Sample records for uv ceti stars

  1. Nucleosynthesis of Li-7 in flares on UV Ceti stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Worden, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    The possible production of Li-7 by nuclear reactions in UV Ceti flares has been considered. By utilizing solar observations and theory, a relationship is derived between flare energy and production rates for Li-7; approximately 100 erg of total flare energy is found to denote the formation of a Li-7 atom. Based on this value and best estimates of UV Ceti-type flare rates, it is concluded that less than 10% of the Li-7 observed in the intestellar medium may have been produced by this mechanism. Formation of significant amounts of interstellar deuterium by this method is ruled out.

  2. Pioneer 10 observations of the Beta Cephei stars Gamma Pegasi and Delta Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, K. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of analyzing broad-band Pioneer 10 photometric observations of the low-amplitude pulsating Beta Cephei stars Gamma Pegasi and Delta Ceti are reported. Periods and light curve amplitudes of 3.649 + or - 0.020 hr, 0.05 + or - 0.02 mag for Gamma Peg and 3.869 + or - 0.020 hr, 0.13 + or - 0.02 mag for Delta Ceti are obtained; a power spectrum analysis of the data reveals no other periods. No evidence is found for a phase shift between the light curve maxima in the UV and visible regions. The observed amplitudes combined with published visual and near-UV data suggest a flux and temperature variability of about 200 solar luminosities and 250 K for Gamma Peg and about 600 solar luminosities and 450 K for Delta Cet. These results are compared with others obtained with satellite and ground-based instrumentation.

  3. Asteroseismology of the ZZ Ceti star KUV 08368+4026

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Fu, J.-N.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Fox-Machado, L.; Michel, R.; Chavez, M.; Bertone, E.

    2015-06-01

    Asteroseismology is a unique tool to explore the internal structure of stars through both observational and theoretical research. The internal structure of pulsating hydrogen shell white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars) detected by asteroseismology is regarded as the representative of all DA white dwarfs. Observations for KUV 08368+4026, which locates in the middle of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, have been carried out in 1999 and from 2009 to 2012 with either single-site runs or multisite campaigns. Time series photometric data of about 300 h were collected in total. Through data reduction and analysis, 30 frequencies were extracted, including four triplets, two doublets, one single mode and further signals. The independent modes are identified as either l = 1 or l = 2 modes. Hence, a rotation period of 5.52 ± 0.22 d was deduced from the period spacing in the multiplets. Theoretical static models were built and a best-fitting model for KUV 08368+4026 was obtained with 0.692 ± 0.002 M?, (2.92 ± 0.02) × 10-3 L? and the hydrogen mass fraction of 10-4 stellar mass.

  4. Amplitude Modulation in the ZZ Ceti Star GD 244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bognár, Zs.; Paparó, M.; Molnár, L.; Plachy, E.; Sódor, Á.

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies of GD 244 revealed seven pulsation frequencies (two doublets and three single periods) in the light variations of the star. The data obtained at McDonald Observatory between 2003 and 2006, and our additional measurements in 2006 and 2007 at Konkoly Observatory, allow the investigation of the long-term pulsational behaviour of GD 244. We found that the 307.1 s period component of one of the doublets show long-term, periodic amplitude modulation with a time scale of ˜ 740 days. Possible explanations are that nonlinear resonant mode coupling is operating among the rotationally split frequency components, or two modes, unresolved in the yearly data are excited at ˜ 307.1 s. This is the first time that such long-term periodic amplitude modulation is published on a ZZ Ceti star.

  5. An Inventory of Gas in a Debris Disk: Far-UV Spectroscopy of 49 Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-10-01

    Debris disks stand between gas-rich protoplanetary disks and mature planetary systems, shedding light on the late stages of planetary system formation. Their dust component has been extensively studied, yet has provided little information about disk chemical composition. More information can be provided by their gas content, but astonishingly little is known about it. Only one debris disk has a fairly complete inventory of its gas, which is surprisingly carbon-rich {Beta Pictoris; Roberge et al. 2006}. Basic questions remain unanswered. What are the typical gas-to-dust mass ratios in debris disks? What is the chemical composition of debris gas and its parent material? The answers to these questions have profound implications for terrestrial planet assembly and the origins of planetary atmospheres.Most detections of debris gas were achieved with line-of-sight UV/optical absorption spectroscopy of edge-on disks, using the central star as the background source. This technique is far more sensitive to small amounts of gas than current emission line studies. The far-UV bandpass is particularly important, since strong transitions of abundant atomic, ionic, and molecular species lie there. We propose extending our intriguing studies of the Beta Pic gas with STIS far-UV spectroscopy of a highly promising debris disk system, 49 Ceti. This well-known disk is edge-on and contains CO gas {e.g. Hughes et al. 2008}. We plan to measure column densities of the most important gas species {CI, CII, OI, CO, SiII, and FeII}, find the relative elemental gas abundances, and determine the total gas mass using a powerful gas disk modeling code {ProDiMo; Woitke, Kamp, & Thi 2009}.

  6. Six New ZZ Ceti Stars from the SPY and the HQS Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, B.; Koester, D.; Østensen, R.; Napiwotzki, R.; Homeier, D.; Reimers, D.

    2007-09-01

    We report on the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti stars. They were selected as candidates based on preparatory photometric observations of objects from the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS), and based on the spectra of the Supernova Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY). Time-series photometry of 19 candidate stars was carried out at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory, Spain. The new variables are relatively bright, 15.4Ceti star that shows photospheric CaII in its spectrum.

  7. Six New ZZ Ceti Stars from the SPY and the HQS Surveys

    E-print Network

    B. Voss; D. Koester; R. Østensen; R. Napiwotzki; D. Homeier; D. Reimers

    2007-04-20

    We report on the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti stars. They were selected as candidates based on preparatory photometric observations of objects from the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS), and based on the spectra of the Supernova Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY). Time-series photometry of 19 candidate stars was carried out at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory, Spain. The new variables are relatively bright, 15.4Ceti star that shows photospheric CaII in its spectrum.

  8. The Asteroseismology of ZZ Ceti star GD1212

    E-print Network

    Guifang, Lin; Jie, Su

    2015-01-01

    The ZZ Ceti star GD 1212 was detected to have 19 independent modes from the two-wheel-controlled Kepler Spacecraft in 2014. By asymptotic analysis, we identify most of pulsation modes. We find out two set of complete triplets, and four sets of doublet which are interpreted as rotation modes with $l=1$. For the other five modes, the four modes $f_{13}$, $f_{15}$, $f_{16}$ and $f_{4}$ are identified as ones with $l=2$; and the mode $f_{7}$ is identified to be the one with $l=1$. Meanwhile we derive a mean rotation period of $6.65\\pm0.21$ h for GD 1212 according to the rotation splitting. Using the method of matching the observed periods to theoretical ones, we obtain the best-fitting model with the four parameters as $M_{\\rm{*}}/M_{\\rm{\\odot}} = 0.775$, $T_{\\rm{eff}} = 11400$ K, $\\log (M_{\\rm{H}}/M_{\\rm{*}}) = -5.0$, $\\log (M_{\\rm{He}}/M_{\\rm{*}})=-2.5$ for GD 1212. We find that due to the gradient of C/O abundance in the interior of white dwarf, some modes can not propagate to the stellar interior, which leads...

  9. Asteroseismological constraints on the structure of the ZZ Ceti star HL Tau 76

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pech; G. Vauclair; N. Dolez

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results derived from an asteroseismological study of the cool ZZ Ceti star HL Tau 76. A grid of models has been computed in a parameter space covering the range of log g and Teff, formerly determined by spectroscopy, and a large range of hydrogen mass fraction. The adiabatic non-radial oscillations for all the models have been

  10. Ultraviolet Spectra of Star-Grazing Comets in the 49 Ceti Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2015-01-01

    49 Ceti is a young star that hosts a debris disk with an unusually large amount of carbon monoxide gas. This excess gas has been attributed to frequent collisions of comets within the disk. (Zuckerman & Song, 2012). Since 49 Ceti disk is nearly edge-on to our line of sight, it is a prime target to observe disk gas and evaporated material from star-grazing comets using absorption spectroscopy, as shown by detection of time-variable circumstellar absorption in optical spectra of the star (Montgomery & Welsh 2012). Here we discuss ultraviolet spectra of 49 Ceti taken using the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) during two separate visits six days apart. The spectra show time-variable and highly Doppler shifted absorption features from ionized gaseous species. The maximum velocity of the time-variable gas corresponds to a minimum distance from the star of 0.06 AU. These features very likely come from star-grazing comets. Lower limits on element abundances in the gas were found using the apparent optical depth method. The variable comet gas appears carbon rich, despite the disk gas as a whole showing strong absorption features from both carbon and oxygen (Roberge et al., 2014, in press).

  11. The effective temperature of the white-dwarf star and ZZ Ceti candidate Wolf 485A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, S. W.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Previous multichannel observations of W485A (WD 1327-08) have placed it in the instability strip, the effective temperature range 11,000-13,000 K. In the instability strip, most of the stars (the ZZ Ceti stars) are variable, but W485A has not been detected to be variable. In this paper, high-resolution spectra of W485A and improved hydrogen-line broadening routines are used in the ATLAS model-atmospheres program to find the temperature of W485A; the estimate of effective temperature most consistent with the other data on the star is 14,600 K, outside the instability strip.

  12. The unusual pulsation spectrum of the cool ZZ Ceti star HS0507+0434B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Montgomery, M. H.

    2002-09-01

    We present the analysis of 1 week of single-site high-speed CCD photometric observations of the cool ZZ Ceti star HS0507+0434B. 10 independent frequencies are detected in the light variations of the star: one singlet and three nearly equally spaced triplets. We argue that these triplets are caused by rotationally split modes of spherical degree l= 1. This is the first detection of consistent multiplet structure in the amplitude spectrum of a cool ZZ Ceti star and it allows us to determine the rotation period of the star: 1.70 +/- 0.11 d. We report exactly equal frequency, not period, spacings between the detected mode groups. In addition, certain pairs of modes from the four principal groups have frequency ratios that are very close to 3 : 4 or 4 : 5; while these ratios are nearly exact (within one part in 104), they still lie outside the computed error bars. We speculate that these relationships between different frequencies could be caused by resonances. One of the three triplets may not be constant in amplitude and/or frequency. We compare our frequency solution for the combination frequencies (of which we detected 38) to Wu's model thereof. We obtain consistent results when trying to infer the convective thermal time and the inclination angle of the rotational axis of the star. Theoretical combination-frequency amplitude spectra also resemble those of the observations well, and direct theoretical predictions of the observed second-order light-curve distortions were also reasonably successful assuming the three triplets are caused by l= 1 modes. Attempts to reproduce the observed combination frequencies adopting all possible l= 2 identifications for the triplets did not provide similarly consistent results, supporting their identification with l= 1.

