS

    Uterine cancer (also called endometrial cancer) is one of the most common cancers in women. But there are steps women can take to help protect themselves. To estimate your risk of uterine cancer and learn about ways to lower that risk, ...

  1. Incidence, structure and morphological classification of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lizette; Soley, John T

    2011-03-01

    Little detailed information is currently available on the incidence and morphological characteristics of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and of ratites in general. This situation is further compounded by the lack of a uniform system for the morphological classification of avian sperm defects. Considering the important role that sperm morphology plays in the assessment of semen quality, a detailed description of avian sperm defects is of paramount importance. Based on morphological data provided by light and electron microscopy, a mean of 17.3% abnormal sperm was recorded in semen samples collected from the distal deferent duct of four adult emus during the middle of the breeding season. Four categories of defects were identified. Head defects (57.2% of total defects) consisted of bent heads, macrocephalic heads, round heads and acephalic sperm. Zones of incomplete chromatin condensation and retained cytoplasmic droplets appeared to be implicated in head bending, while giant heads were often associated with multiple tails. Acephalic sperm revealed a complete tail devoid of a head which was replaced by a small spherical structure. Tail defects (22.6% of total defects) were subdivided into neck/midpiece defects and principal piece defects. In the neck/midpiece region disjointed sperm were the exclusive defect noted and were characterized by the complete separation of the head and midpiece in the neck region but within the confines of the plasmalemma. Defects observed in the principal piece were subdivided into short tails, coiled tails and multiple tails. No conclusive evidence was obtained that tail coiling represented the 'Dag' defect. Biflagellate sperm were the most common form of multiple tails, demonstrating two complete tails with all the normal structural elements. Cytoplasmic droplets (13.9% of total defects) were classified as a separate defect. The location and eccentric positioning of retained cytoplasmic droplets was similar to that described in ostrich sperm although the composition of the droplets differed markedly between the two species. A small percentage of sperm (6.3% of total sperm defects) displayed multiple abnormalities. Based on these findings we propose a morphological classification for abnormal ratite sperm identifying head and tail defects, with additional categories for cytoplasmic droplets and multiple defects. Each category is further subdivided to reflect a range of specific defects within the category. It is envisaged that additional defects will be added to each category or that new categories may be added as future studies on the detailed morphology of avian sperm defects are completed. PMID:21190730

  2. Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Deferoxamine Retinopathy: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, Maura; Barteselli, Giulio; Dell'Arti, Laura; Ratiglia, Roberto; Viola, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is the most commonly used iron-chelating agent to treat transfusion-related hemosiderosis. Despite the clear advantages for the use of DFO, numerous DFO-related systemic toxicities have been reported in the literature, as well as sight-threatening ocular toxicity involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The damage to the RPE can lead to visual field defects, color-vision defects, abnormal electrophysiological tests, and permanent visual deterioration. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary of the ocular findings, including both functional and structural abnormalities, in DFO-treated patients. In particular, we pay particular attention to analyzing results of multimodal technologies for retinal imaging, which help ophthalmologists in the early diagnosis and correct management of DFO retinopathy. Fundus autofluorescence, for example, is not only useful for screening patients at high-risk of DFO retinopathy, but is also a prerequisite for identify specific high-risk patterns of RPE changes that are relevant for the prognosis of the disease. In addition, optical coherence tomography may have a clinical usefulness in detecting extent and location of different retinal changes in DFO retinopathy. Finally, this review wants to underline the need for universally approved guidelines for screening and followup of this particular disease. PMID:26167477

  3. Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Deferoxamine Retinopathy: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Di Nicola, Maura; Barteselli, Giulio; Dell'Arti, Laura; Ratiglia, Roberto; Viola, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is the most commonly used iron-chelating agent to treat transfusion-related hemosiderosis. Despite the clear advantages for the use of DFO, numerous DFO-related systemic toxicities have been reported in the literature, as well as sight-threatening ocular toxicity involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The damage to the RPE can lead to visual field defects, color-vision defects, abnormal electrophysiological tests, and permanent visual deterioration. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary of the ocular findings, including both functional and structural abnormalities, in DFO-treated patients. In particular, we pay particular attention to analyzing results of multimodal technologies for retinal imaging, which help ophthalmologists in the early diagnosis and correct management of DFO retinopathy. Fundus autofluorescence, for example, is not only useful for screening patients at high-risk of DFO retinopathy, but is also a prerequisite for identify specific high-risk patterns of RPE changes that are relevant for the prognosis of the disease. In addition, optical coherence tomography may have a clinical usefulness in detecting extent and location of different retinal changes in DFO retinopathy. Finally, this review wants to underline the need for universally approved guidelines for screening and followup of this particular disease. PMID:26167477

  4. Uterine fibroids: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman’s menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

  5. Abnormal structural connectivity in the brain networks of children with hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Weihong; Holland, Scott K.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Altaye, Mekibib; Mangano, Francesco T.; Limbrick, David D.; Jones, Blaise V.; Nash, Tiffany; Rajagopal, Akila; Simpson, Sarah; Ragan, Dustin; McKinstry, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly in children with hydrocephalus are known to have adverse effects on white matter structure. This study seeks to investigate the impact of hydrocephalus on topological features of brain networks in children. The goal was to investigate structural network connectivity, at both global and regional levels, in the brains in children with hydrocephalus using graph theory analysis and diffusion tensor tractography. Three groups of children were included in the study (29 normally developing controls, 9 preoperative hydrocephalus patients, and 17 postoperative hydrocephalus patients). Graph theory analysis was applied to calculate the global network measures including small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficients, normalized characteristic path length, global efficiency, and modularity. Abnormalities in regional network parameters, including nodal degree, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality, were also compared between the two patients groups (separately) and the controls using two tailed t-test at significance level of p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparison). Children with hydrocephalus in both the preoperative and postoperative groups were found to have significantly lower small-worldness and lower normalized clustering coefficient than controls. Children with hydrocephalus in the postoperative group were also found to have significantly lower normalized characteristic path length and lower modularity. At regional level, significant group differences (or differences at trend level) in regional network measures were found between hydrocephalus patients and the controls in a series of brain regions including the medial occipital gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, rectal gyrus, caudate, cuneus, and insular. Our data showed that structural connectivity analysis using graph theory and diffusion tensor tractography is sensitive to detect abnormalities of brain network connectivity associated with hydrocephalus at both global and regional levels, thus providing a new avenue for potential diagnosis and prognosis tool for children with hydrocephalus. PMID:26106573

  6. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. ); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. )

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  7. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick and 800 m in diameter under the mud volcanoes. Moreover, low resistivity zone is continuing to the ground surface along the rim of the basin structure similar to volcanic caldera where mud volcanoes are active. As a result, it is concluded the abnormal water pressure was generated 4000 m in depth by the dehydration by the smectite-illite transition. Saline water chamber was generated 600 m in depth. Then, pressurized water and gas were erupted and the caldera structure was formed. After that, the ground surface was subsided and the basin was formed. Mud and groundwater is erupting along the caldera wall now. The trouble section in the tunnel excavation corresponds to the caldera wall where pressurized saline water and gas was filled.

  8. Enodthelin 1 Is Elevated in Plasma and Explants From Patients Having Uterine Leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kedra; Chatman, Krystal; Porter, Justin; Scott, Jeremy; Johnson, Venessia; Moseley, Janae

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine a role for endothelin (ET) in progression of uterine fibroids. Design: An in vitro model of fibroid and myometrium cultivation. Patients: A total of 32 women undergoing hysterectomies for uterine fibroids and 11 women undergoing hysterectomies for abnormal uterine bleeding (control population). Results: Women with uterine fibroids were hypertensive and displayed significantly greater circulating ET-1 compared to control patients. Secretion of ET-1 was greater from the fibroids compared to myometrium explants. Endothelin 1 secretion was attenuated with blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 or endothelinA receptors. Hypoxia stimulated ET-1 secretion from both myometrium and fibroid explants. Preproendothelin messenger RNA expression increased with hypoxia from fibroid explants compared to normoxic controls. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that uterine fibroids are associated with hypertension and increased ET-1, which is exacerbated with hypoxia. These data suggest a possible link between mechanisms of blood pressure regulation and development of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25138825

  9. Left Temporal Lobe Structural and Functional Abnormality Underlying Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Løberg, Else-Marie; Nygård, Merethe

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed recent findings from our laboratory, originally presented in Hugdahl et al. (2008). These findings reveal that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia should best be conceptualized as internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the ‘voices’ and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented together with a review of behavioral, structural, and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. We have proposed a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to neuronal abnormality in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks. PMID:19753095

  10. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Persistence of Structural and Functional Hippocampal Abnormalities into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Risher, Christopher; Miller, K. M.; Klein, Rebecca C.; Wills, Tiffany; Acheson, Shawn K.; Moore, Scott D.; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Eroglu, Cagla; Swartzwelder, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human adolescence is a crucial stage of neurological development during which ethanol (EtOH) consumption is often at its highest. Alcohol abuse during adolescence may render individuals at heightened risk for subsequent alcohol abuse disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or other neurological impairments by irreversibly altering long-term brain function. To test this possibility, we modeled adolescent alcohol abuse (i.e., intermittent EtOH exposure during adolescence [AIE]) in rats to determine whether adolescent exposure to alcohol leads to long-term structural and functional changes that are manifested in adult neuronal circuitry. Methods We specifically focused on hippocampal area CA1, a brain region associated with learning and memory. Using electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and neuroanatomical approaches, we measured post-AIE changes in synaptic plasticity, dendritic spine morphology, and synaptic structure in adulthood. Results We found that AIE-pretreated adult rats manifest robust long-term potentiation, induced at stimulus intensities lower than those required in controls, suggesting a state of enhanced synaptic plasticity. Moreover, AIE resulted in an increased number of dendritic spines with characteristics typical of immaturity. Immunohistochemistry-based analysis of synaptic structures indicated a significant decrease in the number of co-localized pre- and postsynaptic puncta. This decrease is driven by an overall decrease in 2 postsynaptic density proteins, PSD-95 and SAP102. Conclusions Taken together, these findings reveal that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence results in enduring structural and functional abnormalities in the hippocampus. These synaptic changes in the hippocampal circuits may help to explain learning-related behavioral changes in adult animals preexposed to AIE. PMID:25916839

  11. Constructing subsurface structures of the Chelungpu fault to investigate mechanisms leading to abnormally large ruptures during

    E-print Network

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    to abnormally large ruptures during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan Chien-Ying Wang, Chien-Li Li, and Hsiang, a NS oriented thrust fault, was activated by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6), Taiwan. At its the abnormal rupturing of the Chelungpu fault. INDEX TERMS: 0935 Exploration Geophysics: Seismic methods (3025

  12. Filaggrin Genotype in Ichthyosis Vulgaris Predicts Abnormalities in Epidermal Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Robert; Elias, Peter M.; Crumrine, Debra; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Brandner, Johanna M.; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Presland, Richard B.; Fleckman, Philip; Janecke, Andreas R.; Sandilands, Aileen; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Fritsch, Peter O.; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Schmuth, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that filaggrin (FLG) deficiency contributes to an abnormal barrier function in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, the pathomechanism of how FLG deficiency provokes a barrier abnormality in humans is unknown. We report here that the presence of FLG mutations in Caucasians predicts dose-dependent alterations in epidermal permeability barrier function. Although FLG is an intracellular protein, the barrier abnormality occurred solely via a paracellular route in affected stratum corneum. Abnormal barrier function correlated with alterations in keratin filament organization (perinuclear retraction), impaired loading of lamellar body contents, followed by nonuniform extracellular distribution of secreted organelle contents, and abnormalities in lamellar bilayer architecture. In addition, we observed reductions in corneodesmosome density and tight junction protein expression. Thus, FLG deficiency provokes alterations in keratinocyte architecture that influence epidermal functions localizing to the extracellular matrix. These results clarify how FLG mutations impair epidermal permeability barrier function. PMID:21514438

  13. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

  14. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  15. Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Boris; Peschel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Krueger, Tillmann H C

    2007-11-01

    Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques. Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted to females) and 24 healthy age-matched control subjects (12 hetero- and 12 homosexual) from a comparable socioeconomic stratum were processed by using optimized automated voxel-based morphometry within multiple linear regression analyses. Compared to the homosexual and heterosexual control subjects, pedophiles showed decreased gray matter volume in the ventral striatum (also extending into the nucl. accumbens), the orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum. These observations further indicate an association between frontostriatal morphometric abnormalities and pedophilia. In this respect these findings may support the hypothesis that there is a shared etiopathological mechanism in all obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. PMID:16876824

  16. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Docetaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-11

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  17. Giant uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    S?vulescu, F; Iordache, I; Albi?a, O; Hristea, R; Dumitru, C; Iordache, A; B?la?a, G; Iordache, C; Leau, D; Rogin, T; Vîrjoghe, V

    2011-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. Giant uterine leiomyomas are very rare neoplasms and represents a great diagnosis and therapeutic challenge. This article illustrates a case of a 45-year old woman presented to our surgery department with a 10-month history of progressive increasing abdominal size, back pain, vague abdominal pressure sensations, weight loss, constipation and urinary frequency. Physical examination, laboratory evaluation, transabdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scanning suggested a giant abdominopelvic mass. Abdominal supracervical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histologically, the specimen was a 18.1 Kg uterine leiomyoma measuring 33/28/22 cm. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged from the hospital on the sixth postoperative day. PMID:22165069

  18. Are Structural Brain Abnormalities Associated With Suicidal Behavior In Patients With Psychotic Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

  19. A high-resolution study of the structure of sunspot light bridges and abnormal granulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Michal; Bonet, Jose A.; Vazquez, Manuel

    1994-05-01

    Strong light bridges (SLBs) represent an abrupt change in the physical conditions of sunspot umbrae. They divide the umbra into separate units (fragments, umbral cores) and very often show a granular structure. A photometric and spectroscopic study of SLBs, and also of abnormal granulation (AG) in a region of pores, is presented. Slit-jaw images (bandpass 5425 +/- 50 A) and spectra (line Fe I 5434.5 A), with a spatial resolution of 0.3 sec, were acquired during the period 1991 July 1-10 at the Swedish Solar Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma). The power spectra of intensity fluctuations in the slit-jaw images, were used as the primary diagnostic tool, complemented by the analysis of line profiles. The following results were obtained. 1. The structures present in SLBs and AG are generally smaller than the granules in the quiet photosphere. The typical size of SLB granules is 1.2 sec (in quiet granulation, 1.5 sec). In AG, the distribution of power is more complex and is characterized by peaks corresponding to scales of 2.5 sec, 1.3 sec, and 0.64 sec. 2. SLB and AG power spectra show an excess of power (compared to quiet granulation) at scales of 0.5 sec. This power enhancement reflects the presence of small bright grains, clearly visible in SLBs and AG, with a mean nearest neighbor distance of 0.5 sec. 3. Two of these small bright grains, together with a dark lane between them, were resolved spectroscopically in a SLB. The line shifts and bisector shapes suggest a convective origin of these structures. 4. The SLB power spectra in the log P/log k scale indicate the presence of a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade in the structures between 1.7 sec and 0.64 sec. However, the small bright grains do not pertain to the turbulent cascade. They are particular phenomena, probably with a convective origin. The power spectrum of AG does not give any indication of the presence of a turbulent cascade. 5. Small bright features (umbral dots or bright grains) can be found in unbral cores, light bridges, and AG regions as well.

  20. Abnormalities of motor function, transcription and cerebellar structure in mouse models of THAP1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ortiz-Virumbrales, Maitane; Méneret, Aurelie; Morant, Andrika; Kottwitz, Jessica; Fuchs, Tania; Bonet, Justine; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Hof, Patrick R; Ozelius, Laurie J; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2015-12-20

    DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in THAP1 [Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein] and is autosomal dominant and partially penetrant. Like other genetic primary dystonias, DYT6 patients have no characteristic neuropathology, and mechanisms by which mutations in THAP1 cause dystonia are unknown. Thap1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and most pathogenic THAP1 mutations are missense and are located in the DNA-binding domain. There are also nonsense mutations, which act as the equivalent of a null allele because they result in the generation of small mRNA species that are likely rapidly degraded via nonsense-mediated decay. The function of Thap1 in neurons is unknown, but there is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1 species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. Herein, we present the first characterization of two mouse models of DYT6, including a pathogenic knockin mutation, C54Y and a null mutation. Alterations in motor behaviors, transcription and brain structure are demonstrated. The projection neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei are especially altered. Abnormalities vary according to genotype, sex, age and/or brain region, but importantly, overlap with those of other dystonia mouse models. These data highlight the similarities and differences in age- and cell-specific effects of a Thap1 mutation, indicating that the pathophysiology of THAP1 mutations should be assayed at multiple ages and neuronal types and support the notion of final common pathways in the pathophysiology of dystonia arising from disparate mutations. PMID:26376866

  1. The p160/Steroid Receptor Coactivator Family: Potent Arbiters of Uterine Physiology and Dysfunction1

    PubMed Central

    Szwarc, Maria M.; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Lessey, Bruce A.; Lydon, John P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The p160/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family comprises three pleiotropic coregulators (SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3; otherwise known as NCOA1, NCOA2, and NCOA3, respectively), which modulate a wide spectrum of physiological responses and clinicopathologies. Such pleiotropy is achieved through their inherent structural complexity, which allows this coregulator class to control both nuclear receptor and non-nuclear receptor signaling. As observed in other physiologic systems, members of the SRC family have recently been shown to play pivotal roles in uterine biology and pathobiology. In the murine uterus, SRC-1 is required to launch a full steroid hormone response, without which endometrial decidualization is markedly attenuated. From “dovetailing” clinical and mouse studies, an isoform of SRC-1 was recently identified which promotes endometriosis by reprogramming endometrial cells to evade apoptosis and to colonize as endometriotic lesions within the peritoneal cavity. The endometrium fails to decidualize without SRC-2, which accounts for the infertility phenotype exhibited by mice devoid of this coregulator. In related studies on human endometrial stromal cells, SRC-2 was shown to act as a molecular “pacemaker” of the glycolytic flux. This finding is significant because acceleration of the glycolytic flux provides the necessary bioenergy and biomolecules for endometrial stromal cells to switch from quiescence to a proliferative phenotype, a critical underpinning in the decidual progression program. Although studies on uterine SRC-3 function are in their early stages, clinical studies provide tantalizing support for the proposal that SRC-3 is causally linked to endometrial hyperplasia as well as with endometrial pathologies in patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. This proposal is now driving the development and application of innovative technologies, particularly in the mouse, to further understand the functional role of this elusive uterine coregulator in normal and abnormal physiologic contexts. Because dysregulation of this coregulator triad potentially presents a triple threat for increased risk of subfecundity, infertility, or endometrial disease, a clearer understanding of the individual and combinatorial roles of these coregulators in uterine function is urgently required. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of uterine SRC function, with a particular emphasis on the next critical questions that need to be addressed to ensure significant expansion of our knowledge of this underexplored field of uterine biology. PMID:25297546

  2. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  3. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  4. Uterine horn torsion in two non-gravid bitches.

    PubMed

    Misumi, K; Fujiki, M; Miura, N; Sakamoto, H

    2000-10-01

    Uterine torsion secondary to sacculation of the uterine horns was diagnosed in two non-gravid bitches which were presented with anorexia, polydipsia and an acutely swollen abdomen. On the basis of the radiological and ultrasonographic findings, which indicated the presence of an enlarged spherical or tubular structure filled with hypoechoic material in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of pyometra was made. Exploratory laparotomy revealed unilateral uterine horn torsion along the longitudinal axis, with bilateral fluid-filled sacculations. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in both cases. Pathological examination of the uteri demonstrated haematometra in one dog and pyometra in the other. PMID:11072917

  5. Uterine fibroid vascularization and clinical relevance to uterine fibroid embolization.

    PubMed

    Pelage, Jean-Pierre; Cazejust, Julien; Pluot, Etienne; Le Dref, Olivier; Laurent, Alexandre; Spies, James B; Chagnon, Sophie; Lacombe, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    Embolization has become a first-line treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors. Selective catheterization and embolization of both uterine arteries, which are the predominant source of blood flow to fibroid tumors in most cases, is the cornerstone of treatment. Although embolization for treatment of uterine fibroid tumors is widely accepted, great familiarity with the normal and variant pelvic arterial anatomy is needed to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The uterine artery classically arises as a first or second branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is usually dilated in the presence of a uterine fibroid tumor. Angiography is used for comprehensive pretreatment assessment of the pelvic arterial anatomy; for noninvasive evaluation, Doppler ultrasonography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR angiography also may be used. After the uterine artery is identified, selective catheterization should be performed distal to its cervicovaginal branch. For targeted embolization of the perifibroid arterial plexus, injection of particles with diameters larger than 500 mum is generally recommended. Excessive embolization may injure normal myometrium, ovaries, or fallopian tubes and lead to uterine necrosis or infection or to ovarian failure. Incomplete treatment or additional blood supply to the tumor (eg, via an ovarian artery) may result in clinical failure. The common postembolization angiographic end point is occlusion of the uterine arterial branches to the fibroid tumor while antegrade flow is maintained in the main uterine artery. PMID:16227501

  6. Genital Cancers in Women: Uterine Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    There are two main types of uterine cancer. Endometrial carcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed genital cancer in women, accounts for most cases (more than 95%) and sarcoma comprises the remainder. Endometrial cancer primarily occurs in postmenopausal women. Risk factors include exposure to high levels of endogenous estrogen (eg, obesity, nulliparity, late menopause) or exogenous estrogen (eg, hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen) and pelvic radiation. Genetics are involved in a small percentage of cases, notably among women in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). More than 80% of patients with endometrial cancers present with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound are the first-line tests to evaluate bleeding. If the endometrial lining is thickened on ultrasound, endometrial biopsy is indicated. If symptoms persist after negative biopsy results, or if biopsy results are inadequate, hysteroscopy is performed for tissue sampling. Most patients with endometrial cancer are diagnosed early, when cancer is confined to the uterus. Hysterectomy is the treatment of choice in such cases. Treatment of advanced disease involves radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Perimenopausal women should be informed that abnormal bleeding could be a sign of cancer and should be evaluated. However, no routine screening is recommended except for women with HNPCC. PMID:26569046

  7. The inwardly rectifying K+ channel KIR7.1 controls uterine excitability throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Conor; Rada, Cara; Bailey, Elizabeth; McCavera, Samantha; van den Berg, Hugo A; Atia, Jolene; Rand, David A; Shmygol, Anatoly; Chan, Yi-Wah; Quenby, Siobhan; Brosens, Jan J; Vatish, Manu; Zhang, Jie; Denton, Jerod S; Taggart, Michael J; Kettleborough, Catherine; Tickle, David; Jerman, Jeff; Wright, Paul; Dale, Timothy; Kanumilli, Srinivasan; Trezise, Derek J; Thornton, Steve; Brown, Pamela; Catalano, Roberto; Lin, Nan; England, Sarah K; Blanks, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal uterine activity in pregnancy causes a range of important clinical disorders, including preterm birth, dysfunctional labour and post-partum haemorrhage. Uterine contractile patterns are controlled by the generation of complex electrical signals at the myometrial smooth muscle plasma membrane. To identify novel targets to treat conditions associated with uterine dysfunction, we undertook a genome-wide screen of potassium channels that are enriched in myometrial smooth muscle. Computational modelling identified Kir7.1 as potentially important in regulating uterine excitability during pregnancy. We demonstrate Kir7.1 current hyper-polarizes uterine myocytes and promotes quiescence during gestation. Labour is associated with a decline, but not loss, of Kir7.1 expression. Knockdown of Kir7.1 by lentiviral expression of miRNA was sufficient to increase uterine contractile force and duration significantly. Conversely, overexpression of Kir7.1 inhibited uterine contractility. Finally, we demonstrate that the Kir7.1 inhibitor VU590 as well as novel derivative compounds induces profound, long-lasting contractions in mouse and human myometrium; the activity of these inhibitors exceeds that of other uterotonic drugs. We conclude Kir7.1 regulates the transition from quiescence to contractions in the pregnant uterus and may be a target for therapies to control uterine contractility. PMID:25056913

  8. Abnormal thermal expansion, multiple transitions, magnetocaloric effect, and electronic structure of Gd6Co4.85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zheng, Zhigang; Shan, Guangcun; Bobev, Svilen; Shek, Chan Hung

    2015-10-01

    The structure of known Gd4Co3 compound is re-determined as Gd6Co4.85, adopting the Gd6Co1.67Si3 structure type, which is characterized by two disorder Co sites filling the Gd octahedral and a short Gd-Gd distance within the octahedra. The compound shows uniaxial negative thermal expansion in paramagnetic state, significant negative expansion in ferromagnetic state, and positive expansion below ca. 140 K. It also exhibits large magnetocaloric effect, with an entropy change of -6.4 J kg-1 K-1 at 50 kOe. In the lattice of the compound, Co atoms at different sites show different spin states. It was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectra and calculation of electronic structure and shed lights on the abnormal thermal expansion. The stability of such compound and the origin of its magnetism are also discussed based on measured and calculated electronic structures.

  9. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Uterine Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  10. Converging evidence for abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and evaluation of midsagittal structures in pediatric PTSD: an MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Victor G.; Weems, Carl F.; Watson, Christa; Eliez, Stephan; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Volumetric imaging research has shown abnormal brain morphology in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when compared to controls. We present results on a study of brain morphology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midline structures, via indices of gray matter volume and density, in pediatric PTSD. We hypothesized that both methods would demonstrate aberrant morphology in the PFC. Further, we hypothesized aberrant brainstem anatomy and reduced corpus collosum volume in children with PTSD. Methods Twenty-four children (aged 7-14) with history of interpersonal trauma and 24 age, and gender matched controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images of the PFC and midline brain structures were first analyzed using volumetric image analysis. The PFC data were then compared with whole-brain voxel-based techniques using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results The PTSD group showed significant increased gray matter volume in the right and left inferior and superior quadrants of the prefrontal cortex and smaller gray matter volume in pons, and posterior vermis areas by volumetric image analysis. The voxel-byvoxel group comparisons demonstrated increased gray matter density mostly localized to ventral PFC as compared to the control group. Conclusions Abnormal frontal lobe morphology, as revealed by separate-complementary image analysis methods, and reduced pons and posterior vermis areas are associated with pediatric PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry may help to corroborate and further localize data obtained by volume of interest methods in PTSD. PMID:19349151

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. [The role of biogenic amines in the mechanism of uterine hemorrhage in uterine myoma].

    PubMed

    Bel'skaia, G D

    1990-02-01

    Function of the adrenosympathetic system has been assessed in 103 patients with uterine myoma. Levels of biogenic amines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, histamin) were determined in uterine tissues using spectrofluorometry. It was found out that storage of vasoactive mediators in the uterine tissue represents a mechanism of uterine bleedings in patients with uterine myoma. Another determinant is stress experienced by patients with menometrorrhagia. PMID:2339756

  13. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  14. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a condition caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is marked by mental retardation, learning difficulties, ... muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than ...

  15. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  16. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  17. The Extracellular Matrix Contributes to Mechanotransduction in Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Leppert, Phyllis C.; Jayes, Friederike L.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanotransduction as an important signaling factor in the human uterus is just beginning to be appreciated. The ECM is not only the substance that surrounds cells, but ECM stiffness will either compress cells or stretch them resulting in signals converted into chemical changes within the cell, depending on the amount of collagen, cross-linking, and hydration, as well as other ECM components. In this review we present evidence that the stiffness of fibroid tissue has a direct effect on the growth of the tumor through the induction of fibrosis. Fibrosis has two characteristics: (1) resistance to apoptosis leading to the persistence of cells and (2) secretion of collagen and other components of the ECM such a proteoglycans by those cells leading to abundant disposition of highly cross-linked, disoriented, and often widely dispersed collagen fibrils. Fibrosis affects cell growth by mechanotransduction, the dynamic signaling system whereby mechanical forces initiate chemical signaling in cells. Data indicate that the structurally disordered and abnormally formed ECM of uterine fibroids contributes to fibroid formation and growth. An appreciation of the critical role of ECM stiffness to fibroid growth may lead to new strategies for treatment of this common disease. PMID:25110476

  18. RNAs containing mitochondrial ND6 and COI sequences present an abnormal structure in chemically induced rat hepatomas.

    PubMed Central

    Corral, M; Kitzis, A; Baffet, G; Paris, B; Tichonicky, L; Kruh, J; Guguen-Guillouzo, C; Defer, N

    1989-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA library prepared from an hepatoma cell line (HTC cells) and isolated a clone, pHT 13, which corresponds to mRNAs present at a much higher level in rat hepatomas than in normal hepatocytes. The sequence of the pHT 13 insert has been previously published (Nucleic Acids Res. 1988, 16,10935). This clone contains mitochondrial DNA sequences with an abnormal organization, since it includes part of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes separated by 230 bases instead of 9 kb in mitochondrial genome from normal hepatocytes. In this work we show (1) that RNAs homologous to this clone are present in hepatoma cells but not in normal hepatocytes, (2) that a 3 kb fragment of tumor mitochondrial DNA contains both the ND6 and the COI sequences. The abnormal structure of the DNA is confirmed by Southern blot analysis which shows that distinct types of mitochondrial DNAs are present in hepatoma cells. Images PMID:2548155

  19. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid. PMID:26664240

  20. Uterine arteriovenous malformation caused by intrauterine instrumentation for laparoscopic surgery due to left tubal pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Park, Jong-Kyu; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hong-Bae

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare entity in gynecology with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Due to abnormal connection between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary system, recurrent and profuse vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom which can be potentially life-threatening. Uterine AVM can be either congenital or acquired. Acquired AVM is reported as a consequence of previous uterine trauma such as curettage procedures, caesarean section or pelvic surgery. It is also associated with infection, retained product of conception, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy and exposure to diethlystilboestrol. We herein report a case of acquired uterine AVM located on the right lateral wall after intrauterine instrumentation for laparoscopic left salpingectomy due to left tubal pregnancy. The patient was successfully treated with embolization. PMID:25264537

  1. Excessive uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Talib, Hina J; Coupey, Susan M

    2012-04-01

    Menstrual bleeding that falls outside the range of normal in adolescents is often a cause of great concern for both girls and their families. Often, much of this anxiety can be alleviated with proper anticipatory guidance about menarche and early menstrual bleeding patterns. Eliciting a menstrual history from an adolescent girl is challenging, and the use of concrete methods to chart their patterns and flow, such as menstrual calendars and pictorial bleeding assessment calendar (PBAC) tools, may be helpful. The importance of obtaining a confidential history from the adolescent girl cannot be overestimated. A confidential sexual history is essential so that pregnancy and infectious causes of bleeding are addressed. Not all menstrual bleeding in young girls is attributable to immaturity of the HPO axis. Anovulation and DUB from other clinically relevant conditions in adolescent girls must also be considered. Chief among these is PCOS, which should always be ruled out when a girl presents with excessive bleeding associated with clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, obesity, or insulin resistance. Attention must also be paid to signs or a family history of a bleeding disorder, as vWD is commonly associated with excessive uterine bleeding. Importantly, the laboratory testing for both PCOS and vWD is affected by therapies for the excessive bleeding, and it should be performed before hormonal interventions or blood products are administered or during the placebo phase if treatment has begun. Management goals for excessive uterine bleeding include stabilizing the endometrium and stopping further blood loss, as well as preventing future uncontrolled blood loss. Hormonal stabilization of the endometrium is often helpful regardless of the cause of bleeding and especially in those with hormonally mediated anovulation. New antifibrinolytics, such as tranexamic acid, may also be helpful in the emergent setting and in adolescents with bleeding disorders. PMID:22764555

  2. How Are Uterine Fibroids Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? What causes ... symptoms, you probably won’t know that you have uterine fibroids. Sometimes, health care providers find fibroids during a routine gynecological ...

  3. Structural, energetic, and dynamic insights into the abnormal xylene separation behavior of hierarchical porous crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiao-Min; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Lin, Rui-Biao; Zhang, Jie-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Separation of highly similar molecules and understanding the underlying mechanism are of paramount theoretical and practical importance, but visualization of the host-guest structure, energy, or dynamism is very difficult and many details have been overlooked. Here, we report a new porous coordination polymer featuring hierarchical porosity and delicate flexibility, in which the three structural isomers of xylene (also similar disubstituted benzene derivatives) can be efficiently separated with an elution sequence inversed with those for conventional mechanisms. More importantly, the separation mechanism is comprehensively and quantitatively visualized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography coupled with multiple computational simulation methods, in which the small apertures not only fit best the smallest para-isomer like molecular sieves, but also show seemingly trivial yet crucial structural alterations to distinguish the meta- and ortho-isomers via a gating mechanism, while the large channels allow fast guest diffusion and enable the structural/energetic effects to be accumulated in the macroscopic level.

  4. Detection of zones of abnormal strains in structures using Gaussian curvature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lisle, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    Whereas some folds, such as those produced by flexural slip, do not theoretically entail strain within the folded surfaces, any surface involving double curvature (such as domes and saddles) cannot form without some stretching or contraction of the bedding. Whether straining of the surfaces is required during folding depends on the three-dimensional fold shape and, in particular, on the Gaussian curvature at points on the folded surface. Using this as a basis, I present a method for detecting zones of anomalously high strain in oil-field structures from Gaussian curvature analysis (GCA) of natural structures. The new method of GCA is suitable for analyzing surfaces that have been mapped seismically. A Gaussian curvature map of the structure is a principal outcome of the analysis and can be used to predict the density of strain-related subseismic structures, such as small-scale fracturing. The Goose Egg dome, near Casper, Wyoming, is analyzed and provides an example of GCA. In this structure, a relationship is observed between fracture densities and Gaussian curvature.

  5. Current Evidence on Uterine Embolization for Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Spies, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence for both safety and effectiveness of uterine fibroid embolization has been generated since the procedure's introduction. This review will focus on the key articles representing the best evidence to summarize the outcomes from uterine embolization. This review will attempt to answer three important questions associated with uterine embolization. First, does uterine embolization relieve symptoms caused by uterine fibroids? Second, how well does the improvement in symptoms and quality of life after uterine embolization compare with standard surgical options for fibroids? Finally, how durable is the improvement in fibroid-related symptoms and quality of life after embolization? PMID:24436560

  6. Structural, energetic, and dynamic insights into the abnormal xylene separation behavior of hierarchical porous crystal

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiao-Min; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Lin, Rui-Biao; Zhang, Jie-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of highly similar molecules and understanding the underlying mechanism are of paramount theoretical and practical importance, but visualization of the host-guest structure, energy, or dynamism is very difficult and many details have been overlooked. Here, we report a new porous coordination polymer featuring hierarchical porosity and delicate flexibility, in which the three structural isomers of xylene (also similar disubstituted benzene derivatives) can be efficiently separated with an elution sequence inversed with those for conventional mechanisms. More importantly, the separation mechanism is comprehensively and quantitatively visualized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography coupled with multiple computational simulation methods, in which the small apertures not only fit best the smallest para-isomer like molecular sieves, but also show seemingly trivial yet crucial structural alterations to distinguish the meta- and ortho-isomers via a gating mechanism, while the large channels allow fast guest diffusion and enable the structural/energetic effects to be accumulated in the macroscopic level. PMID:26113287

  7. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  8. Neurobiology of Disease Structural Abnormalities in the Brains of Human Subjects

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Methamphetamine Paul M. Thompson,1 Kiralee M. Hayashi,1 Sara L. Simon,2 Jennifer A. Geaga,1 Michael S. Hong,1, the profile of structural deficits in the human brain associated with chronic methamphetamine (MA) abuse-based maps suggest that chronic methamphetamine abuse causes a selective pattern of cerebral deterioration

  9. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  10. Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huili; Shi, Xun; Kirkham, Melanie J; Wang, Hsin; Li, Qiang; Uher, Ctirad; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

  11. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  12. Structural and Functional Abnormalities of Carotid Artery and Their Relation with EVA Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Alessandro; Meani, Paolo; Varrenti, Marisa; Giupponi, Luca; Stucchi, Miriam; Vallerio, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Early vascular aging is a process characterized by a reduction in arterial elastin with an increase in collagen that has been related to cardiovascular risk factor and can determine an increased arterial stiffness and central blood pressure. It can be measured by several non invasive methods and in different arterial segment. The present paper will focus on functional (local stiffness parameter) and structural (intima media thickness) carotid arteries alterations typically evaluated by ultrasound methods. Methodological, research and clinical issue has been reviewed. PMID:25986075

  13. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A.; Gray, Marcus A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5–10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients. PMID:25852449

  14. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5-10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients. PMID:25852449

  15. Does abnormal glycogen structure contribute to increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy?

    PubMed

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K(+) by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K(+) and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K(+) homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy. PMID:24643875

  16. Divergent structural brain abnormalities between different genetic subtypes of children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical focal analyses. Methods High resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 children with genetically confirmed PWS (11 children carrying a deletion (DEL), 9 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD)), and compared with 11 age- and gender-matched typically developing siblings as controls. Brain morphology measures were obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. Results Both children with DEL and mUPD showed smaller brainstem volume, and a trend towards smaller cortical surface area and white matter volume. Children with mUPD had enlarged lateral ventricles and larger cortical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Further, a trend towards increased cortical thickness was found in children with mUPD. Children with DEL had a smaller cerebellum, and smaller cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes. Focal analyses revealed smaller white matter volumes in left superior and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right cingulate cortex, and bilateral precuneus areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) in children with mUPD. Conclusions Children with PWS show signs of impaired brain growth. Those with mUPD show signs of early brain atrophy. In contrast, children with DEL show signs of fundamentally arrested, although not deviant brain development and presented few signs of cortical atrophy. Our results of global brain measurements suggest divergent neurodevelopmental patterns in children with DEL and mUPD. PMID:24144356

  17. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following uterine instrumentation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew B; Marlin, Evan S; Ikeda, Daniel S; Ammirati, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Shunt infections are most common within the first 6 months following implantation. A shunt infection 19 years after implantation secondary to uterine ablation has not been reported to our knowledge. Office hysteroscopic procedures have become commonplace in gynecologic practice. Infectious complication rates are low, but peritonitis has been described. We present a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following a uterine ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Three days following the ablation she developed abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen 5 months after the procedure revealed a pseudocyst. She then underwent removal of her shunt with intra-operative cultures revealing Streptococcus agalactiae. Definitive treatment consisted of shunt explantation and antibiotic treatment with complete resolution of her pain and pseudocyst. Consideration for prophylactic antibiotics should be made when a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt undergoes any transvaginal procedure. PMID:24656752

  18. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  19. Developmental biology of uterine glands.

    PubMed

    Gray, C A; Bartol, F F; Tarleton, B J; Wiley, A A; Johnson, G A; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-11-01

    All mammalian uteri contain endometrial glands that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). In rodents, uterine secretory products of the endometrial glands are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and conceptus implantation. Analyses of the ovine uterine gland knockout model support a primary role for endometrial glands and, by default, their secretions in peri-implantation conceptus survival and development. Uterine adenogenesis is the process whereby endometrial glands develop. In humans, this process begins in the fetus, continues postnatally, and is completed during puberty. In contrast, endometrial adenogenesis is primarily a postnatal event in sheep, pigs, and rodents. Typically, endometrial adenogenesis involves differentiation and budding of glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by invagination and extensive tubular coiling and branching morphogenesis throughout the uterine stroma to the myometrium. This process requires site-specific alterations in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling as well as paracrine cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions that support the actions of specific hormones and growth factors. Studies of uterine development in neonatal ungulates implicate prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and their receptors in mechanisms regulating endometrial adenogenesis. These same hormones appear to regulate endometrial gland morphogenesis in menstruating primates and humans during reconstruction of the functionalis from the basalis endometrium after menses. In sheep and pigs, extensive endometrial gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy occur during gestation, presumably to provide increasing histotrophic support for conceptus growth and development. In the rabbit, sheep, and pig, a servomechanism is proposed to regulate endometrial gland development and differentiated function during pregnancy that involves sequential actions of ovarian steroid hormones, pregnancy recognition signals, and lactogenic hormones from the pituitary or placenta. That disruption of uterine development during critical organizational periods can alter the functional capacity and embryotrophic potential of the adult uterus reinforces the importance of understanding the developmental biology of uterine glands. Unexplained high rates of peri-implantation embryonic loss in humans and livestock may reflect defects in endometrial gland morphogenesis due to genetic errors, epigenetic influences of endocrine disruptors, and pathological lesions. PMID:11673245

  20. Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Paul S; Spencer, Thomas E; Bartol, Frank F; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-09-01

    Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

  1. Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Paul S.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Bartol, Frank F.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

  2. The Role of Uterine and Umbilical Arterial Doppler in High-risk Pregnancy: A Prospective Observational Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Teena; Sharma, Deepak; Choudhary, Mukesh; Khoiwal, Shusheela; Nagar, Rajendra Prasad; Pandita, Aakash

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the role of Doppler imaging in prediction of high-risk pregnancies and their outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIAL This prospective study in a setup of tertiary-level care center includes 500 high-risk pregnant women from rural and urban sectors and evaluates the predictive values of various Doppler indices. RESULTS Out of 500 patients, 110 patients had abnormal Doppler among them, 70 patients had abnormal uterine artery Doppler, and 50 patients had abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow indices. In all, 10 patients had both umbilical artery and uterine artery abnormal Doppler indices. When uterine artery was abnormal (70 patients), 20 patients had preeclampsia, 10 patients had pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and 25 patients had intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio and notch had sensitivity of 60% and positive predictive value of 33.3% and 37.5%, respectively. When umbilical artery was abnormal (50 patients), 10 had preeclampsia, 15 had PIH, and 15 had IUGR. S/D ratio had the highest positive predictive value of 40%; sensitivity is same for all. In uterine artery, combination of parameters had the best sensitivity of 80%, followed by notch and S/D ratio. In umbilical artery, combination of parameters, S/D ratio, and RI (resistance index) had sensitivity of 40%; specificity of all the indices was 91–96%. In all, 20 patients had bilateral notch, and among them 15 developed preeclampsia and 15 developed IUGR. When both uterine and umbilical artery Doppler were abnormal (10 patients), all patients had preeclampsia and IUGR. CONCLUSION Therefore, Doppler study may be used for the prediction of preeclampsia and IUGR to reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25922590

  3. Human uterine leukocytes and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trundley, A; Moffett, A

    2004-01-01

    In human pregnancy, the embryo implants into the specialized mucosal wall of the uterus (decidua) and the placenta starts to form. Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of blood to the developing fetus. The trophoblasts have a unique immunological phenotype compared to most cells especially with regard to their expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. On the other side of the interaction, the uterine mucosa (endometrium) differentiates in preparation for implantation. One of the changes that takes place is the appearance in the endometrium of a large number of maternal leukocytes in the final part of the menstrual cycle. If pregnancy ensues, these leukocytes continue to increase in number and are found in close contact with trophoblasts. The composition of this population of maternal immune cells is unusual compared to that seen at other mucosal sites. A lot of research has focused on whether maternal T-cell responses are suppressed or modified during pregnancy. Research has also concentrated on the specialized uterine natural killer (NK) cells, which are found in the decidua in large numbers during early pregnancy. These uterine NK cells have been shown to express receptors for trophoblast MHC antigens, but their role in pregnancy is still mysterious. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of what is known about the immunology at the implantation site and also to provide an update of some of the most recent findings in this field. PMID:14651517

  4. Structural Abnormalities in Early Tourette Syndrome Children: A Combined Voxel-Based Morphometry and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieqiong; Gao, Peiyi; Yin, Guangheng; Zhang, Liping; Lv, Chuankai; Ji, Zhiying; Yu, Tong; Sabel, B. A.; He, Huiguang; Peng, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM) and white matter (WM) has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post- central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV) in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS), and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children. PMID:24098769

  5. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  6. Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

  7. Application of Detergents or High Hydrostatic Pressure as Decellularization Processes in Uterine Tissues and Their Subsequent Effects on In Vivo Uterine Regeneration in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Yasushi; Aizawa, Masanori; Yoshino, Osamu; Kishida, Akio; Osuga, Yutaka; Saito, Shigeru; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S.