  13. Gamma Ray Bursts and CETI

    E-print Network

    Frank D. Smith Jr

    1993-02-10

    Gamma ray burst sources are isotropically distributed. They could be located at distances $\\sim 1000$ AU. (Katz \\cite{JK92}) GRB signals have many narrow peaks that are unresolved at the millisecond time resolution of existing observations. \\cite{JK87} CETI could use stars as gravitational lenses for interstellar gamma ray laser beam communication. Much better time resolution of GRB signals could rule out (or confirm?) the speculative hypothesis that GRB = CETI.

  14. The Impact of the Uncertainties in the 12C(?,?)16O Reaction Rate on the Asteroseismology of ZZ Ceti Stars: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerónimo, Francisco C.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.; Romero, Alejandra D.

    2015-06-01

    We assess for the first time the impact that the uncertainties affecting the 12C(?,?)16O reaction rate have on the asteroseismological inferences of ZZ Ceti stars. For our adopted test-case, the well studied DAV star G117-B15A, we found that the incomplete knowledge of the 12C(?,?)16O nuclear reaction rate results in a moderate dispersion of the structural parameters of the asteroseismological model.

  15. A 40 Myr OLD GASEOUS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AT 49 CETI: MASSIVE CO-RICH COMET CLOUDS AT YOUNG A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    The gaseous molecular disk that orbits the main-sequence A-type star 49 Ceti has been known since 1995, but the stellar age and the origin of the observed carbon monoxide molecules have been unknown. We now identify 49 Ceti as a member of the 40 Myr old Argus Association and present a colliding comet model to explain the high CO concentrations seen at 49 Ceti and the 30 Myr old A-type star HD 21997. The model suggests that massive-400 Earth mass-analogs of the Sun's Kuiper Belt are in orbit around some A-type stars, that these large masses are composed primarily of comet-like objects, and that these objects are rich in CO and perhaps also CO{sub 2}. We identify additional early-type members of the Argus Association and the Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations; some of these stars display excess mid-infrared emission as measured with the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer.

  16. Gravity-modes in ZZ Ceti Stars. II. Effects of Turbulent Dissipation

    E-print Network

    P. Goldreich; Y. Wu

    1998-10-02

    We investigate dynamical interactions between turbulent convection and g-mode pulsations in ZZ Ceti variables (DAVs). Since our understanding of turbulence is rudimentary, we are compelled to settle for order of magnitude results. A key feature of these interactions is that convective response times are much shorter than pulsation periods. Thus the dynamical interactions enforce near uniform horizontal velocity inside the convection zone. They also give rise to a narrow shear layer in the region of convective overshoot at the top of the radiative interior. Turbulent damping inside the convection zone is negligible for all modes, but that in the region of convective overshoot may be significant for a few long period modes near the red edge of the instability strip. These conclusions are in accord with those reached earlier by Brickhill. Our major new result concerns nonlinear damping arising from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the aforementioned shear layer. Amplitudes of overstable modes saturate where dissipation due to this instability balances excitation by convective driving. This mechanism of amplitude saturation is most effective for long period modes, and it may play an important role in defining the red edge of the instability strip.

  17. Gravity Modes in ZZ Ceti Stars. I. Quasi-adiabatic Analysis of Overstability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldreich, Peter; Wu, Yanqin

    1999-02-01

    We analyze the stability of g-modes in white dwarfs with hydrogen envelopes. All relevant physical processes take place in the outer layer of hydrogen-rich material, which consists of a radiative layer overlaid by a convective envelope. The radiative layer contributes to mode damping, because its opacity decreases upon compression and the amplitude of the Lagrangian pressure perturbation increases outward. The convective envelope is the seat of mode excitation, because it acts as an insulating blanket with respect to the perturbed flux that enters it from below. A crucial point is that the convective motions respond to the instantaneous pulsational state. Driving exceeds damping by as much as a factor of 2 provided ??c>=1, where ? is the radian frequency of the mode and ?c~4?th, with ?th being the thermal time constant evaluated at the base of the convective envelope. As a white dwarf cools, its convection zone deepens, and lower frequency modes become overstable. However, the deeper convection zone impedes the passage of flux perturbations from the base of the convection zone to the photosphere. Thus the photometric variation of a mode with constant velocity amplitude decreases. These factors account for the observed trend that longer period modes are found in cooler DA variables. Overstable modes have growth rates of order ?~1/(n??), where n is the mode's radial order and ?? is the thermal timescale evaluated at the top of the mode's cavity. The growth time, ?-1, ranges from hours for the longest period observed modes (P~20 minutes) to thousands of years for those of shortest period (P~2 minutes). The linear growth time probably sets the timescale for variations of mode amplitude and phase. This is consistent with observations showing that longer period modes are more variable than shorter period ones. Our investigation confirms many results obtained by Brickhill in his pioneering studies of ZZ Cetis. However, it suffers from two serious shortcomings. It is based on the quasiadiabatic approximation that strictly applies only in the limit ??c>>1, and it ignores damping associated with turbulent viscosity in the convection zone. We will remove these shortcomings in future papers.

  18. Time-Frequency Analysis and Pulsation Modes of LPV Stars.I. omicron Ceti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Barthes; J. A. Mattei

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the pulsation modes of the Long Period Variable star o Cet is investigated by means of Fourier and wavelet transforms applied to long-term AAVSO visual observations. The results suggest that the variability of this star is mainly due to first overtone radial pulsation, nonlinearly coupled to at least two other radial modes. This is supported by linear,

  19. Ceti Mensa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 1 June 2004 This image was collected January 29, 2004 during southern summer season. The local time at the image location was about 4 pm. The image shows an area in the Ceti Mensa region.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -5.2, Longitude 283.6 East (76.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Whole Earth telescope observations of the ZZ Ceti star HL Tau 76

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Dolez; G. Vauclair; S. J. Kleinman; M. Chevreton; J. N. Fu; J.-E. Solheim; J. M. González Perez; A. Ulla; L. Fraga; A. Kanaan; M. Reed; S. Kawaler; M. S. O'Brien; T. S. Metcalfe; R. E. Nather; D. Sanwal; E. W. Klumpe; A. Mukadam; M. A. Wood; T. J. Ahrens; N. Silvestri; D. Sullivan; T. Sullivan; X. J. Jiang; D. W. Xu; B. N. Ashoka; E. Leibowitz; P. Ibbetson; E. Ofek; D. Kilkenny; E. G. Meistas; D. Alisauskas; R. Janulis; R. Kalytis; P. Moskalik; S. Zola; J. Krzesinski; W. Ogloza; G. Handler; R. Silvotti; S. Bernabei

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the Whole Earth Telescope observations of HL Tau 76, the first discovered pulsating DA white dwarf. The star was observed during two Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. It was a second priority target during the XCOV13 campaign in 1996 and the first priority one during the XCOV18 campaign in 1999. The 1999 campaign reached 66.5% duty cycle. With

  1. An Empirical Study of the ZZ Ceti Instability Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianninas, Alexandros; Bergeron, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    ZZ Ceti stars are pulsating hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs, which are found in a rather narrow strip within the Teff-log g plane: the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Historically, the instability strip has been studied by analyzing the ZZ Ceti stars themselves. However, an analysis of the photometrically constant DA white dwarfs that lie near the instability strip can be just as insightful. Therefore, in an effort to delineate better the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, we have gathered optical spectra for all known constant DA white dwarfs near the instability strip. By comparing the Balmer-line profiles to synthetic spectra generated from model atmospheres, it is possible to determine with great accuracy the atmospheric parameters of these stars. These spectra have been secured as part of a broader observing campaign during which we are hoping to identify new candidate ZZ Ceti stars as well. Indeed, already two of our program stars have showed themselves to be genuine ZZ Ceti pulsators, PB 520 and G232-38. Luminosity variations in the latter were recently discovered by us at the Observatoire du mont Mégantic.

  2. UV Astronomy: Stars from Birth to Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Barstow, Martin A.

    The Joint Discussion on UV Astronmy: Stars from Birth to Death was held during the IAU General Assembly of 2006, in August 2006. It was aimed to provide a forum where the accomplishments of UV astrophysics could be highlighted and a new roadmap for the future discussed. This meeting focussed in particular on stellar astrophysics. The understanding of stellar physics is at the very base of our understanding of the Universe. The chemical evolution of the Universe is controlled by stars. Supernovae are prime distance indicators that have allowed to measure the evolution of the curvature of the Universe and to detect the existence of dark energy. The development of life sustaining system depends strongly on the evolution of stars like our Sun. Some of the most extreme forms of matter in the Universe, the densest and more strongly magnetized, are the magnetars, debris of stellar evolution. The excellent contributions presented in this Joint Discussion dealt with the many aspects of stellar astrophysics from the analysis of dissipative processes in the atmosphere of cool stars and their impact on the evolution of the planetary systems to the study of the atmospheres and winds of the hot massive stars or the determination of the abundances in white dwarfs. The physics of disks, its role in the evolution of binary systems, and the formation of supernovae were among the main topics treated in the meeting. We should also not forget the role of starbursts and, in general, high mass stars in the chemical evolution of galaxies. The metallicity gradient in the Galaxy is traced in the UV spectrum of planetary nebulae. The evolution of young planetary disks and the role of the central stars in the photoevaporation of the giant gaseous planets that have been detected recently. The book contains a summary of the numerous and high quality contributions to this Joint Discussion classified in five chapters: * Chapter 1: Star Formation and Young Stellar Objects * Chapter 2: Life in Main Sequence * Chapter 3: Star Death * Chapter 4: Compact Objects * Chapter 5: The impact of stellar astrophysics in understanding the formation of life sustainable systems; That correspond to the five sessions held during the meeting. A summary of the current status of UV astronomy and the discussions that took place during the XXVIth I. A. U. General Assembly can be found in Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 14.