    2014-01-01

    Infertility caused by ovarian or tubal problems can be treated using In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET); however, this is not possible for women with uterine loss and malformations that require uterine reconstruction for the treatment of their infertility. In this study, we are the first to report the usefulness of decellularized matrices as a scaffold for uterine reconstruction. Uterine tissues were extracted from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and decellularized using either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at optimized conditions. Histological staining and quantitative analysis showed that both SDS and HHP methods effectively removed cells from the tissues with, specifically, a significant reduction of DNA contents for HHP constructs. HHP constructs highly retained the collagen content, the main component of extracellular matrices in uterine tissue, compared to SDS constructs and had similar content levels of collagen to the native tissue. The mechanical strength of the HHP constructs was similar to that of the native tissue, while that of the SDS constructs was significantly elevated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no apparent denaturation of collagen fibers in the HHP constructs compared to the SDS constructs. Transplantation of the decellularized tissues into rat uteri revealed the successful regeneration of the uterine tissues with a 3-layer structure 30 days after the transplantation. Moreover, a lot of epithelial gland tissue and Ki67 positive cells were detected. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the regenerated tissues have a normal response to ovarian hormone for pregnancy. The subsequent pregnancy test after 30 days transplantation revealed successful pregnancy for both the SDS and HHP groups. These findings indicate that the decellularized matrix from the uterine tissue can be a potential scaffold for uterine regeneration. PMID:25057942

  8. Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:19196652

  9. Molecular Approach to Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: LMP2-Deficient Mice as an Animal Model of Spontaneous Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    E-print Network

    Hayashi, Takuma

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) develops more often in the muscle tissue layer of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, ...

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  11. Paclitaxel and Intraperitoneal Carboplatin Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Uterine Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-10

    Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  12. Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

  13. Chronic total uterine inversion in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Merdin, Alparslan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Uterine inversion is rarely seen in adolescents in western countries. But it might be seen in teenagers and adolescents due to poor conditions and early pregnancies in Africa. And early troubleshooting chronic uterine inversion represents an early resolution of the problem and allows planning pregnancy without complications.

  14. Uterine prolapse in 2 dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C; Corbera, J A; Morales, I; Morales, M; Navarro, R

    2001-10-01

    Two cases of uterine prolapse in dromedary camels in a herd with concomitant cases of white muscle disease are described. Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase in whole blood were investigated in both patients and showed statistical difference compared with a control group. Results suggest that selenium deficiency could promote uterine prolapse in dromedary camels. PMID:11665430

  15. Uterine prolapse in 2 dromedary camels.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, C; Corbera, J A; Morales, I; Morales, M; Navarro, R

    2001-01-01

    Two cases of uterine prolapse in dromedary camels in a herd with concomitant cases of white muscle disease are described. Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase in whole blood were investigated in both patients and showed statistical difference compared with a control group. Results suggest that selenium deficiency could promote uterine prolapse in dromedary camels. PMID:11665430

  16. Incidence and clinical characteristics of unexpected uterine sarcoma after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids: a retrospective study of 10,248 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wan-Cheng; Bi, Fang-Fang; Li, Da; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids often require a hysterectomy or myomectomy via laparotomy or laparoscopy. Morcellation is often necessary to perform a laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of unexpected uterine sarcomas (UUSs) after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids and to reduce the occurrence and avoid the morcellation of UUSs by analyzing their characteristics. Methods Women who had a hysterectomy or myomectomy for uterine fibroids in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between November 2008 and November 2014 were selected for the study, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results During the period, 48 UUSs were found in 10,248 cases, and the overall incidence was 0.47%. There was no statistical difference (P=0.449) regarding the incidence (0.50% vs 0.33%) between 42 UUSs in 8,456 cases undergoing laparotomy and six UUSs in 1,792 cases undergoing laparoscopy. Most of the UUSs were stage I (89.58%), which occurred more commonly (56.25%) in women aged 40–49. Abnormal uterine bleeding (39.58%) was the main clinical manifestation. Rapidly growing pelvic masses (12.5%), rich blood flow signals (18.75%), and degeneration of uterine fibroids (18.75%) prompted by ultrasonography may suggest the possibility of UUSs. The margins of most UUSs (93.75%) were regular, which may cause UUSs to be misdiagnosed as uterine fibroids. Fifteen cases underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Approximately 73.33% showed heterogeneous and hypointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and 80% showed intermediate-to-high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with necrosis and hemorrhage in 40% of cases. After contrast administration, 80% presented early heterogeneous enhancement. Conclusion The incidence of UUSs after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids was low, and their clinical characteristics are atypical. It is necessary and very critical to make a complete and cautious preoperative evaluation to reduce the occurrence and avoid the morcellation of UUSs. PMID:26508879

  17. Early second trimester uterine scar rupture

    PubMed Central

    Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; G, Shyamala

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19?weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus. PMID:24326433

  18. Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L.

    2008-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

  19. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity monitor (HUAM) is an electronic system for at home antepartum measurement of uterine contractions,...

  20. Developmental Abnormalities of Neuronal Structure and Function in Prenatal Mice Lacking the Prader-Willi Syndrome Gene Necdin

    PubMed Central

    Pagliardini, Silvia; Ren, Jun; Wevrick, Rachel; Greer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Necdin (Ndn) is one of a cluster of genes deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Ndntm2Stw mutant mice die shortly after birth because of abnormal respiratory rhythmogenesis generated by a key medullary nucleus, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). Here, we address two fundamental issues relevant to its pathogenesis. First, we performed a detailed anatomical study of the developing medulla to determine whether there were defects within the preBötC or synaptic inputs that regulate respiratory rhythmogenesis. Second, in vitro studies determined if the unstable respiratory rhythm in Ndntm2Stw mice could be normalized by neuromodulators. Anatomical defects in Ndntm2Stw mice included defasciculation and irregular projections of axonal tracts, aberrant neuronal migration, and a major defect in the cytoarchitecture of the cuneate/gracile nuclei, including dystrophic axons. Exogenous application of neuromodulators alleviated the long periods of slow respiratory rhythms and apnea, but some instability of rhythmogenesis persisted. We conclude that deficiencies in the neuromodulatory drive necessary for preBötC function contribute to respiratory dysfunction of Ndntm2Stw mice. These abnormalities are part of a more widespread deficit in neuronal migration and the extension, arborization, and fasciculation of axons during early stages of central nervous system development that may account for respiratory, sensory, motor, and behavioral problems associated with PWS. PMID:15972963

  1. Dynamic and quasi-static mechanical testing for characterization of the viscoelastic properties of human uterine tissue.

    PubMed

    Omari, Eenas A; Varghese, Tomy; Kliewer, Mark A; Harter, Josephine; Hartenbach, Ellen M

    2015-07-16

    Ultrasound elastography is envisioned as an optional modality to augment standard ultrasound B-mode imaging and is a promising technique to aid in detecting uterine masses which cause abnormal uterine bleeding in both pre- and post-menopausal women. In order to determine the effectiveness of strain imaging, mechanical testing to establish the elastic contrast between normal uterine tissue and stiffer masses such as leiomyomas (fibroids) and between softer pathologies such as uterine cancer and adenomyosis has to be performed. In this paper, we evaluate the stiffness of normal uterine tissue, leiomyomas, and endometrial cancers using a EnduraTEC ElectroForce (ELF) system. We quantify the viscoelastic characteristics of uterine tissue and associated pathologies globally by using two mechanical testing approaches, namely a dynamic and a quasi-static (ramp testing) approach. For dynamic testing, 21 samples obtained from 18 patients were tested. The testing frequencies were set to 1, 10, 20, and 30 Hz. We also report on stiffness variations with pre-compression from 1% to 6% for testing at 2%, 3%, and 4% strain amplitude. Our results show that human uterine tissue stiffness is both dependent on percent pre-compression and testing frequencies. For ramp testing, 20 samples obtained from 14 patients were used. A constant strain rate of 0.1% was applied and comparable results to dynamic testing were obtained. The mean modulus contrast at 2% amplitude between normal uterine tissue (the background) and leiomyomas was 2.29 and 2.17, and between the background and cancer was 0.47 and 0.39 for dynamic and ramp testing, respectively. PMID:26072212

  2. Pre-Uterine Artery Embolization MRI: Beyond Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Petra L.; Coote, Jacky M.; Watkinson, Anthony F.

    2011-12-15

    Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is increasingly being performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation before and after treatment is routine practice with the potential to significantly alter management in up to a fifth of patients. It is well recognized that significant incidental findings may be demonstrated during imaging investigations, and in particular that abnormalities that are not directly related to the clinical question may be overlooked. Radiologists evaluating pre-UAE MRI studies must be aware of the MRI appearances of gynecological pathologies that may cause similar symptoms or that may affect the success or complication rates of UAE, and they must also be wary of 'satisfaction of search,' reviewing imaging thoroughly so that relevant other pathologies are not missed. We demonstrate the appearances of coincidental pathologies found on pre-UAE MRI, with the potential to change patient management.

  3. Thermotolerance of human myometrium: implications for minimally invasive uterine therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aaron C.; Grisez, Brian T.; McMillan, Kathleen; Chill, Nicholas; Harclerode, Tyler P.; Radabaugh, Rebecca; Jones, Ryan M.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial ablation has gained significant clinical acceptance over the last decade as a minimally invasive treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. To improve upon current thermal injury modeling, it is important to better characterize the myometrium's thermotolerance. The extent of myometrial thermal injury was determined across a spectrum of thermal histories/doses (time-temperature combinations). Fresh extirpated human myometrium was obtained from 13 subjects who underwent a previous scheduled benign hysterectomy. Within two hours of hysterectomy, the unfixed myometrium was treated in a stabilized saline bath with temperatures ranging from 45-70 °C and time intervals from 30- 150 seconds. The time-temperature combinations were selected to simulate treatment times under 2.5 minutes. A total of six such thermal matrices, each comprised of 45 time-temperature combinations, were prepared for evaluation. The treated myometrium was cryosectioned for nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining to assess for thermal respiratory enzyme inactivation. Image analysis was subsequently used to quantitatively assess the stained myometrium's capacity to metabolize the tetrazolium at each time-temperature combination. This colorimetric data was then used as marker of cellular viability and determine survival parameters with implications for developing minimally invasive uterine therapies.

  4. Positive identification by a skull with multiple epigenetic traits and abnormal structure of the neurocranium, viscerocranium, and the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Kuhari?, Josip; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Petar; Marusic, Ana; Petrovecki, Vedrana

    2011-05-01

    Wormian bones are small ossicles appearing within the cranial sutures in more than 40% of skulls, most commonly at the lambdoid suture and pterion. During the skeletal analysis of an unidentified male war victim, we observed multiple wormian bones and a patent metopic suture. Additionally, the right elbow was deformed, probably as a consequence of an old trauma. The skull was analyzed by cranial measurements and computerized tomography, revealing the presence of cranial deformities including hyperbrachicrania, localized reduction in hemispheral widths, increased cranial capacity, and sclerosis of the viscerocranium. Besides unique anatomical features and their anthropological value, such skeletal abnormalities also have a forensic value as the evidence to support the final identification of the victim. PMID:21361944

  5. Acute Ovarian Insufficiency and Uterine Infarction Following Uterine Artery Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Elsarrag, Sarah Z.; Forss, Abigail R.; Richman, Susan; Salih, Sana M.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization for intractable postpartum hemorrhage saves lives while preserving fertility. The procedure-related risks of uterine infarction and ovarian insufficiency are rare. A primparous patient underwent bilateral internal hypogastric artery embolization to control severe postpartum hemorrhage following primary cesarean section. The bleeding continued, and a repeat aortogram demonstrated significant filling of the uterus from an anomalous proximal take off of the right uterine artery and from the left ovarian artery. Further embolization was required to control the bleeding. The patient developed acute primary ovarian insufficiency within two weeks of the procedure and subsequently presented with uterine infarction necessitating hysterectomy. This case demonstrates the increased risk of acute ovarian insufficiency and uterine infarction following uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage in the settings of aberrant pelvic vasculature. PMID:26523290

  6. Combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy vs. uterine curettage in the uterine artery embolization-based management of cesarean scar pregnancy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin; Xue, Xiaohong; Wu, Xuezhe; Lin, Ru; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Qing; Xu, Congjian; He, Yifeng; Hu, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy compared with traditional uterine curettage in removing the ectopic conceptus and repairing the tissue defect following uterine artery embolization (UAE) management of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Three large obstetrics and gynecology centers in Shanghai, China. Sample: CSP patients diagnosed between March 2009 and August 2010 who had received no prior treatments, were hemodynamically stable, and had no contraindications for UAE were enrolled. Methods: Patients were divided into two cohorts to undergo the intra-arterial methotrexate (MTX), UAE, and one of the following treatments: combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy (research group, 25 cases) and uterine curettage (control group, 33 cases). Main Outcome Measures: The conceptus removal rate, the severity of intra- and postoperative complications, surgical time, and duration of hospital stay. Results: The single-surgery conceptus removal rate reached 100% in the research group, which was significantly higher than the 82% (P=0.024) observed in the control group (with one hysterectomy). The average volume of intraoperative blood loss was 78.0 mL in the research group, which was much less than the 258.5 mL (P=0.004) in the control group. Moreover, the research group had significantly shorter hospital stays and ?-hCG regression times, as well as lower rates of postoperative abdominal pain, uterine bleeding and menstruation abnormalities. Conclusions: Combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy is much safer and more effective than uterine curettage as a supplementary measure following UAE. PMID:25356141

  7. Uterine artery embolization as a treatment option for uterine myomas.

    PubMed

    Marshburn, Paul B; Matthews, Michelle L; Hurst, Bradley S

    2006-03-01

    Information is still being collected on the long-term clinical responses and appropriate patient selection for UAE. Prospective RCTs have not been performed to compare the clinical results from UAE with more conventional therapies for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. At least three attempts at conducting such RCTs have been unsuccessful because of poor patient accrual that related to differing patient expectation and desires, clinical bias, insurance coverage, and the tendency that patients who have exhausted other treatment options may be disposed more favorably to less invasive treatments. Other comparative studies have serious limitations. For example, the retrospective study that compared outcomes after abdominal myomectomy with UAE suggested that patients who received UAE were more likely to require further invasive treatment by 3 years than were recipients of myomectomy. Lack of randomization introduced a selection bias because women in the group that underwent UAEwere older and were more likely to have had previous surgeries. A prospective study of "contemporaneous cohorts," which excluded patients who had sub-mucosal and pedunculated subserosal myomas, sought to compare quality of life measures and adverse events in patients who underwent UAE or hysterectomy. The investigators concluded that both treatments resulted in marked improvement in symptoms and quality of life scores, but complications were higher in the group that underwent hysterectomy over 1 year. In this study,however, a greater proportion of patients who underwent hysterectomy had improved pelvic pain scores. Furthermore, hysterectomy eliminates uterine bleeding and the risk for recurrence of myomas. Despite the lack of controlled studies that compared UAE with conventional surgery, and despite limited extended outcome data, UAE has gained rapid acceptance, primarily because the procedure preserves the uterus, is less invasive, and has less short-term morbidity than do most surgical options. The cost of UAE varies by region, but is comparable to the charges for hysterectomy and is less expensive than abdominal myomectomy. The evaluation before UAE may entail additional fees for diagnostic testing, such as MRI, to assess the uterine size and screen for adenomyosis. Other centers have recommended pretreatment ultrasonography, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy, and biopsy of large fibroids to evaluate sarcoma. Generally,after UAE the recovery time and time lost from work are less; however, the potential need for subsequent surgery may be greater when compared with abdominal myomectomy. Any center that offers UAE should adhere to published clinical guidelines,maintain ongoing assessment of quality improvements measures, and observe strict criteria for obtaining procedural privileges. After McLucas advocated that gynecologists learn the skill to perform UAE for managing symptomatic myomas, the Society of Interventional Radiology responded with a precautionary commentary on the level of technical proficiency that is necessary to maintain optimum results from UAE. The complexity of pelvic arterial anatomy, the skill that is required to master modern coaxial microcatheters, and the hazards of significant patient radiation exposure were cited as reasons why sound training and demonstration of expertise be obtained before clinicians are credentialed to perform UAE.A collaboration between the gynecologist and the interventional radiologist is necessary to optimize the safety and efficacy of UAE. The primary candidates for this procedure include women who have symptomatic uterine fibroids who no longer desire fertility, but wish to avoid surgery or are poor surgical risks. The gynecologist is likely to be the primary initial consultant to patients who present with complaints of symptomatic myomas. Therefore, they must be familiar with the indications, exclusions, outcome expectations, and complications of UAE in their particular center. When hysterectomy is the only option, UAE should be considered. Appropriate diagnostic testing should ai

  8. A unique structural abnormality of chromosome 16 resulting in a CBF beta-MYH11 fusion transcript in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia, FAB M4.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, J; Chipper, L; Springall, F; Herrmann, R

    2000-08-01

    A 43-year-old female with a peripheral white cell count of 118.0 x 10(9)/L and 96% blasts was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), FAB M4. Cytogenetics, performed on a bone marrow sample, revealed the following abnormal karyotype: 46,XX,ins(16)(q22p13.1p13. 3). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the inter-arm insertion using a probe for 16p. The result of this structural rearrangement was the fusion of CBF beta to MYH11 seen commonly in inv(16)(p13q22). The patient commenced high-dose intensive combination chemotherapy (big ICE; Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Etopiside). Five days post chemotherapy, she developed febrile neutropenia. Despite broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics and antifungal therapy, the patient died at day nine post chemotherapy. This case demonstrates a previously unreported structural abnormality of chromosome 16 in a patient with AML M4, which represents a third mechanism to inv(16)(p13q22) and t(16;16)(p13q22) in producing the CBF beta-MYH11 fusion. CBF beta-MYH11 fusions masked by cryptic translocations at the cytogenetic level have been detected by FISH and PCR techniques. Due to the improved prognosis associated with CBF beta-MYH11 fusions compared to the standard risk group for AML, its detection remains important. PMID:10958941

  9. Investigation of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere by microwave ground-based sensing over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karashtin, Dmitriy; Berezin, Evgeny; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the lower atmosphere structure and stability is required for studying the processes of the convection in the atmosphere, determining the mutual influence of global climate change trends and the current state of regional climate systems, which have an impact on the appearance of dangerous meteorological events (heavy rains, thunderstorms, hail, floods, squalls, tornadoes, etc). There are many methods of measuring structure of the atmosphere: contact (rocket and balloon), contactless - active (lidar) and passive (radiometric), with the placement of the instrumentation on the satellite, airplanes and the Earth's surface (ground-based). For the convection processes study in order to predict dangerous meteorological events the ground-based radiometric sensing of the structure of the lower atmosphere seems to be the most suitable due to higher time and spatial resolution. This report discusses the peculiarities of the structure of the lower atmosphere over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during the abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014 retrieved from measurements by radiometric complex HATPRO-G3 by Radiometer Physics GmbH. This complex gives vertical thermal and water vapor profiles of the lower atmosphere (0 - 10 km) with time resolution of a few minutes, horizontally resolution of about 10 kilometers and vertically resolution of about 100 meters. The analysis of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere is based on the vertical distribution of virtual potential temperature derived from these measurements under the hydrostatic approximation. Also the comparison of the results for the abnormally winter 2013 - 2014 and the data computed from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (http://www.wrf-model.org) for winter 2011 - 2012 is discussed.

  10. Metastatic calcaneal lesion associated with uterine carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Rice, Brittany M; Todd, Nicholas W; Jensen, Richard; Rush, Shannon M; Rogers, William

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic lesions of uterine carcinosarcoma most commonly occur in the abdomen and lungs and less frequently in highly vascularized bone. We report a rare case of an 86-year-old female with uterine carcinosarcoma with metastasis to the left calcaneus. The patient had a history of uterine carcinosarcoma with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, along with bilateral pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomy, with no adjuvant therapy. The initial pedal complaint was that of left foot pain. The initial radiographic findings were negative; however, magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a substantial area of marrow edema in the calcaneus. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathologic analysis revealed adenocarcinoma with features consistent with the patient's previous uterine tumor specimen. The patient was given one treatment of chemotherapy and was discharged to a hospice, where she died of her disease 2 weeks later. PMID:23871174

  11. A mutation in Rab38 small GTPase causes abnormal lung surfactant homeostasis and aberrant alveolar structure in mice.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Kazuhiro; Oikawa, Rieko; Higuchi, Junko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsuchihara, Katsuma; Iguchi, Masaharu; Jongsu, Huang; Toga, Hirohisa; Voelker, Dennis R

    2008-11-01

    The chocolate mutation, which is associated with oculocutaneous albinism in mice, has been attributed to a G146T transversion in the conserved GTP/GDP-interacting domain of Rab38, a small GTPase that regulates intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab38 displays a unique tissue-specific expression pattern with highest levels present in the lung. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of Rab38-G146T on lung phenotype and to investigate the molecular basis of the mutant gene product (Rab38(cht) protein). Chocolate lungs exhibited a uniform enlargement of the distal airspaces with mild alveolar destruction as well as a slight increase in lung compliance. Alveolar type II cells were engorged with lamellar bodies of increased size and number. Hydrophobic surfactant constituents (ie, phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein B) were increased in lung tissues but decreased in alveolar spaces, consistent with a malfunction in lamellar body secretion and the subsequent cellular accumulation of these organelles. In contrast to wild-type Rab38, native Rab38(cht) proteins were found to be hydrophilic and not bound to intracellular membranes. Unexpectedly, recombinant Rab38(cht) proteins retained GTP-binding activity but failed to undergo prenyl modification that is required for membrane-binding activity. These results suggest that the genetic abnormality of Rab38 affects multiple lysosome-related organelles, resulting in lung disease in addition to oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:18832574

  12. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Assess Brain Structural Abnormalities in the Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Model

    PubMed Central

    Poptani, Harish; Kumar, Manoj; Nasrallah, Ilya M; Kim, Sungheon; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Pickup, Stephen; Li, Joel; Parente, Michael K; Wolfe, John H.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (?MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed to characterize brain structural abnormalities in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). ?MRI demonstrated a decrease in the volume of anterior commissure and corpus callosum and a slight increase in the volume of the hippocampus in MPS VII vs. wild-type mice. DTI indices were analyzed in gray and white matter. In vivo and ex vivo DTI demonstrated significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, external capsule and hippocampus in MPS VII vs. control brains. Significantly increased mean diffusivity was also found in the anterior commissure and corpus callosum from ex-vivo DTI. Significantly reduced linear anisotropy was observed from the hippocampus from in-vivo DTI, whereas significantly decreased planar anisotropy and spherical anisotropy were observed in the external capsule from only ex-vivo DTI. There were corresponding morphological differences in the brains of MPS VII mice by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated less intense staining of the corpus callosum and external capsule; myelin abnormalities in the corpus callosum were also demonstrated quantitatively in toluidine blue-stained sections and confirmed by electron microscopy. These results demonstrate the potential for ?MRI and DTI for quantitative assessment of brain pathology in murine models of brain diseases. PMID:24335527

  13. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  14. CA 125 and other tumor markers in uterine leiomyomas and their association with lesion characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Babacan, Ali; Kizilaslan, Cem; Gun, Ismet; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with serum levels of several tumor markers in a group of patients operated for uterine myoma. One hundred thirty-seven female patients operated for uterine myoma were included. Serum samples were examined for CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as part of routine workup. Pathological and morphological characteristics of the patients were retrieved from medical records. The mean age was 46.7 ± 8.8 years (range, 22-85 y). Abnormally high levels of CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, CEA, and AFP were found in 19.7%, 6.6%, 5.1%, 3.7%, and 1.5% of the patients, respectively. Patients with additional adenomyosis and patients with at least one large myoma (? 5 cm diameter) had significantly higher levels of CA 125. Multivariate analysis identified coexistence of adenomyosis (OR 7.7 [95% CI, 2.6-23.0], p < 0.001) and presence of at least one large myoma (OR 5.6 [1.4-22.8], p = 0.016) as independent predictors of abnormally high CA 125 levels. CA 125 levels are affected by the tumor size and coexistence of adenomyosis in uterine leiomyomas. Indirect mechanisms caused by large myoma size such as peritoneal irritation may be responsible for CA 125 elevations. PMID:24955185

  15. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding as an early sign of polycystic ovary syndrome during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Deligeoroglou, E K; Creatsas, G K

    2015-08-01

    Excessive uterine bleeding during the early years after menarche can be worrisome to the girl and her parents. The most prevalent diagnosis set is Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), after thorough examination and exclusion of other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. The aim of this article was to review our knowledge and share our experience as tertiary reference center of pediatric-adolescent gynecology in Greece. We conducted a review of current literature using Pubmed and MedLine as our primary databases, as well as providing commentary considering work up, treatment and follow-up of our DUB patients. Insufficient progesterone production and subsequent abnormal shedding of the endometrium appears to orchestrate the pathophysiology of DUB in adolescence. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis immaturity right after menarche, is usually the most plausible cause. Nevertheless, it is necessary to exclude other, possibly even life-threatening causes. Complete work up including physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies (complete blood count, b-HCG, hormonal levels and ultrasonography) is needed, and appropriate treatment with combined oral contraceptives is administered accordingly. Although menstrual disorders are very common in early adolescence, a severe episode of DUB should always be thoroughly attended by any physician. Follow-up should be offered in all young patients due to high incidence of recurrence or subsequent development of endocrine disorders such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). PMID:26054370

  16. Neurological outcomes of animal models of uterine artery ligation and relevance to human intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Basilious, Alfred; Yager, Jerome; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Aim This review explores the molecular, neurological, and behavioural outcomes in animal models of uterine artery ligation. We analyse the relevance of this type of model to the pathological and functional phenotypes that are consistent with cerebral palsy and its developmental comorbidities in humans. Method A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted for research using the uterine artery ligation model published between 1990 and 2013. From the studies included, any relevant neuroanatomical and behavioural deficits were then summarized from each document and used for further analysis. Results There were 25 papers that met the criteria included for review, and several outcomes were summarized from the results of these papers. Fetuses with growth restriction demonstrated a gradient of reduced body weight with a relative sparing of brain mass. There was a significant reduction in the size of the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, and corpus callosum. The motor cortex appeared to be spared of identifiable deficits. Apoptotic proteins were upregulated, while those important to neuronal survival, growth, and differentiation were downregulated. Neuronal apoptosis and astrogliosis occurred diffusely throughout the brain regions. White matter injury involved oligodendrocyte precursor maturation arrest, hypomyelination, and an aberrant organization of existing myelin. Animals with growth restriction demonstrated deficits in gait, memory, object recognition, and spatial processing. Interpretation This review concludes that neuronal death, white matter injury, motor abnormalities, and cognitive deficits are important outcomes of uterine artery ligation in animal models. Therefore, this is a clinically relevant type of model, as these findings resemble deficits in human cerebral palsy. What this paper adds • Uterine artery ligation in animal models resulted in apoptosis and astrogliosis. • An important outcome of this model was white matter degeneration. • Uterine artery ligation also resulted in abnormal cognitive function and motor coordination and memory. • The outcomes of uterine artery ligation resulted in anatomical and functional phenotypes consistent with cerebral palsy. PMID:25330710

  17. Dietary Wolfberry Ameliorates Retinal Structure Abnormalities in db/db Mice at the Early Stage of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yunong; Jiang, Yu; Willard, Lloyd; Ortiz, Edlin; Wark, Logan; Medeiros, Denis; Lin, Dingbo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-linked oxidative stress and/or consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress are the causative factors of pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Dietary bioactive components which mitigate oxidative stress may serve as potential chemopreventative agents to prevent or slow down the disease progression. Wolfberry is a traditional Asian fruit consumed for years to prevent aging eye diseases in Asian countries. Here we report that dietary wolfberry ameliorated mouse retinal abnormality at the early stage of type 2 diabetes in db/db mice. Male mice at 6 weeks of age were fed the control diet with or without 1 % (kCal) wolfberry for 8 weeks. Dietary wolfberry restored the thickness of the whole retina, in particular the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, and the integrity of retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), and the ganglion cell number in db/db mice. Western blotting of whole retinal cell lysates revealed that addition of wolfberry lowered expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarkers BiP, PERK, ATF6, and caspase-12; and restored AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, and FOXO3? activities. To determine if our observations were due to the high contents of zeaxanthin and lutein in wolfberry additional studies using these carotenoids were conducted. Using the human adult diploid RPE cell line ARPE-19 we demonstrated that both zeaxanthin and lutein could mimic wolfberry preventive effect on activation of AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, FOXO3? activities, normalize cellular reactive oxygen species, and attenuate ER stress in ARPE-19 cells exposed to a high glucose challenge. The zeaxanthin preventive effect was abolished by siRNA knockdown of AMPK?. These results suggested that AMPK activation appeared to play a key role in upregulated expression of thioredoxin and Mn SOD, and mitigation of cellular oxidative stress and/or ER stress by wolfberry and zeaxanthin and/or lutein. Taken together, dietary wolfberry on retinal protection in diabetic mice is, at least partially, due to zeaxanthin and/or lutein. PMID:21750018

  18. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  19. The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery mechanics

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    and Reproductive Biology 144S (2009) S170­S178 A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Estrogen Progesterone Uterine hormones estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) [1]. The luteal European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (UVR) is the ratio of systemic mean arterial pressure to mean uterine blood flow and is sensitive

  20. Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Froeling, V. Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Forty women aged 39-56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after UAE were evaluated. Clinical failure was defined as no symptomatic improvement or second invasive therapy after UAE. Results were stratified by the extent of uterine adenomyosis at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Patients were followed for a median of 40 months (range 5-102 months). UAE led to symptomatic control after UAE in 29 (72.5%) of 40 patients while 11 women underwent hysterectomy (n = 10) or dilatation and curettage (n = 1) for therapy failure. No significant difference between women with pure uterine adenoymosis and women with uterine adenomyosis combined with uterine leiomyomata was observed. Best results were shown for UAE in uterine adenomyosis with uterine leiomyomata predominance as opposed to predominant uterine adenomyosis with minor fibroid disease (clinical failure 0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.058). Throughout the study group, HRQOL score values increased and symptom severity scores decreased after UAE. Least improvement was noted for women with pure adenomyosis. Conclusions: UAE is clinically effective in the long term in most women with uterine adenomyosis. Symptomatic control and HRQOL were highest in patients with combined disease of uterine adenomyosis but leiomyomata predominance.

  1. Dietary wolfberry ameliorates retinal structure abnormalities in db/db mice at the early stage of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yunong; Jiang, Yu; Willard, Lloyd; Ortiz, Edlin; Wark, Logan; Medeiros, Denis; Lin, Dingbo

    2011-09-01

    Hyperglycemia-linked oxidative stress and/or consequent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are the causative factors of pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Dietary bioactive components which mitigate oxidative stress may serve as potential chemopreventive agents to prevent or slow down the disease progression. Wolfberry is a traditional Asian fruit consumed for years to prevent aging eye diseases in Asian countries. Here we report that dietary wolfberry ameliorated mouse retinal abnormality at the early stage of type 2 diabetes in db/db mice. Male mice at six weeks of age were fed the control diet with or without 1% (kcal) wolfberry for eight weeks. Dietary wolfberry restored the thickness of the whole retina, in particular the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, and the integrity of the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), and the ganglion cell number in db/db mice. Western blotting of whole retinal cell lysates revealed that addition of wolfberry lowered expression of ER stress biomarkers binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and caspase-12, and restored AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), thioredoxin, Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) and forkhead O transcription factor 3 ? (FOXO3?) activities. To determine if our observations were due to the high contents of zeaxanthin and lutein in wolfberry, additional studies using these carotenoids were conducted. Using the human adult diploid RPE cell line ARPE-19, we demonstrated that both zeaxanthin and lutein could mimic the wolfberry preventive effect on activation of AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, FOXO3? activities, normalize cellular reactive oxygen species and attenuate ER stress in ARPE-19 cells exposed to a high glucose challenge. The zeaxanthin preventive effect was abolished by small interfering RNA knockdown of AMPK?. These results suggested that AMPK activation appeared to play a key role in upregulated expression of thioredoxin and Mn SOD, and mitigation of cellular oxidative stress and/or ER stress by wolfberry and zeaxanthin and/or lutein. Taken together, dietary wolfberry on retinal protection in diabetic mice is, at least partially, due to zeaxanthin and/or lutein. PMID:21750018

  2. Complications of Hysteroscopic and Uterine Resectoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G; Christianson, Lee A

    2015-12-01

    Adverse events associated with hysteroscopic procedures are generally rare, but, with increasing operative complexity, it is now apparent that they are experienced more often. There exists a spectrum of complications that relate to generic components of procedures, such as patient positioning, anesthesia, and analgesia, to a number that are specific to intraluminal endoscopic surgery that largely comprise perforation and injuries to surrounding structures and blood vessels. Whereas a number of endoscopic procedures require the use of distending media, the response of premenopausal women to excessive absorption of nonionic fluids used for hysteroscopy is somewhat unique, and deserves special attention on the part the surgeon. There is also an increasing awareness of uncommon but problematic sequelae related to the use of monopolar radiofrequency uterine resectoscopes that involve thermal injury to the vulva and vagina. Furthermore, the uterus that has previously undergone hysteroscopic surgery may behave in unusual ways, at least in premenopausal women who experience menstruation or who become pregnant. Fortunately, better understanding of the mechanisms involved in these adverse events, as well as the use or development of a number of innovative devices, have collectively provided the opportunity to perform hysteroscopic and resectoscopic surgery in a manner that minimizes risk to the patient. PMID:26457853

  3. Effects of estradiol on uterine perfusion in anesthetized cyclic mares affected with uterine vascular elastosis.

    PubMed

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2016-01-01

    Uterine vascular elastosis in mares is characterized by degeneration of uterine vasculature through thickening of the elastin layers. Factors commonly associated with this degeneration include age, parity, and chronic uterine endometritis. Affected mares have also been shown to exhibit decreases in uterine blood flow and perfusion of the uterus. Due to the increased thickness of the elastin layers, we hypothesize that vasodilatation of the uterine vasculature is also impaired. To test the functionality of these vessels, we evaluated the vasodilatory effects of estradiol on the uterine vascular bed in mares with normal vasculature and mares with severe elastosis. Both groups were tested in estrus and diestrus. Fluorescent microspheres were used to determine basal blood perfusion, followed by the intravenous administration of 1.0?g/kg of 17?-estradiol. After 90min, perfusion was measured once again to determine the vascular response to estradiol. Control mares in estrus displayed a significant increase in total uterine blood flow after the administration of estradiol when compared to baseline levels. No other group had a significant increase in total blood flow and perfusion after estradiol administration. The administration of estradiol in control mares induced regional increases in perfusion in the uterine horns and uterine body during estrus and only in the uterine horns during diestrus. Mares affected by elastosis exhibited no regional differences in perfusion levels post-estradiol administration. The difference in the vasodilatory response induced by estradiol between reproductively healthy mares and mares affected with elastosis indicates that the functionality of the affected vessels is compromised. PMID:26642749

  4. Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

    2010-01-01

    B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

  5. Knowledge of, Perception of, and Attitude towards Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adegbesan-Omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended. PMID:24757580

  6. What Are the Key Statistics about Uterine Sarcoma?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the key statistics about uterine sarcoma? The American Cancer Society's estimates for cancer of the uterine corpus (body ... Health On The Net National Health Council © 2015 American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Cancer Society ...

  7. What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for uterine sarcoma What`s new in uterine sarcoma research and treatment? Molecular pathology ... the chromosomes leads to the formation of a new gene, called JAZF1/JJAZ. This gene may help ...

  8. Postpartum Prolapsed Leiomyoma with Uterine Inversion Managed by Vaginal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pieh-Holder, Kelly L.; DeVente, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function. PMID:25379314

  9. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  10. Thermal Balloon Endometrial Ablation for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Background: Condition and Target Population Abnormal uterine bleeding is defined as an increase in the frequency of menstruation, duration of flow or amount of blood loss. (1) DUB is a diagnosis of exclusion when there is no pelvic pathology or underlying medical cause for the increased bleeding. (1) It is characterized by heavy prolonged flow with or without breakthrough bleeding. It may occur as frequent, irregular, or unpredictable bleeding; lengthy menstrual periods; bleeding between periods; or a heavy flow during periods. Menorrhagia, cyclical HMB over several consecutive cycles during the reproductive years, is the most frequent form of DUB. The incidence of DUB has not been reported in the literature. For Ontario, an expert estimated that about 15% to 20% of women over 30 years have DUB. The prevalence increases with age and peaks just before menopause. (1) Using 2001 Ontario census-based population estimates, there are about 2 million women between the ages of 30 and 49 years; therefore, of these, about 290,965 to 387,953 may have DUB. The Technology Being Reviewed: Thermal Balloon Endometrial Ablation Since the 1990s, second-generation endometrial ablation (EA) techniques developed, the aim to provide simpler, quicker, and more effective treatment options for menorrhagia compared with first-generation EA techniques and hysterectomy. (2) Compared with first-generation techniques these depend less on the people operating them and more on the actual devices to ensure safety and efficacy. TBEA relies on the transfer of heat from heated liquid within a balloon that is inserted into the uterus. (2) It does not require a hysteroscope for direct visualization of the uterus and can be performed under local anesthesia. In order to use TBEA, patients with DUB cannot have a long (>10–12 cm) or irregularly shaped uterine cavity, because the balloon must be in direct contact with the uterine wall to cause ablation. For Ontario, an expert estimated that about 70% of patients with DUB considered for EA would have a uterus suitable for TBEA based on these criteria. If 70% of Ontario women between 30 and 49 years of age with DUB have a uterus suitable for TBEA, then about 203,675 to 271,567 women may be eligible. However, some of these women will be successfully treated by drugs or will want amenorrhea (the cessation of their periods) and therefore choose to have a hysterectomy. Review Strategy The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to June 2004. A Cochrane systematic review from 2004 was identified that examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TBEA for heavy menstrual bleeding. (2) Another literature search was done to update information from the systematic review. Summary of Findings A 2004 systematic review of the literature by Garside et al. (2) in the United Kingdom, found that overall, there were few significant differences between outcomes for first-generation techniques and TBEA. The outcomes were bleeding, postoperative complications, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and repeat surgery rates. Significant differences were reported most often by one study by Pellicano et al., (3) but this was a level 2 study with methodological weaknesses. Furthermore, according to Garside et al., there was considerable clinical and methodological heterogeneity among the studies in the systematic review. Therefore, a quantitative synthesis using meta-analysis was not done. In Garfield and colleagues’ review: TBEA had significantly shorter operating and theatre times (P < .05, < .01, and .0001). TBEA had fewer intraoperative adverse effects (e.g., reported rates of uterine perforation with RB ablation: from 1% to 5%; TBEA: 0%; rates of cervical laceratio

  11. Relationship between uterine natural killer cells and unexplained repeated miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Farghali, Mohamed M.; El-kholy, Abdel-Latif G.; Swidan, Khaled H.; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.; Rashed, Ahmed R.; El-Sobky, Ezzat; Goma, Mostafa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relation between uterine killer (uK) cells and unexplained repeated miscarriage (RM). Material and Methods Eighty women with unexplained repeated miscarriage and missed miscarriage of current pregnancy were studied. Fetal viability and gestational age of the current pregnancy were confirmed by ultrasound, followed by suction evacuation to collect abortion specimens and uterine wall curettage to collect decidua specimens. Abortion specimens were collected for long-term monolayer cell culture and subsequent chromosome analysis using conventional G-banding. Decidua specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies specific to CD56+ and CD16+ expressed by uK cells. Results CD56+ CD16+ uK cells were found in 85% [68/80] of the studied decidua specimens of women with unexplained repeated miscarriage; 88.5% [54/61] had normal abortion karyotyping and 73.7% [14/19] had abnormal abortion karyotyping. Moreover, 73.75% [59/80] of the studied women with a past history of early miscarriage had CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in their decidua specimens, and 66.25% [53/80] of studied women with a past history of late miscarriage had CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in their decidua specimens; the association between early and late miscarriage and CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in decidua specimens was significant. Conclusion CD56+CD16+ uK cells were predominant in the decidua specimens of the studied women with repeated miscarriage. A significant association was found between the presence of CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in the studied decidua specimens and unexplained repeated miscarriage. PMID:26692771

  12. Conceptus development during embryo elongation in lines of pigs selected for ovulation rate or uterine capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig embryo undergoes a dramatic morphological transition between Day 10 and 12 of gestation, elongating from a spherical structure to a long, thin filament. Lines of pigs selected for increased uterine capacity (UC) have improved conceptus survival while pigs selected for increased ovulation ra...