  3. Updates on the Asteroseismological Study of the ZZ Ceti Star R548: Determination of the Bulk Core Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.

    2014-04-01

    We present a progress report on the detailed asteroseismological analysis of the pulsating white dwarf R548 with the use of the forward method. ZZ Ceti variables are nonradially g-mode pulsating white dwarfs with a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. The low-amplitude and "simple" pulsator R548 is an ideal candidate for carrying on a complete asteroseismological analysis as five independent frequencies are unequivocally singled out. Using the successful double-optimization technique that has been applied and refined on pulsating hot B subdwarfs for more than a decade, we are capable of unraveling global structural parameters. Taking advantage of independent measurements of spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, we investigate the constraints on the envelope layering and the bulk composition of the core of R548.

  4. Tau Ceti: our nearest cousin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Folco, E.; Péricaud, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Marshall, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 10 Gyr old G8V star ?Ceti is the closest Solar analogue. It harbors the less massive exo-Kuiper belt detected so far among debris disks stars. With a total disk mass only ten times larger than that of our Kuiper belt, it represents a case study of evolved debris disks. Whether its disk has been continuously eroded by steady-state collisions of planetesimals or recently regenerated by a dynamical instability remains a puzzling question. The detection of the dust points to the existence of (undetected) planetary bodies, which are expected to sculpt the belt and may scatter material inwards to the terrestrial planet region, where hot dust is also observed. Unfortunately, the disk morphology remains unknown. We report a recent Herschel PACS (70? and 160?)detection of a 15 au ring-like structure which is in conflict with the earlier SCUBA discovery. The disk is partly resolved by Herschel and we derive its morphology and the dust properties from the images and SED analysis with the GraTer modeling code. ?Ceti is a unique laboratory to highlight the long-term dynamical evolution of planetary systems and may represent an alternative outcome to the evolution of our Solar system.

  5. The First Historical Standstill of WW Ceti

    E-print Network

    Simonsen, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Z Cam dwarf novae are distinguished from other dwarf novae based on the appearance of so called 'standstills' in their long-term optical light curves. It has been suggested previously that WW Cet might be a Z Cam type dwarf nova, but this classification was subsequently ruled out, based on its long-term light curve behavior. Forty years of historical data for WW Cet has shown no evidence of standstills. WW Ceti is therefore classified as a UG type dwarf nova in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) and the International Variable Star Index (VSX). Beginning in the 2010 observing season, WW Cet has been observed to be in a standstill, remaining more or less steady in the 12th magnitude range. Based on this first ever, historical standstill of WW Ceti, we conclude that it is indeed a bona fide member of the Z Cam class of dwarf novae.

  6. Subluminous Stars among the FAUST UV sources toward OPHIUCHUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Formiggini; Noah Brosch; Elchanan Almoznino; S. Bowyer; M. Lampton

    2002-01-01

    We present results of an analysis of a UV image in the direction of\\u000aOphiuchus, obtained with the FAUST instrument. The image contains 228 UV\\u000asources. Most of these were identified as normal early-type stars through\\u000acorrelations with cataloged objects. For the first time in this project we\\u000aidentified UV sources as such stars by selecting suitable candidates in crowded

  7. BroadBand Spectrum of dMe Star Radio Emission M Gudel and A. O. Benz

    E-print Network

    Guedel, Manuel

    magnetic field 1. Introduction Nonflaring microwave emission of late type red dwarf stars has become emission of UV Ceti was detected at 20cm at comparable flux levels (Fisher and Gibson, 1981; KunduBroad­Band Spectrum of dMe Star Radio Emission M G¨udel and A. O. Benz Institute of Astronomy, ETH

  8. Multicolour photometry of EO Ceti (PB 8783)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu?kovi?, M.; Østensen, R. H.; Aerts, C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

    2010-10-01

    We present the first-look analysis of the high-speed multicolour photometry of the bright V361 Hya-type star EO Ceti ( m V=12.3). The observations were gathered with the three-channel ULTRACAM instrument attached to the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. The data set has a total time span of 6.2 d and consists of 31 h simultaneous three colour photometry. The main power regions in all three colours are the same as previously reported in the white light photometric campaigns on EO Ceti. We calculate the frequencies, amplitudes and phases of the significant modes in three colours of the SDSS system, r', g' and u'. The amplitudes of the detected modes are the highest in the u' lightcurve, and the phases are the same in all three colours within the measurement accuracy. The amplitudes of the highest signal-to-noise modes show time variability in all three colours. We analyse the amplitude and phase variations of the five highest signal-to-noise modes in different colours. Even though the amplitudes show variations from night to night, the amplitude ratios are found to be constant to within 2 ? level. This result is promising as it allows us to compare the observed amplitude ratios with theoretically calculated amplitude ratios. This may further constrain the mode identification of the highest amplitude modes in EO Ceti and let us test the proposed seismic and binary evolution models.

  9. Calibrating UV Star Formation Rates for Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Mitchell, Noah P

    2015-01-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing star formation activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The datasets are from the panchromatic STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS) and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, HST optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs - using four different models - agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far UV predicted fluxes do not. Further, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated far U...

  10. ASCA X-ray spectra of the active single stars Beta Ceti and pi(1) Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, S. A.; Singh, K. P.; White, N. E.; Simon, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    We present X-ray spectra obtaiined by ASCA of two single, active stars, the G dwarf pi(1) UMa, and the G9/K0 giant Beta Cet. The spectra of both stars require the presence of at least two plasma components with different temperatures, 0.3-0.4 keV and approximately 0.7 keV, in order for acceptable fits to be obtained. The spectral resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the solid state imaging spectrometer (SIS) spectra allow us to formally constrain the coronal abundances of a number of elements. In Beta Cet, we find Mg to be overabundant, while other elements such as O, Ne, and N are underabundant, relative to the solar photospheric values. From the lower signal-to-noise ratio SIS spectrum of pi(1) UMa, we find evidence for underabundances of O, Ne, and Fe. These results are discussed in the context of the present understanding of elemental abundances in solar and stellar coronae.

  11. Evidence for X-ray emission from flare stars observed by ANS. [Astronomical Netherlands Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, J.; Brinkman, A. C.; Schrijver, J.; Mewe, R.; Gronenschild, E. H. B. M.; Den Boggende, A. J. F.; Grindlay, J.

    1975-01-01

    Observations that detected the first X-ray emission from flare stars are described. An X-ray flare was detected from YZ CMi at 0.28 keV and approximately 1-7 keV, although no optical or radio coverage was available. During a very large optical flare from UV Ceti, X-ray emission at (only) 0.28 keV was detected. Upper limits for X-ray emission from several small optical flares of UV Ceti are presented. Implications for X-ray flare models, the diffuse X-ray background, and low-energy cosmic-ray flux are mentioned.

  12. High-speed Photometric Observations of ZZ Ceti White Dwarf Candidates

    E-print Network

    Green, E M; Gianninas, A; Bergeron, P; Fontaine, G; Dufour, P; O'Malley, C J; Guvenen, B; Biddle, L I; Pearson, K; Deyoe, T W; Bullivant, C W; Hermes, J J; Van Grootel, V; Grosjean, M

    2015-01-01

    We present high-speed photometric observations of ZZ Ceti white dwarf candidates drawn from the spectroscopic survey of bright DA stars from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog by Gianninas et al., and from the recent spectroscopic survey of white dwarfs within 40 parsecs of the Sun by Limoges et al. We report the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti pulsators from these surveys, and several photometrically constant DA white dwarfs, which we then use to refine the location of the ZZ Ceti instability strip.

  13. High-speed Photometric Observations of ZZ Ceti White Dwarf Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, E. M.; Limoges, M.-M.; Gianninas, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.; Dufour, P.; O'Malley, C. J.; Guvenen, B.; Biddle, L. I.; Pearson, K.; Deyoe, T. W.; Bullivant, C. W.; Hermes, J. J.; Van Grootel, V.; Grosjean, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present high-speed photometric observations of ZZ Ceti white dwarf candidates drawn from the spectroscopic survey of bright DA stars from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog by Gianninas et al., and from the recent spectroscopic survey of white dwarfs within 40 parsecs of the Sun by Limoges et al. We report the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti pulsators from these surveys, and several photometrically constant DA white dwarfs, which we then use to refine the location of the ZZ Ceti instability strip.

  14. A Complete UV Atlas of Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    2000-01-01

    The general objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive ultraviolet spectral atlas of stars based on the data in the IUE Final Archive. The data have been uniformly processed by the IUE NEWSIPS pipeline system. The NEWSIPS gives an improved signal to noise ratio for the data that will be especially beneficial to low signal portions of the spectra; and it also gives more accurate fluxes for stars by adopting the latest absolute calibration and measured instrument parameters. Our new atlas, therefore, provides more uniform and accurate data than the version previously published. In addition, considerable efforts were devoted to obtain reliable spectral types, V,B-V, and E(B-V). Our goal is to provide the information which can be used with reasonable confidence by scientists.

  15. DISCOVERY OF A ZZ CETI IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Oestensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Williams, Kurtis A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75428 (United States); Telting, John [Nordic Optical Telescope, 38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Southworth, John [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Everett, Mark, E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first identified pulsating DA white dwarf, WD J1916+3938 (Kepler ID 4552982), in the field of the Kepler mission. This ZZ Ceti star was first identified through ground-based, time-series photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy confirms that it is a hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf with T {sub eff} = 11,129 {+-} 115 K and log g = 8.34 {+-} 0.06, placing it within the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. The object shows up to 0.5% amplitude variability at several periods between 800 and 1450 s. Extended Kepler observations of WD J1916+3938 could yield the best light curve, to date, of any pulsating white dwarf, allowing us to directly study the interior of an evolved object representative of the fate of the majority of stars in our Galaxy.