  13. Ovarian steroids, stem cells and uterine leiomyoma: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Coon V, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Navarro, Antonia; Marsh, Erica E.; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women and is thought to arise from the clonal expansion of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell transformed by a cellular insult. Leiomyomas cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction, and recurrent pregnancy loss, and are the most common indication for hysterectomy in the USA. A slow rate of cell proliferation, combined with the production of copious amounts of extracellular matrix, accounts for tumor expansion. A common salient feature of leiomyomas is their responsiveness to steroid hormones, thus providing an opportunity for intervention. METHODS A comprehensive search of PUBMED was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature published since 1980 pertinent to the roles of steroid hormones and somatic stem cells in leiomyoma, including literature on therapeutics that target steroid hormone action in leiomyoma. Reviewed articles were restricted to English language only. Studies in both animals and humans were reviewed for the manuscript. RESULTS Estrogen stimulates the growth of leiomyomas, which are exposed to this hormone not only through ovarian steroidogenesis, but also through local conversion of androgens by aromatase within the tumors themselves. The primary action of estrogen, together with its receptor estrogen receptor ? (ER?), is likely mediated via induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression, thereby allowing leiomyoma responsiveness to progesterone. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of leiomyoma through a set of key genes that regulate both apoptosis and proliferation. Given these findings, aromatase inhibitors and antiprogestins have been developed for the treatment of leiomyoma, but neither treatment results in complete regression of leiomyoma, and tumors recur after treatment is stopped. Recently, distinct cell populations were discovered in leiomyomas; a small population showed stem-progenitor cell properties, and was found to be essential for ovarian steroid-dependent growth of leiomyomas. Interestingly, these stem-progenitor cells were deficient in ER? and PR and instead relied on the strikingly higher levels of these receptors in surrounding differentiated cells to mediate estrogen and progesterone action via paracrine signaling. CONCLUSIONS It has been well established that estrogen and progesterone are involved in the proliferation and maintenance of uterine leiomyoma, and the majority of medical treatments currently available for leiomyoma work by inhibiting steroid hormone production or action. A pitfall of these therapeutics is that they decrease leiomyoma size, but do not completely eradicate them, and tumors tend to regrow once treatment is stopped. The recent discovery of stem cells and their paracrine interactions with more differentiated cell populations within leiomyoma has the potential to provide the missing link between developing therapeutics that temper leiomyoma growth and those that eradicate them. PMID:25205766

  14. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    PubMed

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients. PMID:26214903

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  17. Structural and functional MRI abnormalities of cerebellar cortex and nuclei in SCA3, SCA6 and Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Stefanescu, Maria R; Dohnalek, Moritz; Maderwald, Stefan; Thürling, Markus; Minnerop, Martina; Beck, Andreas; Schlamann, Marc; Diedrichsen, Joern; Ladd, Mark E; Timmann, Dagmar

    2015-05-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and Friedreich's ataxia are common hereditary ataxias. Different patterns of atrophy of the cerebellar cortex are well known. Data on cerebellar nuclei are sparse. Whereas cerebellar nuclei have long been thought to be preserved in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, histology shows marked atrophy of the nuclei in Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. In the present study susceptibility weighted imaging was used to assess atrophy of the cerebellar nuclei in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (n = 12, age range 41-76 years, five female), Friedreich's ataxia (n = 12, age range 21-55 years, seven female), spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (n = 10, age range 34-67 years, three female), and age- and gender-matched controls (total n = 23, age range 22-75 years, 10 female). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were used to calculate the volume of the cerebellum. In addition, ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed with optimized normalization methods to assess function of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei during simple hand movements. As expected, the volume of the cerebellum was markedly reduced in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, preserved in Friedreich's ataxia, and mildy reduced in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. The volume of the cerebellar nuclei was reduced in the three patient groups compared to matched controls (P-values < 0.05; two-sample t-tests). Atrophy of the cerebellar nuclei was most pronounced in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. On a functional level, hand-movement-related cerebellar activation was altered in all three disorders. Within the cerebellar cortex, functional magnetic resonance imaging signal was significantly reduced in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and Friedreich's ataxia compared to matched controls (P-values < 0.001, bootstrap-corrected cluster-size threshold; two-sample t-tests). The difference missed significance in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. Within the cerebellar nuclei, reductions were significant when comparing spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and Friedreich's ataxia to matched controls (P < 0.01, bootstrap-corrected cluster-size threshold; two-sample t-tests). Susceptibility weighted imaging allowed depiction of atrophy of the cerebellar nuclei in patients with Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. In spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, pathology was not restricted to the cerebellar cortex but also involved the cerebellar nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data, on the other hand, revealed that pathology in Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 is not restricted to the cerebellar nuclei. There was functional involvement of the cerebellar cortex despite no or little structural changes. PMID:25818870

  18. Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of uterine arteries during normal canine puerperium.

    PubMed

    Batista, P R; Gobello, C; Corrada, Y; Pons, E; Arias, D O; Blanco, P G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Doppler ultrasonographic changes of uterine arteries during normal canine puerperium. Eight healthy, pure-bred bitches, were ultrasonographically assessed during the postpartum period on Days -3, 3, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 80 (Day 0 defined as the day of parturition). Total horn diameters (TD) and endometrium thickness (E) were evaluated. Color Doppler was used to localize uterine arteries at both sides of the body and pulsed-wave Doppler was performed to obtain the waveforms. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured. Resistance index [(PSV-EDV)/PSV] was automatically calculated. Values of TD, E, PSV, EDV and RI were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by LSD test (SPSS 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A correlation analysis was also carried out between RI and TD. A progressive decrease of TD (P<0.01) and E (P<0.01) was found in the course of the study. A gradual diminution of PSV (P<0.01) and EDV (P<0.01) and an increase of RI (P<0.01) were also found throughout the study period. The resistance index negatively correlated with TD (r=-0.46; P<0.01) and E (r=-0.44; P<0.01) while the ultrasonographic and vascular changes in this period are concurrent with regenerative changes in the glandular and epithelial structures of the uterus. It is concluded that uterine artery RI progressively increased during normal canine puerperium, associated to the two-dimensional ultrasonographic regression of the organ. PMID:23968999

  19. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Raj Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis; Manyonda, Issac; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

  20. Uterine-Specific Loss of Tsc2 Leads to Myometrial Tumors in Both the Uterus and Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Prizant, Hen; Sen, Aritro; Light, Allison; Cho, Sung-Nam; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth-muscle cells in the lungs, leading to functional loss and sometimes lung transplantation. Although the origin of LAM cells is unknown, several features of LAM provide clues. First, LAM cells contain inactivating mutations in genes encoding Tsc1 or Tsc2, proteins that limit mTORC1 activity. Second, LAM tumors recur after lung transplantation, suggesting a metastatic pathogenesis. Third, LAM is found almost exclusively in women. Finally, LAM shares features with uterine leiomyomas, benign tumors of myometrial cells. From these observations, we proposed that LAM cells might originate from uterine leiomyomas containing Tsc mutations. To test our hypothesis, and to develop mouse models for leiomyoma and LAM, we targeted Tsc2 deletion primarily in uterine cells. In fact, nearly 100% of uteri from uterine-specific Tsc2 knockout mice developed myometrial proliferation and uterine leiomyomas by 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Myometrial proliferation and mTORC1/S6 activity were abrogated by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or by elimination of sex steroid production through ovariectomy or aromatase inhibition. In ovariectomized Tsc2 null mice, mTORC1/S6 activity and myometrial growth were restored by estrogen but not progesterone. Thus, even without Tsc2, estrogen appears to be required for myometrial mTORC1/S6 signaling and proliferation. Finally, we found Tsc2 null myometrial tumors in lungs of older Tsc2 uterine-specific knockout females, suggesting that lung LAM-like myometrial lesions may indeed originate from the uterus. This mouse model may improve our understanding of LAM and leiomyomas and might lead to novel therapeutic strategies for both diseases. PMID:23820898

  1. Predictive modes of action of pesticides in uterine adenocarcinoma development in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Midori; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma in the uterine corpus is a malignant cancer that occurs in menopausal women and aged rodents. Because of the similarities in pathogenesis and morphology of endometrial adenocarcinoma in rodents and humans, prediction of the modes of action (MOA) in uterine carcinogenesis is important for extrapolation of rodent data to humans. Three MOAs have been accepted as major pathways for uterine carcinogenesis in rodents: 1) estrogenic activity, 2) increased serum 17beta-estradiiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) ratio and 3) modulation of estrogen metabolism to produce 4-hydroxyestradiol via P450 induction. Inhibition of estrogen excretion and increased aromatase in situ in the tumor are also a potential pathway. Here, chemicals showing uterine carcinogenicity were chosen from approximately 300 pesticides evaluated in Japan within the past decade, and their mechanisms were predicted using parameters from mechanistic and toxicity studies. Seven pesticides increased uterine tumor formation in rats, and the pathways of 4 pesticides could be predicted based on various mechanistic studies. The MOAs of cyenopyrafen and benthiavalicarb-isopropyl were predicted to be modulation of estrogen metabolism, while those of pyriminobac-methyl and spirodiclofen were predicted to be increased E2 to P4 ratio. The driven pathways of metazosulfuron and isopyrazam could not be predicted using several mechanistic studies. No mechanistic studies have been reported for sedaxane, which has a chemical structure and toxicological profile similar to isopyrazam. Our results indicated that appropriate mechanistic studies are useful for mechanism prediction in risk assessment. From this analysis, a flowchart showing a decision tree for predictive MOAs in uterine carcinogenesis was proposed. PMID:26538810

  2. Steroid Hormones and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Zhang, Lubo

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological state that involves a significant decrease in uterine vascular tone and an increase in uterine blood flow, which is mediated in part by steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of these hormones in the regulation of uterine artery contractility through signaling pathways specific to the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, nitric oxide production, and expression of enzymes involved in PGI2 production contribute to the uterine artery endothelium-specific responses. Steroid hormones also have an effect on calcium-activated potassium channel activity, PKC signaling pathway and myogenic tone, and alterations in pharmacomechanical coupling in the uterine artery smooth muscle. This review addresses current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol modulate uterine artery contractility to alter uterine blood flow during pregnancy with an emphasis on the pregnant ewe model. PMID:18497342

  3. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  4. Dietary Glutamate Supplementation Ameliorates Mycotoxin-Induced Abnormalities in the Intestinal Structure and Expression of Amino Acid Transporters in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaomiao; Liao, Peng; Deng, Dun; Liu, Gang; Wen, Qingqi; Wang, Yongfei; Qiu, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wu, Xingli; Ren, Wenkai; Tan, Bie; Chen, Minghong; Xiao, Hao; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Nyachoti, Charles M.; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with glutamic acid has beneficial effects on growth performance, antioxidant system, intestinal morphology, serum amino acid profile and the gene expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in growing swine fed mold-contaminated feed. Fifteen pigs (Landrace×Large White) with a mean body weight (BW) of 55 kg were randomly divided into control group (basal feed), mycotoxin group (contaminated feed) and glutamate group (2% glutamate+contaminated feed). Compared with control group, mold-contaminated feed decreased average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed conversion rate (FCR). Meanwhile, fed mold-contaminated feed impaired anti-oxidative system and intestinal morphology, as well as modified the serum amino acid profile in growing pigs. However, supplementation with glutamate exhibited potential positive effects on growth performance of pigs fed mold-contaminated feed, ameliorated the imbalance antioxidant system and abnormalities of intestinal structure caused by mycotoxins. In addition, dietary glutamate supplementation to some extent restored changed serum amino acid profile caused by mold-contaminated feed. In conclusion, glutamic acid may be act as a nutritional regulating factor to ameliorate the adverse effects induced by mycotoxins. PMID:25405987

  5. Effect of substituents at the heteroatom on the structure and ligating properties of heterocyclic carbene, silylene, germylene and abnormal carbene: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Guha, Ankur Kanti; Sarmah, Satyajit; Phukan, Ashwini K

    2010-08-21

    The effect of substituents at the heteroatom on the electronic structures of different N-heterocyclic carbenes (1, 2 and 3), silylene (4) and germylene (5) are examined using Density Functional Theory. The kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities of these molecules are assessed by examining the HOMO-LUMO gap and hydrogenation energies, respectively. The extent of cyclic electron delocalization present in these five-membered ring systems are quantified with the help of NICS calculations. The ligating properties of 1-5 and the recently synthesized free abnormal carbene 6 (Bertrand et al., Science, 2009, 326, 556-559) are examined by looking at the energies of the sigma symmetric electron-donating orbital of the respective molecules. Among the systems considered, 6 is found to have the strongest sigma-donating ability. A comparative study of the ligating properties between the two isomeric carbenes 1 and 6 is performed by calculating the carbonyl stretching frequencies of some iridium carbonyl complexes of these two tautomeric carbenes. PMID:20607170

  6. Structural chromosome abnormalities, increased DNA strand breaks and DNA strand break repair deficiency in dermal fibroblasts from old female human donors

    PubMed Central

    Kalfalah, Faiza; Seggewiß, Sabine; Walter, Regina; Tigges, Julia; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bürkle, Alexander; Ohse, Sebastian; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Boege, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts provide a paradigmatic model of cellular adaptation to long-term exogenous stress and ageing processes driven thereby. Here we addressed whether fibroblast ageing analysed ex vivo entails genome instability. Dermal fibroblasts from human female donors aged 20–67 years were studied in primary culture at low population doubling. Under these conditions, the incidence of replicative senescence and rates of age-correlated telomere shortening were insignificant. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed age-related impairment of mitosis, telomere and chromosome maintenance and induction of genes associated with DNA repair and non-homologous end-joining, most notably XRCC4 and ligase 4. We observed an age-correlated drop in proliferative capacity and age-correlated increases in heterochromatin marks, structural chromosome abnormalities (deletions, translocations and chromatid breaks), DNA strand breaks and histone H2AX-phosphorylation. In a third of the cells from old and middle-aged donors repair of X-ray induced DNA strand breaks was impaired despite up-regulation of DNA repair genes. The distinct phenotype of genome instability, increased heterochromatinisation and (in 30% of the cases futile) up-regulation of DNA repair genes was stably maintained over several cell passages indicating that it represents a feature of geroconversion that is distinct from cellular senescence, as it does not encompass a block of proliferation. PMID:25678531

  7. Laparoscopic Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation for Uterine Adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Pontrelli, Giovanni; Campana, Colette; Steinkasserer, Martin; Ercoli, Alfredo; Minelli, Luca; Bergamini, Valentino; Ceccaroni, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Symptomatic uterine adenomyosis, unresponsive to medical therapy, is a challenging condition for patients who desire to preserve their uterus. This study was an evaluation of the feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of symptomatic nodular uterine adenomyosis. Methods: Fifteen women with symptomatic nodular adenomyosis, who had no plans for pregnancy but declined hysterectomy, underwent radiofrequency thermal ablation. Ultrasonography was performed at baseline and at postoperative follow-ups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The impact of uterine adenomyosis–related symptoms was assessed according to the visual analog scale. Results: The median number of nodular lesions treated per patient was 1 (range, 1–2). The median baseline volume of the adenomyosis area was 60 cm3 (range, 18–128). The median reduction in volume was 32, 49.4, 59.6, and 65.4% at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. A significant progressive improvement in the symptoms score was observed at the 4 follow-ups. Conclusion: In this study, laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation reduced uterine adenomyosis–related symptoms and volume, with significant relief of symptoms.

  8. Neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure alters the metabolic profile of uterine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Veith, G. Michael; Chen, Hong; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes reproductive tract malformations, affects fertility and increases the risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix in humans. Previous studies on a well-established mouse DES model demonstrated that it recapitulates many features of the human syndrome, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. Using the neonatal DES mouse model, the present study uses global transcript profiling to systematically explore early gene expression changes in individual epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the neonatal uterus. Over 900 genes show differential expression upon DES treatment in either one or both tissue layers. Interestingly, multiple components of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?)-mediated adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, including PPAR? itself, are targets of DES in the neonatal uterus. Transmission electron microscopy and Oil-Red O staining further demonstrate a dramatic increase in lipid deposition in uterine epithelial cells upon DES exposure. Neonatal DES exposure also perturbs glucose homeostasis in the uterine epithelium. Some of these neonatal DES-induced metabolic changes appear to last into adulthood, suggesting a permanent effect of DES on energy metabolism in uterine epithelial cells. This study extends the list of biological processes that can be regulated by estrogen or DES, and provides a novel perspective for endocrine disruptor-induced reproductive abnormalities. PMID:22679223

  9. Placenta increta as an important cause of uterine mass after first-trimester Curettage (case report)

    PubMed Central

    Rouholamin, Safoura; Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Placenta increta during the first trimester of pregnancy is very rare. This report describes two cases of placenta increta that caused prolonged vaginal bleeding after a first-trimester abortion. We were encountered two cases of placenta increta in October 2012 and May 2013. Case I: A 35-year-old patient with continues vaginal bleeding from 2 months after curettage due to missed abortion in the first trimester. The uterus was large, the human chorionic gonadotropin (BHCG) level was 112 mUI/mL and ultrasound showed an echogenic mass in the lower segment of the uterine cavity. She was a candidate for curettage but received hysterectomy because of massive vaginal bleeding. Pathology reported placenta increta. Case II: A 32-year-old patient in the 12th week of gestation with missed abortion. After 6 weeks from curettage, she returned with continues vaginal bleeding, BHCG = 55 mUI/mL and sonography showing mixed echo lesion in the uterine cavity like hydatiform mole. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed. Pathology reported placenta increta. In patients with a history of recent first-trimester abortion presenting with prolonged vaginal bleeding, uterine mass and low-level BHCG, a diagnosis of abnormal placentaion should be kept in mind. PMID:25538926

  10. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of chromosome 7 in uterine leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ishwad, C.; Ferrell, R.E.; Davare, J.

    1994-09-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors which arise clonally from smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. Cytogenetic studies of uterine leiomyomas revealed that about 50% have chromosome abnormalities and that deletion 7q is a common finding. This observation suggest the possible location of a growth suppressor gene within the 7q21-q22 region. Molecular genetic analysis of cytogenetically normal tumors has frequently revealed somatic loss of specific tumor suppressor genes detected by loss of heterozygosity in the critical region (RB1 in retinoblastoma and WT1 in Wilms tumor). To test the hypothesis that chromosome region 7q21-q22 contains a growth suppressor gene involved in the development of leiomyomas, we tested 67 leiomyomas for allelic loss of 7q markers spanning the cytogenetically defined critical region. Nineteen tumors with cytogenetically defined 7q deletion and 48 tumors without cytogenetically visible 7q deletion were examined for allelic loss of loci D7S487, D7S440, D7S492, D7S518, D7S471, D7S466 and D7S530. Loss of heterozygosity for one or more of these loci was observed in 14/19 (73.7%) of tumors with deletion 7q and no evidence of allelic loss was observed in tumors without cytogenetic deletion. The tumors with deletion 7q but no loss of 7q21-q22 markers were tumors which were mosaics with only a minority of cells showing chromosome 7q deletion. The critical region of loss is defined by markers D7S518 and D7S471, each showing loss in 56% of informative cases. These markers define a 10cM region of 7q21.2-q22 consistent with the cytogenetically defined smallest region of overlap. These markers exclude loss of the MET oncogene locus and WNT1, the murine mammary tumor virus integration site, from the critical region. These results define a region that is consistently lost in leiomyomas with abnormalities in chromosome 7q and may define the location of a gene involved in the development of a subset of leiomyomas.

  11. Abnormal Cone Structure in Foveal Schisis Cavities in X-Linked Retinoschisis from Mutations in Exon 6 of the RS1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Birch, David G.; Sundquist, Sanna M.; Lucero, Anna S.; Zhang, Yuhua; Meltzer, Meira; Smaoui, Nizar; Roorda, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate macular cone structure in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) caused by mutations in exon 6 of the RS1 gene. Methods. High-resolution macular images were obtained with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in two patients with XLRS and 27 age-similar healthy subjects. Retinal structure was correlated with best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, fundus-guided microperimetry, full-field electroretinography (ERG), and multifocal ERG. The six coding exons and the flanking intronic regions of the RS1 gene were sequenced in each patient. Results. Two unrelated males, ages 14 and 29, with visual acuity ranging from 20/32 to 20/63, had macular schisis with small relative central scotomas in each eye. The mixed scotopic ERG b-wave was reduced more than the a-wave. SD-OCT showed schisis cavities in the outer and inner nuclear and plexiform layers. Cone spacing was increased within the largest foveal schisis cavities but was normal elsewhere. In each patient, a mutation in exon 6 of the RS1 gene was identified and was predicted to change the amino acid sequence in the discoidin domain of the retinoschisin protein. Conclusions. AOSLO images of two patients with molecularly characterized XLRS revealed increased cone spacing and abnormal packing in the macula of each patient, but cone coverage and function were near normal outside the central foveal schisis cavities. Although cone density is reduced, the preservation of wave-guiding cones at the fovea and eccentric macular regions has prognostic and therapeutic implications for XLRS patients with foveal schisis. (Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00254605.) PMID:22110067

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Doppler ultrasound of the uterine arteries: the importance of bilateral notching in the prediction of pre-eclampsia, placental abruption or delivery of a small-for-gestational-age baby.

    PubMed

    Harrington, K; Cooper, D; Lees, C; Hecher, K; Campbell, S

    1996-03-01

    The use of Doppler studies of the uterine arteries in the prediction of pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation has had mixed success. The introduction of color Doppler imaging and the use of the "notch' to define an abnormal waveform have helped to improve the predictive value of uterine artery Doppler screening. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of uterine artery Doppler in a group of women of mixed race and parity. This study was a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of 1326 unselected women who were screened with continuous wave uterine Doppler at 19-21 weeks, as part of a fetal anomaly/dating scan. A total of 214 women with abnormal uterine artery waveforms (notching) were referred for assessment at 24 weeks; 191 attended and had color Doppler imaging/pulsed Doppler studies of both uterine arteries. Data from 185 pregnancies were suitable for analysis. There were abnormal uterine Doppler findings (uni- or bilateral notching) in 110 patients at 24 weeks; 48 had bilateral notching. The sensitivity of notching for the prediction of proteinuric pregnancy-induced hypertension (PPIH) was similar in primiparas (76.9%), multiparas (77.7%), African-Caribbean women (82.6%) and Caucasian women (71.4%). The sensitivity of bilateral notching for the prediction of PPIH requiring delivery before 34 weeks was 81.2%, and 57.6% for babies small for gestational age (SGA), with positive predictive values of 27% (PPIH), 31.2% (SGA) and 37.5% (any complication). Patients with persistent bilateral notching are particularly at risk of developing PPIH or delivering an SGA baby before 34 weeks' gestation; they warrant increased surveillance, and may be a group that could benefit from prophylactic therapies. PMID:8705410

  14. Disease-dependent differently methylated regions (D-DMRs) of DNA are enriched on the X chromosome in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Ryo; Yagi, Shintaro; Ohgane, Jun; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Asada, Hiromi; Tamura, Isao; Sugino, Norihiro; Shiota, Kunio

    2011-10-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women. Although responsible gene mutations have not been found in leiomyomas, they represent a progressive disease with irreversible symptoms. To characterize epigenetic features of uterine leiomyomas, the DNA methylation status of a paired sample of leiomyoma and normal myometrium was subjected to a microarray-based DNA methylation analysis with restriction tag-mediated amplification (D-REAM). In the leiomyoma, we identified an aberrant DNA methylation status for 463 hypomethylated and 318 hypermethylated genes. Although these changes occurred on all chromosomes, aberrantly hypomethylated genes were preferentially located on the X chromosome. Using paired samples of normal myometrium and leiomyoma from 6 hysterectomy patients, methylation-sensitive quantitative real-time PCR revealed 14 shared X chromosome genes with an abnormal DNA hypomethylation status (FAM9A, CPXCR1, CXORF45, TAF1, NXF5, VBP1, GABRE, DDX53, FHL1, BRCC3, DMD, GJB1, AP1S2 and PCDH11X) and one hypermethylated locus (HDAC8). Expression of XIST, which is involved in X chromosome inactivation, was equivalent in the normal myometrium and leiomyoma, indicating that the epigenetic abnormality on the X chromosome did not result from aberration of XIST gene expression. Based on these data, a unique epigenetic signature for uterine leiomyomas has emerged. The 14 hypomethylated and one hypermethylated loci provide valuable biomarkers for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of leiomyoma. PMID:21685710

  15. Uterine peristalsis-induced stresses within the uterine wall may sprout adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Sivan; Jaffa, Ariel J; Grisaru, Dan; Elad, David

    2015-06-01

    Adenomyosis is a disease in which ectopic endometrial glands and stromal cells appear in the uterine myometrium. This pathology is common among women of reproductive age, and in addition to chronic pelvic pain and heavy periods it may also cause infertility. The 'tissue injury and repair' mechanism in response to increased intrauterine pressures was proposed as the etiology for migration of fragments of basal endometrium into the myometrial wall. In order to investigate this mechanism, a conceptual two-dimensional model of the uterine wall subjected to intrauterine pressures was implemented using ADINA commercial software. The stress field within the uterine wall was examined for a variety of intrauterine sinusoidal pressure waves with varying frequencies. The results revealed that: (1) as the wavelength of the subjected pressure wave decreased, high concentration of stresses developed near the inner uterine cavity; (2) as the pressure wave frequency increased, high gradients of the stresses were obtained; (3) at menstrual phase, the highest stresses obtained at the endometrial-myometrial interface. Therefore, increased uterine activity results in high stresses which may lead to tissue lesions and detachment of endometrial cells. PMID:25217062

  16. Mathematical Approach for Modeling the Uterine Electrical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkeir, Aly; Moslem, Bassam; Rihana, Sandy; Germain, Guy; Marque, Catherine

    The aim of physiological modeling of the uterine electrical activity generated at cellular level is to understand the main physiological uterine contractile mechanisms, in particular, the propagation mechanisms and their relationship with the uterine EMG signal recorded externally from the abdominal wall of the pregnant women. In this present paper, we model the electrical activity simulated at its cellular level. This model is built in three steps: first we built a model based on the formulation of Hodgkin and Huxley and adapted to the specificities of the uterine cell. The second step was the integration of the cellular model in a two-dimensional propagation model by using the reactiondiffusion equations in order to simulate the propagation of the uterine activity at the tissue level. Finally, a simplified version of the space-time integration of the electrical activity was used to build a first example of the uterine EMG.

  17. Polypoid uterine lesions mimicking endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    McCluggage, W G; Alderdice, J M; Walsh, M Y

    1999-01-01

    Two polypoid submucosal uterine lesions were examined histologically and immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies to desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin. One case comprised a leiomyoma and the other a polypoid form of adenomyosis. Both polyps had prolapsed through the external cervical os. The lesions had an ulcerated surface with focal areas of marked increased cellularity and pronounced vascularity throughout, such that they mimicked a low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma infiltrating the myometrium. The cellular areas showed diffuse positivity for desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin, confirming them to be of smooth muscle origin. The changes of marked hypercellularity and pronounced vascularity within polypoid submucosal uterine lesions have not been emphasised in published reports up to now. Pathologists should be aware of these morphological features in order to avoid misdiagnosis of such cases as endometrial stromal sarcomas. The changes described here are likely to be secondary to trauma associated with a polypoid lesion prolapsing through the external cervical os. Images PMID:10605413

  18. Isolated Uterine Metastasis of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Deniz; Tural, Deniz; Tatl?, Ali Murat; Akar, Emre; Uysal, Mükremin; Erdo?an, Gülgün

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Most common metastasis sites of breast cancer are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain, whereas uterine involvement by metastatic breast disease is rare. Metastatic carcinoma of the uterus usually originates from other genital sites, most commonly being from the ovaries. Invasive lobular carcinoma spreads to gynecologic organs more frequently than invasive ductal carcinoma. Case Report. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 2 years ago and modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathological examination of tumor revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, stage IIIc. She presented with abdominal pain and distension. Diagnostic workup and gynecologic examination revealed lesions that caused diffuse thickening of the uterus wall. Endometrial sampling was performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Breast carcinoma metastases in endometrium and myometrium were confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Conclusion. We herein report the first case of isolated uterine patient who had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast. PMID:23573438

  19. Uterine artery embolization for cervical ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiao; Young, Daniel; Vingan, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with 3 prior C-sections is diagnosed with a caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Despite receiving intramuscular and transvaginal methotrexate injection 2 months before presentation, the beta human chorionic gonadotropin was recorded to be 73 mIU/mL at the time of encounter. The patient complained of vaginal bleeding with a significant drop in hematocrit from 40% to 33%. Transvaginal ultrasound confirmed retroplacental hemorrhage and because of the patient's desire to retain fertility, interventional radiology was consulted to perform an uterine artery embolization. The uterine artery embolization was successful in achieving hemostasis and resulted in a decrease of betaHCG to 46 on postprocedure day 1 to <1 mIU/mL by postoperative week 3.

  20. Carcinoid tumor with uterine location. Case report.

    PubMed

    Laz?r, E; Tudose, N; Potencz, E; Cornianu, M

    1996-01-01

    A carcinoid is defined as a tumor arising from endocrine cells with neurosecretory characteristics belonging to the APUD system. These cells are most frequently observed in the digestive tract and lungs. Uterine location is rare. This paper presents the case of a 21-year old patient with uterine carcinoid tumor. In order to establish the histopathologic diagnosis of the carcinoid tumor, we used optical microscopy examination in haematoxylin-eosin, argentic impregnation in Fontana-Masson staining and an immunohistochemical reaction using monoclonal antibody to the S100 protein. Due to the intracytoplasmatic granulations shown in Fontana-Masson staining and in the immunohistochemical reaction to S100 protein which confirm the neurosecretory character of the tumoral cells, we included this tumor in the group of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. PMID:9038391

  1. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative. PMID:26537093

  2. Bisphenol A, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and Vinclozolin Affect ex-vivo Uterine Contraction in Rats via Uterotonin (Prostaglandin F2?, Acetylcholine and Oxytocin) Related Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Naguib; Giribabu, Nelli; Feng, Angeline Oh Mei; Myint, Kyaimon

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), dichrolodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin were found able to induce abnormal uterine contraction. The mechanisms involved remains unclear. We hypothesized that the effect of these compounds were mediated via the uterotonin pathways. Therefore, in this study, effects of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT-only and in combination with uterotonins (PGF-2?, acetylcholine and oxytocin) on the force and pattern of uterine contraction were observed. Methods: Uteri were harvested from intact adult female rats 24 hours after a single injection (1 mg/kg/b.w) of estrogen to synchronize their oestrous cycle. The uterine horns were subjected for ex-vivo contraction studies in an organ bath connected to Powerlab data acquisition system. Different doses of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT were added into the bathing solution and changes in the pattern and strength of uterine contraction were recorded. Further, increasing doses of uterotonins were concomitantly administered with these compounds and changes in the force and pattern of contraction were observed. Results: In the absence of uterotonins, uterine contractile force decreased with increasing doses of BPA and DDT. However, vinclozolin induced sharp increase in the contractile forces which then gradually decrease. Administration of BPA, DDT and vinclozolin alone reduced the force of uterine contraction following stimulation of contraction by uterotonins. However, BPA, vinclozolin or DDT effects were relieved upon co-administration with uterotonins at increasing doses. Conclusions: The antagonizing effect of uterotonins on BPA, vinclozolin and DDT actions could explain the mechanism underlying the adverse effect of these compounds on uterine contraction. PMID:26640411

  3. Uterine gland development begins postnatally and is accompanied by estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the dog.

    PubMed

    Cooke, P S; Borsdorf, D C; Ekman, G C; Doty, K F; Clark, S G; Dziuk, P J; Bartol, F F

    2012-11-01

    During neonatal and juvenile life, mammalian uteri undergo extensive structural and functional changes, including uterine gland differentiation and development. In sheep and mice, inhibition of neonatal uterine gland development induced by progestin treatment led to a permanent aglandular uterine phenotype and adult infertility, suggesting that this strategy might be useful for sterilizing dogs and other companion animals. The goal of this study was to define temporal patterns of adenogenesis (gland development), cell proliferation, and progesterone and estrogen receptor expression in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs as a first step toward determining whether neonatal progestin treatments might be a feasible contraceptive approach in this species. Uteri obtained from puppies at postnatal wk 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 were evaluated histologically and immunostained for MKI67, a marker of cell proliferation, estrogen receptor-1, and progesterone receptor. Adenogenesis was under way at 1 wk of age, as indicated by the presence of nascent glands beginning to bud from the luminal epithelium, and rapid proliferation of both luminal epithelial and stromal cells. By Week 2, glands were clearly identifiable and proliferation of luminal, glandular, and stromal cells was pronounced. At Week 4, increased numbers of endometrial glands were evident penetrating uterine stroma, even as proliferative activity decreased in all cell compartments as compared with Week 2. Whereas gland development was most advanced at Weeks 6 to 8, luminal, glandular, and stromal proliferation was minimal, indicating that the uterus was nearly mitotically quiescent at this age. Both estrogen receptor-1 and progesterone receptor were expressed consistently in uterine stromal and epithelial cells at all ages examined. In summary, canine uterine adenogenesis was underway by 1 wk of age and prepubertal glandular proliferation was essentially complete by Week 6. These results provided information necessary to facilitate development of canine sterilization strategies based on neonatal progestin treatments designed to permanently inhibit uterine gland development and adult fertility. PMID:22959316

  4. Effects of the intermittent injection with super-low pressure on the postoperative pain control during the uterine artery embolization for uterine myoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Bo; Luo, Ze-Long; Feng, Chao; Zeng, Qing-Le; He, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yan-Hao; Chen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been commonly used for uterine myoma with satisfactory effects, but the pain during and following the procedure with an occurrence rate in 100%. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of intermittent injection with super-low pressure on pain control during the UAE for uterine myoma. Methods: 67 subjects were divided into 2 groups with 47 in-group A and 20 in group B. A underwent UAE with the intermittent injection at super-low pressure, while B underwent routine UAE. Pain was assessed according to WHO analgesic ladder. Meanwhile, all were scored with the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: The numbers of first, second and third step analgesic user in Group A were 21, 18 and 6, respectively, with 2 non-analgesic users, while in Group B were 4, 6 and 10, respectively without non-analgesic user (chi-square = 7.043, P = 0.008). VAS showed good pain control in 23 cases, satisfactory in 18 and poor in 6 in Group A, while in Group B, were 4, 8 and 8, respectively (chi-square = 7.329, P = 0.007). Mean follow-up was 16.5 months (range, 6-32 months). The abnormal menstruation was improved and the ultrasound examination 6 months later demonstrated a significant decrease in the diameter of myoma (from 6.65 ± 2.40 cm to 5.22 ± 1.86 cm, t = 3.186, P = 0.002). Conclusion: The application of intermittent injection with super-low pressure during UAE can decrease and possibly eliminate post-operative pain. But the procedure time was increased. PMID:26550414

  5. Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma metastatic to the brain

    PubMed Central

    Stofko, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) is a rare tumor with an aggressive growth pattern. They occur in women from 40 to 60 years and are generally characterized by poor prognosis, a high rate of local recurrence, and distant metastases. UUS accounts for 0.2% of all gynecological malignancies. Possible treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Case Description: A 65-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding was found to have a uterine mass for which she underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The pathologic evaluation was consistent with undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. She began experiencing headaches with associated visual disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a homogenous enhancing occipital dural-based mass measuring 1.6 × 1.8 × 1.7 cm. Due to the rarity of metastatic uterine sarcoma to the brain, this was believed to represent a meningioma and subsequently observed. Interval MRI scan revealed a significant increase in size of the right occipital mass to 2.3 cm with increased edema and mass effect. She underwent right occipital image guided craniotomy for resection of the mass. Histopathology confirmed UUS metastases. Conclusion: Randomized trials analyzing these treatment options are limited due to the rarity of this disease; therefore, a standard therapy is not established. Based on a review of the literature, this is only the fourth case reported of UUS metastatic to the brain. PMID:24231690

  6. Uterine anomaly and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Katano, Kinue; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Eita

    2011-11-01

    Women with recurrent pregnancy loss have a 3.2 to 6.9% likelihood of having a major uterine anomaly and a 1.0 to 16.9% chance of having an arcuate uterus. Bicornuate and septate uterine have a negative impact on reproductive outcomes and are associated with subsequent euploid miscarriage. The impact of an arcuate uterus on pregnancy outcome remains unclear. There are no definitive criteria to distinguish among the arcuate, septate, and bicornuate uteri. The American Fertility Society classification of Müllerian anomalies is the most common standardized classification of uterine anomalies. According to estimates, 65 to 85% of patients with bicornuate or septate uteri have a successful pregnancy outcome after metroplasty. However, 59.5% of the patients with such anomalies have a successful subsequent pregnancy without surgery, with a cumulative live birthrate of 78.0%. There is no case-control study to compare live birthrates in women who had surgery compared with those who did not. Strict criteria to distinguish between the bicornuate and septate uterus should be established. Further study is needed to confirm the benefits of metroplasty. PMID:22161464

  7. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  8. Dlx5 and Dlx6 control uterine adenogenesis during post-natal maturation: possible consequences for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bellessort, Brice; Le Cardinal, Marine; Bachelot, Anne; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Barbieri, Ottavia; Mastracci, Luca; Jonchere, Vincent; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Fontaine, Anastasia; Alfama, Gladys; Levi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Dlx5 and Dlx6 are two closely associated homeobox genes which code for transcription factors involved in the control of steroidogenesis and reproduction. Inactivation of Dlx5/6 in the mouse results in a Leydig cell defect in the male and in ovarian insufficiency in the female. DLX5/6 are also strongly expressed by the human endometrium but their function in the uterus is unknown. The involvement of DLX5/6 in human uterine pathology is suggested by their strong downregulation in endometriotic lesions and upregulation in endometrioïd adenocarcinomas. We first show that Dlx5/6 expression begins in Müllerian ducts epithelia and persists then in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia throughout post-natal maturation and in the adult. We then use a new mouse model in which Dlx5 and Dlx6 can be simultaneously inactivated in the endometrium using a Pgr(cre/+) allele. Post-natal inactivation of Dlx5/6 in the uterus results in sterility without any obvious ovarian involvement. The uteri of Pgr(cre/+); Dlx5/6(flox/flox) mice present very few uterine glands and numerous abnormally large and branched invaginations of the uterine lumen. In Dlx5/6 mutant uteri, the expression of genes involved in gland formation (Foxa2) and in epithelial remodelling during implantation (Msx1) is significantly reduced. Furthermore, we show that DLX5 is highly expressed in human endometrial glandular epithelium and that its expression is affected in endometriosis. We conclude that Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression determines uterine architecture and adenogenesis and is needed for implantation. Given their importance for female reproduction, DLX5 and DLX6 must be regarded as interesting targets for future clinical research. PMID:26512061

  9. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: Promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H.; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70–80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids. PMID:24976593

  10. Models of Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

  11. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context.

  12. A Novel Technique of Uterine Manipulation in Laparoscopic Pelvic Oncosurgical Procedures: “The Uterine Hitch Technique”

    PubMed Central

    Puntambekar, S. P.; Patil, A. M.; Rayate, N. V.; Puntambekar, S. S.; Sathe, R. M.; Kulkarni, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To describe a new technique of uterine manipulation in laparoscopic management of pelvic cancers. Material and Methods. We used a novel uterine hitch technique in 23 patients from May 2008 to October 2008. These patients underwent pelvic oncologic surgery including laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (n = 7), laparoscopic anterior resection (n = 4), laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (n = 3), laparoscopic posterior exenteration (n = 4), or laparoscopic anterior exenteration (n = 5). The uterus was hitched to the anterior abdominal.wall by either a single suture in the fundus or by sutures through the round ligaments. Results. The uterine hitch technique was successfully accomplished in all procedures. It was performed in less than 5 minutes in all cases. It obviated the need for vaginal manipulation. An extra port for retraction could be avoided. There were no intraoperative complications. Conclusion. A practical, cheap and reproducible method for uterine manipulation, during pelvic oncologic surgery is described. It improves the stability of the uterus and also obviates the need for keeping an additional assistant for vaginal manipulation in any of the procedures. PMID:22091356

  13. Polytocus focus: Uterine position effect is dependent upon horn size.

    PubMed

    McLaurin, Kristen A; Mactutus, Charles F

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the variability caused by uterine position effects in polytocus species, such as rats, may enhance prenatal animal models for the study of drug and environmental agents. The primiparous litters of 42 intact female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Uterine position, fetal body weight, and fetal brain (wet) weight were recorded on gestation day (GD) 20 (GD 0=sperm positive). Uterine position effect for brain and body weight varied depending upon horn size. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between horn size (and, to a lesser extent, litter size) and fetal weight applied to both body and brain weight measures. There were no statistical differences in brain and body weights between the left and right uterine horns. The position of the uterine horn (left vs. right) and litter size did not influence the uterine position effect in the rat. Collectively, the present data suggest the presence of a significant uterine position effect. Prenatal differences based on uterine position provide an untapped opportunity to increase our understanding of developmental neurotoxicological and teratological studies that employ a polytocus species as an animal model. PMID:25447787

  14. Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J.

    2007-11-15

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

  15. Cervical Neoplasia-Related Factors and Decreased Prevalence of Uterine Fibroids among a Cohort of African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kristen R.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between cervical neoplasia and uterine fibroids is corroborated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of enrollment data from an ongoing prospective study of fibroid development. Setting Detroit, Michigan area. Patients(s) Self-reported data on abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical treatment were obtained from 1,008 African-American women ages 23-34 with no previous fibroid diagnosis and no reported history of HPV vaccination. Presence of fibroids was assessed at a standardized ultrasound examination. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) The association between the 3 cervical neoplasia-related variables and presence of fibroids was evaluated with logistic regression to estimate age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Result(s) Of the analysis sample, 46%, 29% and 14% reported a prior abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical treatment, respectively. Twenty-five percent had fibroids at ultrasound. Those reporting cervical treatment had a 39% [aOR: 0.61, 95%CI (0.38-0.96)] reduction in fibroid risk. Weak non-significant associations were found for abnormal Pap smear and colposcopy. Conclusion(s) Although a protective-type association of cervical neoplasia with uterine fibroids seems counter intuitive, a causal pathway is possible, and the findings are consistent with two prior studies. Further investigation is needed on the relationship between fibroids and cervical neoplasia and HPV-related mechanisms. PMID:24268705

  16. Fertility after uterine artery embolization: a review.

    PubMed

    McLucas, Bruce; Voorhees Iii, William D; Elliott, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) research has largely been focused on women over 40 years, yet women of reproductive age undergo UAE without any increased morbidity. Some physicians refrain from recommending UAE to women in this age group because of some research findings showing a negative effect on fertility. This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the fertility potential of women undergoing UAE, in terms of pregnancy rates and complications as well as ovarian function and reserve. Findings indicate many benefits for women desiring fertility who undergo UAE over traditional myomectomy. PMID:26330086

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. Human Uterine Smooth Muscle and Leiomyoma Cells Differ in Their Rapid 17 -Estradiol Signaling

    E-print Network

    McLachlan, John

    Human Uterine Smooth Muscle and Leiomyoma Cells Differ in Their Rapid 17 -Estradiol Signaling Uterine leiomyomas, benign uterine smooth muscle tumors that affect 30% of reproductive-aged women kinase C (PKC ) in both immortalized uterine smooth muscle (UtSM) and leiomyoma (UtLM) cell lines

  19. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  20. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  1. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  2. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  3. Uterine activin receptor-like kinase 5 is crucial for blastocyst implantation and placental development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Monsivais, Diana; You, Ran; Zhong, Hua; Pangas, Stephanie A; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-09-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) superfamily are key regulators in most developmental and physiological processes. However, the in vivo roles of TGF-? signaling in female reproduction remain uncertain. Activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) is the major type 1 receptor for the TGF-? subfamily. Absence of ALK5 leads to early embryonic lethality because of severe defects in vascular development. In this study, we conditionally ablated uterine ALK5 using progesterone receptor-cre mice to define the physiological roles of ALK5 in female reproduction. Despite normal ovarian functions and artificial decidualization in conditional knockout (cKO) mice, absence of uterine ALK5 resulted in substantially reduced female reproduction due to abnormalities observed at different stages of pregnancy, including implantation defects, disorganization of trophoblast cells, fewer uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and impairment of spiral artery remodeling. In our microarray analysis, genes encoding proteins involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity were down-regulated in cKO decidua compared with control decidua. Flow cytometry confirmed a 10-fold decrease in uNK cells in cKO versus control decidua. According to these data, we hypothesize that TGF-? acts on decidual cells via ALK5 to induce expression of other growth factors and cytokines, which are key regulators in luminal epithelium proliferation, trophoblast development, and uNK maturation during pregnancy. Our findings not only generate a mouse model to study TGF-? signaling in female reproduction but also shed light on the pathogenesis of many pregnancy complications in human, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26305969

  4. A non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour. PMID:16530816

  5. Percutaneous In Utero Thoracoamniotic Shunt Creation for Fetal Thoracic Abnormalities Leading to Non-Immune Hydrops

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah B.; Tutton, Sean M.; Rilling, William S.; Kuhlmann, Randall S.; Peterson, Erika L.; Wigton, Thomas R.; Ames, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In a fetus, rare, fetal thoracic abnormalities can cause mediastinal shift and vena cava obstruction resulting in fetal hydrops and intra-uterine fetal demise. This series describes a trans-abdominal, trans-uterine Seldinger based percutaneous approach to create a shunt for treatment of these fetal abnormalities. Material and Methods Five fetuses presented with non-immune fetal hydrops due to fetal thoracic abnormalities causing severe mass effect. Under direct ultrasound guidance, an 18 G needle was used to access the malformation. Through a peel away sheath, a customized pediatric transplant 4.5 French double J ureteral stent was advanced; the leading loop was placed in the fetal thorax and the trailing end left outside the fetal thorax within the amniotic cavity. Results Seven thoracoamniotic shunts were successfully placed in 5 fetuses, with one shunt immediately replaced due to displacement during the procedure and the second not functioning at follow-up requiring insertion of a second shunt. All fetuses had successful decompression of the thoracic malformation, allowing lung re-expansion and resolution of hydrops. Three of 5 mothers had meaningful (> 7 days) prolongation of their pregnancies. All pregnancies were maintained to > 30 weeks, with a range of 30 weeks 1 day to 37 weeks 2 days. There were no maternal complications. Conclusions Seldinger based percutaneous approach to draining fetal thoracic abnormalities is feasible and can allow for prolongation of pregnancy, antenatal lung development and ultimately result in fetal survival. PMID:24702750

  6. Chromosome abnormalities in South African mental retardates.

    PubMed

    Ally, F E; Grace, H J

    1979-04-28

    Standard and differential staining techniques were employed in this cytogenetic study of mentally retarded Whites at the Umgeni Waterfall Institution. All of the 512 patients were karyotyped and 57 were found to have chromosome abnormalities. Of these, 42 had trisomy-21; there were 3 subjects with 5p deletion (cri-du-chat) syndrome, 3 had supernumerary small marker chromosomes, and 2 had complex structural rearrangements. Gonosomal aneuploidies were less common than the autosomal defects and only 2 poly-X males and 1 poly-X female were identified. Long Y chromosomes were found in 11 males and 4 others had deleted Y chromosomes. One abnormal chromosome, a deletion of the terminal region of 11q, was missed in unbanded karyotypes. Banding is essential to the identification of structurally abnormal chromosomes. PMID:156963

  7. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken uterine fluid during eggshell biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Chicken eggshell is the protective barrier of the egg. It is a biomineral composed of 95% calcium carbonate on calcitic form and 3.5% organic matrix proteins. Mineralization process occurs in uterus into the uterine fluid. This acellular fluid contains ions and organic matrix proteins precursors which are interacting with the mineral phase and control crystal growth, eggshell structure and mechanical properties. We performed a proteomic approach and identified 308 uterine fluid proteins. Gene Ontology terms enrichments were determined to investigate their potential functions. Mass spectrometry analyses were also combined to label free quantitative analysis to determine the relative abundance of 96 proteins at initiation, rapid growth phase and termination of shell calcification. Sixty four showed differential abundance according to the mineralization stage. Their potential functions have been annotated. The complete proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses are reported in Marie et al., J. Proteomics (2015) [1]. PMID:26217689

  8. Role of TGF-? signaling in uterine carcinosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dhar Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; McMeekin, Scott D.; Slaughter, Katrina; Bhattacharya, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Uterine carcinosarcomas (UCS) are rare (3-4%) but highly aggressive, accounting for a disproportionately high (16.4%) mortality among uterine malignancies. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates important cellular processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Existence of biphasic elements and a report demonstrating amplification of TGF? at 19q13.1 prompted us to investigate the role of TGF? signaling in UCS. Here we demonstrated the components of TGF? pathway are expressed and functional in UCS. TGF?-I induced significant Smad2/3 phosphorylation, migration and EMT responses in UCS cell lines which could be attenuated by the TGF? receptor I (TGF?R-I) or TGF? receptor I/II (TGF?R-I/II) inhibitor developed by Eli Lilly and company. Importantly, TGF?-I induced proliferation was c-Myc dependent, likely through activation of cell cycle. c-Myc was induced by nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT-1) in response to TGF?-I. Inhibition of NFAT-1 or TGF?R-I blocked c-Myc induction, cell cycle progression and proliferation in UCS. In corroboration, mRNA levels of c-Myc were elevated in recurrent versus the non-recurrent UCS patient samples. Interestingly, in the absence of exogenous TGF? the TGF?R-I/II inhibitor enhanced proliferation likely through non-Smad pathways. Thus, inhibition of TGF?R-I could be efficacious in treatment of UCS. PMID:25918253

  9. Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoints in uterine leiomyomata, pulmonary chondroid hamartoma, and lipoma: Physical mapping of the 12q14-q15 breakpoint region in uterine leiomyomata

    SciTech Connect

    Fejzo, M.S.; Yoon, S.J.; Kucherlapati, R.S.

    1995-03-20

    Uterine leiomyomata are the most common tumors in women and can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. Approximately 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the U.S. to relieve patients of the medical sequelae of these benign neoplasms. Our efforts have focused on cloning the t(12;14)(q14-q15;q23-q24) breakpoint in uterine leiomyoma to further our understanding of the biology of these tumors. Thirty-nine YACs and six cosmids mapping to 12q14-q15 have been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to tumor metaphase chromosomes containing a t(12;14). One YAC spanned the translocation breakpoint and was mapped to tumor metaphases from a pulmonary chondroid hamartoma containing a t(12;14)(q14-q15;q23-q24) and a lipoma containing a t(12;15)(q15;q24); this YAC also spanned the breakpoint in these two tumors, suggesting that the same gene on chromosome 12 may be involved in the pathobiology of these distinct benign neoplasms. 41 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Uterine vascular effects of estetrol in nonpregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Levine, M G; Miodovnik, M; Clark, K E

    1984-03-15

    Estetrol is produced by the fetal liver and has been suggested to be a sensitive indicator of fetal well-being. Although the uterine vascular effects of estrogens (17 beta-estradiol, estriol, and estrone) have been extensively investigated in our laboratory and those of others, the ability of estetrol to dilate the ovine uterine vasculature is not presently known. The present experiment was designed to compare the vasoactivity of estetrol to that of a second pregnancy-associated estrogen, estriol. Five nonpregnant oophorectomized ewes were chronically instrumented with catheters in the femoral artery, femoral vein, uterine arteries, and electromagnetic flow probes on both uterine arteries. Upon recovering from operation, animals received unilateral intra-arterial (uterine) injections of either estriol (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 micrograms) or estetrol (1, 3, 10, and 30 micrograms). Ewes received only one dose of either estetrol or estriol daily and all doses were given in a randomized order. Uterine blood flow responses were continuously monitored and the time of onset, peak, and duration were recorded. The time of onset (38 +/- 2 minutes), time of peak response (75 +/- 1 minute), and duration (189 +/- 7 minutes) were approximately equal to those observed for estriol. On the basis of the data obtained in the present study we have determined that estetrol is 15 to 30 times less potent than estriol as a uterine vasodilator. PMID:6702941

  12. Bilateral ovarian metastatic squamous cell carcinoma arising from the uterine cervix and eluding the Mullerian mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral ovarian metastasis from invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare phenomenon with very few clinically significant cases described in the literature. Ovarian metastases when present are usually seen in association with bulky, advanced cervical squamous cell carcinomas with extensive involvement of the uterus. We describe a 48 year old woman with clinically normal cervix whose hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy performed for abnormal uterine bleeding, demonstrated high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the deeper stroma of the uterus and bilateral ovarian metastases. Gross examination of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity did not show tumor while well circumscribed pearly white metastatic deposits were distinguished within the parenchyma of both the ovaries. Microscopy ascertained high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with malignant cells invading the deeper cervical stroma and disseminating further as lymphovascular tumor emboli within the myometrium of the corpus uteri without involving the endometrium. Both the fallopian tubes exhibited lymphovascular tumor emboli without epithelial involvement while the parenchyma of both the ovaries showed metastatic deposits. Although an isolated case of endophytic squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with extensive lymphovascular invasion of the corpus uteri, both the fallopian tubes and bilateral ovarian deposits without involving either the endometrium or the tubal mucosa does not form a paradigm, this case brings to light the capricious behavior of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1214687069122755 PMID:24899394

  13. Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Fennessy, Fiona; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc; Tempany, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumor. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and particularly the newest, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment. PMID:19358440

  14. Possible role of DaVinci Robot in uterine transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, specifically robotic surgery, became a common technique used by gynecological surgeons over the last decade. The realization of the first human uterine transplantation commenced new perspectives in the treatment of uterine agenesia or infertility in women with history of hysterectomy at a young age. Robot-assisted technique may enhance the safety of the procedure by facilitating the microvascular anastomosis, vaginal anastomosis, and ligaments’ fixation. This study proposes the formation of a multicenter collaboration group to organize a protocol with the aim to clarify the possible role of robotic surgery in uterine transplantation. PMID:26401113

  15. Suppression of uterine motor activity by prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor Naproxen.

    PubMed

    Herczeg, J; Falkay, G; Sas, M

    1978-01-01

    Rats were ovariectomized on day 16 of pregnancy and they were fitted with a pressure sensor uterine microballoon assembly and were given a daily dose of Naproxen-sodium. Daily uterine activity recordings were taken and subjected to statistical analysis and the rats were carefully checked for either aborting or delivering their fetuses. Our data showed that Naproxen treatment effectively and significantly prevented the autocatalytic evolution of the uterine motor activity and the regulatory "see-saw" of progesterone and prostaglandins was rebalanced at a lower level. PMID:105529

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Non-Puerperal Complete Uterine Inversion

    PubMed Central

    Mihmanli, Veli; Kilic, Fahrettin; Pul, Soner; Kilinc, Aydin; Kilickaya, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Uterine inversion is shortly described as the indentation and depression of the fundic area extending downwards up to the different levels of the birth canal till vaginal opening. Clinical diagnosis of uterine inversion is difficult due to its non-specific symptoms and physical examination. Ultrasonography is the most practical modality for radiological evaluation, but it is inadequate to determine the exact nature of this condition and making the differential diagnosis. In this case, we present the main MRI findings of non-puerperal complete uterine inversion caused by a giant leiomyoma. PMID:26715983

  17. Genetic determinants of uterine fibroid size in the multiethnic NIEHS uterine fibroid study

    PubMed Central

    Aissani, Brahim; Zhang, Kui; Wiener, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a follow-up association study across extended candidate chromosomal regions for uterine leiomyoma (UL), or fibroids, to search for loci influencing the size of UL in 916 premenopausal North American women participants to the NIEHS uterine fibroid study. Proportional odds models with adjustments for confounders were fitted to evaluate the association of a final set of 2,484 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the size of uterine fibroids measured by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasounds. SNP association with UL size was tested in a case-only design comparing three categories of tumor size (small, medium and large tumors) and in a design that included UL-free controls as the lowest category of a four-level ordinal outcome to account for misclassifications due to small, undetected tumors. In the case-only design, rs2285789 in SORCS2 (sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2) was the sole variant that remained significant after correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni-adjusted P=0.037). Several other SNPs, namely those located in MYT1L, TMCC1 and BRCA1, reached promising associations. In the design that included the controls, several genes of potential relevance to UL pathogenesis were associated (Bonferroni-unadjusted P < 0.01) with tumor size, particularly LIFR-AS1 (leukemia inhibitory factor receptor alpha-antisense RNA 1), which showed the strongest association (Bonferroni-unadjusted P=0.0006) among the genes with regulated expression in UL. In conclusion, SORCS2, a known GWAS candidate for circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3, may act through IGF-I signaling to affect the size of fibroids. Through down-regulation of LIFR, LIFR-AS1 may mediate the inhibitory action of LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor), a cytokine involved in embryonic uterine development. Replication analyses are needed to substantiate our reported associations of SORCS2 and LIFR-AS1 with the size of fibroids. PMID:26417400

  18. [Possibilities of the TruScreen for screening of precancer and cancer of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2009-01-01

    The classic approach of detection of pre-cancer and cancer of uterine cervix includes cytological examination, followed by colposcopy assessment of the detected cytological abnormalities. Real-time devices use in-vivo techniques for the measurement, computerized analysis and classifying of different types of cervical tissues. The aim of the present review is to present the technical characteristics and to discus the diagnostic possibilities of TruScreen-automated optical-electron system for cervical screening. The analysis of the presented in the literature diagnostic value of the method at different grades intraepithelial lesions shows that it has higher sensitivity (67-70%) and lower specificity (81%) in comparison to the Pap test with the following results (45-69% sensitivity and 95% specificity). This makes the method suitable for independent primary screening, as well as for adding the diagnostic assurance of the cytological method. PMID:20225497

  19. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  20. Uterine contractility of plants used to facilitate childbirth in Nigerian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Attah, Alfred F.; O'Brien, Margaret; Koehbach, Johannes; Sonibare, Mubo A.; Moody, Jones O.; Smith, Terry J.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Pregnant women in Nigeria use plant preparations to facilitate childbirth and to reduce associated pain. The rationale for this is not known and requires pharmacological validation. Aim of study Obtain primary information regarding the traditional use of plants and analyze their uterine contractility at cellular level. Materials and methods Semi-structured, open interviews using questionnaires of traditional healthcare professionals and other informants triggered the collection and identification of medicinal plant species. The relative traditional importance of each medicinal plant was determined by its use-mention index. Extracts of these plants were analyzed for their uterotonic properties on an in vitro human uterine cell collagen model. Result The plants Calotropis procera, Commelina africana, Duranta repens, Hyptis suaveolens, Ocimum gratissimum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea, Sida corymbosa and Vernonia amygdalina were documented and characterized. Aqueous extracts from these nine plants induced significant sustained increases in human myometrial smooth muscle cell contractility, with varying efficiencies, depending upon time and dose of exposure. Conclusion The folkloric use of several plant species during childbirth in Nigeria has been validated. Seven plants were for the first time characterized to have contractile properties on uterine myometrial cells. The results serve as ideal starting points in the search for safe, longer lasting, effective and tolerable uterotonic drug leads. PMID:22766472

  1. Classification of multichannel uterine EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Moslem, B; Diab, M O; Marque, C; Khalil, M

    2011-01-01

    Classification of multichannel uterine electromyogram (EMG) signals is addressed. Signals were recorded by a matrix of 16 electrodes. First, signals corresponding to each channel were individually classified using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on radial basis functions (RBF). The results have shown that the classification performance varies from one channel to another. Then, a decision fusion method based on these classification performances was tested. After fusion, the network yielded better classification accuracy than any individual channel could provide. The high percentage of correctly classified labor/non-labor events proves the efficiency of multichannel recordings in detecting labor. These findings can be very useful for the aim of classifying antepartum versus labor patients. PMID:22254874

  2. Uterine bleeding with an IUD requiring emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Glew, S; Singh, A

    1989-03-01

    A case is described of profuse uterine bleeding with a dislodged Multiload Cu 250 intrauterine device (IUD). Multiple blood transfusions were necessary, and ultimately, an emergency hysterectomy was performed. PMID:2782134

  3. Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids Skip sharing on social ... To determine whether TSC genes were involved in infertility related to fibroids, scientists funded by the Fertility ...

  4. Steroidal regulation of uterine resistance to bacterial infection in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gregory S

    2003-01-01

    Postpartum uterine infections reduce reproductive efficiency and have significant animal welfare and economic consequences. Postpartum uterine infections are classified as nonspecific, but Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli are usually associated with them in cattle and sheep. Pyometra is the most common type of uterine infection in dairy cattle, and it is detected almost exclusively in cows with active corpora lutea. Luteal progesterone typically down-regulates uterine immune functions and prevents the uterus from resisting infections. Progesterone also can down-regulate uterine eicosanoid synthesis. This seems to be a critical event in the onset of uterine infections, because eicosanoids can up-regulate immune cell functions in vitro. In addition, exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha and enhances immune functions in vivo. Thus, one may hypothesize that eicosanoids can override the negative effects of progesterone and that the up-regulatory effects of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha allow the uterus to resolve an infection, regardless of progesterone concentrations. Based on the results of studies to test that hypothesis, cows, sheep, and pigs in various physiological statuses are resistant to intrauterine infusions of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli, unless progesterone concentrations are increased. In sheep and pigs, exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates uterine production of prostaglandin F2 alpha and allows the uterus to resolve Arcanobacterium pyogenes-Escherichia coli-induced infections, even when progesterone is maintained at luteal phase concentrations before and after treatment. Prostaglandin F2 alpha is a proinflammatory molecule that stimulates the production of various proinflammatory cytokines, and it may enhance uterine production of leukotriene B4. Proinflammatory cytokines and leukotriene B4 enhance phagocytosis and lymphocyte functions. Even though there are clear associations among prostaglandin F2 alpha, leukotriene B4, proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis, and lymphocyte functions, the mechanism of action of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha in overriding the down-regulatory effects of progesterone and resolving uterine infections has not been elucidated. Defining this mechanism should yield new prevention and treatment strategies for uterine infections that do not rely on antibiotic and antimicrobial compounds. PMID:14641941

  5. Therapeutic failure of uterine fibroid embolization caused by underlying leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Common, A A; Mocarski, E J; Kolin, A; Pron, G; Soucie, J

    2001-12-01

    The authors describe an unusual case in which continued growth of uterine fibroids in a postmenopausal patient after polyvinyl alcohol embolization therapy prompted hysterectomy, which revealed an underlying leiomyosarcoma. The surgery was nearly fatal as a result of venous bleeding, and parasitization of blood from adjacent bowel by the tumor was noted. The difficulty of preoperative diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma and the need for diligent follow-up after uterine fibroid embolization are discussed. PMID:11742024

  6. Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1998-04-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  7. Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Przybojewski, Stefan J. Sadler, David J.

    2011-02-15

    The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

  8. Uterine artery embolization using progressively larger calibrated gelatin sponge particles.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun Gyu; Woo, Young Ju; Kim, Chang-Woon

    2016-02-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness and safety of uterine artery embolization (UAE) using progressively larger calibrated gelatin sponge particles for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Material and methods Thirty patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent UAE. Calibrated gelatin sponge particles were used in all patients, beginning with 355-500??m particles, progressively increasing to 500-710??m and finally to 710-1000??m particles. Changes in tumor, uterine volume, and tumor infarction rate were assessed using pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The level of complication, improvement of clinical symptoms, and Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) score were assessed. Results MR imaging revealed the mean largest tumor volume reduction was 56.23?±?16.25% at three months and 72.61?±?14.47% at 12 months after the procedure. 100% infarction of the dominant fibroids was 91.27?±?5.02% at three months and 96?±?5.20% at 12 months after the procedure. Menorrhagia improved markedly in all 23 patients. Bulk-related symptoms improved in 12 (92.30%) of 13 patients. The baseline UFS-QOL score was 43.13 and improved to 11.88 (p?uterine fibroids. PMID:26414280

  9. Reproductive Outcome Following Hysteroscopic Treatment of Uterine Septum

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Andarieh, Maryam Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Septate uterus is the most common uterine anomaly and a cause for miscarriage and infertility. Existing data suggested a better reproductive outcome of uterine septum following hysteroscopic septum resection. Objective: Current study was administered to share our experience in hystroscopic septum resection for reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic treatment of uterine septum and specifically focusing on different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic septum resection. Methods& materials: This study was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data that was obtained from medical records of infertile women who had undergone transvaginal hysteroscopy and used different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic correction of uterine septum in Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center between April 2005 and February 2014. Results: The total number of infertile women underwent hysteroscopy uterine septoplasty was 106. The hysteroscopy septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 67% and a live birth 57.5%. Pregnancy rate for patients who had not male infertility was 92.1%. The chi-square test did not reveal any statistically significant difference in side affect, pregnancy, live birth, abortion, preterm deliveries, and term deliveries rate between these patients either with consistent hormone therapy plus IUD insertion or with alternate hormone therapy plus IUD after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated hysteroscopic septum resection to remove a uterine septum in women with infertility is safe and may be an efficacious procedure. Treatment following hysteroscopic septum resection, either the consistent or the alternate protocol is both beneficial to improve pregnancy rate. PMID:25685079

  10. Tri-acryl gelatin microsphere is better than polyvinyl alcohol in the treatment of uterine myomas with uterine artery embolization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Jiang, Fang; Wang, Xinbo

    2015-01-01

    This study is to compare the outcomes of tri-acryl gelatin microspheres (TAGM) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the treatment of uterine myomas with uterine artery embolization (UAE). Meta-analysis was performed by electronic literature searches from databases including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE and meta Register of Controlled Trials for studies published prior to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials comparing TAGM and PVA treating uterine myomas were included in the analysis. Information retrieved from each study included study design, number of participants, study settings, patient characteristics, sample size, follow-up duration and outcomes. Imaging outcomes and clinical outcomes were the main criteria for the evaluation of the included studies. Twenty-eight articles published from 1966 to December 2014 were retrieved through database searching and other sources. After initial screening and assessment, five randomized controlled trials, including 309 women with uterine myomas, met the inclusion criteria. In both imaging and clinical outcomes, TAGM group showed superior or similar effects than PVA group. The results showed more number of patients with significant tumor enhancement, greater mean change in tumor volume, greater mean changes in symptom score and QOL score in TAGM group compared with PVA group, with significant differences. TAGM and PVA groups had similar uterine volume, mean changes in bleeding score and pain score. TAGM is better than PVA as an embolic agent in the treatment of uterine myomas with UAE. PMID:26309526

  11. [Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reyes, G

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

  12. Uterine Artery Embolization Versus Laparoscopic Uterine Artery Occlusion: The Outcomes of a Prospective, Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna; Maskova, Jana; Horak, Petr; Belsan, Tomas; Kuzel, David

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of two different types of occlusive therapy of uterine fibroids. Methods: Women with fibroid(s) unsuitable for laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) were treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) or laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO). Results: Before the procedure, patients treated with UAE (n = 100) had a dominant fibroid greater in size (68 vs. 48 mm) and a mean age lower (33.1 vs. 34.9 years) than surgically treated patients (n = 100). After 6 months, mean shrinkage of fibroid volume was 53 % after UAE and 39 % after LUAO (p = 0.063); 82 % of women after UAE, but only 23 % after LUAO, had complete myoma infarction (p = 0.001). Women treated with UAE had more complications (31 vs. 11 cases, p = 0.006) and greater incidence of hysteroscopically verified intrauterine necrosis (31 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001). Both groups were comparable in markers of ovarian functions and number of nonelective reinterventions. The groups did not differ in pregnancy (69 % after UAE vs. 67 % after LUAO), delivery (50 vs. 46 %), or abortion (34 vs. 33 %) rates. The mean birth weight of neonates was greater (3270 vs. 2768 g, p = 0.013) and the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction lower (13 vs. 38 %, p = 0.046) in post-UAE patients. Conclusion: Both methods are effective in the treatment of women with future reproductive plans and fibroids not suitable for LM. UAE is more effective in causing complete ischemia of fibroids, but it is associated with greater risk of intrauterine necrosis. Both methods have low rate of serious complications (except for a high abortion rate).

  13. Factors Influencing the Dosimetry for High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Song; Zhang, Lian; Hu, Liang; Chen, Jinyun; Ju, Jin; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhibiao; Chen, Wenzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article is to analyze factors affecting sonication dose and build a dosimetry model of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for uterine fibroids. Four hundred and three patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent HIFU were retrospectively analyzed. The energy efficiency factor (EEF) was set as dependent variable, and the factors possibly affecting sonication dose included age, body mass index, size of uterine fibroid, abdominal wall thickness, the distance from uterine fibroid dorsal side to sacrum, the distance from uterine fibroid ventral side to skin, location of uterus, location of uterine fibroids, type of uterine fibroids, abdominal wall scar, signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and enhancement type on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) were set as predictors to build a multiple regression model. The size of uterine fibroid, distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, location of uterus, location of uterine fibroids, type of uterine fibroids, signal intensity on T2WI, and enhancement type on T1WI had a linear correlation with EEF. The distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, enhancement type on T1WI, size of uterine fibroid, and signal intensity on T2WI were eventually incorporated into the dosimetry model. The distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, enhancement type on T1WI, size of uterine fibroid, and signal intensity on T2WI can be used as dosimetric predictors for HIFU for uterine fibroids. PMID:25837756

  14. Uterine polyps with features overlapping with those of Müllerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 29 cases emphasizing their likely benign nature.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Quade, Bradley J; Nucci, Marisa R

    2015-01-01

    Müllerian adenosarcoma (MA) is a mixed Müllerian neoplasm composed of malignant stroma and benign epithelium. Endometrial and endocervical polyps are common entities in surgical pathology practice and most can be readily distinguished from MA; however, some have overlapping features, causing diagnostic confusion. In this study, we examined uterine polyps falling short of the diagnosis of MA quantitatively, qualitatively, or both. Our aims were to (1) characterize formally the morphologic features of atypical uterine polyps and (2) determine clinical outcome. Cases were evaluated for morphologic features of MA (phyllodes-like architecture, intraglandular polypoid projections, altered periglandular stroma, and stromal cytologic atypia), and the maximum number of mitoses per 10 high-power fields. The percentage involvement within a polyp by any atypical feature was estimated. The most common change was abnormal architecture, although periglandular stromal abnormalities and increased mitoses were also frequent findings. Stromal cytologic atypia was rare and when present was focal and mild. Histologic follow-up was performed in 24/29 (86%). Two patients had uterine polyps with unusual features similar to those noted on the initial biopsy. The remainder showed either polyp without unusual features or no residual polyp. Clinical follow-up information was available for 28/29 (97%). Twenty-seven of 28 were alive without evidence of disease, whereas 1 patient had died of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We have shown that uterine polyps with features overlapping with those of MA have a benign clinical course, even with conservative management, as no cases showed progression or malignant transformation. PMID:25118811

  15. abnormalities in infants and toddlers

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    , Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

  16. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  17. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  18. A novel uterine manipulator incorporating non-local controls and lateral motion

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Wan-Ni

    2013-01-01

    The work described in the paper was driven by a clinical need for a better uterine manipulator during laparoscopic gynecological procedures, including both hysterectomy and hysteroscopy. The primary purpose of the uterine ...

  19. Integrated Molecular Characterization of Uterine Carcinosarcoma - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Integrated Molecular Characterization of Uterine Carcinosarcoma - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symp Integrated Molecular Characterization of Uterine Carcinosarcoma - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symposium

  20. Fronto-parietal hypo-activation during working memory independent of structural abnormalities: Conjoint fMRI and sMRI analyses in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Pruitt, Patrick; Goradia, Dhruman; Murphy, Eric; Bakshi, Neil; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Rajan, Usha; Reid, Andrew; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients (HR-S) are an important group in whom to study impaired brain function and structure, particularly of the frontal cortices. Studies of working memory have suggested behavioral deficits and fMRI-measured hypoactivity in fronto-parietal regions in these subjects. Independent structural MRI (sMRI) studies have suggested exaggerated frontal gray matter decline. Therefore the emergent view is that fronto-parietal deficits in function and structure characterize HR-S. However, it is unknown if fronto-parietal sub-regions in which fMRI-measured hypo-activity might be observed are precisely those regions of the cortex in which gray matter deficits are also observed. To investigate this question we conducted conjoint analyses of fronto-parietal function and structure in HR-S (n=19) and controls (n=24) with no family history of psychoses using fMRI data during a continuous working memory task (2 Back), and sMRI collected in the same session. HR-S demonstrated significantly reduced BOLD activation in left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/46) and bilateral parietal cortex (BA 7/40). Sub-regions of interest were created from the significant fronto-parietal functional clusters. Analyses of gray matter volume from volume-modulated gray matter segments in these clusters did not reveal significant gray matter differences between groups. The results suggest that functional impairments in adolescent HR-S can be independent of impairments in structure, suggesting that the relationship between impaired function and structure is complex. Further studies will be needed to more closely assess whether impairments in function and structure provide independent or interacting pathways of vulnerability in this population. PMID:21729757

  1. 3D ultrasound image guidance system used in RF uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding ablation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingyue; Luo, Xiaoan; Cai, Chao; Zhou, Chengping; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese women. Many women lose their fertility from these diseases. Currently, a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode is being used in Chinese hospitals to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding. In this paper, we report on a 3D US guidance system developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localization of the tumor position during treatment. A 3D US imaging system using a rotational scanning approach of an abdominal probe was built. In order to reduce the distortion produced when the rotational axis is not collinear with the central beam of the probe, a new 3D reconstruction algorithm is used. Then, a fast 3D needle segmentation algorithm is used to find the electrode. Finally, the tip of electrode is determined along the segmented 3D needle and the whole electrode is displayed. Experiments with a water phantom demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  2. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  3. Uterine Leiomyoma With Osteoclast-like Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Marie-Christine; Samouëlian, Vanessa; Rahimi, Kurosh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous histologic variants of uterine leiomyomas have been described. The main interest in recognizing these variants is differentiating them from leiomyosarcoma. Osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGC) have been described in association with leiomyosarcoma but to our knowledge, never with leiomyoma. We here report the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent an elective total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial atypical complex hyperplasia. Multiple typical uterine leiomyoma were identified. One of them showed numerous OLGC admixed with fascicules of bland smooth muscle cells. No atypical features were identified in multiple sections of this otherwise classic uterine leiomyoma. The OLGC showed strong positivity for CD68. The patient, on follow-up, did not show any evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. This unusual finding expands the morphologic spectrum of uterine leiomyomas. When confronted with a uterine smooth muscle cell tumor with an OLGC component, it is important to search for atypical features diagnostic of leiomyosarcoma. PMID:26166717

  4. Uterine blood flow indices, antinuclear autoantibodies and unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Pietropolli, A.; Capogna, M. V.; Bernardini, S.; Piccione, E.; Ticconi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between 2D and 3D uterine flow indexes and the presence or the absence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (uRM). Methods Fifty-two subjects (26 uRM and 26 control women) underwent 2D Doppler measurement of pulsatility index and resistance index of the uterine arteries in both the follicular and midluteal phase of the cycle. Additionally, 3D ultrasonography determination of vascularisation index, flow index, and vascularisation flow index was carried out with the aid of the VOCAL technique. Serum assay for the presence of ANA was performed in all women. Results Pulsatility index of ANA+ uRM women was higher than that of ANA- uRM women and control ANA+ and ANAwomen, both in the follicular and in the midluteal phase of the cycle. Vascularisation index in ANA- uRM women was significantly higher than that in ANA+ control women. Flow index in uRM ANA+ women was significantly lower than that of each of the other groups. Conclusion ANA might be involved in uRM by determining an impairment in uterine blood flow hemodynamic, particularly in uterine blood flow intensity and uterine artery impedance. PMID:26623408

  5. Composition, Development, and Function of Uterine Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balmas, Elisa; Boulenouar, Selma; Gaynor, Louise M.; Kieckbusch, Jens; Gardner, Lucy; Hawkes, Delia A.; Barbara, Cynthia F.; Sharkey, Andrew M.; Brady, Hugh J. M.; Brosens, Jan J.; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including NK cells, contribute to barrier immunity and tissue homeostasis. In addition to the role of uterine NK cells in placentation and fetal growth, other uterine ILCs (uILCs) are likely to play roles in uterine physiology and pathology. In this article, we report on the composition of uILCs in the endometrium during the luteal phase and in the decidua during early pregnancy. Whereas nonkiller uILC1s and uILC2s are barely detectable in mouse and not detected in humans, a sizeable population of uILC3s is found in human endometrium and decidua, which are mostly NCR+ and partially overlap with previously described IL-22–producing uterine NK cells. Development of mouse uILC3 is Nfil3 independent, suggesting unique features of uILCs. Indeed, although the cytokine production profile of mouse uILCs recapitulates that described in other tissues, IL-5, IL-17, and IL-22 are constitutively produced by uILC2s and uILC3s. This study lays the foundation to understand how ILCs function in the specialized uterine mucosa, both in tissue homeostasis and barrier immunity and during pregnancy. PMID:26371244

  6. Composition, Development, and Function of Uterine Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Doisne, Jean-Marc; Balmas, Elisa; Boulenouar, Selma; Gaynor, Louise M; Kieckbusch, Jens; Gardner, Lucy; Hawkes, Delia A; Barbara, Cynthia F; Sharkey, Andrew M; Brady, Hugh J M; Brosens, Jan J; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco

    2015-10-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including NK cells, contribute to barrier immunity and tissue homeostasis. In addition to the role of uterine NK cells in placentation and fetal growth, other uterine ILCs (uILCs) are likely to play roles in uterine physiology and pathology. In this article, we report on the composition of uILCs in the endometrium during the luteal phase and in the decidua during early pregnancy. Whereas nonkiller uILC1s and uILC2s are barely detectable in mouse and not detected in humans, a sizeable population of uILC3s is found in human endometrium and decidua, which are mostly NCR(+) and partially overlap with previously described IL-22-producing uterine NK cells. Development of mouse uILC3 is Nfil3 independent, suggesting unique features of uILCs. Indeed, although the cytokine production profile of mouse uILCs recapitulates that described in other tissues, IL-5, IL-17, and IL-22 are constitutively produced by uILC2s and uILC3s. This study lays the foundation to understand how ILCs function in the specialized uterine mucosa, both in tissue homeostasis and barrier immunity and during pregnancy. PMID:26371244

  7. Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesekera, N. T. Padley, S. P.; Kazmi, F.; Davies, C. L.; McCall, J. M.

    2009-09-15

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.

  8. Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

  9. Abnormal arrangement of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix orthogonal to osteoblast alignment is constructed by a nanoscale periodic surface structure.

    PubMed

    Matsugaki, Aira; Aramoto, Gento; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and directional alteration of cells is essential for structurally appropriate construction of tissues and organs. In particular, osteoblast alignment is crucial for the realization of anisotropic bone tissue microstructure. In this article, the orientation of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix (ECM) was established by controlling osteoblast alignment using a surface geometry with nanometer-sized periodicity induced by laser ablation. Laser irradiation induced self-organized periodic structures (laser-induced periodic surface structures; LIPSS) with a spatial period equal to the wavelength of the incident laser on the surface of biomedical alloys of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo. Osteoblast orientation was successfully induced parallel to the grating structure. Notably, both the fibrous orientation of the secreted collagen matrix and the c-axis of the produced apatite crystals were orientated orthogonal to the cell direction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy is controllable, including the characteristic organization of a collagen/apatite composite orthogonal to the osteoblast orientation, by controlling the cell alignment using periodic surface geometry. PMID:25453944

  10. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research. PMID:26468082

  11. Placental accommodations for transport and metabolism during intra-uterine crowding in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Litter size and birth weights are limited by uterine capacity, defined as the ability of the uterus to maintain the appropriate development of some number of conceptuses. Uterine capacity is the result of the combined effects of uterine, placental and embryo/fetal function. The number of living conc...

  12. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  13. Modulation of the baboon (Papio anubis) uterine endometrium by chorionic gonadotrophin during the period of uterine receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Fazleabas, Asgerally T.; Donnelly, Kathleen M.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Fortman, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Josephine B.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the modulation of uterine function by chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) in a nonhuman primate. Infusion of recombinant human CG (hCG) between days 6 and 10 post ovulation initiated the endoreplication of the uterine surface epithelium to form distinct epithelial plaques. These plaque cells stained intensely for cytokeratin and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The stromal fibroblasts below the epithelial plaques stained positively for ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA). Expression of ?SMA is associated with the initiation of decidualization in the baboon endometrium. Synthesis of the glandular secretory protein glycodelin, as assessed by Western blot analysis, was markedly up-regulated by hCG, and this increase was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, Northern blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-PCR. To determine whether hCG directly modulated these uterine responses, we treated ovariectomized baboons sequentially with estradiol and progesterone to mimic the hormonal profile of the normal menstrual cycle. Infusion of hCG into the oviduct of steroid-hormone-treated ovariectomized baboons induced the expression of ?SMA in the stromal cells and glycodelin in the glandular epithelium. The epithelial plaque reaction, however, was not readily evident. These studies demonstrate a physiological effect of CG on the uterine endometrium in vivo and suggest that the primate blastocyst signal, like the blastocyst signals of other species, modulates the uterine environment prior to implantation. PMID:10051679

  14. Chronic Total Uterine Inversion in a Young Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Tekin, Bulent; Merdin, Alparslan; Coban, Ozgur; Arslan, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 17 Final Diagnosis: Chronic total uterine inversion Symptoms: Abdominal pain • vaginal bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: After manual vaginal procedure to turn the uterus into normal position had failed, surgery was done Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology Objective: Rare disease Background: Chronic uterine inversion is a very rare and life-threatening disease. It requires emergent treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 17-year-old patient with chronic uterine inversion. A fragile, bleeding, and soft mass, which filled the entire vagina, was seen during vaginal inspection. There was also a hard and tight cervical ring palpated behind the mass. She was operated on with Haultain technique. She was treated in the first post-partum year. She had normal menstrual bleeding and normal sexual intercourse after 1 month of outpatient control. Conclusions: Immediate diagnosis and treatment of isolated chronic inversion decreases maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26494120

  15. Abnormalities in brain structure and biochemistry associated with mdx mice measured by in vivo MRI and high resolution localized (1)H MRS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su; Shi, Da; Pratt, Stephen J P; Zhu, Wenjun; Marshall, Andrew; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disorder caused by the lack of dystrophin, is characterized by the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles. To date, what is known about dystrophin function is derived from studies of dystrophin-deficient animals, with the most common model being the mdx mouse. Most studies on patients with DMD and in mdx mice have focused on skeletal muscle and the development of therapies to reverse, or at least slow, the severe muscle wasting and progressive degeneration. However, dystrophin is also expressed in the CNS. Both mdx mice and patients with DMD can have cognitive and behavioral changes, but studies in the dystrophic brain are limited. We examined the brain structure and metabolites of mature wild type (WT) and mdx mice using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/MRS). Both structural and metabolic alterations were observed in the mdx brain. Enlarged lateral ventricles were detected in mdx mice when compared to WT. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed elevations in diffusion diffusivities in the prefrontal cortex and a reduction of fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Metabolic changes included elevations in phosphocholine and glutathione, and a reduction in ?-aminobutyric acid in the hippocampus. In addition, an elevation in taurine was observed in the prefrontal cortex. Such findings indicate a regional structural change, altered cellular antioxidant defenses, a dysfunction of GABAergic neurotransmission, and a perturbed osmoregulation in the brain lacking dystrophin. PMID:26236031

  16. Embolization of uterine fibroids from the point of view of the gynecologist: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna

    2014-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive procedure with large symptomatic potential in treatment of women with uterine leiomyomas. Due to specificities of this method and possible complications the appropriate indication is crucial. Patient’ symptoms, age, plans for pregnancy, and surgical and reproductive history play a major role in decision-making regarding appropriate subjects for UAE. Close cooperation between the gynecologist and the interventional radiologist is necessary. UAE is usually offered as an alternative to surgical treatment. In patients with no fertility plans, it is a less invasive option than abdominal hysterectomy, with a comparable effect on fibroid-related symptoms and quality of life. The need for reintervention is markedly greater in patients after UAE (up to 35% within 5 years) than after hysterectomy. Women with large symptomatic fibroids wishing to retain the uterus and ineligible for minimally invasive (laparoscopic or vaginal) hysterectomy are good candidates for UAE. However, studies comparing UAE with minimally invasive hysterectomy are lacking. Use of UAE in younger women desiring pregnancy is more controversial, mainly because of the significant risk of miscarriage (as high as 64% in some studies) as well as the increased risk of other complications of pregnancy, such as preterm delivery, abnormal placentation, and post-partum hemorrhage. The risk of infertility or subfertility following UAE is unknown. Even poor candidates for myomectomy should be carefully selected for UAE after counseling about all possible adverse effects on fertility. Good prospective studies focused on fertility comparing UAE with no treatment or with myomectomy are needed but would be ethically questionable. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the benefits and potential risks of UAE from the point of view of the gynecologist, who should be responsible for proper indication of this treatment. PMID:25018653

  17. MR Venography of Deep Veins: Changes with Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Tsuchida, Yoko; Nara, Yoshinori

    2009-03-15

    Deep veins (DVs) can be compressed by a uterus enlarged with fibroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a myomatous uterus, and the change in DV narrowing in women with symptomatic fibroids after embolization using time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Twenty-nine consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent TOF-MRV and pelvic MRI before and 4 months after embolization. Based on the TOF-MRV, we evaluated the luminal narrowing of three DVs, including the inferior vena cava, and the bilateral common and external iliac veins, and divided the findings into three grades. The scores for each DV were added for each patient (lowest, 0; highest, 6). DV scores and symptom severity (SS) scores were compared between the baseline and 4 months after embolization using the paired t-test. The relationship between DV scores and uterine volume was investigated using Pearson's test. DV scores decreased significantly, from 1.52 {+-} 1.70 at baseline to 0.93 {+-} 1.56 at 4 months after embolization (p = 0.004). The uterine volume decreased from 948 {+-} 647 mL at baseline to 617 {+-} 417 mL at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). DV score correlated with uterine volume (r = 0.856, p < 0.001). SS scores decreased from 54.5 {+-} 14.6 at baseline to 26.8 {+-} 15.4 at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a uterus with fibroids is correlated with the uterine volume. Uterine artery embolization may induce an improvement of luminal narrowing of DVs due to a reduction of the myomatous uterus volume.