  16. Nonradial pulsation of the $?$ Scuti star UV Trianguli

    E-print Network

    Ai-Ying Zhou; Zong-Li Liu; E. Rodríguez

    2002-05-24

    We present the results of a three-year photometric study of the $\\delta$ Scuti star UV Trianguli. Our data sets consist of 9378 differential measurements in Johnson V together with a few data collected into the Str\\"{o}mgren {\\em uvby$\\beta$} system. UV Tri is at least a biperiodic variable. The two best-fitting frequencies, $f_1$=9.3298 d$^{-1}$ and $f_2$=10.8513 d$^{-1}$, are still not the complete set of pulsation frequencies representing the star's light variations. A suspected third frequency might present in the star. Several ``anomalous cycles'' are observed in the light curves. They seem real, but are aperiodic. We derive the colour indices and physical parameters for the variable and conclude that it is a Population I $\\delta$ Sct star with normal metal abundance ([Me/H]=0.0$\\pm$n0.1 dex) evolving on its main sequence stage at an early evolutionary phase before the turn-off point. Finally, we compare the observed oscillation frequencies with theoretical models. The two pulsation modes of UV Tri are likely nonradial to be gravity modes.

  17. Uv Spectra of WC Stars in M33-CYC3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Willis

    1993-01-01

    We propose to use the FOS to secure the first ultraviolet spectra of a small sample of carefully selected WC stars in M33. These UV data, complemented by our optical spectra, will be analysed using state-of-the-art NLTE model atmosphere codes, to provide quantitative measurements of their physical, chemical and mass loss properties, for comparison with WC counterparts in the Galaxy

  18. Far UV Spectroscopy: Atmospheric Processes in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1998-05-01

    New results from the far ultraviolet are increasing our understanding of the structure and dynamics of cool star atmospheres. The far UV spectrum bridges the gap between the chromospheric ultraviolet and the X-ray corona. The important O VI ion spans the range of activity from a diverse group of systems, and is formed near the peak of the emission measure distribution of less active stars like the Sun, while it is formed at the minimum of the distribution for the highly active RS CVn binaries and rapidly rotating young stars. Density diagnostics from C III, newly accessible with the lambda 977/lambda 1176 line ratio from ORFEUS, indicate a wide spread in transition region pressure among different systems as well. In active (i.e. closed field) regions, magnetic pressure confinement overcomes fluid domination in the transition region and allows quasi-static structures to support the steep temperature gradients, while in open field line regions (e.g. coronal holes) the wind begins its acceleration through steep gradients. New results from ORFEUS show the first evidence for warm winds in luminous hybrid stars, providing the critical link between solar-like stars with hot coronae and cooler stars with cool winds. Closer to home, the UVCS experiment on SOHO probes the diagnostic O VI doublet throughout the inner coronal region of the Sun. Observed line profiles indicate that ion temperatures in solar coronal holes are hotter than electron temperatures, demonstrating the importance of ion heating and acceleration processes.

  19. Hidden sd\\/wd Stars among the FAUST UV Sources Toward Ophiuchus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Formiggini

    2003-01-01

    We present results of an analysis of a UV image in the direction of Ophiuchus, obtained with the FAUST instrument. The image contains 228 UV sources. Most of these were identified as normal early-type stars through correlations with cataloged objects. For the first time in this project we identified UV sources as such stars by selecting suitable candidates in crowded

  20. The Instability Strip of ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grootel, V.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2015-06-01

    The determination of the location of the theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip in the log g–Teff diagram has remained a challenge over the years, due to the lack of a suitable treatment for convection in these stars. We report here a detailed stability survey over the whole ZZ Ceti regime, including the low and extremely low masses. We computed to this aim 29 evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses, chemical layering, and core compositions. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/?=1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We computed pulsation spectra for these models with the Liège nonadiabatic pulsation code MAD, which is the only one to conveniently incorporate a full time-dependent convection treatment and, thus, provides the best available description of the blue edge of the instability strip. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes to account properly for the red edge of the strip, including MAD, we tested the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. Using this approach, we found that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip.

  1. Elemental abundance analyses with DAO spectrograms. VII - The late normal B stars Pi Ceti, 134 Tauri, 21 Aquilae, and Nu Capricorni and the use of Reticon spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents elemental abundance analyses of sharp-lined normal late B stars. These stars exhibit mostly near-solar abundances, but each star also shows a few abundances which are a factor of 2 less than solar. The coadded photographic spectrograms are supplemented with Reticon data. A comparison of 261 equivalent widths on 2.4 A/mm spectra of sharp-lined B and A stars shows that the Reticon equivalent widths are about 95 percent of the coadded equivalent mean. The H-gamma profiles of the coadded and Reticon spectra for eight sharp-lined stars show generally good agreement. The generally high quality of the coadded data produced from 10 or more spectrograms is confirmed using the REDUCE graphics-oriented computed reduction code. For five stars, metal lines which fall in the gap between the U and V plates are analyzed using Reticon data.

  2. HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a 'saturated' level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t {sup –1}. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models.

  3. UV Radiation Fields Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters

    E-print Network

    M. Fatuzzo; F. C. Adams

    2007-12-20

    A large fraction of stars form within young embedded clusters, and these environments produce a substantial ultraviolet (UV) background radiation field, which can provide feedback on the star formation process. To assess the possible effects of young stellar clusters on the formation of their constituent stars and planets, this paper constructs the expected radiation fields produced by these clusters. We include both the observed distribution of cluster sizes $N$ in the solar neighborhood and an extended distribution that includes clusters with larger $N$. The paper presents distributions of the FUV and EUV luminosities for clusters with given stellar membership $N$, distributions of FUV and EUV luminosity convolved over the expected distribution of cluster sizes $N$, and the corresponding distributions of FUV and EUV fluxes. These flux distributions are calculated both with and without the effects of extinction. Finally, we consider the effects of variations in the stellar initial mass function on these radiation fields. Taken together, these results specify the distributions of radiation environments that forming solar systems are expected to experience.

  4. UV variability and accretion in PMS stars in NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuti, Laura; Bouvier, Jerome; Irwin, Jonathan; Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Micela, Giuseppina; CSI 2264 Team

    2013-07-01

    We present the results of an extensive u-band variability survey of the PMS population of the young open cluster NGC 2264 (3 Myr), performed at CFHT/MegaCam (1 sq. degree FOV) as a part of a wide project of simultaneous multi-wavelength (X-rays to IR) monitoring aimed at unambiguously characterizing YSO variability (the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264, P.I. = J. Stauffer and G. Micela). The region has been imaged repeatedly over two full weeks in the u-band and r-band, with several measurements (temporal cadence ~1.5h) for each observing night; this monitoring survey is complemented by a deep u,g,r,i mapping of the region. We surveyed a population of >700 young stars, ranging in mass from 0.2 to 2 M_Sun and seen at different evolutionary stages (around half of the objects in the sample are actively accreting). The u-band observations offer the only direct probe to the excess luminosity emitted in the accretion shock, hence providing a unique clue to the accretion dynamics throughout the region. Combining the u-band with g-, r- and i-, we are able to investigate the photometric properties of different stellar groups on various color-color and color-magnitude diagrams and infer a straightforward identification of accreting sources thanks to the UV excess they display compared to the colors of non-accreting young stars. We investigate the u-band variability of PMS stars on week timescales and show that accreting stars (showing in many cases a large, variable UV excess) exhibit significantly higher levels of variability than non-accreting stars. Based on the light curve morphology, we identify three main classes of variables among the PMS population of NGC 2264, each dominated by a different physical component (cool magnetic spots, accretion bursts, disk occultation); we characterize the u-r color variations corresponding to the r-band magnitude variations for each different subgroup and demonstrate that well distinct color behaviors are specific to processes of different nature. From the UV excess diagnostic, we yield a straightforward characterization of mass accretion rates in NGC 2264. The distribution we infer traces an increasing trend in the average accretion rate with stellar mass; a large spread in the values of accretion rate, covering ~2 dex, is detected at each mass. Rates as large as 1E-7 M_Sun/yr and as small as 1E-10 M_Sun/yr are measured among the accreting population of the region. We investigate the variability of mass accretion rates on week timescales (accounting for both the geometric effects linked with stellar rotation and the intrinsic variability), by measuring the individual mass accretion rates at ~16 observing epochs distributed along the 2 week long CFHT monitoring; we find that this variability amounts on average to ~0.5 dex, i.e. much smaller than the spread observed in the mass accretion rates at each mass.

  5. Cataclysmic Variables and a New Class of Faint UV Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    E-print Network

    Adrienne M. Cool; Jonathan E. Grindlay; Haldan N. Cohn; Phyllis N. Lugger; Charles D. Bailyn

    1998-09-26

    We present evidence that the globular cluster NGC 6397 contains two distinct classes of centrally-concentrated UV-bright stars. Color-magnitude diagrams constructed from U, B, V, and I data obtained with the HST/WFPC2 reveal seven UV-bright stars fainter than the main-sequence turnoff, three of which had previously been identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs). Lightcurves of these stars show the characteristic ``flicker'' of CVs, as well as longer-term variability. A fourth star is identified as a CV candidate on the basis of its variability and UV excess. Three additional UV-bright stars show no photometric variability and have broad-band colors characteristic of B stars. These non-flickering UV stars are too faint to be extended horizontal branch stars. We suggest that they could be low-mass helium white dwarfs, formed when the evolution of a red giant is interrupted, due either to Roche-lobe overflow onto a binary companion, or to envelope ejection following a common-envelope phase in a tidal-capture binary. Alternatively, they could be very-low-mass core-He-burning stars. Both the CVs and the new class of faint UV stars are strongly concentrated toward the cluster center, to the extent that mass segregation from 2-body relaxation alone may be unable to explain their distribution.

  6. KIC 11911480: the second ZZ Ceti in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Steeghs, D.; Koester, D.; Ramsay, G.; Barclay, T.; Townsley, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    We report the discovery of the second pulsating hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarf in the Kepler field, KIC 11911480. It was selected from the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) on the basis of its colours and its variable nature was confirmed using ground-based time series photometry. An atmosphere model fit to an intermediate-resolution spectrum of KIC 11911480 places this DA white dwarf close to the blue edge of the empirical boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip: Teff = 12 160 ± 250 K and log g = 7.94 ± 0.10. Assuming a mass-radius relation and cooling models for DA white dwarfs, the atmospheric parameters yield: MWD = 0.57 ± 0.06 M?. We also obtained two quarters (Q12 and Q16) of nearly uninterrupted short-cadence Kepler data on this star. We detect a total of six independent pulsation modes with a ?3? confidence in its amplitude power spectrum. These pulsations have periods ranging between 172.9 and 324.5 s, typical of the hotter ZZ Ceti stars. Our preliminary asteroseismic study suggests that KIC 11911480 has a rotation rate of 3.5±0.5 days.