  18. Mapping the immunosuppressive environment in uterine tumors: implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Anke; Luyten, Catherine; Verbist, Godelieve; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frederic

    2014-06-01

    The major hurdle for cancer vaccines to be effective is posed by tumor immune evasion. Several common immune mechanisms and mediators are exploited by tumors to avoid immune destruction. In an attempt to shed more light on the immunosuppressive environment in uterine tumors, we analyzed the presence of PD-L1, PDL2, B7-H4, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), galectin- 1, galectin-3, arginase-1 activity and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) infiltration. IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PDL2 was mostly expressed at low levels in these tumors. We found high IDO expression in 21 % of endometrial carcinoma samples and in 14 % of uterine sarcoma samples. For PD-L1 and B7-H4, we found high expression in 92 and 90 % of endometrial cancers, respectively, and in 100 and 92 % of the sarcomas. Galectin-1 and 3 were analyzed in tissue lysates by ELISA, but we did not find an increase in both molecules in tumor lysates compared with benign tissues. We detected expression of galectin-3 by fibroblasts, immune cells and tumor cells in single-cell tumor suspensions. In addition, we noted a highly significant increase in arginase-1 activity in endometrial carcinomas compared with normal endometria, which was not the case for uterine sarcomas. Finally, we could demonstrate MDSC infiltration in fresh tumor suspensions from uterine tumors. These results indicate that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and B7-H4 could be possible targets for immune intervention in uterine cancer patients as well as mediation of MDSC function. These observations are another step toward the implementation of inhibitors of immunosuppression in the treatment of uterine cancer patients. PMID:24658839

  19. Total and acute uterine inversion after delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Uterine inversion is a rare obstetric emergency that can lead to hypovolemic shock or even maternal death. There are many management strategies, but they are poorly described and dispersed in the medical literature. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of complete acute uterine inversion and a review of the literature. Case presentation The authors describe a case of complete uterine inversion after a normal delivery with fundal placenta and without cord traction, in a 33-year-old Caucasian woman. After the diagnosis was made and after several attempts of manual correction of the inversion, the patient was taken immediately to the operating room and a laparotomy was performed. With opposing pressures in the cervical ring through the abdominal cavity and on the uterus fundus through her vagina, the inversion was resolved. An incision on the cervical ring was unnecessary. Due to incomplete detachment of the placenta the bleeding was mild. She recovered without complications and the histological examination of placenta was unremarkable. In this case, the only risk factor for uterine inversion was the fundal implantation of the placenta. Conclusions The low incidence of uterine inversion leads to sparse experience in resolving this obstetrical emergency. The best prognosis occurs in situations where the diagnosis and maneuvers for uterine reversal are made at an early stage. The authors concluded that opposing pressures in the cervical ring through the abdominal cavity and on the uterus fundus through the vagina can resolve the inversion without the need of other surgical techniques. It is essential to keep in mind this diagnosis, and be updated about the strategies required to solve this complication. PMID:25326075

  20. Humoral hypercalcemic crisis in a pregnant woman with uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Rahil, Ali; Khan, Fahmi Yousef

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated hypercalcemic crisis in a 36-year-old pregnant woman, who was admitted to women hospital with recurrent vomiting and epigastric pain. She was diagnosed with uterine fibroid since the first month of her pregnancy, but the pregnancy had been uneventful. Serum calcium was 4.8 mmol/l, while parathyroid hormone was low. Hypercalcemia was attributed to humoral hypercalcemia associated with uterine fibroid as other causes of hypercalcemia were excluded. PMID:22416164

  1. Cellular Regulation of the Uterine Microenvironment That Enables Embryo Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Hämmerling, Günter J.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of the fertilized egg into the maternal uterus is a crucial step in pregnancy establishment. Increasing evidence suggests that its success depends on various cell types of the innate immune system and on the fine balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes. In addition, it has recently been established that regulatory T cells play a superordinate role in dictating the quality of uterine environment required for successful pregnancy. Here, we discuss the cellular regulation of uterine receptivity with emphasis on the function and regulation of cells from the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:26136750

  2. [Development of portable uterine contraction pressure monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Zhidong; Sun, Shuqiang; Du, Jiayou

    2014-11-01

    For the high cost and mobility issues, a home uterine contraction pressure monitoring system based on Windows CE platform was developed. In this paper, the design of hardware circuit, micro-controller system and LabVIEW program based on Windows CE are discussed. The clinical validation experiment in hospital for this system was made and the experimental results show that this system complies with the trend that current medical equipment is becoming portable, homely and networked. Through real-time monitoring uterine contraction pressure, occurrence of premature birth and abortion can be prevented effectively. PMID:25980127

  3. Delayed urethral obstruction after uterine torsion in a pregnant dog.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Debbie; Campbell, Bonnie G

    2011-01-01

    A 4 yr old pregnant female shih tzu was presented with abdominal discomfort and bloody vulvar discharge. The nongravid uterine horn was reflected caudally over the trigone, obstructing urine outflow. A cesarian section and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Postoperatively, the hematuria and pollakiuria resolved. Seventeen days later, the pelvic urethra was completely obstructed by a soft tissue mass that was identified by rectal palpation, blocked catheterization attempts, contrast radiography, ultrasonography, and surgery. Management included temporary cystostomy tube and definitive prepubic urethrostomy. Histologic diagnosis was severe, multifocal, necrosuppurative urethritis with fibroplasia, fibrosis, and cellulitis, apparently secondary to ischemia. Delayed urethral obstruction is a potential complication of canine uterine torsion. PMID:21896835

  4. A primitive lymphoma of the uterine cervix. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pasini, F; Iuzzolino, P; Santo, A; Perini, A; Sabbioni, R; Zannoni, M; Zaninelli, M; Cetto, G L

    1991-01-01

    A case of primitive lymphoma of the uterine cervix is discussed. After two years of vaginal post-coital bleeding, the echography showed the presence of a supraisthmic mass. The patient underwent a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The histology was consistent with a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), follicular centre derived. The patient was staged as IIE and treated with six cycles of chemotherapy (CHOP), achieving a complete remission. The paper stresses the value of histology in the diagnosis of lymphoma of the uterine cervix and the effectiveness of the treatment, and reviews the relevant literature. PMID:2055224

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contents Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Exercises Related Articles Exercise for People with Multiple Sclerosis - Series II Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Walking Program to Reduce Secondary Conditions in Adolescents with Autism Volkssport: The Foundations for a Lifetime ...

  6. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  7. Uterine Leiomyoma and Prolapse in a Live-stranded Atlantic Spotted Dolphin (Stenella frontalis).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Delgado, J; Fernández, A; Edwards, J F; Sierra, E; Xuriach, A; García-Álvarez, N; Sacchini, S; Groch, K R; Andrada, M; Arbelo, M

    2015-07-01

    A uterine prolapse associated with a leiomyoma (fibroid) was observed in a live-stranded Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). A 7 cm segment of the reproductive tract including the cervix, uterine neck and caudal uterine body had intussuscepted and prolapsed into the cranial vaginal vault. In the leading edge of the intussuscepted/prolapsed uterine wall was a 6 × 3 × 3.5 cm leiomyoma expanding the myometrium. The leiomyoma and prolapse were associated with necrotizing exposure endometritis. This is the first report of a uterine prolapse associated with a leiomyoma in a cetacean. This lesion was believed to be the underlying cause of the live stranding. PMID:25979681

  8. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

  9. "Ears of the lynx" sign in a marchiafava-bignami patient: structural basis and fiber-tracking DTI contribution to the understanding of this imaging abnormality.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Felipe Torres; Rego, Milena Morais; do Rego, Jose Iram Mendonça; da Rocha, Antonio J

    2014-01-01

    The "ears of the lynx" sign was previously reported as a neuroimaging finding observed in patients with autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia in association with a thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC). We report a patient with a chronic form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) that presented with this imaging feature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber-tracking data support that this finding is a consequence of the structural derangement, which enlarges a preexisting border zone of the bundles of fibers from the corpus callosum (CC) genu to the forceps minor and anterior corona radiata. Therefore, we assume that despite their pathological differences, damage to the anterior portion of the CC is responsible for the imaging similarities between MBD and ARHSP-TCC. PMID:23216703

  10. Skeletal Muscle Expression of the Adhesion-GPCR CD97: CD97 Deletion Induces an Abnormal Structure of the Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum but Does Not Impair Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Zyryanova, Tatiana; Schneider, Rick; Adams, Volker; Sittig, Doreen; Kerner, Christiane; Gebhardt, Claudia; Ruffert, Henrik; Glasmacher, Stefan; Hepp, Pierre; Punkt, Karla; Neuhaus, Jochen; Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    CD97 is a widely expressed adhesion class G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR). Here, we investigated the presence of CD97 in normal and malignant human skeletal muscle as well as the ultrastructural and functional consequences of CD97 deficiency in mice. In normal human skeletal muscle, CD97 was expressed at the peripheral sarcolemma of all myofibers, as revealed by immunostaining of tissue sections and surface labeling of single myocytes using flow cytometry. In muscle cross-sections, an intracellular polygonal, honeycomb-like CD97-staining pattern, typical for molecules located in the T-tubule or sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR), was additionally found. CD97 co-localized with SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a constituent of the longitudinal SR, but not with the receptors for dihydropyridine (DHPR) or ryanodine (RYR), located in the T-tubule and terminal SR, respectively. Intracellular expression of CD97 was higher in slow-twitch compared to most fast-twitch myofibers. In rhabdomyosarcomas, CD97 was strongly upregulated and in part more N-glycosylated compared to normal skeletal muscle. All tumors were strongly CD97-positive, independent of the underlying histological subtype, suggesting high sensitivity of CD97 for this tumor. Ultrastructural analysis of murine skeletal myofibers confirmed the location of CD97 in the SR. CD97 knock-out mice had a dilated SR, resulting in a partial increase in triad diameter yet not affecting the T-tubule, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial structure. Despite these obvious ultrastructural changes, intracellular Ca2+ release from single myofibers, force generation and fatigability of isolated soleus muscles, and wheel-running capacity of mice were not affected by the lack of CD97. We conclude that CD97 is located in the SR and at the peripheral sarcolemma of human and murine skeletal muscle, where its absence affects the structure of the SR without impairing skeletal muscle function. PMID:24949957

  11. Evaluation of uterine artery recanalization and doppler parameters after bilateral uterine artery ligation in women with postpartum hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kaplanoglu, Mustafa; Karateke, Atilla; Un, Burak; Gunsoy, Levend; Baloglu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of the uterine artery recanalization rate and color Doppler parameters during follow-up after bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) related to uterine atony. Material and method: A total of 40 female patients who underwent BUAL for PPH related to uterine atony and 96 females who gave birth without complication at Hatay Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital between January 2009 and December 2012 (48 months) were included in the study. The patients’ uterine artery recanalization rate and all subjects’ color Doppler ultrasonographic parameters (PI, RI, PSV and EDV) were evaluated at the 6th and 12th months. Result: No statistically significant difference was found between the age, obstetric history (gravida and parity), BMI, type of delivery, birth weight and gestational age when the demographic data of the groups were evaluated. The patient group UtA recanalization rate was 32.5% and 37.5% for the left and right UtA respectively at the 12-month follow-up. No statistically significant difference was found in the comparison of 6- and 12-month right and left uterine artery diameters and color doppler parameters of the patient group (UtA diameters P=0.322 and P=0.787, RI index P=0.390 and P=0.094, PI index P=0.949 and P=0.374, PSV P=0.335 and P=0.085, EDV P=0.173 and P=0.418, respectively). However, right and left ovarian volume was found to significantly increase during follow-up in patient group (P<0.001 for both right and left ovary). On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was found between the patient group and the control group in the comparison of the 6- and 12-month right and left uterine artery values (6th month; P<0.001 for both UtA diameters, RI, PI, PSV, EDV; 12th month; P<0.001 for right UtA diameter, RI, PI, PSV, EDV and P=0.002 for left UtA diameter). A statistically significant difference was found only in right ovary volume in the 6th month evaluation of the patient and control group ovary volumes (P=0.011). Discussion: The recanalization rate and isolated uterine blood supply during low-term follow-up are low following the BUAL technique. The evaluation of future fertility results will be helpful in determining the reliability of this procedure in a definite manner. PMID:26221335

  12. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  13. Variant Bernard-Soulier syndrome type bolzano. A congenital bleeding disorder due to a structural and functional abnormality of the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, L; Mazzucato, M; Fabris, F; De Roia, D; Coser, P; Girolami, A; Vicente, V; Ruggeri, Z M

    1990-01-01

    We have studied a patient with a congenital bleeding disorder and phenotypic manifestations typical of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, including giant platelets with absent ristocetin-induced von Willebrand factor binding. Two monoclonal antibodies reacting with distinct epitopes in the amino-terminal domain of the alpha-chain of glycoprotein (GP) Ib were used to estimate the number of GP Ib molecules on the platelet membrane. In the patient, binding of one antibody (LJ-Ib10) was approximately 50% of normal, while binding of the other (LJ-Ib1) was absent. Binding of both antibodies was reduced to approximately 50% of normal in the mother and one sister of the propositus, and their platelets exhibited approximately 70% of normal von Willebrand factor binding. Immunoblotting studies confirmed the presence of GP Ib alpha, as well as GP IX, in patient platelets. Antibody LJ-Ib10, but not LJ-Ib1, could immunoprecipitate the patient's GP Ib alpha from surface-labeled proteins. Thus, platelets from the propositus contained a structurally and functionally altered GP Ib-IX complex lacking a specific antibody epitope and the ability to bind von Willebrand factor. In contrast, the binding of human alpha-thrombin to the patient's platelets was normal, and three classes of binding sites with high, intermediate, and low affinity could be detected. These studies define a distinct variant form of Bernard-Soulier syndrome and provide evidence, based on a naturally occurring mutant molecule, that the amino-terminal region of GP Ib alpha contains a von Willebrand factor-binding domain distinct from the high affinity thrombin-binding site. Use of different monoclonal antibodies with distinct epitope specificities appears to be essential for a correct identification of variant Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Images PMID:1694864

  14. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D; Allen, Matthew R; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I

    2015-12-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43(?CT/fl)) were studied. Cx43(?CT/fl) mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43(fl/fl) controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43(?CT) is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43(?CT) mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43(?CT) were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions. PMID:26409319

  15. UTERINE RESPONSE TO INFECTIOUS BACTERIA IN ESTROUS CYCLIC EWES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luteal-phase uteri are susceptible to infections, and PGE2 and exogenous progesterone can down-regulate, whereas PGF2a can up-regulate, uterine immune functions. To study this phenomenon, uteri of follicular- or luteal-phase ewes were inoculated with either saline or bacteria (Arcanobacterium pyogen...

  16. An Uterine Electromyographic Activity as a Measure of Labor Progression

    E-print Network

    Ljubljana, University of

    (hyperplasia). The uterus should accommodate the growing fetus, and support the fetus through sustained muscle; it thins and dilates around fetus (Schwalm & Dubrauszky, 1966; Chard & Grudzinskas, 1994). The uterine the cavity of the uterus (inner wall). Its function is nourishing the fetus during pregnancy. The middle

  17. Placental transcriptome profile differences associated with selection for uterine capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations for uterine capacity (UC) resulted in 1.6 more live pigs born with no change in birth and placental weights. It was determined that the critical time period for the difference in litter size was established between d 25 and 45 of gestation. Our objective was to gain in...

  18. Impact of Selection for Uterine Capacity on the Placental Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct single trait selection for 11 generations resulted in a 1.6 pig advantage for uterine capacity (UC) while average birth and placental weights at term remained unchanged. A serial slaughter experiment conducted throughout gestation determined the critical time period for the line difference ...

  19. Characterization and estrogen regulation of uterine growth factor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Acid extracts of rat, bovine and rabbit uterus stimulated glucose transport, measured by phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose and DNA synthesis, measured by {sup 3}H-thymidne incorporation, in uterine tumor cells and in primary cultures of rat uterine cells. The stimulation of glucose transport was of the same magnitude and followed the same time course as estradiol stimulation in vivo. Uteri from estradiol-treated rat uteri contained 4 times more glucose transport-stimulating activity as control uteri. DNA synthetic activity in rat uterine homogenates was elevated 3-fold within 18-24 h after estradiol injection. Gel filtration showed molecular weight heterogeneity with activity eluting between 10-30 kDA. Both activities were acid and heat stable, were reduced by trypsin but not by dextran-coated charcoal. The effect of purified growth factors on DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat uterine cells was examined. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblasts growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) had no effect on {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation.

  20. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2010-02-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neurone function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation in both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  1. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  2. Histopathologic differences account for racial disparity in uterine cancer survival?,??

    PubMed Central

    Smotkin, David; Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Harris, Kimala; Einstein, Mark H.; Yu, Yiting; Goldberg, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The incidence for uterine cancers has been reported to be higher among white women, whereas mortality is higher among black women. Reasons for the higher mortality among black women are not completely understood. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, histopathologic subtype, and survival in uterine cancer. Methods We abstracted socio-demographic, treatment, and survival data for all women who were diagnosed with uterine cancer at Montefiore Medical Center from January 1999 through December 2009. Pathology records were reviewed. Results 984 patients were identified. Racial/ethnic distribution was 382 (39%) white, 308 (31%) black, 232 (24%) Hispanic, and 62 (6.3%) other races, mixed, or unknown. 592 (60%) patients had endometrioid histology. Blacks were much more likely than whites to have non-endometrioid histologies (p<0.001), including papillary serous, carcinosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Blacks and Hispanics were at least as likely as whites to receive either chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The hazard ratio for death for black versus white patients was 1.94 (p<0.001) when all histological subtypes were included. The hazard ratio for Hispanics for death was 1.2 (p=0.32) compared to whites. However, when patients were divided into endometrioid and non-endometrioid histological subtypes, there was no significant difference in survival by race/ethnicity. Conclusion Black patients with uterine cancer are much more likely to die and are much more likely to have non-endometrioid histologies than white patients. There are no differences in survival among white, black, or Hispanic women with uterine cancer, after control for histological subtype. PMID:22940487

  3. Vectorial secretion of proteoglycans by polarized rat uterine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have studied proteoglycan secretion using a recently developed system for the preparing of polarized primary cultures of rat uterine epithelial cells. To mimic their native environment better and provide a system for discriminating apical from basolateral compartments, we cultured cells on semipermeable supports impregnated with biomatrix. Keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPG) as well as heparan sulfate- containing molecules (HS[PG]) were the major sulfated products synthesized and secreted by these cells. The ability of epithelial cells to secrete KSPG greatly increased in parallel with the development of cell polarity. Furthermore, KSPG secretion occurred preferentially to the apical medium in highly polarized cultures. In contrast, HS(PG) secretion did not increase along with development of polarity, although most HS(PG) (85%) were secreted apically as well. Pulse-chase studies indicated that highly polarized cultures secreted 80-90% of the sulfated macromolecules they synthesized, predominantly to the apical secretory compartment. The half-lives for KSPG and HS(PG) secretion were approximately 3 and 4 h, respectively. Parallel studies of cells cultured on tissue culture plastic-coated with biomatrix indicated that neither the state of confluency nor the biomatrix was primarily responsible for inducing the KSPG secretion observed in polarizing cultures. Experiments with uterine strips indicated that the steroid hormone, 17-beta-estradiol, markedly stimulated synthesis and secretion of sulfated macromolecules, but had no preferential effect on KSPG production. The ratio of KSPG to HS(PG) secretion from uterine strips was similar to that found in the apical medium of highly polarized cell cultures. Thus, the pattern of proteoglycan secretion observed in polarized cell cultures mimicked that observed for uterine cells, although the preferential increase in KSPG production by polarized cells could not be attributed to an estrogen response. Collectively, these studies describe the major sulfated molecules secreted by rat uterine epithelial cells under varying conditions and provide evidence for a novel influence of cell polarity on the cell's ability to secrete sulfated glycoconjugates. PMID:3198693

  4. The uterine gland knock-out ewe: a model to study the role of endometrial glands in uterine function 

    E-print Network

    Gray, Catherine Allison

    2000-01-01

    ; 2) the role of endometrial glands in the uterine-dependent estrous cycle; and 3) the role of endometrial glands in the ability of the uterus to support establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The first study determined the mechanism by which...

  5. Retinal abnormalities in ?-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (?)-thalassemia (?-TM: ?-thalassemia major, ?-TI: ?-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with ?-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with ?-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  6. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  7. EMILIN1 represents a major stromal element determining human trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall.

    PubMed

    Spessotto, Paola; Bulla, Roberta; Danussi, Carla; Radillo, Oriano; Cervi, Marta; Monami, Giada; Bossi, Fleur; Tedesco, Francesco; Doliana, Roberto; Colombatti, Alfonso

    2006-11-01

    The detection of EMILIN1, a connective tissue glycoprotein associated with elastic fibers, at the level of the ectoplacental cone and trophoblast giant cells of developing mouse embryos (Braghetta et al., 2002) favored the idea of a structural as well as a functional role for this protein in the process of placentation. During the establishment of human placenta, a highly migratory subpopulation of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT), originating from anchoring chorionic villi, penetrate and invade the uterine wall. In this study we show that EMILIN1, produced by decidual stromal and smooth muscle uterine cells, is expressed in the stroma and in some instances as a gradient of increasing concentration in the perivascular region of modified vessels. This distribution pattern is consistent with the haptotactic directional migration observed in in vitro functional studies of freshly isolated EVT and of the immortalized HTR-8/SVneo cell line of trophoblasts. Function-blocking monoclonal antibodies against alpha4-integrin chain and against EMILIN1 as well as the use of EMILIN1-specific short interfering RNA confirmed that trophoblasts interact with EMILIN1 and/or its functional gC1q1 domain via alpha4beta1 integrin. Finally, membrane type I-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and MMP-2 were upregulated in co-cultures of trophoblast cells and stromal cells, suggesting a contributing role in the haptotactic process towards EMILIN1. PMID:17074837

  8. Spontaneous uterine rupture in the 35th week of gestation after laparoscopic adenomyomectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Yukari; Osato, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Michiko; Kawamura, Takuya; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Yamawaki, Takaharu

    2016-01-01

    Uterine rupture rarely occurs during pregnancy, but it is a critical situation if so. It is already known that a history of uterine surgeries, such as cesarean section or myomectomy, is a risk factor for uterine rupture. Currently, the laparoscopic adenomyomectomy is a widely performed procedure, but associated risks have not been defined. We observed a case of spontaneous uterine rupture in a patient during the 35th week of gestation, after a laparoscopic adenomyomectomy. A 42-year-old, gravida 2, para 0 woman became pregnant after a laparoscopic adenomyomectomy and her pregnancy was conventional. At a scheduled date in the 35th week of gestation, after combined spinal epidural anesthesia and frequent uterine contractions, a weak pain suddenly ensued. After 13 minutes of uterine contractions, vaginal bleeding was evident. A cesarean section was performed, and the uterine rupture was found in the scar. After a laparoscopic adenomyomectomy, a pregnant uterus can easily rupture by rather weak and short uterine contractions, and is characterized by vaginal bleeding. When uterine bleeding is observed in pregnant women that have a history of adenomyomectomy, one should consider uterine rupture. PMID:26719729

  9. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

  10. Surgical Methods for the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids – Risk of Uterine Sarcoma and Problems of Morcellation: Position Paper of the DGGG

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Juhasz-Böss, I.; Denschlag, D.; Gaß, P.; Dimpfl, T.; Harter, P.; Mallmann, P.; Renner, S. P.; Rimbach, S.; Runnebaum, I.; Untch, M.; Brucker, S. Y.; Wallwiener, D.

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate surgical technique to treat patients with uterine fibroids is still a matter of debate as is the potential risk of incorrect treatment if histological examination detects a uterine sarcoma instead of uterine fibroids. The published epidemiology for uterine sarcoma is set against the incidence of accidental findings during surgery for uterine fibroids. International comments on this topic are discussed and are incorporated into the assessment by the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). The ICD-O-3 version of 2003 was used for the anatomical and topographical coding of uterine sarcomas, and the “Operations- und Prozedurenschlüssel” (OPS) 2014, the German standard for process codes and interventions, was used to determine surgical extirpation methods. Categorical qualifiers were defined to analyze the data provided by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the German Federal Bureau of Statistics (DESTATIS; Hospital and Causes of Death Statistics), the population-based Cancer Register of Bavaria. A systematic search was done of the MEDLINE database and the Cochrane collaboration, covering the period from 1966 until November 2014. The incidence of uterine sarcoma and uterine fibroids in uterine surgery was compared to the literature and with the different registries. The incidence of uterine sarcoma in 2010, standardized for age, was 1.53 for Bavaria, or 1.30 for every 100?000 women, respectively, averaged for the years 2002–2011, and 1.30 for every 100?000 women in Germany. The mean incidence collated from various surveys was 2.02 for every 100?000 women (0.35–7.02; standard deviation 2.01). The numbers of inpatient surgical procedures such as myoma enucleation, morcellation, hysterectomy or cervical stump removal to treat the indication “uterine myoma” have steadily declined in Germany across all age groups (an absolute decrease of 17?% in 2012 compared to 2007). There has been a shift in the preferred method of surgical access from an abdominal/vaginal approach to endoscopic or endoscopically assisted procedures to treat uterine fibroids, with the use of morcellation increasing by almost 11?000 coded procedures in 2012. Based on international statements (AAGL, ACOG, ESGE, FDA, SGO) on the risk of uterine sarcoma as an coincidental finding during uterine fibroid surgery and the associated risk of a deterioration of prognosis (in the case of morcellation procedures), this overview presents the opinion of the DGGG in the form of four Statements, five Recommendation and four Demands. PMID:25797958

  11. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH. PMID:26365482

  12. Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation a. In the event of an emergency situation it may be necessary to evacuate the building. Causes for evacuation may be fire, hazardous chemical evacuation alarm systems that include wall-mounted pull stations. Smoke and heat activated alarms are present

  13. Dichotomy of Genetic Abnormalities in PEComas With Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Agaram, Narasimhan P; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Singer, Samuel; Dickson, Mark A; Berger, Michael F; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-06-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComa) are a family of rare mesenchymal tumors with hybrid myo-melanocytic differentiation. Although most PEComas harbor loss-of-function TSC1/TSC2 mutations, a small subset were reported to carry TFE3 gene rearrangements. As no comprehensive genomic study has addressed the molecular classification of PEComa, we sought to investigate by multiple methodologies the incidence and spectrum of genetic abnormalities and their potential genotype-phenotype correlations in a large group of 38 PEComas. The tumors were located in soft tissue (11 cases) and visceral sites (27) including uterus, kidney, liver, lung, and urinary bladder. Combined RNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis identified 9 (23%) TFE3 gene-rearranged tumors, with 3 cases showing an SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 fusion and 1 case showing a novel DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion. The TFE3-positive lesions showed a distinctive nested/alveolar morphology and were equally distributed between soft tissue and visceral sites. In addition, novel RAD51B gene rearrangements were identified in 3 (8%) uterine PEComas, which showed a complex fusion pattern and were fused to RRAGB/OPHN1 genes in 2 cases. Other nonrecurrent gene fusions, HTR4-ST3GAL1 and RASSF1-PDZRN3, were identified in 2 cases. Targeted exome sequencing using the IMPACT assay was used to address whether the presence of gene fusions is mutually exclusive from TSC gene abnormalities. TSC2 mutations were identified in 80% of the TFE3 fusion-negative cases tested. Coexistent TP53 mutations were identified in 63% of the TSC2-mutated PEComas. Our results showed that TFE3-rearranged PEComas lacked coexisting TSC2 mutations, indicating alternative pathways of tumorigenesis. In summary, this comprehensive genetic analysis significantly expands our understanding of molecular alterations in PEComas and brings forth the genetic heterogeneity of these tumors. PMID:25651471

  14. Down-Regulation of miR-29b Is Essential for Pathogenesis of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Wenan; Liu, Zhaojian; Serna, Vanida Ann; Druschitz, Stacy Ann; Liu, Yu; Espona-Fiedler, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (LMs) are the most common tumor affecting the female reproductive organs. The most notable pathophysiologic feature of this tumor is the excessive accumulation of rigid extracellular matrix (ECM) composed mainly of collagen types I and III. It is believed that the rigidity of the collagen-rich ECM causes symptoms such as abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain/pressure. However, the molecular pathogenesis for this ECM-rich tumor has yet to be elucidated. We have established that miR-29b was consistently down-regulated in LM compared with myometrium (MM). Hence, the function of miR-29b in LM was examined in vivo using adult female ovariectomized NOD-scid IL2R?null mice for subrenal xenograft models. In LM xenografts, restoring miR-29b inhibited the accumulation of ECM and the development of solid tumors. Although the miR-29b knockdown in MM cells increased the expression of collagens, it did not transform MM cells into tumorigenic, indicating that the down-regulation of miR-29b is essential but not sufficient for LM tumorigenesis. In addition, 17?-estradiol and progesterone down-regulated miR-29b and up-regulated mRNAs for multiple collagens in LM xenografts. Thus, we conclude that ECM production in LMs is regulated by steroid hormones via down-regulation of miR-29b, which is one of the mechanisms underlying the excessive accumulation of ECM. PMID:24424054

  15. Ovine Surgical Model of Uterine Space Restriction: Interactive Effects of Uterine Anomalies and Multifetal Gestations on Fetal and Placental Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie M.; Koch, Jill M.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Kling, Pamela J.; Magness, Ronald R.

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is observed in conditions with limitations in uterine space (e.g., uterine anomalies and multifetal gestations). IUGR is associated with reduced fetal weight, organ growth, and a spectrum of adult-onset diseases. To examine the interaction of uterine anomalies and multifetal gestations, we developed a surgical uterine space restriction model with a unilateral uterine horn ligation before breeding (unilateral surgery). Placentas and fetuses were studied on Gestational Day (GD) 120 and GD 130 (term = 147 days). Unilateral surgery decreased placentome numbers in singleton and twin pregnancies (25% and 50%, respectively) but not unilateral triplets. Unilateral surgery decreased total placentome weight in twin pregnancies (decreased 24%). Fetuses categorized as uterine space restricted (unilateral twin and both groups of triplets) had 51% fewer placentomes per fetus and a 31% reduction in placentomal weight per fetus compared to the nonrestricted group (control singleton, unilateral singleton, and control twin). By GD 130, uterine space-restricted fetuses exhibited decreased weight, smaller crown-rump, abdominal girth, and thoracic girth as well as decreased fetal heart, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus weights. Lung and brain weights were unaffected, demonstrating asymmetric IUGR. At GD 130, placental efficiency (fetal weight per total placentomal weight) was elevated in uterine space-restricted fetuses. However, fetal arterial creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cholesterol were elevated, suggesting insufficient placental clearance. Maternal-to-fetal glucose and triglycerides ratios were elevated in the uterine space-restricted pregnancies, suggesting placental nutrient transport insufficiency. This model allows for examination of interactive effects of uterine space restriction-induced IUGR on placental adaptation and fetal organ growth. PMID:20574052

  16. A New Removable Uterine Compression by a Brace Suture in the Management of Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aboulfalah, Abderrahim; Fakhir, Bouchra; Ait Ben Kaddour, Yassir; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening complication of delivery. It is the leading cause of maternal mortality. During the last 15?years, several total uterine compressive sutures were described in literature. They have proven their effectiveness and safety in the management of severe PPH as an alternative to hysterectomy. We present in this paper a new technique of uterine compressive sutures based on removable uterine brace compressive sutures with compression of the uterus against the pubis. This technique may be more effective by using two mechanisms of uterine bleeding control and also may prevent uterine synechia by respecting the uterine cavity and the removal of the suture 1 or 2?days later. We also present the results of a 15 patients’ series using this new suture. PMID:25593967

  17. Laparoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, Andrea; Asch, Murray R. Hawrylyshyn, Peter A.; Allen, Lisa M.; Colgan, Terence J.; Kachura, John R.; Hayeems, Eran B.

    2006-08-15

    Four patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids measuring less than 6 cm underwent laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using multiprobe-array electrodes. Follow-up of the treated fibroids was performed with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patients' symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews. The procedure was initially technically successful in 3 of the 4 patients and MRI studies at 1 month demonstrated complete fibroid ablation. Symptom improvement, including a decrease in menstrual bleeding and pain, was achieved in 2 patients at 3 months. At 7 months, 1 of these 2 patients experienced symptom worsening which correlated with recurrent fibroid on MRI. The third, initially technically successfully treated patient did not experience any symptom relief after the procedure and was ultimately diagnosed with adenomyosis. Our preliminary results suggest that RFA is a technically feasible treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids in appropriately selected patients.

  18. Two pregnancy cases of uterine scar dehiscence after laparoscopic myomectomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Soo-Youn; Yoo, Hee-Jun; Kang, Byung-Hun; Ko, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Uterine scar dehiscence following laparoscopic myomectomy rarely occurs but can compromise both maternal and fetal well-being in subsequent pregnancy. We here present two cases of pregnancy complicated by preterm birth that resulted from uterine scar dehiscence following laparoscopic myomectomy. First case was a nulligravida who had scar dehiscence at 26 weeks of gestation after having a laparoscopic myomectomy 3 months prior to conception. Two weeks later, we observed her fetal leg protruding through the defect. The other case was a primigravida with a history of prior cesarean delivery, whose sonography revealed myomectomy scar dehiscence at 31 weeks of gestation. Within a few hours after observing, the patient complained of abdominal pain that was aggravating as fetal leg protruded through the defect. In both cases, babies were born by emergency cesarean section. Conservative management can be one of treatment options for myomectomy scar dehiscence in preterm pregnancy. However, clinicians should always be aware of the possibility of obstetric emergencies.

  19. Uterine Fibroids: Pathogenesis and Interactions with Endometrium and Endomyometrial Junction

    PubMed Central

    Stortoni, Piergiorgio; Montik, Nina; Giannubilo, Stefano R.; Litta, Pietro; Islam, Md. Soriful; Tranquilli, Andrea L.; Reis, Fernando M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas) are benign tumors of uterus and clinically apparent in a large part of reproductive aged women. Clinically, they present with a variety of symptoms: excessive menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms such as a sensation of bloatedness, increased urinary frequency, and bowel disturbance. In addition, they may compromise reproductive functions, possibly contributing to subfertility, early pregnancy loss, and later pregnancy complications. Despite the prevalence of this condition, myoma research is underfunded compared to other nonmalignant diseases. To date, several pathogenetic factors such as genetics, microRNA, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components have been implicated in the development and growth of leiomyoma. This paper summarizes the available literature regarding the ultimate relative knowledge on pathogenesis of uterine fibroids and their interactions with endometrium and subendometrial myometrium. PMID:24163697

  20. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-02

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  1. A syndromal and an isolated form of uterine arteriovenous malformations: two case-reports.

    PubMed

    Geerinckx, I; Willemsen, W; Hanselaar, T

    2001-12-10

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions with a considerable risk potential. Clinical presentation varies from no signs over various degrees of menorrhagia to massive life threatening vaginal bleeding. This is the first report of congenital uterine arteriovenous malformations in two patients with primary infertility. In one case, the uterine lesions were found in conjunction with other congenital malformations suggesting the diagnosis of hemihyperplasia/lipomatosis syndrome. Etiology, symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic work-up are discussed; pathological findings are illustrated. PMID:11728664

  2. A case of leiomyoadenomatoid tumour of uterine serosa: speculations about differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Erra, Stefania; Pastormerlo, Massimo; Gregori, Gianluca; Costamagna, Daniela; Pavesi, Mansueto

    2009-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumour is a benign rare lesion of the female genital tract, localised in the wall of fallopian tubes or beneath the uterine serosa. It is often accompanied by smooth muscle proliferation, obscuring the presence of adenomatoid tumour, resulting in misdiagnosis of cellular leiomyoma. Here, a case of uterine serosal adenomatoid tumour associated with multiple leiomyomas and pelvic endometriosis in a 44-year-old woman who underwent surgical removal for uterine bleeding and abdominal pain is presented. PMID:21686986

  3. Storage and Release of Spermatozoa from the Pre-Uterine Tube Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Sarah L.; England, Gary C.W.

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, after coitus a small number of spermatozoa enter the uterine tube and following attachment to uterine tube epithelium are arrested in a non-capacitated state until peri-ovulatory signalling induces their detachment. Whilst awaiting release low numbers of spermatozoa continually detach from the epithelium and the uterine tube reservoir risks depletion. There is evidence of attachment of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium in several species which might form a potential pre-uterine tube reservoir. In this study we demonstrate that: (1) dog spermatozoa attach to uterine epithelium and maintain flagellar activity, (2) in non-capacitating conditions spermatozoa progressively detach with a variety of motility characteristics, (3) attachment is not influenced by epithelial changes occurring around ovulation, (4) attachment to uterine epithelium slows capacitation, (5) capacitated spermatozoa have reduced ability to attach to uterine epithelium, (6) under capacitating conditions increased numbers of spermatozoa detach and exhibit transitional and hyperactive motility which differ to those seen in non-capacitating conditions, (7) detachment of spermatozoa and motility changes can be induced by post-ovulation but not pre-ovulation uterine tube flush fluid and by components of follicular fluid and solubilised zona pellucida, (8) prolonged culture does not change the nature of the progressive detachment seen in non-capacitating conditions nor the potential for increased detachment in capacitating conditions. We postulate that in some species binding of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium is an important component of the transport of spermatozoa. Before ovulation low numbers of spermatozoa continually detach, including those which are non-capacitated with fast forward progressive motility allowing the re-population of the uterine tube, whilst around the time of ovulation, signalling from as-yet unknown factors associated with follicular fluid, oocytes and uterine tube secretion promotes the detachment of large numbers of capacitated spermatozoa with hyperactive motility that may contribute to the fertilising pool. PMID:23451135

  4. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Can; Zou, Min; Xiong, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis (DUL) is a rare and unique type of uterine leiomyoma which affects women of reproductive age. While treatments like medication, uterine artery embolization (UAE) and hysteroscopic myomectomy show some effectiveness, hysterectomy is currently the only known treatment capable of eliminating the symptoms of this disease. This case report demonstrates that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation may offer these patients a new treatment strategy that could control the symptoms of DUL and spare the uterus from hysterectomy. PMID:26065820

  5. Uterine adenocarcinoma in a Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rachel; Armién, Aníbal G; Rasmussen, James M; Wolf, Tiffany M

    2014-06-01

    A 25-yr-old, nulliparous, female Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) with a history of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and recent onset of serosanguinous vaginal discharge was euthanized after a period of lethargy and inappetance. Postmortem examination confirmed an infiltrative uterine adenocarcinoma, which is an uncommon neoplasia in equids. Reproductive disease is significant in this species as they are considered endangered by IUCN. Reproductive soundness and success are paramount to conservation efforts. PMID:25000717

  6. [Post-trauma uterine prolaps in infant. A case report].

    PubMed

    Hamada, H; Zazi, A

    2009-12-01

    We report on one case of genital prolaps that happened after an astride fell in a girl aged 7-year-old. The manual reducing of the cervix followed by putting a blown Foley catheter n(o) 8 intravaginally for 1 week has allowed good results. Post-trauma uterine prolaps in infant is a rare condition supposed to be due to connective tissue weakness. Conservative treatment should be as possible applied at this age. PMID:19846260

  7. Choriocarcinoma with Uterine Rupture and Shock: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Manika; Pyrbot, Jupirika; Singh, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic disease. Choriocarcinoma is frequently preceded by a complete mole, ectopic pregnancy, nonmolar intrauterine abortion, and uncommonly by a partial mole. It is treated medically with chemotherapeutic drugs usually. However, we managed to save a life with appropriate and timely surgical intervention in a case of choriocarcinoma who presented with uterine rupture, haemoperitoneum, anaemia and hypovolemic shock. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and hysterectomy followed by systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26557535

  8. [Prelabour uterine torsion complicated by partial abruption and fetal death].