  7. Ultraviolet Morphology and Unobscured UV Star Formation Rates of CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Fogarty, Kevin; Li, Yuan; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Moustakas, John; Bradley, Larry; Ford, Holland

    2015-06-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are usually quiescent, but many exhibit star formation. Here we exploit the opportunity provided by rest-frame UV imaging of galaxy clusters in the Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury Project to reveal the diversity of UV morphologies in BCGs and to compare them with recent simulations of the cool, star-forming gas structures produced by precipitation-driven feedback. All of the CLASH BCGs are detected in the rest-frame UV (280 nm), regardless of their star formation activity, because evolved stellar populations produce a modest amount of UV light that traces the relatively smooth, symmetric, and centrally peaked stellar distribution seen in the near infrared. Ultraviolet morphologies among the BCGs with strong UV excesses exhibit distinctive knots, multiple elongated clumps, and extended filaments of emission that distinctly differ from the smooth profiles of the UV-quiet BCGs. These structures, which are similar to those seen in the few star-forming BCGs observed in the UV at low redshift, are suggestive of bi-polar streams of clumpy star formation, but not of spiral arms or large, kiloparsec-scale disks. Based on the number of streams and lack of culprit companion galaxies, these streams are unlikely to have arisen from multiple collisions with gas-rich galaxies. These star-forming UV structures are morphologically similar to the cold-gas structures produced in simulations of precipitation-driven active galactic nucleus feedback in which jets uplift low-entropy gas to greater altitudes, causing it to condense. Unobscured star formation rates estimated from CLASH UV images using the Kennicutt relation range up to 80 {{M}? } y{{r}-1} in the most extended and highly structured systems. The circumgalactic gas-entropy threshold for star formation in CLASH BCGs at z ? 0.2–0.5 is indistinguishable from that for clusters at z\\lt 0.2.

  8. The UV Properties of Star Forming Galaxies I]{The UV Properties of Star Forming Galaxies I: {\\em HST} WFC3 Observations of Very-high Redshift Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Stanway, Elizabeth; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Caruana, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of deep Near-IR imaging with Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope has provided the opportunity to study the very-high redshift Universe. For galaxies up to $z\\approx 7.7$ sufficient wavelength coverage exists to probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum without contamination from either Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission or the Lyman-$\\alpha$ break. In this work we use Near-IR imaging to measure the rest-frame UV continuum colours of galaxies at $4.7UV continuum slope for the drop-out samples. For the highest-redshift sample ($6.7UV continuum colours approximately equal to zero (AB), consistent with a dust-free, solar metallicity, star forming population (or a moderately dusty population of low metallicity). At lower-redshift we find that the mean UV continuum colours of galaxies (over the same luminosi...

  9. A Comparison of UV and Halpha Star Formation Rates In Intermediate Redshift Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josiah Walton; S. Salim; J. Lee; C. Ly; R. Finn; C. Moore; D. Dale; D. McCarthy; C. Kulesa; J. Kennefick

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a study which directly compares star formation rates (SFRs) based on two commonly used indicators, the UV non-ionizing continuum and H-alpha nebular emission, for star-forming galaxies at z 0.8. Using UV data from the GALEX ultra-deep imaging survey in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS), Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN), and COSMOS fields, we construct a PSF-based

  10. Tracing the star formation history of cluster galaxies using the Halpha/UV flux ratio

    E-print Network

    J. Iglesias-Paramo; A. Boselli; G. Gavazzi; A. Zaccardo

    2004-03-26

    Since the Halpha and UV fluxes from galaxies are sensitive to stellar populations of ages Cancer). The observed f(Halpha)/f(UV) ratio is ~ a factor of two smaller than the expected one as determined from population synthesis models assuming a realistic delayed, exponentially declining star formation history. We discuss various mechanisms that may have affected the observed f(Halpha)/f(UV) ratio and we propose that the above discrepancy arises from either the absorption of Lyman continuum photons by dust within the star formation regions or from the occurrence of star formation episodes. After splitting our sample into different subsamples according to evolutionary criteria we find that our reference sample of galaxies unaffected by the cluster environment show an average value of f(Halpha)/f(UV) two times lower than the expected one. We argue that this difference must be mostly due to absorption of ~ 45% of the Lyman continuum photons within star forming regions. Galaxies with clear signs of an ongoing interaction show average values of f(Halpha)/f(UV) slightly higher than the reference value, as expected if those objects had SFR increased by a factor of ~ 4. The accuracy of the current UV and Halpha photometry is not yet sufficient to clearly disentangle the effect of interactions on the f(Halpha)/f(UV) ratio, but significant observational improvements are shortly expected to result from the GALEX mission.

  11. Dust-Induced Systematic Errors in UV-Derived Star Formation Rates

    E-print Network

    Eric F. Bell

    2002-07-18

    Rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) luminosities form the `backbone' of our understanding of star formation at all cosmic epochs. FUV luminosities are typically corrected for dust by assuming that extinction indicators which have been calibrated for local starbursting galaxies apply to all star-forming galaxies. I present evidence that `normal' star-forming galaxies have systematically redder UV/optical colors than starbursting galaxies at a given FUV extinction. This is attributed to differences in star/dust geometry, coupled with a small contribution from older stellar populations. Folding in data for starbursts and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, I conclude that SF rates from rest-frame UV and optical data alone are subject to large (factors of at least a few) systematic uncertainties because of dust, which cannot be reliably corrected for using only UV/optical diagnostics.

  12. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. I. BRIGHT UV STARS IN THE BULGE OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, Philip; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire E. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howley, Kirsten M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Astronomical Institute, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-08-20

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' Multiplication-Sign 6.'5 area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of {approx}4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars, and AGB-manque stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manque (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the red giant branch is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UV excess. We calculate that only a few percent of main-sequence stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.

  13. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars through Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2015-06-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  14. UV fluxes and effective temperatures of extreme helium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberner, D.; Drilling, J. S.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.; Heber, U.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution IUE spectra of a complete ensemble of extreme helium stars are presented and their appearance in comparison with normal stars is discussed. Effective temperatures from these observations by means of line blanketed model atmospheres are determined. It is found that the temperatures are in accordance with earlier results from ground based observations.

  15. The UV\\/Optical Energy Distributions of the A Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Fitzpatrick; D. Massa

    1999-01-01

    We apply a technique developed for fitting the observed energy distributions of main sequence B stars with stellar atmosphere models to a sample of lightly reddened early A-type stars. The technique utilizes an expanded grid of R.L. Kurucz's ATLAS 9 models and involves simultaneously determining all the parameters of the best fitting model (effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturulence

  16. UV- and visual spectroscopy of nine extremely helium rich subluminous- O-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Drilling, J. S.; Husfeld, D.

    Nine helium rich sdO stars are found to show no trace of hydrogen on high resolution visual spectra. Effective temperatures derived from UV fluxes range from 42,500 K to 80,000 K. A dichotomy with respect to the C/N ratio is found which is reminiscent of the OBN and OBC stars near the main sequence. It is estimated that about 20 percent of the sdO stars are extremely helium-rich. This fraction compares nicely with those of the (helium-rich) DB white dwarfs (20 percent) and the helium rich central stars of planetary nebulae (less than 35 percent).

  17. Interpretation of the UV spectrum of some stars with little reddening

    E-print Network

    F. Zagury

    2000-04-06

    The spectrum of five stars is analysed and explained by the superimposition of two components. One is the extinction of the direct starlight, with an extinction coefficient A which varies as the inverse of the wavelength across all the UV. This linear dependence of extinction upon the inverse of wavelength prolongs to the UV the well known relation which exist in the optical between extinction and wavelength. The second component is an additional feature, superimposed on the extincted direct starlight. This feature is interpreted as starlight scattered by dust at close angular distance to the star, into the beam of the observation.

  18. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS): The HST View of Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Aloisi, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C. A.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Da Silva, R. L.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Herrero-Davo`, A.; Hilbert, B.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D. J.; Martin, C. D.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Walterbos, R. A.; Whitmore, B. C.; Wofford, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Treasury program LEGUS (HST/GO-13364) is the first HST UV Atlas of nearby galaxies, and is aimed at the thorough investigation of star formation and its relation with galaxy environment, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc clustered structures. The 154-orbits program is obtaining NUV,U,B,V,I images of 50 star-forming galaxies in the distance range 4-12 Mpc, covering the full range of morphology, star formation rate (SFR), mass, metallicity, internal structure, and interaction state found in the local Universe. The imaging survey will yield accurate recent (<50 Myr) star formation histories (SFHs) from resolved massive stars, and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. These extensive inventories of massive stars, clustered systems, and SFHs will be used to: (1) quantify how the clustering of star formation evolves both in space and in time; (2) discriminate among models of star cluster evolution; (3) investigate the effects of SFH on the UV SFR calibrations; (4) explore the impact of environment on star formation and cluster evolution across the full range of galactic and ISM properties. LEGUS observations will inform theories of star formation and galaxy evolution, and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of the clumpy star formation at high redshift. LEGUS will generate the most homogeneous high-resolution, wide-field UV dataset to date, building and expanding on the GALEX legacy. Data products that will be delivered to the community include: catalogs of massive stars and star clusters, catalogs of star cluster properties (ages, masses, extinction), and a one-stop shop for all the ancillary data available for this well-studied galaxy sample. LEGUS will provide the reference survey and the foundation for future observations with JWST and with ALMA. This abstract accompanies another one from the same project, and presents the status of the project, its structure, and the data products that will be delivered to the community; the other abstract presents the science goals of LEGUS and how these will be addressed by the HST observations.

  19. RU Lupi? A UV spectroanalysis of an adolescent star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczeg, G.; Walter, F.; Linsky, J. L.; Ardila, D.; Brown., A.; Gahm, G.; Johns-Krull, C.; Lissauer, J.; Simon, M.; Valenti, J. A.; Wood, B. E.

    2003-12-01

    We present an HST/STIS E140M spectrum of the CTTS RU Lupi. The UV spectrum of RU Lupi is dominated by emission lines, including tracers of hot accreting gas and cool molecular gas. We also detect a strong continuum and wind absorption features. We analyze 90 fluorescent H2 emission lines, and use them to reconstruct the intrinsic Ly-alpha profile.

  20. Deriving extinction laws with O stars: from the IR to the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2015-05-01

    We have recently derived a family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus that provides better fits to the optical photometry of obscured stars in the Galaxy and the LMC. Simultaneously, we are extending our Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey ({http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011hsa6.conf..467M}{GOSSS}) to fainter, more extinguished stars to obtain accurate spectral types for massive stars with more than 6 magnitudes of V-band extinction. I have combined both lines of research with 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer photometry to obtain the 1-10 micron extinction law for O stars in the solar neighborhood. I present these results and compare them with the extinction laws in the same wavelength range derived from late-type stars and H II regions. I also discuss plans to extend the newly derived optical-IR extinction laws to the UV.

  1. An atlas of ground UV spectra of selected stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, Valentina G.; Chentsov, Eugene L.; Kipper, Tonu; Panchuk, Vladimir E.; Tavolganskaya, Nonna S.; Yushkin, Maxim V.

    2011-09-01

    We present a spectral atlas of 4 B and A stars containing spectra in a poorly studied spectral range of 305-452 nm. The atlas is based on high resolution (R=60 000) spectra obtained with the 6 meter telescope (SAO, Russia) combined with the NES-spectrograph. The procedure of spectral lines identification and compilation of the atlas is discussed in detail. Using the spectral data we thoroughly investigated the velocity field in expanding atmospheres and envelopes of hot evolved stars ? Ori, ? Cyg and supergiant KS Per with the extreme hydrogen deficiency. The complete atlas and list of the identified spectral lines will be available via the astronomical database SIMBAD.

  2. Star formation rate in galaxies from UV, IR, and Halpha estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Hirashita; Veronique Buat; A. K. Inoue

    2003-01-01

    Infrared (IR) luminosity of galaxies originating from dust thermal emission can be used as an indicator of the star formation rate (SFR). Inoue et al. (\\\\cite{inoue00}, IHK) have derived a formula for the conversion from dust IR luminosity to SFR by using the following three quantities: the fraction of Lyman continuum luminosity absorbed by gas (f), the fraction of UV

  3. Heavy-elements in metal-poor stars: an UV perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Barbuy, B.

    2014-11-01

    The site(s) of the r-process(es) is(are) not completely defined, and several models have been proposed. Observed abundances are the best clues to bring some light to this field, especially the study of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) Galactic halo stars. Many elements can be measured using ground-based facilities already available, but the ultraviolet window also presents a rich opportunity in terms of chemical abundances of heavy elements. In fact, for some elements only the UV transitions are strong enough to be useful. Focusing on the project of the Cassegrain U-Band Brazilian Spectrograph (CUBES), we discuss the science case for heavy elements in metal-poor stars, describing the useful lines of trans-Fe elements present in the UV region. Lines in the far UV are also discussed.

  4. KIC 4552982: Outbursts and Asteroseismology from the Longest Pseudo-Continuous Light Curve of a ZZ Ceti

    E-print Network

    Bell, Keaton J; Bischoff-Kim, A; Moorhead, Sean; Montgomery, M H; Østensen, Roy; Castanheira, Barbara G; Winget, D E

    2015-01-01

    We present the Kepler light curve of KIC 4552982, the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf star) discovered in the Kepler field of view. Our data span more than 1.5 years with a 86% duty cycle, making it the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever recorded for a ZZ Ceti. This extensive data set provides the most complete coverage to-date of amplitude and frequency variations in a cool ZZ Ceti. We detect 20 independent frequencies of variability in the data that we compare with asteroseismic models to demonstrate that this star has a mass M$_*$ > 0.6 M$_{\\rm Sun}$. We identify a rotationally split pulsation mode and derive a probable rotation period for this star of 17.47 $\\pm$ 0.04 hr. In addition to pulsation signatures, the Kepler light curve exhibits sporadic, energetic outbursts that increase the star's relative flux by 2-17%, last 4-25 hours, and recur on an average timescale of 2.7 days. These are the first detections of a new dynamic white dwarf phenomenon that we believe may be ...

  5. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars Through Geological Evolution

    E-print Network

    Rugheimer, S; Kaltenegger, L; Sasselov, D

    2015-01-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars at the 1AU equivalent distance for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago and modern Earth (Following Kaltenegger et al. 2007). In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ...

  6. Complex Effluent Toxicity Information System (CETIS) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Complex Effluent Toxicity Information System (CETIS), is a set of computerized functions that provide standardized entry, maintenance, storage, and retrieval of toxicity test data. CETIS is designed to upload into both the toxicity test component of the STORET/BIOS system and into the NCC CETIS national database. CETIS is also designed to function as a standalone toxicity test data storage and retrieval. CETIS should be used by permitting and compliance functions at all levels of government. CETIS is also an important tool which assists dischargers in complying with the Clean Water Act. The system provides National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitees with an efficient mechanism for the storage and retrieval of biomonitoring data. PC/CETIS is a completely menu-driven turnkey system with many unique features. Extensive data entry quality assurance processing improves data integrity and reduces turnaround time. A comprehensive, expandable set of system utilities expedites data entry and file maintenance. System security protects file integrity against unauthorized use. An on-line 'HELP' utility is available at all levels of system processing.

  7. Winds of metal-poor OB stars: Updates from HST-COS UV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M.; Herrero, A.; Najarro, F.; Lennon, D. J.; Urbaneja, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the race to break the SMC frontier and reach metallicity conditions closer to the First Stars the information from UV spectroscopy is usually overlooked. New HST-COS observations of OB stars in the metal-poor galaxy IC1613, with oxygen content ~1/10 solar, have proved the important role of UV spectroscopy to characterize blue massive stars and their winds. The terminal velocities (??) and abundances derived from the dataset have shed new light on the problem of metal-poor massive stars with strong winds. Furthermore, our results question the ??-? esc and ??-Z scaling relations whose use in optical-only studies may introduce large uncertainties in the derived mass loss rates and wind-momenta. Finally, our results indicate that the detailed abundance pattern of each star may have a non-negligible impact on its wind properties, and scaling these as a function of one single metallicity parameter is probably too coarse an approximation. Considering, for instance, that the [?/Fe] ratio evolves with the star formation history of each galaxy, we may be in need of updating all our wind recipes.

  8. The UV luminosity function and star formation rate of the Coma cluster

    E-print Network

    L. Cortese; G. Gavazzi; A. Boselli

    2008-09-05

    We present estimates of the GALEX NUV and FUV luminosity functions (LFs) of the Coma cluster, over a total area of ~9 deg^2 (~25 Mpc^2), i.e. from the cluster center to the virial radius. Our analysis represents the widest and deepest UV investigation of a nearby cluster of galaxies made to date. The Coma UV LFs show a faint-end slope steeper than the one observed in the local field. This difference, more evident in NUV, is entirely due to the contribution of massive quiescent systems (e.g. ellipticals, lenticulars and passive spirals), more frequent in high density environments. On the contrary, the shape of the UV LFs for Coma star-forming galaxies does not appear to be significantly different from that of the field, consistently with previous studies of local and high redshift clusters. We demonstrate that such similarity is only a selection effect, not providing any information on the role of the environment on the star formation history of cluster galaxies. By integrating the UV LFs for star-forming galaxies (corrected for the first time for internal dust attenuation), we show that the specific star formation rate of Coma is significantly lower than the integrated SSFR of the field and that Coma-like clusters contribute only Coma is occurring in galaxies with M_star Coma is ~(0.6-1.8) x 10^12 M_sol Gyr^-1, suggesting that a significant fraction of the population of lenticular and passive spirals observed today in Coma could originate from infalling galaxies accreted between z~1 and z~0.

  9. A Comparison of Independent Star Formation Diagnostics for a UV-Selected Sample of Nearby Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Mark Sullivan; Bahram Mobasher; Ben Chan; Lawrence Cram; Richard Ellis; Marie Treyer; Andrew Hopkins

    2001-04-26

    We present results from a decimetric radio survey undertaken with the Very Large Array as part of a longer term goal to inter-compare star formation and dust extinction diagnostics, on a galaxy by galaxy basis, for a representative sample of nearby galaxies. For our survey field, Selected Area 57, star formation rates derived from 1.4GHz luminosities are compared with earlier nebular emission line and ultraviolet (UV) continuum diagnostics. We find broad correlations, over several decades in luminosity, between H-alpha, the UV continuum and 1.4GHz diagnostics. However, the scatter in these relations is found to be larger than observational errors, with offsets between the observed relations and those expected assuming constant star-formation histories and luminosity-independent extinction models. We investigate the physical origin of the observed relations, and conclude the discrepancies between different star-formation diagnostics can only be partly explained by simple models of dust extinction in galaxies. These models cannot by themselves explain all the observed differences, introducing the need for temporally varying star-formation histories and/or more complex models of extinction, to explain the entire dataset.

  10. The optical/UV excess of isolated neutron stars in the RCS model

    E-print Network

    Tong, H; Song, L M

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously adressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources . The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  11. The Formation of Massive Primordial Stars in the Presence of Moderate UV Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Bovino, S.; Grassi, T.; Spaans, M.

    2014-09-01

    Radiative feedback produced by stellar populations played a vital role in early structure formation. In particular, photons below the Lyman limit can escape the star-forming regions and produce a background ultraviolet (UV) flux, which consequently may influence the pristine halos far away from the radiation sources. These photons can quench the formation of molecular hydrogen by photodetachment of H–. In this study, we explore the impact of such UV radiation on fragmentation in massive primordial halos of a few times 107 M ?. To accomplish this goal, we perform high resolution cosmological simulations for two distinct halos and vary the strength of the impinging background UV field in units of J 21 assuming a blackbody radiation spectrum with a characteristic temperature of T rad = 104 K. We further make use of sink particles to follow the evolution for 10,000 yr after reaching the maximum refinement level. No vigorous fragmentation is observed in UV-illuminated halos while the accretion rate changes according to the thermal properties. Our findings show that a few 102-104 solar mass protostars are formed when halos are irradiated by J 21 = 10-500 at z > 10 and suggest a strong relation between the strength of the UV flux and mass of a protostar. This mode of star formation is quite different from minihalos, as higher accretion rates of about 0.01-0.1 M ? yr–1 are observed by the end of our simulations. The resulting massive stars are potential cradles for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes at earlier cosmic times and contribute to the formation of a global X-ray background.