    PubMed

    Agar, N; Canis, M; Accoceberry, M; Bourdel, N; Lafaye, A-L; Gallot, D

    2014-06-01

    Uterine torsion is a rare obstetrical complication whose diagnosis remains challenging. We report a case of 180 degrees dextrogyre torsion at 36(+5) weeks of gestation complicated by partial abruption and in utero fetal death. Emergency cesarean section was performed through an unintentional posterior hysterotomy. Literature reports a few similar cases. Vertical hysterotomy should be advised in this context avoiding incision on lateral sides associated with increased risk of vascular or ureteral injury. PMID:24411298

  9. Reduced uterine perfusion pressure induces hypertension in the pregnant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Intapad, Suttira; Warrington, Junie P.; Spradley, Frank T.; Palei, Ana C.; Drummond, Heather A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Granger, Joey P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite preeclampsia being one of the leading causes of maternal death and a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. Growing evidence indicates that reduced uteroplacental perfusion and the resulting placental ischemia triggers the cascade of events leading to this maternal disorder. While the well-established rat model of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) is providing invaluable insight into the etiology of preeclampsia, the aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of reduced uterine perfusion to expand mechanistic investigation by incorporation with novel gene-targeted mice. To accomplish this aim, a sham surgical procedure or a restriction of blood flow at the abdominal aorta and the ovarian arteries was initiated at day 13 of gestation in C57BL/6J mice. Mean arterial pressure measured in conscious, chronically instrumented mice was significantly elevated in the RUPP (120 ± 4 mmHg) compared with the sham (104 ± 4 mmHg) mice at day 18 of gestation (P < 0.01). Placental ischemia reduced fetal weights (0.95 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.02 g; RUPP vs. Sham, respectively; P < 0.02) and increased circulating levels of antiangiogenic soluble fms-related tyrosine kinases (sFlt)-1 (P < 0.05) in the RUPP at day 18 of gestation. Plasma concentrations of sFlt-1 are increased in preeclamptic patients and in response to reduced uterine perfusion in the rat. Thus, these results suggest that the mouse model of reduced uterine perfusion is applicable to facilitate novel mechanistic investigation into the etiology of hypertension that results from placental ischemia during pregnancy. PMID:25298513

  10. Uterine prolapse in pregnancy: risk factors, complications and management.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dafopoulos, Alexandros; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Pinidis, Petros; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Liberis, Vasileios; Galazios, Georgios; Von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    Presentation of uterine prolapse is a rare event in a pregnant woman, which can be pre-existent or else manifest in the course of pregnancy. Complications resulting from prolapse of the uterus in pregnancy vary from minor cervical infection to spontaneous abortion, and include preterm labor and maternal and fetal mortality as well as acute urinary retention and urinary tract infection. Moreover, affected women may be at particular risk of dystocia during labor that could necessitate emergency intervention for delivery. Recommendations regarding the management of this infrequent but potentially harmful condition are scarce and outdated. This review will examine the causative factors of uterine prolapse and the antepartum, intrapartum and puerperal complications that may arise from this condition as well as therapeutic options available to the obstetrician. While early recognition and appropriate prenatal management of uterine prolapse during pregnancy is imperative, implementation of conservative treatment modalities throughout pregnancy, these applied in accordance with the severity of the uterus prolapse and the patient's preference, may be sufficient to achieve uneventful pregnancy and normal, spontaneous delivery. PMID:23692627

  11. Practical issues related to uterine pathology: endometrial stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2016-01-01

    Uterine mesenchymal tumors continue to be a challenge to diagnose due to their non-specific clinical presentation, often non-distinctive gross appearance, varied (and many times overlapping) morphologic appearance, and unsuspected pitfalls in immunohistochemical expression. This review will focus on endometrial stromal tumors and those features that help in their distinction. In particular, a practical approach to the diagnosis of endometrial stromal neoplasia will be covered including recognition as a stromal process in a biopsy/curettage and distinction from a highly cellular leiomyoma. In addition, distinction of a stromal nodule from a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS) and stromal sarcoma with limited infiltration in a hysterectomy specimen will be covered. The salient features that help distinguish a LGESS from a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor as well as high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, the latter a tumor recently reintroduced in the WHO classification will also be discussed. Finally, a practical approach to the diagnosis of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) will be presented. PMID:26715176

  12. Managing Major Postpartum Haemorrhage following Acute Uterine Inversion with Rusch Balloon Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Keriakos, Remon; Chaudhuri, Smriti Ray

    2011-01-01

    Acute postpartum uterine inversion is a relatively rare complication. The uterus inverts and the uterine fundus prolapses to or through the dilated cervix. It is associated with major postpartum haemorrhage with or without shock. Shock is sometimes out of proportion to the haemorrhage. Minimal maternal morbidity and mortality can be achieved when uterine inversion is promptly and aggressively managed. We present this report of three cases of acute uterine inversion complicated with major postpartum haemorrhage and managed with Rusch balloon. The paper highlights the importance of early recognition and the safety of the use of intrauterine balloon to manage major postpartum haemorrhage in these cases. PMID:24826322

  13. Midterm Results after Uterine Artery Embolization Versus MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Froeling, V. Meckelburg, K. Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Schreiter, N. F. Kamp, J. Maurer, M. H. Beck, A. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the rate of reintervention and midterm changes in symptom severity (SS) and Total health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-g HIFU) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Eighty women (median age 38.3 years), equally eligible for MR-g HIFU and UAE who underwent one of both treatments between 2002 and 2009 at our institution, were included. The primary end point of the study was defined as the rate of reintervention after both therapies. The secondary outcome was defined as changes in SS and Total HRQoL scores after treatment. SS and Total HRQoL scores before treatment and at midterm follow-up (median 13.3 months) were assessed by the uterine fibroid symptom and quality-of-life questionnaire (UFS-QoL) and compared. Results: The rate of reintervention was significantly lower after UAE than after MR-g HIFU (p = 0.002). After both treatments, SS and Total HRQoL scores improved significantly from baseline to follow-up (UAE: p < 0.001, p < 0.001; MR-g HIFU: p = 0.002, p < 0.001). Total HRQoL scores were significantly higher after UAE than after MR-g HIFU (p = 0.032). Changes in the SS scores did not differ significantly for both treatments (p = 0.061). Conclusion: UAE and MR-g HIFU significantly improved the health-related quality of life of women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. After UAE, the change in Total HRQoL score improvement was significantly better, and a significantly lower rate of reintervention was observed.

  14. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  15. Mid-term Clinical Results and Patient Satisfaction After Uterine Artery Embolization in Women with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Smeets, Albert J.; Lohle, Paul N. M. Vervest, Harry A. M.; Boekkooi, P. Focco; Lampmann, Leo E.H.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the mid-term clinical results and patient satisfaction following uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with symptomatic fibroids. Methods. Between August 1998 and December 2002, 135 patients had UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. All patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Questions were aimed at changes in bleeding, pain, and bulk-related symptoms. Symptoms after UAE were scored as disappeared, improved, unchanged or worsened. Adverse events were noted, such as vaginal dryness and discharge, menopausal complaints or fibroid expulsion. Patient satisfaction after UAE was assessed. Patient satisfaction of women embolized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles was compared with satisfaction of women embolized with calibrated microspheres. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 110 of 135 women (81%) at a median time interval of 14 months following UAE. In 10 women additional embolization or hysterectomy had been performed. Of the 110 responders, 86 (78%) were satisfied with the result of UAE. The proportion of satisfied women was higher in the group embolized with calibrated microspheres than in women embolized with PVA, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.053). Conclusion. UAE in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids leads to improvement of symptoms and patient satisfaction is good in the vast majority after a median follow-up period of 14 months.

  16. Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

  17. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  18. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-03-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the new born (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support, (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required, (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the new born (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory distress and cyanosis (sometimes differential). Clinical examination also reveals evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid and, at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:11129917

  19. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-07-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in the 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and, therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses, especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory tension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid, and at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:10957839

  20. Feasibility study on energy prediction of microwave ablation upon uterine adenomyosis and leiomyomas by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Xia, M; Zhi-yu, H; Jian-ming, C; Hong-yu, Z; Rui-fang, X; Yu, Y; Yan-li, H; Bao-wei, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of energy prediction of percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) upon uterine leiomyomas and adenomyosis by MRI. Methods: 63 patients (49 patients with 49 uterine leiomyomas and 14 patients with adenomyosis) who underwent ultrasound-guided PMWA treatment were studied during the period from June 2011 to December 2012. Before PMWA, contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) was performed for all of the patients. Based on the signal intensity (SI) of T2 weighted MRI, uterine leiomyomas were classified as hypointense, isointense and hyperintense. During ablation, the output energy of the microwave was set at 50?W, and T11a microwave antennas were used. ceMRI was performed within 7 days after PMWA treatment. Non-perfused volume and energy required per unit volume were analysed statistically. Results: When unit volume of lesions was ablated, uterine adenomyosis needed more energy than did uterine leiomyomas, and hyperintense uterine leiomyomas needed more energy than did hypointense pattern. Conclusions: MRI SI of uterine leiomyomas and uterine adenomyosis can be used to predict PMWA energy. Advances in knowledge: The conclusions indicate that MRI SI can be used to perform pre-treatment planning, which will make the treatment more precise. PMID:24947033

  1. Lactoferrin-iCre: a new mouse line to study uterine epithelial gene function.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Takiko; Ogawa, Yuya; Terakawa, Jumpei; Ogawa, Akiyo; DeFalco, Tony; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2014-07-01

    Transgenic animal models are valuable for studying gene function in various tissue compartments. Mice with conditional deletion of genes in the uterus using the Cre-loxP system serve as powerful tools to study uterine biology. The uterus is comprised of 3 major tissue types: myometrium, stroma, and epithelium. Proliferation and differentiation in each uterine cell type are differentially regulated by ovarian hormones, resulting in spatiotemporal control of gene expression. Therefore, examining gene function in each uterine tissue type will provide more meaningful information regarding uterine biology during pregnancy and disease states. Although currently available Cre mouse lines have been very useful in exploring functions of specific genes in uterine biology, overlapping expression of these Cre lines in more than 1 tissue type and in other reproductive organs sometimes makes interpretation of results difficult. In this article, we report the generation of a new iCre knock-in mouse line, in which iCre is expressed from endogenous lactoferrin (Ltf) promoter. Ltf-iCre mice primarily direct recombination in the uterine epithelium in adult females and in immature females after estrogen treatment. These mice will allow for specific interrogation of gene function in the mature uterine epithelium, providing a helpful tool to uncover important aspects of uterine biology. PMID:24823394

  2. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC RESPONSES OF RAT FETUSES WITH CLAMPED OR INTACT UMBILICAL CORDS TO ACUTE MATERNAL UTERINE ISCHEMIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uterine ischemia results in severe cardiac disturbances in the fetus. It has been postulated that these effects are due to interaction with the ischemic uterus or placenta and not due to hypoxia or build up of metabolites in the fetus. The fetal cardiac responses to uterine clamp...

  3. Uterine glucocorticoid receptors are critical for fertility in mice through control of embryo implantation and decidualization.

    PubMed

    Whirledge, Shannon D; Oakley, Robert H; Myers, Page H; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco; Cidlowski, John A

    2015-12-01

    In addition to the well-characterized role of the sex steroid receptors in fertility and reproduction, organs of the female reproductive tract are also regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These endocrine organs are sensitive to stress-mediated actions of glucocorticoids, and the mouse uterus contains high levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Although the presence of GR in the uterus is well established, uterine glucocorticoid signaling has been largely ignored in terms of its reproductive and/or immunomodulatory functions on fertility. To define the direct in vivo function of glucocorticoid signaling in adult uterine physiology, we generated a uterine-specific GR knockout (uterine GR KO) mouse using the PR(cre) mouse model. The uterine GR KO mice display a profound subfertile phenotype, including a significant delay to first litter and decreased pups per litter. Early defects in pregnancy are evident as reduced blastocyst implantation and subsequent defects in stromal cell decidualization, including decreased proliferation, aberrant apoptosis, and altered gene expression. The deficiency in uterine GR signaling resulted in an exaggerated inflammatory response to induced decidualization, including altered immune cell recruitment. These results demonstrate that GR is required to establish the necessary cellular context for maintaining normal uterine biology and fertility through the regulation of uterine-specific actions. PMID:26598666

  4. Effect of Empty Uterine Space on Placental Development, Farrowing Intervals, and Stillbirth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged farrowing intervals (FI) are associated with stillbirth and decrease as litter size increases, but the reason is unclear. We hypothesized that unoccupied uterine space associated with small litters could present a barrier to delivery of piglets and increase FI. Empty uterine space was crea...

  5. Aberrant arterial supply to uterine fibroids from branches of the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Song, Christopher I; McDermott, Meredith; Sclafani, Teresa; Charles, Hearns W

    2014-12-01

    Two patients, aged 48 and 45 years, were treated for symptomatic uterine fibroids with not only embolization of both uterine but also both ovarian arteries. Note was made of other collateral arterial supply via branches of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The two identified SMA branches were embolized for the first patient, but no embolization was deemed necessary for the other patient. PMID:24554197

  6. Predictive factors for pelvic magnetic resonance in response to arterial embolization of a uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnik, Eduardo; de Lorenzo Messina, Marcos; Nasser, Felipe; Affonso, Breno Boueri; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Wolosker, Nelson; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive methods are used as alternatives to treat leiomyomas and include uterine artery embolization, which has emerged as a safe, effective method. This study aims to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging predictors for a reduction in leiomyoma volume in patients undergoing uterine artery embolization. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study was performed at a university hospital. We followed 50 symptomatic premenopausal women with uterine leiomyomas who underwent uterine artery embolization. We examined 179 leiomyomas among these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed one month before and six months after uterine artery embolization. Two radiologists who specialized in abdominal imaging independently interpreted the images. Main Outcome Measures: The magnetic resonance imaging parameters were the uterus and leiomyomas volumes, their localizations, contrast perfusion pattern and node-to-muscle ratio. RESULTS: Six months after treatment, the average uterine volume reduction was 38.91%, and the leiomyomas were reduced by 55.23%. When the leiomyomas were submucosal and/or had a higher node-to-muscle ratio in the T2 images, the volume reduction was even greater (greater than 50%). Other parameters showed no association. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that symptomatic uterine leiomyomas in patients undergoing uterine artery embolization exhibit volume reductions greater than 50% by magnetic resonance imaging when the leiomyomas are submucosal and/or had a high node-to-muscle ratio in the T2 images. PMID:24626944

  7. Magnetic field abnormality caused by welding residual stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luming, Li; Songling, Huang; Xiaofeng, Wang; Keren, Shi; Su, Wu

    2003-05-01

    Residual stresses in ferromagnetic material affect the direction and structure of domains and generate the magnetic flux abnormality on the surface. Three-dimensional magnetic field on the surface of a circular-welding pipe specimen was inspected with 8 mm lift-off before and after low-temperature annealing aimed for residual stress releasing. Small hole stress testing was also carried out with a contrast to the magnetic testing before annealing. The magnetic field characteristics and the residual stress distribution were compared and discussed. The normal component of magnetic field correlated with residual stress. The magnetic field abnormality on ferromagnetic material could be used for residual stress inspection.

  8. Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-01-01

    Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

  9. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7?months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. PMID:25656985

  10. Early programing of uterine tissue by bisphenol A: Critical evaluation of evidence from animal exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Suvorov, Alexander; Waxman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) during the critical window of uterine development has been proposed to program the uterus for increased disease susceptibility based on well-documented effects of the potent xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol. To investigate this proposal, we reviewed 37 studies of prenatal and/or perinatal BPA exposure in animal models and evaluated evidence for: molecular signatures of early BPA exposure; the development of adverse uterine health effects; and epigenetic changes linked to long-term dysregulation of uterine gene expression and health effects. We found substantial evidence for adult uterine effects of early BPA exposure. In contrast, experimental support for epigenetic actions of early BPA exposure is very limited, and largely consists of effects on Hoxa gene DNA methylation. Critical knowledge gaps were identified, including the need to fully characterize short-term and long-term uterine gene responses, interactions with estrogens and other endogenous hormones, and any long-lasting epigenetic signatures that impact adult disease. PMID:26028543

  11. Delayed presentation of uterine perforation with ovary migration after dilatation and curettage

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shili; Tao, Guowei; Dong, Baihua; Shi, Linlin; Dong, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare but serious uterine perforation. A 31-year-old woman was referred to our department for hyperechogenic mass in uterus on ultrasonography after Dilation and curettage (D&C) for the adherent placenta and retained products of conception. Transvaginal ultrasound examination showed that a mass with several follicles measuring 35×29 mm was seen emanating from the right posterior wall of the uterine cavity, and there was absence of the myometrial tissue. A hysteroscopy and laparoscopy showed a uterine perforation with ovary incarceration. The ovary was rehabilitated, and the uterine perforation site was incised. D&C can not be performed when delayed presentation of uterine perforation with migration of an extrauterine organ is suspected, particularly, some of them are asymptomatic after a difficult intrauterine operation. PMID:26131247

  12. Pirt contributes to uterine contraction-induced pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changming; Wang, Zhongli; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Chan; Wu, Guanyi; Yu, Guang; Jian, Tunyu; Yang, Niuniu; Shi, Hao; Tang, Min; He, Qian; Lan, Lei; Liu, Qin; Guan, Yun; Dong, Xinzhong; Duan, Jinao; Tang, Zongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Uterine contraction-induced pain (UCP) represents a common and severe form of visceral pain. Nerve fibers that innervate uterine tissue express the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1), which has been shown to be involved in the perception of UCP. The phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of TRP (Pirt) may act as a regulatory subunit of TRPV1. The intraperitoneal injection of oxytocin into female mice after a 6-day priming treatment with estradiol benzoate induces writhing responses, which reflect the presence of UCP. Here, we first compared writhing response between Pirt (+/+) and Pirt (-/-) mice. Second, we examined the innervation of Pirt-expressing nerves in the uterus of Pirt (-/-) mice by immunofluorescence and two-photon microscopy. Third, we identified the soma of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that innerve the uterus using retrograde tracing and further characterized the neurochemical properties of these DRG neurons. Finally, we compared the calcium response of capsaicin between DRG neurons from Pirt (+/+) and Pirt (-/-) mice. We found that the writhing responses were less intensive in Pirt (-/-) mice than in Pirt (+/+) mice. We also observed Pirt-expressing nerve fibers in the myometrium of the uterus, and that retrograde-labeled cells were small-diameter, unmyelinated, and Pirt-positive DRG neurons. Additionally, we found that the number of capsaicin-responding neurons and the magnitude of evoked calcium response were markedly reduced in DRG neurons from Pirt (-/-) mice. Taken together, we speculate that Pirt plays an important role in mice uterine contraction-induced pain. PMID:26376721

  13. Uterine Artery Embolization for Ureteric Obstruction Secondary to Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Tuite, David; Nicholson, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms, loin pain, postobstructive atrophy, and mild renal impairment. All had posterior intramural dominant fibroids >11 cm in maximum sagittal diameter and uterine volumes between 3776 and 15,625 ml. Outcome measures at between 12 and 36 months included procedural success, repeat intervention, relief of symptoms, resolution of hydronephrosis, stable renal function and size, and avoidance of hysterectomy. In all cases the cause of renal obstruction was confirmed to be a giant fibroid compressing the ureter at the pelvic brim. In all cases UAE was technically successful, though two patients required a repeat procedure. In eight patients hydronephrosis resolved and the obstruction was relieved, though two still had some bulk symptoms not requiring further treatment. Renal function improved or was stable in all cases. Renal size was stable in all cases. Where menorrhagia was part of the symptom complex it was relieved in all cases. Two patients diagnosed as having postobstructive atrophy of one kidney underwent retrograde ureteric stenting on the nonatrophied side prior to UAE. This was unsuccessful in one of the cases due to the distortion caused by the fibroid. Despite improvement in hydronephrosis this patient underwent hysterectomy at 7 months after a renogram demonstrated persistent obstruction at the pelvic brim. In the second patient a double pigtail stent was inserted with difficulty and eventually removed at 8 months. This patient has had stable renal function and size for 3 years post-UAE. We conclude that UAE is safe and effective in treating patients with obstructive hydronephrosis caused by large fibroids.

  14. The Role of Adjuvant Radiation in Uterine Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sagus; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Ryu, Janice K.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical and pathological factors significant for overall survival (OS) and local-regional failure-free survival (LRFFS) in uterine sarcoma as they relate to adjuvant radiotherapy (AR). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 3,650 patients with uterine sarcoma was conducted using the National Oncology Database, a proprietary database of aggregated tumor registries owned by Impac Medical Systems (Sunnyvale, CA). Adjuvant radiotherapy was defined as postoperative external beam radiation to the pelvis, with or without brachytherapy. Prognostic factors were identified by multivariate analysis (MVA) using the Cox proportional hazards model. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival, with significant differences (p < 0.05) determined using the log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up time was 59 months, with a 5-year OS of 37%. Significant prognostic factors for OS were stage, race/ethnicity, grade, age, histology, lymph node status, and surgical treatment (p < 0.01 for all factors). Use of AR was not predictive for OS. For nonmetastatic cancer patients receiving definitive surgery (n = 2,206), the 5-year LRFFS was 87%. In this group, stage, grade, histology, and AR were prognostic for LRFFS (p < 0.05), with AR associated with improved outcome compared with surgery alone (hazard ratio = 0.4, p < 0.001). Patients with carcinosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, poorly differentiated tumors, and negative lymph nodes had reduced local-regional failure (LRF) with AR (log-rank, p < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: In the largest retrospective analysis of uterine sarcoma published thus far, AR conferred a 53% reduction in the risk of LRF at 5 years. Use of AR may have broader indications than what are currently accepted in clinical practice.

  15. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  16. Investigation of women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding: clinical practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is defined as uterine bleeding after permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Bleeding can be spontaneous or related to ovarian hormone replacement therapy or to use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (eg, tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma). Because anovulatory "cycles" with episodes of multimonth amenorrhea frequently precede menopause, no consensus exists regarding the appropriate interval of amenorrhea before an episode of bleeding that allows for the definition of postmenopausal bleeding. The clinician faces the possibility that an underlying malignancy exists, knowing that most often the bleeding comes from a benign source. Formerly, the gold-standard clinical investigation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding was institution-based dilation and curettage, but there now exist office-based methods for the evaluation of women with this complaint. Strategies designed to implement these diagnostic methods must be applied in a balanced way considering the resource utilization issues of overinvestigation and the risk of missing a malignancy with underinvestigation. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations were developed to consider these issues and the diverse spectrum of practitioners who evaluate women with postmenopausal bleeding. The guideline development group determined that, for initial management of spontaneous postmenopausal bleeding, primary assessment may be with either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasonography, allowing patients with an endometrial echo complex thickness of 4 mm or less to be managed expectantly. Guidelines are also provided for patients receiving selective estrogen receptor modulators or hormone replacement therapy, and for an endometrial echo complex with findings consistent with fluid in the endometrial cavity.? PMID:24377427

  17. Dexmedetomidine modifies uterine contractions in pregnancy terms of rats

    PubMed Central

    Öcal, I?il; Güne?, Yasemin; Mert, Tufan; Özcengiz, Dilek; Günay, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was aimed at determining the effective doses of Dexmedetomidine (Dex) involved in amplitude of contraction-force and frequency of uterine rings in pregnancy terms of rats. All experiments involving animal subjects were carried out with the approval of animal care and use Ethical Committee of Cukurova University. Experiments were performed on female Albino-Wistar rats (200-260 g; n = 40). Materials and Methods: Uterine rings from pregnant rats were placed in organ bath with Krebs and calcium ion (Ca2+)-free solutions to record and exposed to serially increasing log10 concentrations of Dex. Results: In Krebs solution, while Dex caused an increase in the spontaneous contraction-forces in all pregnancy terms of rats in a significant dose-dependent manner, it led to a decrease in contraction-frequency in late-pregnancy term of rats. In Ca2+ -free, the spontaneous contraction-force decreased in late-pregnancy term and increased in early and middle-pregnancy terms. In addition, while Dex increased the contraction-frequency in early and middle-pregnancy terms, it decreased in late-pregnancy term in a dose-dependent manner. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Repeated measures were employed for comparison of several group means through the Tukey post-hoc test (SPSS 10.00 Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusions: This study suggested that Dex might differently alter the spontaneous contraction-forces and contraction-frequencies of uterine rings in all pregnancy terms of rats in Krebs and Ca2+-free solutions. PMID:23716894

  18. Cesarean scar pregnancy: a rare cause of uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Akbayir, Ozgur; Gedikbasi, Ali; Akyol, Alpaslan; Ucar, Adem; Saygi-Ozyurt, Sezin; Gulkilik, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    A 38-year-old gravida 4, para 2 woman with a history of two Cesarean sections and one curettage was referred to our hospital, because of painless vaginal bleeding and 6 weeks + 2 days of amenorrhea. The first diagnosis was Cesarean scar pregnancy, managed with methotrexate. Subsequently, an arteriovenous malformation developed, which was diagnosed with color Doppler imaging. The diagnosis was confirmed with angiography. Successful bilateral uterine artery embolization was performed with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx), n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl), and gelfoam. PMID:21647920

  19. Might uterus transplantation be an option for uterine factor infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Akar, Münire Erman

    2015-01-01

    Current data on uterus allotransplantation research has been reviewed and summarized. Over the past 15 years, progress in uterus transplantation research has increased dramatically. As a consequence, the first pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation in rats have been reported. The technique has been better defined. Although clinical pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation has been reported in humans, there are still many questions to be answered before clinical application. Gestational surrogacy still remains an important option for being a genetic parent in selected cases with uterine factor infertility. PMID:25788850

  20. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  1. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Ruthven, Stuart; Kingston, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mesonephric adenocarcinoma is a rare type of cervical cancer that derives from mesonephric remnants in the uterine cervix. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 34th case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma in adult women documented in the literature. We present an asymptomatic 64-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with a suspicious-looking cervix as an incidental finding and diagnosed with a stage IB mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix. This case was managed with radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options. PMID:23230242

  2. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  3. Clinical and Periprocedural Pain Management for Uterine Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Elizabeth Brooke; Stratil, Peter; Mizones, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization has Level A data supporting excellent safety and efficacy in treating symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. However, there is a perception that either postprocedural pain is severe or poorly managed by the physician performing these procedures. This has led some primary care physicians to omit this procedure from the patients' options or to steer patients away from this procedure. A few simple techniques (pruning of the vascular tree and embolizing to 5–10 beat stasis) and fastidious pre-, intra-, and post-procedural management can nearly eliminate significant pain associated with embolization. Specifically, early implementation of long-acting low-dose narcotics, antiemetics and anti-inflammatory medications is critical. Finally, the use of a superior hypogastric nerve block, which takes minutes to perform and carries a very low risk, significantly reduces pain and diminishes the need for narcotics; when this technique was used in a prospective study, all patients were able to be discharged the day of the procedure. In the authors' experience, patients treated in this manner largely recover completely within 5 days and have a far less traumatic experience than patients traditionally treated with only midazolam (Versed) and fentanyl citrate (fentanyl) intraprocedurally, and narcotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs postprocedurally. PMID:24436562

  4. Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage from Uterine Atony: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Montufar-Rueda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Laritza; Jarquin, José Douglas; Barboza, Alejandra; Bustillo, Maura Carolina; Marin, Flor; Ortiz, Guillermo; Estrada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an important cause of maternal mortality (MM) around the world. Seventy percent of the PPH corresponds to uterine atony. The objective of our study was to evaluate multicenter PPH cases during a 10-month period, and evaluate severe postpartum hemorrhage management. Study Design. The study population is a cohort of vaginal delivery and cesarean section patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. The study was designed as a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, during 10 months in 13 teaching hospitals. Results. Total live births during the study period were 124,019 with 218 patients (0.17%) with severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPHH). Total maternal deaths were 8, for mortality rate of 3.6% and a MM rate of 6.45/100,000 live births (LB). Maternal deaths were associated with inadequate transfusion therapy. Conclusions. In all patients with severe hemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemic shock, the most important therapy is intravascular volume resuscitation, to reduce the possibility of target organ damage and death. Similarly, the current proposals of transfusion therapy in severe or massive hemorrhage point to early transfusion of blood products and use of fresh frozen plasma, in addition to packed red blood cells, to prevent maternal deaths. PMID:24363935

  5. Uterine Sarcoidosis: A Rare Extrapulmonary Site of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Marak, Creticus P.; Alappan, Narendrakumar; Chopra, Amit; Dorokhova, Olena; Sinha, Sumita; Guddati, Achuta K.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease which is most commonly manifested in the pulmonary system. However, extrapulmonary manifestations have also been frequently reported. Isolated occurrence of sarcoidosis in the genital system is rare and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Uterine sarcoidosis can present with cervical erosions, endometrial polypoid lesions, and recurrent serometra. In majority of cases, it is diagnosed by endometrial curettage, but it has also been detected by examination of hysterectomy, polypectomy, and autopsy specimens. Nonnecrotizing granulomas are the characteristic pathologic finding of sarcoidosis. However, many infectious and noninfectious etiologies including certain neoplasms can produce similar granulomatous reactions in the female genital tract. These conditions affect the female genital tract more commonly than sarcoidosis, and therefore it is important to rule out these conditions first before making a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Treatment of sarcoidosis is different from treating these other conditions and the most commonly used systemic or local corticosteroids can be hazardous if the underlying cause is infection. In this case report, the clinical presentation, histopathology, clinical course, and treatment of a patient with isolated uterine sarcoidosis are described, and a brief literature review of sarcoidosis of the female genital tract is provided. PMID:23762732

  6. Regeneration of uterine horns in rats using collagen scaffolds loaded with human embryonic stem cell-derived endometrium-like cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianran; Zhao, Xia; Sun, Haixiang; Li, Xin'an; Lin, Nacheng; Ding, Lijun; Dai, Jianwu; Hu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    A variety of diseases may lead to hysterectomies or uterine injuries, which may form a scar and lead to infertility. Due to the limitation of native materials, there are a few effective methods to treat such damages. Tissue engineering combines cell and molecular biology with materials and mechanical engineering to replace or repair damaged organs and tissues. The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a donor cell source for the replacement therapy will require the development of simple and reliable cell differentiation protocols. This study aimed at efficiently generating endometrium-like cells from the hESCs and at using these cells with collagen scaffold to repair uterine damage. The hESCs were induced by co-culturing with endometrial stromal cells, and simultaneously added cytokines: epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor-b (PDGF-b), and E2. Expression of cell specific markers was analyzed by immunofluorescence and reverse trascription-polymerase chain reaction to monitor the progression toward an endometrium-like cell fate. After differentiation, the majority of cells (>80%) were positive for cytokeratin-7, and the expression of key transcription factors related to endometrial development, such as Wnt4, Wnt7a, Wnt5a, Hoxa11, and factors associated with endometrial epithelial cell function: Hoxa10, Intergrin?3, LIF, ER, and PR were also detected. Then, we established the uterine full-thickness-injury rat models to test cell function in vivo. hESC-derived cells were dropped onto collagen scaffolds and transplanted into the animal model. Twelve weeks after transplantation, we discovered that the hESC-derived cells could survive and recover the structure and function of uterine horns in a rat model of severe uterine damage. The experimental system presented here provides a reliable protocol to produce endometrium-like cells from hESCs. Our results encourage the use of hESCs in cell-replacement therapy for severe uterine damage in future. PMID:25097004

  7. Does fertility treatment increase the risk of uterine cancer? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saso, Srdjan; Louis, Louay S; Doctor, Farah; Hamed, Ali Hassan; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Yazbek, Joseph; Bora, Shabana; Abdalla, Hossam; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Thum, Meen-Yau

    2015-12-01

    An ongoing debate over the last two decades has focused on whether fertility treatment in women may lead to an increased risk of developing uterine cancer over a period of time. Uterine cancer (including mainly endometrial carcinoma and the less common uterine sarcoma) is the commonest reproductive tract cancer and the fourth commonest cancer in women in the UK. Our objective was to assess the association between fertility drugs used in the treatment of female infertility (both as an independent therapy and during in vitro fertilization cycles) and the development of uterine cancer. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for comparative studies until December 2014 to investigate a clinical significance of fertility treatment on the incidence of developing uterine cancer. General and MESH search headings, as well as the 'related articles' function were applied. All comparative studies of 'fertility treatment' versus 'non-fertility treatment' reporting the incidence of uterine cancer as an outcome were included. Uterine cancer incorporated the following terms: uterine cancer, uterine body tumours, uterine sarcomas and endometrial cancers. The primary outcome of interest was the uterine cancer incidence in all 'fertility treatment' versus 'non-fertility treatment' patient groups. Secondary outcomes of interest were: (a) uterine cancer incidence in 'IVF' versus 'non-IVF' patient groups; and (b) uterine cancer incidence according to type of fertility drug used. Odds ratio was the summary statistic. Random-effects modelling, graphical exploration and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the consistency of the calculated treatment effect. We included six studies in our final analysis, which comprised 776,224 patients in total. Of these, 103,758 had undergone fertility treatment and 672,466 had not. There was 100% agreement between the two reviewers regarding the data extraction. All the studies contained groups that were comparable in age, although the criteria of reporting age varied. Taking all studies into account, the incidence of uterine cancer was 0.14% (150 of 103,758) in the fertility treatment group and 2.22% (14,918 of 672,466) in the non-fertility treatment group. Using the random-effect model to analyze uterine cancer incidence, this difference was not found to be of statistical significance: OR 0.78 (95% CI, 0.39-1.57). The degree of heterogeneity was high (I(2)=68%). The risk for the development of uterine and in particular endometrial cancer posed by infertility and an unopposed oestrogen state is widely recognized. The present analysis aimed to perceive whether standard fertility drugs were also a risk to future uterine cancer development. The treatment does increase the concentrations of unopposed oestrogen for a short periods of time but if successful leads to fertility. This meta-analysis points to a non-deleterious effect of fertility drugs towards the development of uterine cancer, a conclusion strongly supported by our sub-group analysis. PMID:26476799

  8. Antitumor Effects of Flavopiridol on Human Uterine Leiomyoma In Vitro and in a Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Baek, Jong-Woo; Shin, So-Jin; Kwon, Sang-Hoon; Cha, Soon-Do; Park, Won-Jin; Chung, Rosa; Choi, Eun-Som; Lee, Gun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are considered a potential target for cancer therapy. Flavopiridol is a potent CDK inhibitor. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of the flavonoid compound flavopiridol and its mechanism in human uterine leiomyoma cells were investigated. The present study focused on the effect of flavopiridol in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in primary cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells. Cell viability and cell proliferation assays were conducted. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the effect of flavopiridol on cell cycle. The expression of cell cycle regulatory-related proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Cell viability and proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cells were significantly reduced by flavopiridol treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that flavopiridol induced G1 phase arrest. Flavopiridol-induced growth inhibition in uterine leiomyoma cells was associated with increased expression of p21cip/wafl and p27kip1 in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of CDK2/4 and Cyclin A with a concomitant increase in dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma was observed. This study demonstrates that flavopiridol inhibits cell proliferation by initiating G1 cell cycle arrest in human uterine leiomyoma. We also found that flavopiridol is effective in inhibiting xenografted human uterine leiomyoma growth. These results indicate that flavopiridol could prove to be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for human uterine leiomyoma. PMID:24572052

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with cells and generally contain remnants of early embryonic structures. False cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can ... with cells and generally contain remnants of early embryonic structures. False cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can ...

  10. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  11. Increased Apoptosis, Altered Oxygen Signaling, and Antioxidant Defenses in First-Trimester Pregnancies with High-Resistance Uterine Artery Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Karin; Whitley, Guy StJ; Herse, Florian; Dechend, Ralf; Ashton, Sandra V; Laing, Ken; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Cartwright, Judith E

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms of deficient placentation in the first trimester remain poorly understood, although apoptosis, hypoxia, and oxidative stress have been implicated. High uterine artery Doppler resistance indexes (RIs) are predictive of placental complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and stillbirth. We provide evidence that even in the first trimester, pregnancies with high uterine artery Doppler RI demonstrate alterations in placental gene and protein expression. Apoptosis was significantly higher in high RI placental tissue, as determined by Western blot analysis of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3. Protein expression of the trophoblast survival factor insulin-like growth factor-2 was significantly lower. Both high and normal RI placentas showed evidence of hypoxia and oxidative stress with expression of hypoxia-inducible factors 1? and 2?, heat shock protein 70, presence of nitrotyrosine residues, and lipid peroxidation. We observed no exaggerated placental hypoxia or oxidative stress associated with high RI pregnancies. High RI placental tissue demonstrated an altered balance of antioxidant enzyme activity. Hypoxia and oxidative stress appear to be a physiological state in early pregnancy; our data did not support the hypothesis that they are associated with deficient placentation in the first trimester. Higher levels of apoptosis, reduced insulin-like growth factor-2 expression, and altered antioxidant defenses may contribute to abnormal placentation and the later development of pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and stillbirth. PMID:26362067

  12. Age-Stratified Risk of Unexpected Uterine Sarcoma Following Surgery for Presumed Benign Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Andikyan, Vaagn; Obi?an, Sarah G.; Cioffi, Angela; Hao, Ke; Dudley, Joel T.; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Kasarskis, Andrew; Maki, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Estimates of unexpected uterine sarcoma following surgery for presumed benign leiomyoma that use age-stratification are lacking. Patients and Methods. A retrospective cohort of 2,075 patients that had undergone myomectomy was evaluated to determine the case incidence of unexpected uterine sarcoma. An aggregate risk estimate was generated using a meta-analysis of similar studies plus our data. Database-derived age distributions of the incidence rates of uterine sarcoma and uterine leiomyoma surgery were used to stratify risk by age. Results. Of 2,075 patients in our retrospective cohort, 6 were diagnosed with uterine sarcoma. Our meta-analysis revealed 8 studies from 1980 to 2014. Combined with our study, 18 cases of leiomyosarcoma are reported in 10,120 patients, for an aggregate risk of 1.78 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.8) or 1 in 562. Eight cases of other uterine sarcomas were reported in 6,889 patients, for an aggregate risk of 1.16 per 1,000 (95% CI: 0.5–4.9) or 1 in 861. The summation of these risks gives an overall risk of uterine sarcoma of 2.94 per 1,000 (95% CI: 1.8–4.1) or 1 in 340. After stratification by age, we predict the risk of uterine sarcoma to range from a peak of 10.1 cases per 1,000, or 1 in 98, for patients aged 75–79 years to <1 case per 500 for patients aged <30 years. Conclusion. The risk of unexpected uterine sarcoma varies significantly across age groups. Our age-stratified predictive model should be incorporated to more accurately counsel patients and to assist in providing guidelines for the surgical technique for leiomyoma. PMID:25765878

  13. Sexuality and Body Image After Uterine Artery Embolization and Hysterectomy in the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids: A Randomized Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K. Volkers, Nicole A.; Bartholomeus, Wouter; Blok, Sjoerd de; Birnie, Erwin; Reekers, Jim A.; Ankum, Willem M.

    2007-09-15

    In this paper the effect of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on sexual functioning and body image is investigated in a randomized comparison to hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. The EMbolization versus hysterectoMY (EMMY) trial is a randomized controlled study, conducted at 28 Dutch hospitals. Patients were allocated hysterectomy (n = 89) or UAE (n 88). Two validated questionnaires (the Sexual Activity Questionnaire [SAQ] and the Body Image Scale [BIS]) were completed by all patients at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measurements on SAQ scores revealed no differences between the groups. There was a trend toward improved sexual function in both groups at 2 years, although this failed to reach statistical significance except for the dimensions discomfort and habit in the UAE arm. Overall quality of sexual life deteriorated in a minority of cases at all time points, with no significant differences between the groups (at 24 months: UAE, 29.3%, versus hysterectomy, 23.5%; p = 0.32). At 24 months the BIS score had improved in both groups compared to baseline, but the change was only significant in the UAE group (p = 0.009). In conclusion, at 24 months no differences in sexuality and body image were observed between the UAE and the hysterectomy group. On average, both after UAE and hysterectomy sexual functioning and body image scores improved, but significantly so only after UAE.

  14. All-trans retinoic acid protects against arsenic-induced uterine toxicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Chatterji, U.

    2011-12-15

    Background and purpose: Arsenic exposure frequently leads to reproductive failures by disrupting the rat uterine histology, hormonal integrity and estrogen signaling components of the rat uterus, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed as a prospective therapeutic agent for reversing reproductive disorders. Experimental approach: Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to either recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or treatment continued up to 56 days. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining was used to evaluate changes in the uterine histology. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by ELISA. Expression of the estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}), an estrogen responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Key results: ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced decrease in circulating estradiol and gonadotropin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with recovery of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands. Concomitant up regulation of ER{alpha}, VEGF, cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ki-67 was also observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the results reveal that ATRA reverses arsenic-induced disruption of the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, and degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands of the rat uterus, indicating resumption of their functional status. Since structural and functional maintenance of the pubertal uterus is under the influence of estradiol, ATRA consequently up regulated the estrogen receptor and resumed cellular proliferation, possibly by an antioxidant therapeutic approach against arsenic toxicity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic disrupts the uterine histology and estrogen signaling components in rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in estradiol and gonadotropin levels, ER{alpha}, VEGF and cell cycle proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic disrupts the above components by inhibiting antioxidant defense mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATRA treatment led to recovery of uterine histology and ER{alpha} signaling components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitamin A in diet is a promising cure for arsenic-induced reproductive failures.