  12. Total ozone measured during EASOE by a UV-visible spectrometer which observes stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Fish; R. L. Jones; R. A. Freshwater; H. K. Roscoe; D. J. Oldham; J. E. Harries

    1994-01-01

    Total ozone was measured from Abisko, Sweden (68.4°N, 18.8°E) from January to early March 1992, by a new instrument which uses stars and the Moon as sources of UV-visible light for absorption spectroscopy. In addition, some zenith-sky observations were made. Ozone measurements obtained using both techniques are presented and compared with those from other instruments. Good agreement with simultaneous ozonesonde

  13. A star-pointing UV-visible spectrometer for remote sensing of the stratosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Roscoe; R. L. Jones; R. A. Freshwater; D. J. Fish; R. Wolfenden; J. E. Harries; D. J. Oldham

    1993-01-01

    Significant ozone loss due to reactive chlorine from man-made chemicals has occurred near the poles in the last decade. In this paper, we describe a novel star-pointing UV-visible spectrometer to measure amounts of some reactive gases in the ozone layer and discuss its advantages. The instrument has the capability of measuring stratospheric amounts of O3, NO2, NO3 and OClO at

  14. Resolving the Dusty Debris Disk of 49 Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dispersal of primordial gas and dust from circumstellar disks is necessary for determining the timeline for giant planet formation. While the current assumption is that the gas and dust evolve simultaneously, there are a few systems that defy this paradigm. The nearby A star 49 Ceti, at a distance of 61 pc, hosts one of only a few known circumstellar disks that exhibits the dust qualities of an older debris disk but still displays a substantial mass of molecular gas, a characteristic normally associated with youth. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations at 850?m and a spatial resolution of 0.47x0.39 arcsec that resolve emission from the dust disk for the first time. To investigate the properties of the dust grains and the morphology of the disk, we simultaneously model the high-resolution ALMA data and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The detected emission reveals a disk that extends from 1.16±0.12AU to 286±7AU with an increase in surface density at 113±2AU that is viewed at an inclination of 79.6±.4°. The increase in surface density corresponds to the inner radius of the gas disk, hinting that similar mechanisms may be responsible for sculpting the gas and dust disks at this late stage of disk evolution.

  15. Star Formation in the Galaxy and the Fluctuating UV Radiation Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Parravano, Antonio; McKee, Christopher H.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine the formation of massive stars in the Galaxy, the resultant fluctuating UV radiation field, and the effect of this field on the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM). There are substantial fluctuations of the UV radiation field in space (scales of 100's of parsecs) and time (time-scales of order 100 million years) at the solar circle. The Far Ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV< hv < 13.6 eV) field and the pressure determines whether the thermal balance of the neutral gas results in cold clouds or warm (T - 10(exp 4) neutral medium. We show how to calculate the average fractions of the gas in the cold and warm phases when the interstellar gas is subject to this fluctuating FUV field. The knowledge of how these fractions depend on the gas properties and on the FUV sources is a basic step in building a model of the large scale behavior of the ISM and the mutual relation between the ISM and the star formation rate. Application is made to observations of spiral galaxies which correlate the star formation rate per unit area with the surface density of the gas. We acknowledge support from the NASA Astrophysical Theory program.

  16. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Data have been reduced and partially analyzed and models have been fitted. ASCA data indicate a metal-poor corona, with metals down by a factor of 3 or more relative to the photospheric values. EUVE data show a FIP effect, which is expected if the metals are enhanced rather than depleted. An absolute measure of the metal abundance has not yet been performed for the EUVE data. Either the FIP effect is in operation in the presence of a global depletion of metals, or the ASCA analysis is giving the wrong answer. The latter could be the case if the plasma models applied are incomplete. Further investigation into this is warranted prior to publication.

  17. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analysed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the EUV. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in met- als in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere. While some progress has been made in this direction, not as much work has been accomplished as expected due to the increasing commitments of the PI to the CXO project as it nears launch. A no-cost extension has been granted in order to further the analysis and carry out the next stages of the investigation: to construct an emission measure distribution with which to compute a synthetic continuum to compare with the observed continuum.

  18. Does UV CETI Suffer from the Mad Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analyzed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the (EUV) Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in metals in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere.

  19. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. Thirty are cluster member galaxies, and nine are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates between 8 and 525 Msolar yr-1. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J-band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, consistent with several previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell Cardiel et al.; Crawford et al.). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars and, therefore, recent star formation. Using the Starburst99 model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2-219 Msolar yr-1 for the cooling flow sample. For two-thirds of this sample, it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV-inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well-populated XMM UV cluster archive, and a more extensive follow-up study is currently underway.

  20. Predicting dust extinction properties of star-forming galaxies from H-alpha/UV ratio

    E-print Network

    Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Yamamura, Issei; Egusa, Fumi; Oi, Nagisa; Tanaka, Ichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Takita, Satoshi; Makiuti, Sin'itirou

    2015-01-01

    Using star-forming galaxies sample in the nearby Universe (0.02predicting dust extinction of galaxies from H-alpha-to-FUV flux ratio. We find that the H-alpha dust extinction (A(Ha)) derived with H-alpha/H-beta ratio (Balmer decrement) increases with increasing H-alpha/UV ratio as expected, but there remains a considerable scatter around the relation, which is largely dependent on stellar mass and/or H-alpha equivalent width (EW(Ha)). At fixed H-alpha/UV ratio, galaxies with higher stellar mass (or galaxies with lower EW(Ha)) tend to be more highly obscured by dust. We quantify this trend and establish an empirical calibration for predicting A(Ha) with a combination of H-alpha/UV ratio, stellar mass and EW(Ha), with which we can successfully reduce the systematic uncertainties accompanying the simple H-alpha/UV approach by ~15-30%. The new recipes proposed in this study will provide a conveni...

  1. The Chemical Composition of {\\tau} Ceti and Possible Effects on Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Pagano, Michael; Young, Patrick A; Shim, Sang-Heon

    2015-01-01

    {\\tau} Ceti (HD10700), a G8 dwarf with solar mass of 0.78, is a close (3.65 pc) sun-like star where 5 possibly terrestrial planet candidates (minimum masses of 2, 3.1, 3.5, 4.3, and 6.7 Earth masses) have recently been discovered. We report abundances of 23 elements using spectra from the MIKE spectrograph on Magellan. Using stellar models with the abundances determined here, we calculate the position of the classical habitable zone with time. At the current best fit age, 7.63 Gy, up to two planets (e and f) may be in the habitable zone, depending on atmospheric properties. The Mg/Si ratio of the star is found to be 1.78, which is much greater than for Earth (about 1.2). With a system that has such an excess of Mg to Si ratio it is possible that the mineralogical make-up of planets around {\\tau} Ceti could be significantly different from that of Earth, with possible oversaturation of MgO, resulting in an increase in the content of olivine and ferropericlase compared with Earth. The increase in MgO would have ...

  2. Star Formation In the Galaxy and the Fluctuating UV Radiation Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Parravano, Antonio; McKee, Christopher H.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We examine the formation of massive stars in the Galaxy, the resultant fluctuating UV (ultraviolet) radiation field, and the effect of this field on the star-forming interstellar medium. There are substantial fluctuations of the UV radiation field in space (scales of 100's of parsecs) and time (time-scales of order 100 million years). The FUV (far ultraviolet) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) field and the pressure determines whether the thermal balance of the neutral gas results in cold clouds or warm (T approx. 10(exp 4) K) neutral medium. We show how to calculate the average fractions of the gas in the cold and warm phases when the interstellar gas is subject to this fluctuating FUV field. The knowledge of how these fractions depend on the gas properties and on the FUV sources is a basic step in building a model of the large scale behavior of the ISM (interstellar medium) and the mutual relation between the ISM and the star formation rate.

  3. A Far-UV Spectroscopic Analysis of the Central Star of the Planetary Nebula Longmore 1

    E-print Network

    J. E. Herald; L. Bianchi

    2004-02-26

    We have performed a non-LTE spectroscopic analysis using far-UV and UV data of the central star of the planetary nebula K1-26 (Longmore 1), and found Teff = 120+/-10 kK, logg = 6.7 +0.3/-0.7, and y = 0.10. The temperature is significantly hotter than previous results based on optical line analyses, highlighting the importance of analyzing the spectra of such hot objects at shorter wavelengths. The spectra show metal lines (from, e.g, carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and iron). The signatures of most elements can be fit adequately using solar abundances, confirming the classification of Longmore 1 as a high gravity O(H) object. Adopting a distance of 800 pc, we derive R = 0.04 Rsun, L = 250 Lsun, and M = 0.6 Msun. This places the object on the white dwarf cooling sequence of the evolutionary tracks with an age of ~= 65 kyr.

  4. Magnetic field structure in single late-type giants: ? Ceti in 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Petit, P.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Wade, G. A.; Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Bogdanovski, R.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We study the behavior of the magnetic field and the line activity indicators of the single late-type giant ? Ceti. Using spectropolarimetric data, we aim to reconstruct the magnetic field structure on the star's surface and to present the first magnetic maps for ? Ceti. Methods: The data were obtained using two spectropolarimeters - Narval at the Bernard Lyot Télescope, Pic du Midi, France, and ESPaDOnS at CFHT, Hawaii. Thirty-eight circularly-polarized spectra have been collected in the period June 2010-January 2012. The least square deconvolution method was applied for extracting high signal-to-noise ratio line profiles, from which we measured the surface-averaged longitudinal magnetic field Bl. Chromospheric activity indicators CaII K, H?, CaII IR (854.2 nm), and radial velocity were simultaneously measured, and their variability was analyzed along with the behavior of Bl. The Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) inversion technique was employed for reconstructing the large-scale magnetic field and two magnetic maps of ? Ceti are presented for two periods (June 2010-December 2010 and June 2011-January 2012). Results: The Bl stays with a same positive polarity for the whole observational period and shows significant variations in the interval 0.1-8.2 G. The behavior of the line activity indicators is in good agreement with the Bl variations. Searching for periodic signals in the Stokes V time series, we found a possible rotation period of 215 days. The two ZDI maps show a mainly axisymmetric and poloidal magnetic topology and a simple surface magnetic field configuration dominated by a dipole. Little evolution is observed between the two maps, in spite of a 1 yr interval between both subsets. We also use state-of-the-art stellar evolution models to constrain the evolutionary status of ? Ceti. We derive a mass of 3.5 M? and propose that this star is already in the central helium-burning phase. Conclusions: Considering all our results and the evolutionary status of the star, we suggest that dynamo action alone may not be efficient enough to account for the high magnetic activity of ? Ceti. As an alternate option, we propose that it is a descendant of an Ap star presently undergoing central helium-burning and still exhibiting a remnant of the Ap star magnetic field. Based on observations obtained at the Bernard Lyot Télescope (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) of the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory, which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and Université de Toulouse, and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Far-UV Spectroscopic Analyses of Four Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    J. E. Herald; L. Bianchi