  15. Hysterosalpingography Finding in Intra Uterine Adhesion (Asherman’ s Syndrome): A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Siahbazi, Shiva; Akhbari, Farnaz; Eslami, Bita; Vosough, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Destruction of the endometrium due to trauma to the basal layer of endometrium may cause intra uterine adhesions, known as Asherman’s syndrome (AS). There are various types of imaging method for diagnosis of the intra uterine adhesion such as hysterosalpingography, sonohysterography, ultrasonography, and hysteroscopy which is considered as the gold standard approach. Hysterosalpingogram may suggest the presence of intrauterine adhesions, and may reveal the extent of the scar formation. Knowing different images in each technique is helpful in detection of intra uterine adhesion. PMID:24520480

  16. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  17. Effect of age and endometrial degenerative changes on uterine blood flow during early gestation in mares.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J C; Canesin, H S; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-10-15

    The present experiment was divided into three studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares. In study 1, the influence of semen infusion and conception was evaluated using noninseminated (non-AI), inseminated nonpregnant (AI-NP), and inseminated pregnant (AI-P) mares (n = 7 mares/group). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (?6 years), adult (from 8 to 12 years), and old (?15 years) pregnant mares (n = 7 mares/group). In study 3, uterine blood flow was also characterized in pregnant mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate, or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII, and GIII, respectively). Uterine vascular perfusion and pulsatility index from mesometrium attachment arteries were recorded daily from Day 0 (day of ovulation) to Day 12 and between Days 0 and 20 in nonpregnant and pregnant mares. Analysis according to the position of the embryo (uterine horn with embryo vs. opposite horn) was performed from Day 12 until Day 20. In study 1, increased uterine vascular perfusion and decreased pulsatility index were detected (P < 0.001) between Days 3 and 5 in non-AI and AI-P mares, whereas the uterine vascular perfusion of AI-NP mares did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the experiment. In study 2, the vascular perfusion of the uterine horn with embryo was higher (P < 0.001) than in the opposite uterine horn from Day 12 until Day 20 in both young and adult mares. With exception of Day 15, both uterine horns of old mares showed similar (P > 0.1) vascular perfusion from Day 12. In study 3, vascular perfusion of both uterine horns was lower (P < 0.001) in GIII mares than in GI and GII mares. After Day 15, the scores for uterine vascular perfusion were consistently greater (P < 0.001) in the uterine horn with embryo than in the opposite horn in GI mares. Results showed, for the first time, the reduced blood flow of the gravid uterus during early gestation in older mares and in mares with significant endometrial degeneration. PMID:26194699

  18. Unilateral uterine torsion secondary to an inflammatory endometrial polyp in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Ba; Laksito, Ma; Long, F; Yates, Gd

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old bitch was presented because of lethargy and abdominal distension. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an enlarged, fluid-filled uterus and associated mass. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy revealed unilateral uterine torsion involving the mass. Recovery following ovariohysterectomy was uneventful and the histopathological diagnosis was of a benign endometrial inflammatory polyp. Reports of uterine torsion in the English-language literature are reviewed to identify factors associated with the incidence of uterine torsion. The aetiology of the cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra complex and its possible role in the development of inflammatory polypoid lesions in the bitch is also discussed. PMID:21933164

  19. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  20. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  1. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  2. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  3. Silent Spontaneous Uterine Rupture at 36 Weeks of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. Y.; Tate, L.; Roth, S.; Eke, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Silent spontaneous rupture of the uterus before term, with extrusion of an intact amniotic sac and delivery of a healthy neonate, with no maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of silent spontaneous uterine rupture, found during a scheduled repeat cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Patient had history of two prior classical cesarean sections. She underwent cesarean section, with delivery of a healthy male infant. She had a good postoperative recovery and was discharged on postoperative day 3. Conclusion. Silent spontaneous rupture of the uterus before term with extrusion of an intact amniotic sac is rare. A high index of suspicion and good imaging during pregnancy are important in making this diagnosis. PMID:26357580

  4. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  5. Uterine adenomyosis in southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus).

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee; Viner, Tabitha; Thompson, Rachel; Boedeker, Nancy

    2013-12-01

    Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed in five southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus) from four different zoological collections in North America between 1995 and 2012. Two cases were diagnosed after ovariohysterectomy and histopathologic evaluation of the uteri, and the remaining cases were identified incidentally at the time of postmortem examination. Animals ranged from 5 to 14 yr of age at the time of diagnosis. Of armadillos diagnosed before postmortem examination, clinical signs included weakness, collapse, anemia, and vulvar discharge. Histopathologic evaluation of the uteri revealed well-developed, irregular endometrial glands extending into the myometrium and occasional hemorrhage within these glands. The two cases diagnosed antemortem were successfully treated with ovariohysterectomy. To the authors' knowledge, this condition has not been previously reported in Xenarthra, including armadillos. PMID:24450063

  6. Management Strategies in Advanced Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: Focus on Trabectedin

    PubMed Central

    Amant, Frédéric; Lorusso, Domenica; Duffaud, Florence; Pautier, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of advanced uterine leiomyosarcomas (U-LMS) represents a considerable challenge. Radiological diagnosis prior to hysterectomy is difficult, with the diagnosis frequently made postoperatively. Whilst a total abdominal hysterectomy is the cornerstone of management of early disease, the role of routine adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy is less clear, since they may improve local tumor control in high risk patients but are not associated with an overall survival benefit. For recurrent or disseminated U-LMS, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. There have been few active chemotherapy drugs approved for advanced disease, although newer drugs such as trabectedin with its pleiotropic mechanism of actions represent an important addition to the standard front-line systemic therapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide. In this review, we outline the therapeutic potential and in particular the emerging evidence-based strategy of therapy with trabectedin in patients with advanced U-LMS. PMID:26089739

  7. Uterine perfusion model for analyzing barriers to transport in fibroids.

    PubMed

    Stirland, Darren L; Nichols, Joseph W; Jarboe, Elke; Adelman, Marisa; Dassel, Mark; Janát-Amsbury, Margit-Maria; Bae, You Han

    2015-09-28

    This project uses an ex vivo human perfusion model for studying transport in benign, fibrous tumors. The uterine arteries were cannulated to perfuse the organ with a buffer solution containing blood vessel stain and methylene blue to analyze intratumoral transport. Gross examination revealed tissue expansion effects and a visual lack of methylene blue in the fibroids. Some fibroids exhibited regions with partial methylene blue penetration into the tumor environment. Histological analysis comparing representative sections of fibroids and normal myometrium showed a smaller number of vessels with decreased diameters within the fibroid. Imaging of fluorescently stained vessels exposed a stark contrast between fluorescence within the myometrium and relatively little within the fibroid tissues. Imaging at higher magnification revealed that fibroid blood vessels were indeed perfused and stained with the lipophilic membrane dye; however, the vessels were only the size of small capillaries and the blood vessel coverage was only 12% that of the normal myometrium. The majority of sampled fibroids had a strong negative correlation (Pearson's r=-0.68 or beyond) between collagen and methylene blue staining. As methylene blue was able to passively diffuse into fibroid tissue, the true barrier to transport in these fibroids is likely high interstitial fluid pressure, correlating with high collagen content and solid stress observed in the fibroid tissue. Fibroids had an average elevated interstitial fluid pressure of 4mmHg compared to -1mmHg in normal myometrium. Our findings signify relationships between drug distribution in fibroids and between vasculature characteristics, collagen levels, and interstitial fluid pressure. Understanding these barriers to transport can lead to developments in drug delivery for the treatment of uterine fibroids and tumors of similar composition. PMID:26184049

  8. Analysis of uterine rupture at university teaching hospital Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Nousheen; Yousfani, Sajida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors, management modalities, fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture cases at University teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) for a period of one year from January 1st to December 31st 2012. Main outcome measures were frequency, age, parity, booking status, risk factors, management modalities, fetal and maternal mortality associated with uterine rupture. The data was collected on pre-designed proforma analysed using SPSS Version 16 statistical package. Results: The frequency of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.67%, giving a ratio of 1:148 deliveries. Highest incidence was found in age group 25-30 (44.26%) with mean age of 30.36 years. and parity group 2-3 (57.37%) with mean parity 4.08. The risk factors for ruptured uterus include Caesarean section 43(70.49%), injudicious use of oxytocin 33(54.09%), obstructed labour 15 (24.59%) and multiparty 18 (29.50%). Repair of uterus was performed in 47(77.04%) cases. Maternal case fatality was 5(8.19%), while foetal wastage was 51 (83.60%). Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of a serious preventable obstetric problem, with significant maternal mortality and foetal wastage. Integrated efforts include Health education, focused antenatal care, skilled attendance, avoidance of injudicious use of oxytocin, and need of hospital based deliveries in patients with caesarean section which should be intensified to reduce this drastic obstetrical complication. PMID:26430430

  9. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder. PMID:26693398

  10. Abnormal sterol metabolism in holoprosencephaly: studies in cultured lymphoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Haas, D; Morgenthaler, J; Lacbawan, F; Long, B; Runz, H; Garbade, S F; Zschocke, J; Kelley, R I; Okun, J G; Hoffmann, G F; Muenke, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the developing forebrain in humans. The aetiology is heterogeneous and remains unexplained in approximately 75% of patients. Objective To examine cholesterol biosynthesis in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 228 patients with HPE, since perturbations of cholesterol homeostasis are an important model system to study HPE pathogenesis in animals. Methods An in vitro loading test that clearly identifies abnormal increase of C27 sterols in lymphoblast?derived cells was developed using [2?14C] acetate as substrate. Results 22 (9.6%) HPE cell lines had abnormal sterol pattern in the in vitro loading test. In one previously reported patient, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome was diagnosed, whereas others also had clearly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis of uncertain cause. The mean (SD) cholesterol levels were 57% (15.3%) and 82% (4.7%) of total sterols in these cell lines and controls, respectively. The pattern of accumulating sterols was different from known defects of cholesterol biosynthesis. In six patients with abnormal lymphoblast cholesterol metabolism, additional mutations in genes known to be associated with HPE or chromosomal abnormalities were observed. Conclusions Impaired cholesterol biosynthesis may be a contributing factor in the cause of HPE and should be considered in the evaluation of causes of HPE, even if mutations in HPE?associated genes have already been found. PMID:17237122

  11. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A.; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M.; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J.; Reilly, Richard B.; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder. PMID:26693398

  12. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men from Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Jaganathan; Kujur, Smita B; Selvaraj, Kamala; Suruli, Muthiah S.; Haripriya, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Male infertility has been associated with aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletions and specific gene mutations and/or polymorphisms. Besides genetic factors, any block in sperm delivery, endocrine disorders, testicular tumours, infectious diseases, medications, lifestyle factors and environmental toxins can also play a causative role. This study aimed to determine the constitutional karyotype in infertile males having normal female partners in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods A total of 180 men with a complaint of primary infertility ranging from 1 to 25 years were screened for chromosomal abnormalities through conventional analysis of GTG-banded metaphases from cultured lymphocytes. Results Four individuals were diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome. Two cases exhibited reciprocal translocations and one showed a maternally inherited insertion. Polymorphisms were seen in sixty-seven patients (37.2%). Conclusion The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 4.6% and variants involving the heterochromatic regions of Y, chromosome 9 and the acrocentric chromosomes in 38.2% of the infertile men with an abnormal seminogram strongly reiterates the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing and counselling in the diagnostic work-up prior to the use of assisted reproduction technologies. PMID:26393143

  13. 21 CFR 884.2720 - External uterine contraction monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...It measures the duration, frequency, and relative pressure of uterine contractions with a transducer strapped to the maternal abdomen. This generic type of device may include an external pressure transducer, support straps, and other patient and...

  14. 21 CFR 884.2720 - External uterine contraction monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...It measures the duration, frequency, and relative pressure of uterine contractions with a transducer strapped to the maternal abdomen. This generic type of device may include an external pressure transducer, support straps, and other patient and...

  15. 21 CFR 884.2720 - External uterine contraction monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...It measures the duration, frequency, and relative pressure of uterine contractions with a transducer strapped to the maternal abdomen. This generic type of device may include an external pressure transducer, support straps, and other patient and...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2720 - External uterine contraction monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...It measures the duration, frequency, and relative pressure of uterine contractions with a transducer strapped to the maternal abdomen. This generic type of device may include an external pressure transducer, support straps, and other patient and...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2720 - External uterine contraction monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...It measures the duration, frequency, and relative pressure of uterine contractions with a transducer strapped to the maternal abdomen. This generic type of device may include an external pressure transducer, support straps, and other patient and...

  18. ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY IN A SERVAL (LEPTAILURUS SERVAL) SECONDARY TO UTERINE RUPTURE.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Laura K; Blue-McLendon, Alice; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    A 14-yr-old female serval (Leptailurus serval) died unexpectedly after 2 wk of inappetence and lethargy. Necropsy revealed a pyoabdomen with a full-term, well-developed fetus in the caudal abdomen covered by a mesenteric sac. The mesenteric sac communicated with a tear in the wall of the right uterine horn, supporting a diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy. The uterine wall had evidence of adenomyosis at the rupture site with no evidence of pyometra. The fetus, supporting mesentery, and peritoneum were coated with mixed bacteria, which may have ascended through an open cervix to the site of uterine rupture. This is the first case of abdominal pregnancy related to uterine rupture reported in a large felid species. PMID:26056905

  19. Improvement of signal-to-noise ratio in uterine EMG recordings. 

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Lui

    2005-02-17

    The objective of this study is to remove or, at least, reduce the noise in uterine EMG recordings, which at their present noise level render the data unusable. Predicting when true labor will start and recognizing when labor actually starts...

  20. The roles of estradiol-17 beta and prolactin in uterine gland development in the neonatal ewe 

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Karen Denise

    2005-11-01

    Endometrial glands are required for adult uterine function and develop post-natally in mammalian species. Therefore, studies were conducted using neonatal ewes as a model to determine: 1) the roles of estradiol-17-alpha and estrogen receptor-alpha...

  1. Intra-uterine insemination with prepared sperm vs. unprepared first split ejaculates. A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, M; Rabinovici, J; Bider, D; Lunenfeld, B; Blankstein, J; Weissenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    In this randomized prospective study, we determined the conception rate following intra-uterine insemination with washed and prepared sperm, or with the first portion of a split ejaculate, in couples with longstanding male (n = 27, 70 treatment cycles) or cervical infertility (n = 14, 29 treatment cycles). Folliculogenesis and ovulation were induced by human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Significantly more couples conceived in the male infertility group following intra-uterine insemination with washed sperm, than after intra-uterine insemination with split ejaculate (9 vs. 2; P less than 0.05), while no difference in pregnancy rate (2 vs. 2) was found by the two intra-uterine insemination methods in the cervical infertility group. PMID:1503250

  2. Uterine leiomyoma mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with chronic spontaneous hemorrhage: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIAOQING; FEI, JING; ZHANG, WEIJIANG; ZHOU, JIANWEI

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors to affect women. Cases of uterine leiomyoma mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with chronic spontaneous hemorrhage are extremely rare, and similar cases to that of the present study are yet to be reported. In the current study, a 48-year-old female presented with symptoms of lower abdominal pain after menses that had persisted for 4 months. The patient was initially diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma. However, according to the results of the gross and auxiliary examinations, a diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor could not be excluded. Therefore, the patient underwent a rectal sigmoid bowel resection, subtotal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy. Subsequent to surgery, the immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the initial diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. The surgery had therefore involved an unnecessary organ resection. PMID:26137094

  3. Abnormal reproductive function in female homozygous leaner mice 

    E-print Network

    Serpedin, Nesrin

    2004-09-30

    found in the ovary corresponding to the other uterine horn. Radioimmunoassays of estradiol hormone levels at postnatal day 28 shows higher levels in leaner compared to age-matched wild type mice. However, at postnatal day 28, the luteinizing hormone...

  4. Colorectal and uterine movement and tension of the inferior hypogastric plexus in cadavers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypotheses on somatovisceral dysfunction often assume interference by stretch or compression of the nerve supply to visceral structures. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of pelvic visceral movement to create tension of the loose connective tissue that contains the fine branches of the inferior hypogastric nerve plexus. Methods Twenty eight embalmed human cadavers were examined. Pelvic visceral structures were displaced by very gentle 5?N unidirectional tension and the associated movement of the endopelvic fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus that this caused was measured. Results Most movement of the fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus was obtained by pulling the rectosigmoid junction or broad ligament of the uterus. The plexus did not cross any vertebral joints and the fascia containing it did not move on pulling the hypogastric nerve. Conclusions Uterine and rectosigmoid displacement produce most movement of the fascia containing the hypogastric nerve plexus, potentially resulting in nerve tension. In the living this might occur as a consequence of menstruation, pregnancy or constipation. This may be relevant to somatovisceral reflex theories of the effects of manual therapy on visceral conditions. PMID:22520735

  5. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    PubMed Central

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M–; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH–; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ? 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M? cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ? 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  6. Pregnancy Downregulates Actin Polymerization and Pressure-Dependent Myogenic Tone in Ovine Uterine Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Daliao; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with significantly decreased uterine vascular tone and increased uterine blood flow. The present study tested the hypothesis that the downregulation of actin polymerization plays a key role in reduced vascular tone of uterine arteries in the pregnant state. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep. Activation of protein kinase C significantly increased the filamentous:globular actin ratio and contractions in the uterine arteries, which were inhibited by an actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin B. The basal levels of filamentous:globular actin were significantly higher in nonpregnant uterine arteries than those in near-term pregnant sheep. Prolonged treatment (48 hours) of nonpregnant sheep with 17?-estradiol (0.3 nmol/L) and progesterone (100.0 nmol/L) caused a significant decrease in the filamentous:globular actin. In accordance, the treatment of near-term pregnant sheep for 48 hours with an estrogen antagonist ICI 182 780 (10.0 ?mol/L) and progesterone antagonist RU 486 (1.0 ?mol/L) significantly increased the levels of filamentous:globular actin. Increased intraluminal pressure from 20 to 100 mm Hg resulted in an initial increase in uterine arterial diameter and vascular wall Ca2+ concentrations, followed by a decrease in the diameter at a constant steady-state level of Ca2+. Cytochalasin B blocked pressure-induced myogenic constrictions without effect on vascular wall Ca2+ levels and eliminated the differences in pressure-dependent myogenic tone between nonpregnant sheep and near-term pregnant sheep. The results indicate a key role of actin polymerization in protein kinase C–induced myogenic contractions and suggest a novel mechanism of sex steroid hormone–mediated downregulation of actin polymerization underlying the decreased myogenic tone of uterine arteries in pregnancy. PMID:20855655

  7. Novel genes induce uterine receptivity: the characterization of a specific gene product in the ewe uterus 

    E-print Network

    De Graauw, Jennifer Ann

    2013-02-22

    -1 NOVEL GENES INDUCE UTERINE RECEPTIVITY: THF. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPECIFIC GENE PRODUCT IN THE EWE UTERUS A Senior Honors Thesis By JENNIFER ANN DE GRAAUW Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 4 Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University... In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS APRIL 2000 Group: Molecular Genetics NOVEL GENES INDUCE UTERINE RECEPTIVITY: THE CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPECIFIC GENE PRODUCT IN THE EWE UTERUS A Senior Honors...

  8. Striatal Abnormalities and Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Orr, Joseph M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica; Gupta, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals experiencing non-clinical psychosis (NCP) represent a critical group for improving understanding of etiological factors underlying the broader psychosis continuum. Although a wealth of evidence supports widespread neural dysfunction in formal psychosis, there has been little empirical evidence to support our understanding of putative vulnerability markers or brain structure in NCP. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of spontaneous movement abnormalities, a neural biomarker previously detected in NCP that is linked to abnormalities in the striatal dopamine. Methods We screened a total of 1,285 adolescents/young adults, and those scoring in the upper 15 percentile on a NCP scale were invited to participate; 20 of those invited agreed and these individuals were matched with healthy controls. Participants were administered a structural scan, clinical interviews, and an instrumental motor assessment. Results The NCP group showed elevated force variability, smaller putamen (but not caudate), and there was a significant relationship between motor dysfunction and striatal abnormalities for the sample. Elevated force variability was associated with both higher positive and negative symptoms, and there was a strong trend (p=.06) to suggest that smaller left putamen volumes were associated with elevated positive symptoms. Conclusions The results are among the first to suggest an association between neural structure and a risk marker in NCP. Findings indicate that vulnerabilities seen in schizophrenia also characterize the lower end of the psychosis spectrum. PMID:24156901

  9. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eyes, ears, hands and feet, but in the female reproductive system, a doubling of certain organs - such as the ... causes vaginal fusion and duplication? Much of the female reproductive system is derived from two structures, known as mullerian ...

  10. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

  11. Paricalcitol, a Vitamin D Receptor Activator, Inhibits Tumor Formation in a Murine Model of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antitumor and therapeutic potentials of paricalcitol, an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with lower calcemic activity, against uterine fibroids using in vitro and in vivo evaluations in appropriate uterine fibroid cells and animal models. We found that paricalcitol has potential to reduce the proliferation of the immortalized human uterine fibroid cells. For the in vivo study, we generated subcutaneous tumors by injecting the Eker rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cell line (ELT-3) rat uterine fibroid-derived cell line in athymic nude mice supplemented with estrogen pellets. These mice were administered with vehicle versus paricalcitol (300 ng/kg/d) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (500 ng/kg/d) for 4 consecutive weeks, and the data were analyzed. We found that while both paricalcitol and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced fibroid tumor size, the shrinkage was slightly higher in the paricalcitol-treated group. Together, our results suggest that paricalcitol may be a potential candidate for effective, safe, and noninvasive medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. PMID:24925855

  12. The effect of the space flight environment on mucin production in the mouse uterine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalina, Gorica; Forsman, Allan D.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that the microgravity environment of space has harmful effects on several tissues throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, research in this area is still in its relative infancy. This study investigates the effects of space flight on mucin production of the uterine tubes of mice. This study examined the epithelium of the uterine tubes from female mice that were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour for 13 days in August, 2007 and their concomitant controls. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced, i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture. Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amounts of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer for each region of the uterine tube: isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. One way ANOVA tests were used to compare mucin thickness between all three sets of animals. Results indicate similar but not identical results between the three regions of the uterine tube. The Baseline tissue had the thickest mucin layer regardless of treatment group. In the ampulla the mucin layer was the thinnest in the Flight tissue, followed by the Ground Control, with the Baseline being the thickest. Analysis of the mucin layer of the infundibulum of the three treatment groups indicated no difference in its thickness between the three regions of the uterine tube. These results indicate a trend toward thinning of the mucin layer of the uterine tube in space flight, but also indicate an influence by the housing environment.

  13. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M.; Reekers, Jim A.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analogue score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.

  14. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = ?0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  15. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  17. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  18. Heterogeneous deoxyribonucleic acid-binding forms of rabbit uterine progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Lamb, D J; Bullock, D W

    1984-05-01

    This study investigated the subunit structure of the rabbit uterine progesterone receptor (PR) using ion-exchange and DNA-cellulose chromatography. The mol wts of receptor were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after photoaffinity labeling the receptors with the progestin [3H]R5020. Cytosols were labeled with [3H]progesterone or 17,21-dimethyl-19-nor-4,9-pregnadiene-3,20-dione [( 3H]R5020) and chromatographed on DE-52 cellulose. Greater than 80% of the PR bound to DE-52 and elution with a KCl gradient gave two peaks of activity at 50-75 mM (peak I) and at 125-200 mM KCl (peak II). Chromatography on QAE-Sephadex also separated two peaks. Peak I was abolished by addition of molybdate, or by passage over phosphocellulose. All (greater than 80%) of the PR from peaks I and II bound to DNA-cellulose and eluted as a single, symmetrical peak at 0.29 M KCl in both cases. Peak I could not be directly generated from peak II by exposure to salt or by ammonium sulfate precipitation. After peak II receptor had been bound and eluted from a DNA-cellulose column, however, it eluted subsequently from QAE as peak I. Photoaffinity labeling of peak I and peak II with [3H] R5020 in the presence of 10 microM cortisol revealed two proteins in each peak with mol wt of 102,000 and 78,000 (n = 13). Both mol wt forms were present in the DNA-eluates both of peak I and peak II. The [3H]R5020 binding to these mol wt forms could be completely displaced under exchange conditions with 10 nM progesterone or R5020. Deoxycorticosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol were nearly ineffective competitors at 10 nM. Without phosphocellulose chromatography before chromatography on DE-52 and DNA-cellulose, numerous receptor fragments were found. Fragments containing both steroid- and DNA-binding domains were found at 102,000, 78,000, 54-60,000, 43,000, 33-34,000, and 21,000, suggesting proteolysis. This proteolytic activity was removed by passage over phosphocellulose. The rabbit uterine PR contains at least two major proteins of 78,000 and 102,000 mol wt which cannot be distinguished on the basis of their ionic or DNA-binding characteristics or steroid-binding specificity. PMID:6714169

  19. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  20. Abnormal Glycoprotein Antibodies Possible Detection Biomarkers

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have found that cancer patients produce antibodies that target abnormal glycoproteins (proteins with sugar molecules attached) made by their tumors. The result of this work suggests that antitumor antibodies in the blood may provide a fruitful

  1. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  2. Uterine endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response regulation of gestational length is caspase-3 and -7-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Organ, Kenna; Moreci, Rebecca S; Anamthathmakula, Prashanth; Hassan, Sonia S; Caritis, Steve N; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C

    2015-11-10

    We previously identified myometrial caspase-3 (CASP3) as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence. We also determined that during pregnancy, the functional activation of uterine CASP3 is likely governed by an integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR) and is consequently limited by an increased unfolded protein response (UPR). The present study examined the functional relevance of uterine UPR-ERSR in maintaining myometrial quiescence and regulating the timing of parturition. In vitro analysis of the human uterine myocyte hTERT-HM cell line revealed that tunicamycin (TM)-induced ERSR modified uterine myocyte contractile responsiveness. Accordingly, alteration of in vivo uterine UPR-ERSR using a pregnant mouse model significantly modified gestational length. We determined that "normal" gestational activation of the ERSR-induced CASP3 and caspase 7 (CASP7) maintains uterine quiescence through previously unidentified proteolytic targeting of the gap junction protein, alpha 1(GJA1); however, surprisingly, TM-induced uterine ERSR triggered an exaggerated UPR that eliminated uterine CASP3 and 7 tocolytic action precociously. These events allowed for a premature increase in myometrial GJA1 levels, elevated contractile responsiveness, and the onset of preterm labor. Importantly, a successful reversal of the magnified ERSR-induced preterm birth phenotype could be achieved by pretreatment with 4-phenylbutrate, a chaperone protein mimic. PMID:26504199

  3. Applying the functional abnormality ontology pattern to anatomical functions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several biomedical ontologies cover the domain of biological functions, including molecular and cellular functions. However, there is currently no publicly available ontology of anatomical functions. Consequently, no explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions is expressed in the anatomy ontologies that are available for various species. Such an explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions would be useful both for defining the classes of the anatomy and the phenotype ontologies accurately. Results We provide an ontological analysis of functions and functional abnormalities. From this analysis, we derive an approach to the automatic extraction of anatomical functions from existing ontologies which uses a combination of natural language processing, graph-based analysis of the ontologies and formal inferences. Additionally, we introduce a new relation to link material objects to processes that realize the function of these objects. This relation is introduced to avoid a needless duplication of processes already covered by the Gene Ontology in a new ontology of anatomical functions. Conclusions Ontological considerations on the nature of functional abnormalities and their representation in current phenotype ontologies show that we can extract a skeleton for an ontology of anatomical functions by using a combination of process, phenotype and anatomy ontologies automatically. We identify several limitations of the current ontologies that still need to be addressed to ensure a consistent and complete representation of anatomical functions and their abnormalities. Availability The source code and results of our analysis are available at http://bioonto.de. PMID:20618982

  4. Metabolic abnormalities in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Ong, Albert C M

    2015-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder and is known to affect all ethnic groups with a prevalence of 1:400-1:1000 live births. The kidney in ADKPD is characterized by the formation of numerous cysts which progressively expand and eventually destroy normal kidney structure and function. Cysts occur in other organs outside the kidney, most commonly in the liver, pancreas and spleen. Important non-cystic features include intracranial aneurysms and cardiac valve defects. Less well recognized are a range of metabolic abnormalities, which could be involved in cystic disease progression or be associated with other disease complications. In this review, we summarize the literature suggesting that metabolic abnormalities could be important under-recognised and under-treated features in ADPKD. PMID:24589722

  5. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  6. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  7. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  8. Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer Dafna Tsafrir, 1 chromosomal abnormalities in colon cancer. However, the relationships between DNA copy number and gene. This implies that whereas specific chromosomal abnormalities may arise stochastically, the associated changes

  9. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  10. Lived experiences of women who developed uterine rupture following severe obstructed labor in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major public health challenge in Uganda. Whereas uterine rupture remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, there is limited research into what happens to women who survive such severe obstetric complications. Understanding their experiences might delineate strategies to support survivors. Methods This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to explore lived experiences of women who developed uterine rupture following obstructed labor. In-depth interviews initially conducted during their hospitalization were repeated 3–6 months after the childbirth event to explore their health and meanings they attached to the traumatic events and their outcomes. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The resultant themes included barriers to access healthcare, multiple “losses” and enduring physical, psychosocial and economic consequences. Many women who develop uterine rupture fail to access critical care needed due to failure to recognise danger signs of obstructed labor, late decision making for accessing care, geographical barriers to health facilities, late or failure to diagnose obstructed labor at health facilities, and failure to promptly perform caesarean section. Secondly, the sequel of uterine rupture includes several losses (loss of lives, loss of fertility, loss of body image, poor quality of life and disrupted marital relationships). Thirdly, uterine rupture has grim economic consequences for the survivors (with financial loss and loss of income during and after the calamitous events). Conclusion Uterine rupture is associated with poor quality of care due to factors that operate at personal, household, family, community and society levels, and results in dire physical, psychosocial and financial consequences for survivors. There is need to improve access to and provision of emergency obstetric care in order to prevent uterine rupture consequent to obstructed labor. There is also critical need to provide counselling and support to survivors to enable them cope with physical, social, psychological and economic consequences. PMID:24758354

  11. Uterine blood flow in sows: effects of pregnancy stage and litter size.

    PubMed

    Père, M C; Etienne, M

    2000-01-01

    Female pigs were assigned to three groups at 94 days of age: a control group (CTR), a group undergoing the ligation and severing of the left oviduct (LIG), and a group undergoing right hysteroovariectomy (HHO). They were inseminated at 307 days of age. At 35 days of pregnancy, an ultrasonic transit time flow probe was implanted around the middle artery of one uterine horn in 33 sows and uterine blood flow was measured during thirteen 24-h periods between 44 and 111 days. Despite large differences in ovulation rate per uterine horn (4.8, 8.3 and 16.9 in the LIG, CTR and HHO groups, respectively), variation of litter size was considerably reduced with advancement of pregnancy (3.0, 6.6 and 10.8 foetuses per uterine horn at 35 days, and 3.0, 5.8 and 4.9 at 112 days (slaughter), respectively). Uterine blood flow increased linearly during pregnancy. It was lower in the LIG sows (0.82 to 1.74 L x min(-1) x horn(-1) from 44 to 111 days) than in the CTR and HHO sows (1.22 to 2.84 and 1.09 to 2.63 L x min(-1) x horn(1), respectively). It was more closely related to litter weight than to litter size and amounted to 0.42 L x min(-1) x kg foetus(-1) at 111 days. Uterine blood flow per foetus decreased when litter size increased. It increased from 0.31 to 0.72, 0.26 to 0.60 and 0.20 to 0.43 L x min(-1) x foetus(-1) from 44 to 111 days when there were 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 8 foetuses in the uterine horn, respectively. This explains why piglets from large litters are lighter at birth. PMID:11081664

  12. Investigation of defect-induced abnormal body current in fin field-effect-transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuan-Ju; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Yang, Ren-Ya; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung

    2015-08-01

    This letter investigates the mechanism of abnormal body current at the linear region in n-channel high-k/metal gate stack fin field effect transistors. Unlike body current, which is generated by impact ionization at high drain voltages, abnormal body current was found to increase with decreasing drain voltages. Notably, the unusual body leakage only occurs in three-dimensional structure devices. Based on measurements under different operation conditions, the abnormal body current can be attributed to fin surface defect-induced leakage current, and the mechanism is electron tunneling to the fin via the defects, resulting in holes left at the body terminal.

  13. Morphometric analysis of peritumoral lymph nodes in patients operated on for uterine cancer, locally treated with a thymic extract.

    PubMed

    Corradi, G; Cappellari, A; Pomari, R; Cappello, F

    1989-01-01

    By means of a morphometric analysis, the authors have evaluated the structure and dimensions of the lymph node functional areas (cortical, medullary, paracortical, histiocytosis of the sinuses, germinal centres) in regional nodes of women with carcinoma of the uterus in the 1st and 2nd stages. Twenty patients were treated 8 days before surgery with a dose of 1.5 mg kg-1 body weight of thymic hormone directly into the uterine portio. Ten patients, on the other hand, were injected with physiological saline solution. The quantitative and qualitative results show that in peritumoral lymph nodes of women treated with thymostimolin there is a marked increase, statistically significant (P less than 0.001), of the paracortical zone and of the number of germinal centres. PMID:2615531

  14. Non-coding RNAs in Uterine Development, Function and Disease.

    PubMed

    Nothnick, Warren B

    2016-01-01

    The major function of the uterus is to accept and provide a suitable environment for an embryo, ultimately leading the birth of offspring and successful propagation of the species. For this occur, there must be precise coordination of hormonal signalling within both the endometrial and myometrial components of this organ. Non-coding RNAs, specifically, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be essential for normal uterine development and function. Within this organ, miRNAs are proposed to fine-tune the actions of the female steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone. Not surprising, mis-expression of miRNAs has been documented in diseases of the endometrium and myometrium such as endometriosis and leiomyomas, respectively. In this chapter, I will review the current understanding on the role, regulation and function of non-coding RNAs focusing on miRNAs in both the normal physiology of the endometrium and myometrium as well as in pathologies of these tissues, namely endometriosis and leiomyomas. PMID:26659492

  15. Inactivation of AKT Induces Cellular Senescence in Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhenxiao; Qiang, Wenan; Vidimar, Vania; Kong, Beihua

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are a major public health problem. Current medical treatments with GnRH analogs do not provide long-term benefit. Thus, permanent shrinkage or inhibition of fibroid growth via medical means remains a challenge. The AKT pathway is a major growth and survival pathway for fibroids. We propose that AKT inhibition results in a transient regulation of specific mechanisms that ultimately drive cells into cellular senescence or cell death. In this study, we investigated specific mechanisms of AKT inhibition that resulted in senescence. We observed that administration of MK-2206, an allosteric AKT inhibitor, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated the microRNA miR-182 and several senescence-associated genes (including p16, p53, p21, and ?-galactosidase), and drove leiomyoma cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Moreover, induction of SIPS was mediated by HMGA2, which colocalized to senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This study provides a conceivable molecular mechanism of SIPS by AKT inhibition in fibroids. PMID:24476133

  16. [Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in uterine cervix carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Chuaqui, R; Cuello, M; Emmert-Buck, M

    1999-12-01

    The importance of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the development/progression of carcinomas of the uterine cervix is reviewed. It is well known that HPV-related oncogenes are strongly linked to cervical cancer. However, fewer studies have explored the occurrence of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in this neoplasia. Genetic deletions affecting tumor suppressor genes are the most common mechanism of inactivation of these genes. Studies using conventional molecular techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and Southern Blot showed low frequency of deletions in cervical carcinomas. Detection of deletions by using RFLP and Southern Blot presents several disadvantages, the most important being the difficulty in analyzing pure tumor cells. More sensitive approaches include tissue microdissection and PCR analysis of micro-satellites. Using these approaches, it has been shown that genetic deletions are, in fact, frequent events in cervical cancers, being detected in up to 95% of the cases. Multiple genetic loci are involved, including chromosomes 3p, 5p, 6p and 11q. Deletions are detected even in precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN). Some deletions have been correlated with prognostic parameters, such as stage, depth of invasion, and vascular space involvement. It is concluded that cervical carcinogenesis, like in other tumors, is a multistep process, characterized by the accumulation of events including activation of oncogenes, as well as inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. PMID:10835760

  17. Methodology for dynamic biaxial tension testing of pregnant uterine tissue.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; Mcnally, Craig; Calloway, Britt; Duma, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Placental abruption accounts for 50% to 70% of fetal losses in motor vehicle crashes. Since automobile crashes are the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States, research of this injury mechanism is important. Before research can adequately evaluate current and future restraint designs, a detailed model of the pregnant uterine tissues is necessary. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for testing the pregnant uterus in biaxial tension at a rate normally seen in a motor vehicle crash. Since the majority of previous biaxial work has established methods for quasi-static testing, this paper combines previous research and new methods to develop a custom designed system to strain the tissue at a dynamic rate. Load cells and optical markers are used for calculating stress strain curves of the perpendicular loading axes. Results for this methodology show images of a tissue specimen loaded and a finite verification of the optical strain measurement. The biaxial test system dynamically pulls the tissue to failure with synchronous motion of four tissue grips that are rigidly coupled to the tissue specimen. The test device models in situ loading conditions of the pregnant uterus and overcomes previous limitations of biaxial testing. A non-contact method of measuring strains combined with data reduction to resolve the stresses in two directions provides the information necessary to develop a three dimensional constitutive model of the material. Moreover, future research can apply this method to other soft tissues with similar in situ loading conditions. PMID:17487086

  18. Uterine Fibroid Embolisation – Potential Impact on Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Kröncke, T.

    2013-01-01

    The current standard therapy to treat myomas in women wishing to have children consists of minimally invasive surgical myomectomy. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has also been discussed as another minimally invasive treatment option to treat myomas. This review evaluates the literature of the past 10 years on fibroid embolisation and its impact on fertility and pregnancy. Potential problems associated with UAE such as radiation exposure of the ovaries, impairment of ovarian function and the impact on pregnancy and child birth are discussed in detail. Previously published reports of at least 337 pregnancies after UAE were evaluated. The review concludes that UAE to treat myomas can only be recommended in women with fertility problems due to myomas who refuse surgery or women with an unacceptably high surgical risk, because the evaluated case reports and studies show that UAE significantly increases the risk of spontaneous abortion; there is also evidence of pathologically increased levels for other obstetric outcome parameters. There are still very few prospective studies which provide sufficient evidence for a definitive statement on the impact of UAE therapy on fertility rates and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26633901

  19. Workflow in interventional radiology: uterine fibroid embolization (UFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindisch, David; Neumuth, Thomas; Burgert, Oliver; Spies, James; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    Workflow analysis can be used to record the steps taken during clinical interventions with the goal of identifying bottlenecks and streamlining the procedure efficiency. In this study, we recorded the workflow for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) procedures in the interventional radiology suite at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, USA. We employed a custom client/server software architecture developed by the Innovation Center for Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS) at the University of Leipzig, Germany. This software runs in a JAVA environment and enables an observer to record the actions taken by the physician and surgical team during these interventions. The data recorded is stored as an XML document, which can then be further processed. We recorded data from 30 patients and found a mean intervention time of 01:49:46 (+/- 16:04) minutes. The critical intervention step, the embolization, had a mean time of 00:15:42 (+/- 05:49) minutes, which was only 15% of the total intervention time.

  20. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra presenting as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Toshihiro; Okuno, Kentaro; Ugaki, Hiromi; Komoto, Yoshiko; Fujimi, Satoshi; Takemura, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, and spontaneous perforation of pyometra resulting in generalized diffuse peritonitis is extremely uncommon. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our institution. She had a history of mixed connective-tissue disease and had been taking steroids for 20 years. Under a diagnosis of generalized peritonitis secondary to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract or uterus, supravaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Unfortunately, wound dehiscence and infection occurred during the postoperative course, which were exacerbated by her immunocompromised state. Despite intensive care and a course of antibiotics, the patient died of multiple organ failure resulting from sepsis on the 36th postoperative day. Although correct diagnosis, early intervention, and proper treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality of spontaneous perforation of pyometra, if severe infection occurs, this disease can be life threatening for immunocompromised hosts. PMID:25057420

  1. Experimental platform for intra-uterine needle placement procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjidi, Yashar; Haidegger, Tamás.; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-03-01

    A framework has been investigated to enable a variety of comparative studies in the context of needle-based gynaecological brachytherapy. Our aim was to create an anthropomorphic phantom-based platform. The three main elements of the platform are the organ model, needle guide, and needle drive. These have been studied and designed to replicate the close environment of brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Key features were created with the help of collaborating interventional radio-oncologists and the observations made in the operating room. A phantom box, representing the uterus model, has been developed considering available surgical analogies and operational limitations, such as organs at risk. A modular phantom-based platform has been designed and prototyped with the capability of providing various boundary conditions for the target organ. By mimicking the female pelvic floor, this framework has been used to compare a variety of needle insertion techniques and configurations for cervical and uterine interventions. The results showed that the proposed methodology is useful for the investigation of quantifiable experiments in the intraabdominal and pelvic regions.

  2. Unenhanced MR Angiography of Uterine and Ovarian Arteries after Uterine Artery Embolization: Differences between Patients with Incomplete and Complete Fibroid Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kensaku; Saida, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yoko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Shiigai, Masanari; Osada, Kayo; Tanaka, Nami; Minami, Manabu

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the status of uterine and ovarian arteries after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with incomplete and complete fibroid infarction via unenhanced 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five consecutive women (mean age 43 years; range 26-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent UAE and MR imaging before and within 2 months after UAE. The patients were divided into incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups on the basis of the postprocedural gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings. Two independent observers reviewed unenhanced MR angiography before and after UAE to determine bilateral uterine and ovarian arterial flow scores. The total arterial flow scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 4 arteries. All scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Fourteen and 21 patients were assigned to the incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups, respectively. The total arterial flow score in the incomplete fibroid infarction group was significantly greater than that in the complete fibroid infarction group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.038 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). In 3 patients, additional therapy was recommended for insufficient fibroid infarction. In 1 of the 3 patients, bilateral ovarian arteries were invisible before UAE but seemed enlarged after UAE. Conclusion: The total arterial flow from bilateral uterine and ovarian arteries in patients with incomplete fibroid infarction is less well reduced than in those with complete fibroid infarction. Postprocedural MR angiography provides useful information to estimate the cause of insufficient fibroid infarction in individual cases.

  3. Association Between Preovulatory Concentrations of Estradiol and Expression of Uterine Milk Protein Precursor, Inhibin Beta A, Period 1, Proenkephalin, and Receptors for Oxytocin, Progesterone, and Estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eliminating the preovulatory surge of estradiol decreased uterine weight, uterine protein, RNA to DNA ratio, rate of protein synthesis, and embryo survival following embryo transfer in sheep. Furthermore, cows that did not exhibit standing estrus (decreased preovulatory concentrations of estradiol) ...

  4. Regulation of S100G Expression in the Uterine Endometrium during Early Pregnancy in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yohan; Seo, Heewon; Shim, Jangsoo; Kim, Mingoo; Ka, Hakhyun

    2012-01-01

    Calcium ions play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, but molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms of calcium ion action in the uterine endometrium are not fully understood in pigs. Previously, we have shown that calcium regulatory molecules, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 5 (TRPV6) and calbindin-D9k (S100G), are expressed in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in a pregnancy status- and stage-specific manner, and that estrogen of conceptus origin increases endometrial TRPV6 expression. However, regulation of S100G expression in the uterine endometrium and conceptus expression of S100G has been not determined during early pregnancy. Thus, we investigated regulation of S100G expression by estrogen and interleukin-1? (IL1B) in the uterine endometrium and conceptus expression of S100G during early pregnancy in pigs. We obtained uterine endometrial tissues from day (D) 12 of the estrous cycle and treated with combinations of steroid hormones, estradiol-17? (E2) and progesterone (P4), and increasing doses of IL1B. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that E2 and IL1B increased S100G mRNA levels in the uterine endometrium, and conceptuses expressed S100G mRNA during early pregnancy, as determined by RT-PCR analysis. To determine if endometrial expression of S100G mRNA during the implantation period was affected by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedure, we compared S100G mRNA levels in the uterine endometrium from gilts with SCNT-derived conceptuses with those from gilts with conceptuses derived from natural mating on D12 of pregnancy. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of S100G mRNA in the uterine endometrium from gilts carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses was significantly lower than those from gilts carrying conceptuses derived from natural mating. These results showed that S100G expression in the uterine endometrium was regulated by estrogen and IL1B of conceptus origin, and affected by the SCNT procedure during early pregnancy. These suggest that conceptus signals regulate S100G, an intracellular calcium transport protein, for the establishment of pregnancy in pigs. PMID:25049477

  5. ECG abnormalities and stroke incidence.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2013-07-01

    In this review, the authors discuss the role of ECG in prediction of stroke. ECG plays an important role in detection of several stroke risk factors/predictors including atrial fibrillation and left ventricular hypertrophy; both are components of the Framingham Stroke Risk Score. Multiple other ECG traits have also emerged as potential predictors of stroke, namely cardiac electrical/structural remodeling--Q wave, QRS/QT duration, bundle blocks, P wave duration/amplitude/dispersion, other waveform angles and slopes; higher automaticity--ectopic beats; and re-entry--atrial tachyarrhythmia; and higher vulnerability to arrhythmia--heart rate and its variability. Most of these predictors are not ready for prime time yet; however, further research focusing on their role in risk stratification and prevention of stroke may be useful. In this article, the authors discuss the prevalence, mechanisms and clinical applications of traditional and novel ECG markers in the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23895029

  6. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. Material/Methods An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. Results In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Conclusions Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids. PMID:25371765

  7. Inpatient surgical treatment patterns for patients with uterine fibroids in the United States, 1998-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Edmund R.; Spalding, James; DuChane, Janeen; Horowitz, Ira R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of patient and organizational characteristics on surgical treatment patterns for patients with uterine fibroids. METHODS: Unadjusted means and percentages were calculated from a population-based inpatient sample (HCUPNIS). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for the association of uterine fibroid treatments and covariates of interest. RESULTS: More than 1.2 million patients with a primary diagnosis of uterine fibroids were treated from 1998 to 2002. Of these, 84.4% received a hysterectomy and 12.3% received a myomectomy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was the most common procedure. The number of supracervical hysterectomies increased 18.1% over the five-year period. Black women and Asians/Pacific Islanders were more likely than white women to receive a myomectomy. All types of hysterectomies were more common in Medicaid patients compared with private/HMO patients. With the exception of patients in ZIP codes with a median income of <$25,000 per year, an inverse relationship was identified between income and hysterectomy rates. CONCLUSIONS: The management of uterine fibroids appears to differ across a variety of socioeconomic factors and institutional characteristics. This study suggests that additional research should be conducted to assess the impact of nonclinical factors on treatment decisions for patients with uterine fibroids. PMID:16353655

  8. Dynamic changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations of pig uterine lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Bischof, R J; Lee, R; Lee, C S; Meeusen, E

    1996-06-01

    Cell subpopulations in local lymph nodes draining the uterine tissue of non-pregnant and pregnant pigs were examined by one- and two-colour immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to pig leucocyte cell surface antigens. Significant changes were observed in the T and B lymphocyte subpopulations and in a subpopulation of non-T or B cells. Activation of lymphocytes in the uterine lymph nodes during cycling in non-pregnant gilts suggests a role for the local immune system in the normal physiology of the uterus. In non-pregnant sows there was evidence of an increase in the CD4/CD8H ratio and in the proportion of B cells in the uterine nodes when compared to gilts with no prior reproductive experience. Pregnancy was shown to induce further dramatic changes in the uterine lymph nodes with an escalation in the proportion of B cells from 48% to 88% and a further increase in the CD4/CD8H ratio. For the first time in swine, low-level CD2 expression is reported on a subpopulation of B cells which are activated during pregnancy. These results provide evidence that the local uterine immune system in pigs plays a role in reproduction and perhaps in the maintenance of normal pregnancy. PMID:8792568

  9. Application of a Patient Derived Xenograft Model for Predicative Study of Uterine Fibroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gröticke, Ina; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Keator, Christopher S.; Koch, Markus; Slayden, Ov D.

    2015-01-01

    Human uterine fibroids, benign tumors derived from the smooth muscle layers of the uterus, impose a major health burden to up to 50% of premenopausal women in their daily life. To improve our understanding of this disease, we developed and characterized a patient-derived xenograft model by subcutaneous transplantation of pieces of human uterine fibroid tissue into three different strains of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Engrafted uterine fibroid tissue preserved the classical morphology with interwoven bundles of smooth muscle cells and an abundant deposition of collagenous matrix, similar to uterine fibroids in situ. The grafts expressed both estrogen receptor 1 and progesterone receptor. Additionally, both receptors were up-regulated by estrogen treatment. Growth of the fibroid grafts was dependent on 17?-estradiol and progesterone supplementation at levels similar to women with the disease and was studied for up to 60 days at maximum. Co-treatment with the antiprogestin mifepristone reduced graft growth (four independent donors, p<0.0001 two-sided t-test), as did treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (three independent donors, p<0.0001 two-sided t-test). This in vivo animal model preserves the main histological and functional characteristics of human uterine fibroids, is amenable to intervention by pharmacological treatment, and can thus serve as an adequate model for the development of novel therapies. PMID:26588841

  10. Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Uterine Artery: Changes with Embolization Using Gelatin Sponge Particles Alone for Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. To assess uterine artery recanalization, together with tumor devascularization, after embolization using gelatin sponge particles alone for fibroids. Methods. Twenty-seven patients underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for fibroids using only gelatin sponge particles. The angiographic endpoint of embolization was defined as near stasis of contrast medium in the ascending segment of the uterine artery. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before and 4 months after UAE, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) before, 1 week after, and 4 months after UAE. The visualization of the uterine arteries before and 4 months after UAE was assessed using MRA. The infarction rates of the largest tumor were assessed using CE-MRI 1 week after UAE. Results. MRA 4 months after UAE showed 100% (53/53) of the descending and transverse segments, and 88% (43/49) of the ascending segments that had been noted on baseline MRA. The visualization of the ascending segments on MRA 4 months after UAE was identical to that on baseline MRA in 20 of 27 patients (74%). CE-MRI showed complete infarction of the largest tumor in 22 of 27 patients (81%), and 90-99% infarction of the largest tumor in the remaining 5 of 27 patients (19%). Conclusion. Based on the MR study, in most cases uterine artery recanalization occurred, together with sufficient devascularization of fibroids, after UAE using gelatin sponge particles alone.

  11. Is uterine blood flow influenced by hCG and mare age?

    PubMed

    Turna Yilmaz, Ozge; Gunduz, Mehmet Can; Evkuran Dal, Gamze; Kurban, Ibrahim; Erzengin, Omer Mehmet; Ucmak, Melih

    2014-12-30

    Doppler ultrasonography is a noninvasive technique which enables us to follow the physiologic and physiopathologic changes in blood flow in tissues. It is becoming an essential tool in veterinary medicine, especially in theriogenology. Twenty-seven Arabian mares were grouped by age ('young', 3-10 y, n=15; 'old', 19-23 y, n=12). The uterine arteries of the mares were examined using Doppler ultrasonography when an ovarian follicle ?35mm was visible (Day -1). After these measurements, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 2500IU) was administered to 14 mares selected randomly. One day later (Day 0) Doppler ultrasonography was repeated and then the dominant follicles were aspirated to collect follicular fluid in all groups. On the next day (Day +1), Doppler indices of the uterine artery blood flow were measured again. Blood samples were also collected just prior to ultrasonography, for measuring serum estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that preovulatory hCG administration had no significant effects on uterine artery blood flow indices, or serum or follicular fluid estradiol concentrations. The uterine artery resistance index might decrease in young mares after ovulation, possibly because of increased uterine perfusion. PMID:25465361

  12. Local Uteroplacental Influences are Responsible for the Induction of Uterine Artery Myogenic Tone during Rat Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gokina, Natalia I.; Kuzina, Olga Y.; Fuller, Robert; Osol, George

    2009-01-01

    Uterine artery constrictor responses to elevation of intraluminal pressure (myogenic tone) are considerably enhanced in late pregnant rats, although the underlying causes remain unknown. A single uterine horn ligation model was used to differentiate local from systemic influences, and to test the hypothesis that that factors associated with the site of placentation, rather than systemic hormonal changes, are primarily involved in the induction of this adaptive process. Radial uterine arteries were dissected from the gravid and non-gravid uterine horns of late pregnant rats, cannulated and pressurized. Changes in arterial diameter and smooth muscle [Ca2+]i in response to the elevation of intraluminal pressure were studied using intact and endothelium-denuded arteries loaded with the ratiometric Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Elevations of pressure from 10 to 60 and 100 mm Hg resulted in passive arterial distention of arteries from non-gravid horns with a minor change in [Ca2+]i. In contrast, arteries from gravid horns developed myogenic tone associated with a significant elevation in [Ca2+]i. Synchronous oscillations in [Ca2+]i and lumen diameter were frequently observed in vessels from gravid horns. Endothelial denudation augmented tone in the gravid horn but did not uncover myogenic tone in vessels from the non-gravid horn. In summary, pregnancy-associated uterine artery myogenic behavior is due to an upregulation of calcium-handling mechanisms, occurs independently of the endothelium, and is induced by local uteroplacental influences. PMID:19657140

  13. Uterine Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma with Tumor Embolism Extending into the Right Atrium

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiromi; Yagi, Hiroshi; Okugawa, Kaoru; Kenjo, Hironori; Ohgami, Tatsuhiro; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Kaneki, Eisuke; Ichinoe, Akimasa; Asanoma, Kazuo; Yahata, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    Uterine myxoid leiomyosarcoma (MLMS) is an extremely rare variant of uterine leiomyosarcoma; only 56 cases were reported from 1982 to 2013. Uterine MLMS is characterized by a myxoid appearance and highly malignant behavior. We herein report a case involving a 65-year-old woman with uterine MLMS with a large tumor embolism that reached the right atrium. A total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy, and tumor embolism resection with the use of a heart-lung machine were performed. Epirubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting led to reductions in both the tumor emboli and peritoneal dissemination. The patient retained a good quality of life for 10 months after the initial surgery. She then developed progressive disease despite treatment with pazopanib. She died of her disease 14 months after the initial surgery. Although complete surgical resection of the tumor is desirable, tumor reduction surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy might help to retain a good quality of life. This is the first reported case of a primary uterine MLMS with tumor emboli. PMID:25722901

  14. Claudin 7 is reduced in uterine epithelial cells during early pregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Poon, Connie E; Madawala, Romanthi J; Day, Margot L; Murphy, Christopher R

    2013-04-01

    The non-receptive uterine luminal epithelium forms an intact polarised epithelial barrier that is refractory to blastocyst invasion. During implantation, organised dismantling of this barrier leads to a receptive state promoting blastocyst attachment. Claudins are tight junction proteins that increase in the uterine epithelium at the time of implantation. Claudin 7 is a member of this family but demonstrates a basolateral localisation pattern that is distinct from other claudins. The present study investigated the localisation, abundance and hormonal regulation of claudin 7 to elucidate a role for the protein during implantation. The results showed that claudin 7 demonstrates a distinct basal and lateral localisation in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium throughout early pregnancy. On day 1, claudin 7 is abundantly present in response to ovarian estrogen. At the time of implantation, claudin 7 decreases in abundance. This decrease is not dependent on blastocyst presence, as shown by results in pseudopregnant animals. We propose that claudin 7 mediates intercellular adhesions in the uterine epithelium and also may be responsible for stabilising adhesion proteins at the basolateral cell surface. Thus, claudin 7 may function under the maintenance of the uterine luminal epithelial barrier, in the non-receptive state preventing implantation from occurring. PMID:23180307

  15. Successful Reduction of Acute Puerperal Uterine Inversion with the Use of a Bakri Postpartum Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Akinori; Ito, Koichi; Kubota, Yoko; Nosaka, Maiko; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a state wherein the endometrial surface is inverted. Although this condition may be observed in nonpregnant women, it most commonly develops at the time of delivery. In the present case, a 37-year-old woman without any remarkable history developed acute puerperal uterine inversion after the successful induction of labor. Following the delivery, she complained twice of severe lower abdominal pain; subsequently, hemorrhage was noted at the site of partial detachment of the placenta. These findings led to a diagnosis of placenta accreta, and the patient developed a state of shock. A Bakri postpartum balloon was inserted into the uterine cavity under ultrasonographic guidance and was filled with physiological saline for treatment of this condition. With this procedure, the uterine inversion was completely reduced and the hemorrhage was stopped. Moreover, no reinversion was observed in the postoperative period. These findings suggest that a Bakri postpartum balloon can be used to noninvasively reduce uterine inversion and prevent its recurrence. PMID:25954560

  16. Genetic screening and evaluation for chromosomal abnormalities of infertile males in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Fan, H-T; Zhang, Q-S; Wang, X-Y; Yang, X; Tian, W-J; Li, R-W

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of male infertility, particularly in cases of azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomal rearrangement may interrupt an important gene or exert position effects. The functionality of genes at specific breakpoints, perhaps with a specific role in spermatogenesis, may be altered by such rearrangements. Structural chromosome abnormalities are furthermore known to increase the risk of pregnancy loss. In this study, we aimed to assess chromosomal defects in infertile men from Jilin Province, China, by genetic screening and to evaluate the relationship between structural chromosome abnormalities and male infertility. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities among the study participants (receiving genetic counseling in Jilin Province, China) was 10.55%. The most common chromosome abnormality was Klinefelter syndrome, and the study findings suggested that azoospermia and oligospermia may result from structural chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 1 was shown to be most commonly involved in male infertility and balanced chromosomal translocation was identified as one of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomes 4, 7, and 10 were the most commonly involved chromosomes in male partners of women experiencing repeated abortion. PMID:26662410

  17. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  18. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  19. Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Leow, Alex D.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R.; O’Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide-ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, ASD is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared to those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and 7 typically developing boys (mean age/inter-scan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole-brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (p = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (p = 0.008), temporal (p = 0.03) and occipital lobes (p =0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in some gray matter structures, such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. TBM revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

  20. Correlation of Traditional Point a With Anatomic Location of Uterine Artery and Ureter in Cancer of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.-L.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chao, K. S. Clifford Wu, M.-H.; Tai, H.-C.; Chen, T.-C.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, J.-R.; Su, T.-H.; Chen, Y.-J.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: Point A, used for dose specification for intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, is the point at which the uterine artery and ureter cross. This study assessed compatibility of commonly used traditional point A (TPA) and actual anatomic point A (APA). Methods and Materials: We visualized and placed radiopaque clips at the APA during pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy in 11 patients with cervical carcinoma. Orthogonal and oblique radiographs were obtained after insertion of brachytherapy applicators. We measured the distance between the TPA and APA and estimated the brachytherapy dose to each of the two points. Results: A total of 64 brachytherapy treatments were performed. The mean distances between the TPA and APA were 5.2 {+-} 1.0 cm on the right and 5.4 {+-} 1.1 cm on the left. The estimated brachytherapy doses delivered to the APA as a percentage of the presumed 500-cGy fraction size to the TPA were 35.2% (176.6 {+-} 59.0 cGy) on the right and 30.0% (150.2 {+-} 42.9 cGy) on the left. The marked discrepancy in the position of the two points was not related to individual kinetic variations during brachytherapy treatment, tumor size, or bladder filling. Conclusions: The conventional TPA does not provide an accurate estimate of the APA determined during lymphadenectomy, indicating a need to reevaluate the current practice for determining the brachytherapy prescription for cervical cancer. ( (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier, NCT00319462)

  1. CHANGES IN FETAL ORGAN WEIGHTS DURING GESTATION AFTER SELECTION FOR OVULATION RATE AND UTERINE CAPACITY IN SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that the ability of the fetus to alter nutrient shunting and organ growth might be associated with uterine capacity. White crossbred gilts from a randomly selected control line, a line selected for ovulation rate, and a line selected for uterine capacity (UC) were unilaterally hyster...

  2. Transmission line models to simulate the impedance of the uterine vasculature during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    cycle and pregnancy Yanmei Zhu a , Benjamin J. Sprague a,b , Terrance M. Phernetton b , Ronald R) decreases approximately 2-fold. In healthy pregnancies, uterine blood flow increases by 20­50-fold, again adequately with pregnancy is a hallmark of pre-eclampsia [8­11]. Increases in uterine vascular compliance

  3. Analysis of ENPP2 in the Uterine Endometrium of Pigs Carrying Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Yu, Inkyu; Shim, Jangsoo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Eunsong; Ka, Hakhyun

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful tool for animal cloning, but the efficiency of producing viable offspring by SCNT is very low. To improve this efficiency in the production of cloned pigs, it is critical to understand the interactions between uterine function and cloned embryos during implantation. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the establishment of pregnancy in pigs; however, LPA production in the uterine endometrium of pigs carrying SCNT-cloned conceptuses has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated expression of ENPP2, an LPA-generating enzyme, in the uterine endometrium of gilts with conceptuses derived from SCNT during the implantation period. Uterine endometrial tissue and uterine flushing were obtained from gilts carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses and from gilts carrying conceptuses resulting from natural mating on d 12 of pregnancy. Our results demonstrated no difference in the level of ENPP2 mRNA expression in the uterine endometrium between gilts carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses and gilts carrying naturally-conceived conceptuses, but secretion of ENPP2 protein into the uterine lumen did decrease significantly in pigs with SCNT-derived conceptuses. These results indicate that expression and secretion of ENPP2, which are critical for appropriate LPA production and successful pregnancy, are dysregulated in the uterine endometrium of pigs carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses. PMID:25049907

  4. Anim. Behav., 1992,43,215-221 Stud males and dud males: intra-uterine position effects on the reproductive

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    on the reproductive success of male gerbils MERTICE M. CLARK, LEANNE TUCKER & BENNETT G. GALEF, JR Department Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, from known intra-uterine positions were each paired-uterine positions between two females (2F males). In a second experiment, female gerbils chose between pairs

  5. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of avian eggshell matrix and uterine fluid proteins associated with eggshell mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjiao; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production. During the process of eggshell formation, uncalcified eggs are bathed in uterine fluid that plays regulatory roles in eggshell calcification. In this study, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology was used to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs (shell matrix protein from strong eggshells and shell matrix protein from weak eggshells) and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs (uterine fluid bathing strong eggs and uterine fluid bathing weak eggs) in a chicken population. Here, we reported the first global proteomic analysis of uterine fluid. A total of 577 and 466 proteins were identified in uterine fluid and eggshell matrix, respectively. Of 447 identified proteins in uterine fluid bathing strong eggs, up to 357 (80%) proteins were in common with proteins in uterine fluid bathing weak eggs. Similarly, up to 83% (328/396) of the proteins in shell matrix protein from strong eggshells were in common with the proteins in shell matrix protein from weak eggshells. The large amount of common proteins indicated that the difference in protein abundance should play essential roles in influencing eggshell strength. Ultimately, 15 proteins mainly relating to eggshell matrix specific proteins, calcium binding and transportation, protein folding and sorting, bone development or diseases, and thyroid hormone activity were considered to have closer association with the formation of strong eggshell. PMID:24151251

  6. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Ifosfamide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Persistent or Recurrent Uterine, Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  7. Ultrasonographic findings in horses with foot pain but without radiographically detectable osseous abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rabba, Silvia; Bolen, Géraldine; Verwilghen, Denis; Salciccia, Alexandra; Busoni, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Foot pain is an important cause of lameness in horses. When horses with foot pain have no detectable radiographic abnormalities, soft-tissue assessment remains a diagnostic challenge without magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Ultrasonography can provide an alternative to MR imaging when that modality is not available but the extent of changes that might be seen has not been characterized. We reviewed the ultrasonographic findings in 39 horses with lameness responding positively to anesthesia of the palmar digital nerves and without radiographically detectable osseous abnormalities. Thirty of the 39 horses had lesions affecting the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), 27 had abnormalities in the distal interphalangeal joint of which six had a visible abnormality in the collateral ligament. Ultrasonographic abnormalities were seen in the podotrochlear bursa in 22 horses and in the ligaments of the navicular bone in two horses. Abnormalities of the navicular bone flexor surface were detected in eight horses. In three of the 39 horses, only the DDFT was affected. The other 36 horses had ultrasonographic abnormalities in more than one anatomical structure. Based on our results, ultrasonographic examination provides useful diagnostic information in horses without radiographic changes. PMID:21322394

  8. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  9. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  10. Reduced uterine perfusion pressure decreases functional capillary density in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Graham M; Morton, Jude S; Schmidt, Sydney M; Bourque, Stephane; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the functional and structural capillary density in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, which when performed during pregnancy is an established animal model of preeclampsia. We hypothesized that the RUPP model would be associated with capillary rarefaction and impaired capillary perfusion, which would be more pronounced in the pregnant state. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were randomized to nonpregnancy (Nonpregnant) or breeding (Pregnant) at 12 wk of age and again to RUPP or SHAM surgeries on gestational day (GD) 14 (or equivalent age in nonpregnant rats). On GD 20 (or equivalent), capillary structure and perfusion of the extensor digitorum longus were imaged using digital intravital video microscopy. Functional videos were analyzed by a blinded observer to measure capillary density, expressed as capillaries per millimeter intersecting three staggered reference lines (200 ?m). Flow was scored as the percentage of capillaries having 1) continuous, 2) intermittent, or 3) stopped flow. Total capillary density was not different between groups. There was a main effect of RUPP surgery resulting in decreased continuous flow vessels (P < 0.01) and increased stopped flow (P < 0.01), which was driven by differences between pregnant animals (Continuous flow: pregnant SHAM 80.1 ± 7.8% vs. pregnant RUPP 67.8 ± 11.2%, P < 0.05) (Stopped flow: pregnant SHAM 8.7 ± 3.2% vs. pregnant RUPP 17.9 ± 5.7%, P < 0.01). Our results demonstrate that the RUPP surgery is associated with a decrease in functional capillary density in skeletal muscle that is more pronounced in the pregnant state, which may contribute to the vascular pathophysiology observed in preeclampsia. PMID:26475590

  11. Uterus Wrapping: A Novel Concept in the Management of Uterine Atony during Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kimmich, N.; Engel, W.; Kreft, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine atony during cesarean delivery is a serious cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Management strategies include medical treatment with uterotonic agents, manual compression of the uterus, and interventional or surgical procedures. A novel technique to compress the uterus by wrapping it with an elastic bandage and its outcome in 3 cases of uterine atony during cesarean section are presented. Our novel method of intermittent wrapping of the uterus during cesarean delivery seems to be a successful additional approach in the management of uterine atony during cesarean delivery and may be an alternative treatment option to other compressing procedures in order to avoid high blood loss and last but not least postpartum hysterectomy. PMID:26380132

  12. Successful removal of uterine leiomyosarcoma tumour thrombus propagating to the right atrium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yu Hui; Lee, Lui Shiong; Lim, Chong Hee; Chew, Ghee Kheng

    2015-01-01

    Although intravenous leiomyomatosis is widely documented, intravenous extension of leiomyosarcoma into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and subsequently into the right atrium is extremely rare. Less than five such cases have been reported in the literature worldwide. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive smooth muscle tumour occurring with an incidence of 1% in all female genital tract cancers and comprises about 3-7% of uterine cancers. It carries a generally poor prognosis with 5-year survival rates ranging from 18.8% to 65% across all stages. We report a case of primary uterine leiomyosarcoma with intravascular tumour propagation extending to the renal vein, IVC and right atrium of the heart, which was successfully resected in a one stage operation by a multidisciplinary team. This case demonstrates the importance of preoperative radiological staging and multidisciplinary planning. PMID:26607197

  13. [Role of office hysteroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathology].

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Jolanta; Wi?niewska, Berenika; Szyd?owska, Iwona; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays endoscopic techniques are one of the basic diagnostic and operative methods in gynecology. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are the most popular of them. Office hysteroscopy is a modern diagnostic and therapeutic method feasible in an outpatient room because no necessity of anesthesia. It is the first-line procedure in the infertility diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathology such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and adhesions. Limitation of this method is the cervical canal atresia. Contraindications to it are: pregnancy, uterine bleeding, active inflammation of pelvic organs, cervical cancer. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of execution and no need for patient hospitalization, office hysteroscopy becomes important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in uterine pathologies. PMID:26608496

  14. An Integrative Model of Excitation Driven Fluid Flow in a 2D Uterine Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggio, Charles; Fauci, Lisa; Chrispell, John

    2009-11-01

    We present a model of intra-uterine fluid flow in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus by inducing peristalsis in a 2D channel. This is an integrative multiscale computational model that takes as input fluid viscosity, passive tissue properties of the uterine channel and a prescribed wave of membrane depolarization. This voltage pulse is coupled to a model of calcium dynamics inside a uterine smooth muscle cell, which in turn drives a kinetic model of myosin phosphorylation governing contractile muscle forces. Using the immersed boundary method, these muscle forces are communicated to a fluid domain to simulate the contractions which occur in a human uterus. An analysis of the effects of model parameters on the flow properties and emergent geometry of the peristaltic channel will be presented.

  15. A case of uterine rupture diagnosed based on routine focused assessment with sonography for obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, Maiko; Hasegawa, Junichi; Oba, Tomohiro; Arakaki, Tatsuya; Takita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 38-year-old primigravida woman with a previous history of myomectomy via laparotomy. At 30 weeks of gestation, she visited our emergency center because of sudden severe abdominal pain. Routine focused assessment with sonography for obstetrics (FASO) indicated no echo-free space at Douglas' pouch or between the spleen and kidney; however, echo-free spaces were visualized around the intestinal tract and at Morrison's pouch. Therefore, a diagnosis of hemoperitoneum due to uterine rupture was suspected, and emergency cesarean section was planned. During surgery, a small defect of the myometrium was found on the posterior to fundal uterine wall, with bleeding from the defect. We believe that routine FASO is useful for detecting emergency conditions, including uterine rupture during pregnancy and postpartum. When a pregnant woman complains of abdominal pain, an assessment with FASO is strongly recommended in the daily clinical setting. PMID:26703179

  16. Ovarian Leiomyoma Along with Uterine Leiomyomata: A Common Tumour at an Uncommon Site.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Indira; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Palo, Lal Bahadur; Varghese, Renu G'Boy

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumours of the ovary, mostly seen in women of reproductive age group. Here we report a case of ovarian leiomyoma as an incidental finding in a patient of 38-year-old woman with uterine leiomyomata. Peroperatively, her left ovary appeared bulky & she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with left salpingo-oophorectomy. Macroscopically, in addition to uterine leiomyomata, a grey-white solid mass was seen entirely within the ovary without any capsular breach. Microscopically, the ovarian mass resembled its uterine counterpart without any evidence of atypia or necrosis. Masson trichrome stain & immunohistochemistry for desmin positivity confirmed the smooth muscle origin of the tumour cells. Despite its rarity, ovarian leiomyoma has to be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of ovarian spindle cell tumours. In difficult cases, immunohistochemistry aids the diagnosis. PMID:26674537

  17. Recent scientific advances in leiomyoma (uterine fibroids) research facilitates better understanding and management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Darlene K.; Holthouser, Kristine; Segars, James H.; Leppert, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most prevalent medical problem of the female reproductive tract, but there are few non-surgical treatment options. Although many advances in the understanding of the molecular components of these tumors have occurred over the past five years, an effective pharmaceutical approach remains elusive. Further, there is currently no clinical method to distinguish a benign uterine leiomyoma from a malignant leiomyosarcoma prior to treatment, a pressing need given concerns about the use of the power morcellator for minimally invasive surgery. This paper reviews current studies regarding the molecular biology of uterine fibroids, discusses non-surgical approaches and suggests new cutting-edge therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26236472

  18. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Moie; Lee, Sang Soo; Eom, Dae Woon; Kang, Gil Hyun; Yi, Sang Wook; Sohn, Woo Seok

    2009-08-01

    Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman. We describe here a patient with this condition and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. A 48-yr-old woman complaining of severe dysmenorrhea was referred for investigation of a pelvic mass. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy. Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma. PMID:19654969

  19. Classification performance of the frequency-related parameters derived from uterine EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Moslem, B; Karlsson, B; Diab, M O; Khalil, M; Marque, C

    2011-01-01

    Frequency-related parameters derived from the uterine electromyogram (EMG) signals are widely used in many pregnancy monitoring and preterm delivery prediction studies. Although they are classical parameters, they are well suited for quantifying uterine EMG signals and have many advantages over amplitude-related parameters. The present work aims to compare various frequency-related parameters according to their classification performances (pregnancy vs. labor) using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The comparison between the parameters indicates that median frequency is the best frequency-related parameter that can be used for distinguishing between pregnancy and labor contractions. We conclude that median frequency can be the representative frequency-related parameter for classification problems of uterine EMG. PMID:22255062

  20. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  1. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  2. Environmental trichlorfon and cluster of congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A E; Elek, C; Gundy, S; Métneki, J; Nemes, E; Reis, A; Sperling, K; Tímár, L; Tusnády, G; Virágh, Z

    1993-02-27

    Of 15 live births in one Hungarian village in 1989-90, 11 (73%) were affected by congenital abnormalities and 6 were twins. Of the 11, 4 had Down syndrome. Likely causes of such clusters (known teratogenic factors, familial inheritance, consanguinity) were excluded. A case-control study and environmental investigations pointed the finger of suspicion at the excessive use of trichlorfon at local fish farms. The content of this chemical was very high in fish (100 mg/kg) and several pregnant women, including all mothers of babies with Down syndrome, had consumed contaminated fish in the critical period for the congenital abnormalities observed. PMID:8094783

  3. Case series: Pregnancy Outcome in Patients with Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Radhika, B H; Naik, Kusuma; Shreelatha, S; Vana, Harshini

    2015-10-01

    Fibroids in pregnancy is a commonly encountered clinical entity. Objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal and fetal outcome in women having pregnancy with uterine fibroids. We present the clinical, obstetric data, perinatal outcomes of 15 patients from a prospective study. Fifteen pregnant women with fibroid >3cm were prospectively included in study. Major proportion of patient with fibroids were in younger age group of 25-30 years when compared to older age group of 31-35 years (66% vs 33%). Fibroids were more frequent in multi-gravidae, compared to primigravidae. In almost half of patients, (53.3%) fibroids were diagnosed before pregnancy. Common complications encountered during pregnancy in decreasing order of frequency were pain abdomen (46.6%), followed by threatened preterm labour (26.6%) and anaemia (26.6%). Out of 15, three (20%) women had abortion. In remaining, 11/12 patients attained term pregnancy between 37 to 40 weeks. Two patients required antenatal myomectomy. Caesarean section was done in 75% of women who attained term pregnancy and one patient had technical difficulty during caesarean section. Post partum heamorrhage was seen in 5/15 (33.3%) of patients. Out of 12, five babies were low birth weight. Four babies required NICU admission. There was no perinatal mortality. In our small patient series high incidence of caesarean section rates and increased incidence of threatened preterm labour, anaemia, and postpartum haemorrhage, was observed in pregnant patients with fibroids and hence, the pregnancy with fibroids should be considered as high risk pregnancy. PMID:26557577

  4. Short communication: Relationship between natural antibodies and postpartum uterine health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum uterine diseases of dairy cows compromise animal welfare and may result in early removal from the herd or impaired reproductive performance. The relationship between poor immune status around calving and uterine diseases is well established; however, that between natural antibodies (NAb) and uterine health has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating NAb levels around parturition with puerperal metritis, clinical endometritis, and the intrauterine presence of the Escherichia coli virulence factor FimH. One hundred six pregnant heifers were enrolled; NAb in serum samples collected at 30 ± 3 d prepartum and at 2 ± 1 and 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) were measured by ELISA. Puerperal metritis was defined as the presence of fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge and rectal temperature >39.5°C at 6 ± 1 DIM. Clinical endometritis was defined as presence of pus in the uterine lavage sample collected at 35 ± 3 DIM. The intrauterine presence of the fimH gene at 2 ± 1 DIM was evaluated by PCR. The overall optical density (wavelength of 650 nm) of ELISA-detected serum NAb was lower for cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis than for cows that did not have puerperal metritis. Additionally, cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis tended to have lower levels of NAb than did cows without clinical endometritis. Finally, FimH-positive cows had lower overall levels of serum NAb compared with FimH-negative cows. In conclusion, NAb detected in serum around parturition was associated with uterine health of dairy cows. PMID:25262191

  5. Women seeking second opinion for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: role of comprehensive fibroid center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to describe our early experience with a comprehensive uterine fibroid center and report our results in women seeking a second opinion for management of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Methods We performed a HIPAA-complaint, IRB-approved retrospective study of women seeking second opinion for management of uterine fibroids at our multidisciplinary fibroid treatment center in a tertiary care facility from July 2008 to August 2011. After a review of patients’ history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment options were discussed which included conservative management, uterine-preserving options, and hysterectomy. We performed Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables between the cohort that did or did not undergo a uterine-preserving treatment. Differences were considered significant at p?uterine artery embolization), 25 myomectomies, 8 hysterectomies, 3 polypectomies, and 1 endometrial ablation. Five patients had two procedures. Intramural and subserosal fibroids were most commonly treated with MRgFUS followed by myomectomy and then UAE; in contrast, pedunculated fibroids were frequently managed with myomectomy. Conclusions Multidisciplinary fibroid evaluation may facilitate the increase use of less invasive options over hysterectomy for symptomatic fibroid treatment. PMID:25512867

  6. A Pilot Study of Uterine Artery Embolization with Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres in Guinea Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Wenquan; Tan Guosheng; Guo Wenbo; Yang Jianyong

    2012-06-15

    Objective: This study was designed to establish guinea pigs as an animal model for uterine artery embolization (UAE) with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TAGM). Methods: Twenty-five female adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups, including a uterine artery casting mould group (n = 10) and a UAE group (n = 15). Pelvic angiography and vascular casting mould were performed in the first group. The anatomical characters of the pelvic cavity in guinea pigs were described. In the second group, the technical feasibility of performing UAE with TAGM in guinea pigs was investigated. The histopathological slides of the uterus of guinea pigs after UAE were examined to inspect the outcomes of UAE. Results: The uterine artery springs from the internal iliac artery, ascends tortuously along the cervix, and gives off vertically 8-10 branches to the cervix uteri and uterine horns. The diameters of the trunk of the uterine artery and its first branch were 0.32 {+-} 0.027 mm and 0.14 {+-} 0.01 mm, respectively. For UAE animals, the dosages of 40-120 and 100-300 {mu}m TAGM were 0.033 {+-} 0.003 ml and 0.015 {+-} 0.002 ml, respectively. On histopathological slides, embosphere particles were found in the first branches of the uterine artery, the subserous arteries, and the intramural arteries. Inflammatory reactions in the uterus were common in guinea pigs after UAE. Local or dispersed areas of necrosis in uterus also were observed in a few guinea pigs. Conclusions: Guinea pigs are an appropriate and feasible model for UAE with TAGM.

  7. In Vitro Validation of Survivin as Target Tumor-associated Antigen for Immunotherapy in Uterine Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Anke; Everaert, Tina; Van Bree, Rieta; Verbist, Godelieve; Luyten, Cathérine; Amant, Frederic; Tuyaerts, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Survivin is an antiapoptotic protein, not expressed in terminally differentiated adult tissues, yet overexpressed in several tumors. Therefore, it is an interesting target for immunotherapeutic strategies. In addition to specific overexpression in tumors, tumor survival is mediated by survivin and hence, tumor survival can be tackled by targeting survivin. Survivin expression in uterine cancer was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In addition, we evaluated survivin immunogenicity by analyzing spontaneous B-cell and T-cell responses in patients. Survivin as a protein was expressed in only a minority of normal tissues, whereas it was being expressed in all of the currently analyzed uterine cancers, both endometrial carcinoma (n = 52) and uterine sarcoma (n = 52). Survivin RNA transcripts were overexpressed in more aggressive tumors and survivin protein was overexpressed in recurrent endometrial tumors compared with primary tumors. Spontaneous T-cell responses were seen in 10/39 endometrial cancer patients and 3/16 uterine sarcoma patients. In normal controls, T-cell responses were found only in 1 donor (n = 21). Although increased antibody titers were found in more aggressive and far-advanced tumors, no differences in B-cell responses were seen. Overall, when compared with normal controls, a B-cell response was only measured in 1/41 uterine sarcoma patients. In conclusion, we currently validated the presence of survivin in uterine cancer. In addition, spontaneous T-cell responses were found in 23.6% of the total patient population. These data indicate that a survivin-specific immune response may be induced spontaneously in patients, further fortifying the eligibility of survivin as an immunotherapeutic target. PMID:26049547

  8. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants’ opinions on and experiences with the services offered. Results It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. Conclusion The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well. PMID:22927768

  9. Somatic Mutations of PPP2R1A in Ovarian and Uterine Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ie-Ming; Panuganti, Pradeep K.; Kuo, Kuan-Tin; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Jones, Sian; Velculescu, Victor E.; Kurman, Robert J.; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-01-01

    Exome sequencing of ovarian clear-cell carcinoma has identified somatic mutations in PPP2R1A, a subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The present study was performed to determine the frequency of PPP2R1A mutations in exon 5, which harbors previously reported mutation hot spots, and adjacent exon 6, in 209 ovarian and 56 uterine tumors of various histologic subtypes. PPP2R1A mutations were demonstrated in 10 of 110 type I ovarian tumors (9.1%) including low-grade serous, low-grade endometrioid, clear-cell, and mucinous carcinomas. In contrast, none of 71 type II ovarian (high-grade serous) carcinomas exhibited PPP2R1A mutations. Moreover, PPP2R1A mutations were observed in 2 of 30 type I uterine (endometrioid) carcinomas (6.7%) and 5 of 26 type II uterine (serous) carcinomas (19.2%). Of the 18 mutations, 13 affected the R182 or 183, and there were 5 novel mutations including 3 involving S256, 1 involving W257, and 1 involving P179. All mutations were located in the ?-helix repeats near the interface between the A subunit and the regulatory B subunit of the enzyme complex. These data provide new evidence that PPP2R1A somatic mutations occur in certain types of uterine and ovarian neoplastic lesions, especially uterine serous carcinomas, and suggest that mutation of PPP2R1A may participate in the pathogenesis of ovarian type I and uterine type II carcinomas. PMID:21435433

  10. Eggshell apex abnormalities associated with Mycoplasma synoviae infection in layers

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jong-Nyeo; Lee, Hae-Rim; Koo, Bon-Sang; Min, Kyeong-Cheol; Han, Moo-Sung; Lee, Seung-Baek; Bae, Yeon-Ji; Mo, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Eggs exhibiting eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) were evaluated for changes in shell characteristics such as strength, thickness, and ultrastructure. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection was confirmed by serological assay along with isolation of MS from the trachea and oviduct. Changes in eggshell quality were shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). We also identified ultrastructural changes in the mammillary knob layer by Scanning Electron Microscopy. While eggs may seem to be structurally sound, ultrastructural evaluation showed that affected eggs do not regain their former quality. In our knowledge, this is the first report describing the occurrence of EAA in Korea. PMID:24962418

  11. Mapping brain volumetric abnormalities in never-treated pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Daniel; Rzezak, Patricia; Pereira, Fabricio R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Santos, Luciana C; Duran, Fábio L S; Barreiros, Maria A; Castro, Cláudio C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Tavares, Hermano; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-06-30

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to date have investigated brain abnormalities in association with the diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG), but very few of these have specifically searched for brain volume differences between PG patients and healthy volunteers (HV). To investigate brain volume differences between PG patients and HV, 30 male never-treated PG patients (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 30 closely matched HV without history of psychiatric disorders in the past 2 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging with a 1.5-T instrument. Using Freesurfer software, we performed an exploratory whole-brain voxelwise volume comparison between the PG group and the HV group, with false-discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Using a more flexible statistical threshold (p < 0.01, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), we also measured absolute and regional volumes of several brain structures separately. The voxelwise analysis showed no clusters of significant regional differences between the PG and HV groups. The additional analyses of absolute and regional brain volumes showed increased absolute global gray matter volumes in PG patients relative to the HV group, as well as relatively decreased volumes specifically in the left putamen, right thalamus and right hippocampus (corrected for total gray matter). Our findings indicate that structural brain abnormalities may contribute to the functional changes associated with the symptoms of PG, and they highlight the relevance of the brain reward system to the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:25952288

  12. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  13. Primary cervical and uterine corpus lymphoma; a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Mouzakiti, Niki; Ruthven, Stuart; Herod, Jonathan; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2013-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the uterine corpus and cervix is rare. We present a case of primary non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma isolated to uterine corpus and parametria with focal spread to ovaries and fallopian tubes, incidentally found on the background of endometrial malignancy. A summary of the published cases focusing on the presentation and prognosis as well as a review of current management are discussed. The rising incidence of extra-nodal lymphoma and recent changes in classification and therapeutic approach, require clinical vigilance. In the absence of prospective studies assessing the value of the available therapeutic options, data from retrospective series and scattered case reports are presented in this review. PMID:23641308

  14. Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

  15. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  16. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  17. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

  18. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  19. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  20. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.