    2004-03-10

    We analyze the Far-UV/UV spectra of four central stars of planetary nebulae with strong wind features -- NGC 2371, Abell 78, IC 4776 and NGC 1535, and derive their photospheric and wind parameters by modeling high-resolution FUSE (Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer) data in the Far-UV and HST-STIS and IUE data in the UV with spherical non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres. Abell 78 is a hydrogen-deficient transitional [WR]-PG 1159 object, and we find NGC 2371 to be in the same stage, both migrating from the constant-luminosity phase to the white dwarf cooling sequence with Teff ~= 120 kK, Mdot ~= 5x10^-8 Msun/yr. NGC 1535 is a ``hydrogen-rich'' O(H) CSPN, and the exact nature of IC 4776 is ambiguous, although it appears to be helium burning. Both objects lie on the constant-luminosity branch of post-AGB evolution and have Teff ~= 65 kK, Mdot ~= 1x10^-8 Msun/yr. Thus, both the H-rich and H-deficient channels of PN evolution are represented in our sample. We also investigate the effects of including higher ionization stages of iron (up to FeX) in the model atmosphere calculations of these hot objects (usually neglected in previous analyses), and find iron to be a useful diagnostic of the stellar parameters in some cases. The Far-UV spectra of all four objects show evidence of hot (T ~ 300 K) molecular hydrogen in their circumstellar environments.

  6. HAZMAT II: Modeling the Evolution of Extreme-UV Radiation from M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S.; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-01-01

    M dwarf stars make up nearly 75% of the Milky Way's stellar population. Due to their low luminosities, the habitable zones around these stars are very close in (~0.1-0.4 AU), increasing the probability of finding terrestrial planets located in these regions. While there is evidence that stars emit their highest levels of far and near ultraviolet (FUV; NUV) radiation in the earliest stages of their evolution while planets are simultaneously forming and accumulating their atmospheres, we are currently unable to directly measure the extreme UV radiation (EUV). High levels of EUV radiation can alter the abundance of important molecules such as H2O, changing the chemistry in extrasolar planet atmospheres. Most previous stellar atmosphere models under-predict FUV and EUV emission from M dwarfs; here we present new models for M stars that include prescriptions for the hot, lowest density, atmospheric layers (chromosphere, transition region and corona), from which this radiation is emitted. By comparing our model spectra to GALEX near and far ultraviolet fluxes, we are able to predict the evolution of EUV radiation for M dwarfs from 10 Myr - 1 Gyr. This research is the next major step in the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) project to analyze how the habitable zone evolves with the evolving properties of stellar and planetary atmospheres.

  7. Abundances of UV bright stars in globular clusters. I. ROA 5701 in omega Centauri and Barnard 29 in M 13

    E-print Network

    S. Moehler; U. Heber; M. Lemke; R. Napiwotzki

    1998-09-10

    Two UV brights stars in globular clusters, ROA 5701 (omega Cen) and Barnard 29 (M 13) are analysed from high-resolution UV and optical spectra. The main aim is the measurement of iron abundances from UV spectra obtained with the HST-GHRS. In addition atmospheric parameters and abundances for He, C, N, O, and Si are derived from optical spectra (ESO CASPEC) for ROA 5701 or taken from literature for Barnard 29. Both stars are found to be post-asymptotic giant branch stars. Surprisingly, their iron abundances lie significantly below the cluster abundance in both cases. Barnard 29 lies 0.5 dex below the iron abundance derived for giant stars in M 13 and the iron abundance of ROA 5701 is the lowest of any star in omega Cen analysed so far. Barnard 29 shows the same abundance pattern as the red giant stars in M 13, except for its stronger iron deficiency. The iron depletion could be explained by gas-dust separation in the AGB progenitor's atmosphere, if iron condensed into dust grains which were then removed from the atmosphere by a radiatively driven wind. The interpretation of the abundance pattern for ROA 5701 is hampered by the star-to-star abundance variations seen in omega Cen, but its abundance pattern appears to be consistent with the gas-dust separation scenario.

  8. GD 244: asteroseismology of a pulsator in the middle of the ZZ Ceti instability strip

    E-print Network

    Bognár, Zs

    2015-01-01

    We present our preliminary results on the asteroseismological investigations of the ZZ Ceti star GD 244. We used literature values of the effective temperature and surface gravity and utilized the White Dwarf Evolution Code of Bischoff-Kim, Montgomery and Winget (2008, ApJ, 675, 1512) to build our model grid for the seismological analysis. Five observed pulsational modes published up to now were used to find acceptable model solutions. We found that the best model fits have masses between 0.61 and 0.74 M_solar and constitute two groups with hydrogen layer masses of either ~10^{-5} or 10^{-6} M_solar. Based on a statistical analysis of a larger sample of possible model solutions, we assume that the mass of the star is below ~0.68 M_solar and the oxygen content in the centre is less than 60 percent.

  9. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3.7

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cooray, Asantha [School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope {beta} ({identical_to} dlogF{sub {lambda}}/dlog{lambda}; measured at 0.13 {mu}m < {lambda}{sub rest} < 0.28 {mu}m) rises steeply with the median UV luminosity from -1.8 at L {approx} L* to -1.2 (L {approx} 4-5L*). We use population synthesis analyses to derive their average physical properties and find that (1) L{sub UV} and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L {approx} 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L {approx} L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M{sub *} relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at z {approx} 2.

  10. UV Continuum Slope and Dust Obscuration from z ~ 6 to z ~ 2: The Star Formation Rate Density at High Redshift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bouwens; G. D. Illingworth; M. Franx; R.-R. Chary; G. R. Meurer; C. J. Conselice; H. Ford; M. Giavalisco; P. van Dokkum

    2009-01-01

    We provide a systematic measurement of the rest-frame UV continuum slope beta over a wide range in redshift (z ~ 2-6) and rest-frame UV luminosity (0.1 L* z = 3 to 2 L* z = 3) to improve estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) density at high redshift. We utilize the deep optical and infrared data (Advanced Camera for

  11. An experimental test of the photometric calibration of the guide star catalog for the Spectrum-UV (WSO\\/UV) project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Shugarov; N. V. Chupina; A. E. Piskunov; N. V. Kharchenko

    2011-01-01

    A test of the photometric calibration accuracy for the guide-star catalog (Master Catalog) of the Spectrum-UV project (World Space Observatory---Ultraviolet) has been performed using CCD observations in a spectral band close to that of the guide sensor system of the T-170M space telescope. The mean photometric uncertainty of the Master Catalog at 14 m -17 m is 0.23 m ;

  12. On the population of primordial star clusters in the presence of UV background radiation

    E-print Network

    Michael A. MacIntyre; Fernando Santoro; Peter A. Thomas

    2006-02-13

    We use the algorithm of Cole et al. (2000) to generate merger trees for the first star clusters in a Lambda CDM cosmology under an isotropic UV background radiation field, parametrized by J_21. We have investigated the problem in two ways: a global radiation background and local radiative feedback surrounding the first star clusters. Cooling in the first halos at high redshift is dominated by molecular hydrogen, H_2 - we call these Generation 1 objects. At lower redshift and higher virial temperature, T_vir > 10^4K, electron cooling dominates - we call these generation 2. Radiation fields act to photo-dissociate H_2, but also generate free electrons that can help to catalyse its production. At modest radiation levels, J_{21}/(1+z)^3 ~ 10^{-12}-10^{-7}, the nett effect is to enhance the formation of Generation 1 star-clusters. At higher fluxes the heating from photo-ionisation dominates and halts their production. With a realistic build-up of flux over time, the period of enhanced H_2 cooling is so fleeting as to be barely discernable and the nett effect is to move primordial star cluster formation towards Generation 2 objects at lower redshift. A similar effect is seen with local feedback. Provided that enough photons are produced to maintain ionization of their host halo, they will suppress the cooling in Generation 1 halos and boost the numbers of primordial star clusters in Generation 2 halos. Significant suppression of Generation~1 halos occurs for specific photon fluxes in excess of about 10^{43} ph s^{-1} Msun^{-1}.

  13. Investigating H$\\alpha$, UV, and IR star-formation rate diagnostics for a large sample of z ~ 2 galaxies

    E-print Network

    Shivaei, Irene; Steidel, Charles C; Shapley, Alice E

    2015-01-01

    We use a sample of 262 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies at redshifts $2.08\\leq z\\leq 2.51$ to compare H$\\alpha$, UV, and IR star-formation-rate diagnostics and to investigate the dust properties of the galaxies. At these redshifts, the H$\\alpha$ line shifts to the $K_{s}$-band. By comparing $K_{s}$-band photometry to underlying stellar population model fits to other UV, optical, and near-infrared data, we infer the H$\\alpha$ flux for each galaxy. We obtain the best agreement between H$\\alpha$- and UV-based SFRs if we assume that the ionized gas and stellar continuum are reddened by the same value and that the Calzetti attenuation curve is applied to both. Aided with MIPS 24$\\mu$m data, we find that an attenuation curve steeper than the Calzetti curve is needed to reproduce the observed IR/UV ratios of galaxies younger than 100 Myr. Furthermore, using the bolometric star-formation rate inferred from the UV and mid-IR data (SFR$_{IR}$+SFR$_{UV}$), we calculated the conversion between the H$\\alp...

  14. Fluorescence processes and line identifications in the UV spectra of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Johansson, Sveneric

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence processes active in the outer atmospheres of noncoronal cool stars and the UV lines they produce are summarized. Eight pumping processes and 21 fluorescent line products are discussed. The processes, which produce 12 lines, involves energy levels not previously known to be radiatively populated. Four of these are examples of self-fluorescence, whereby one or more lines of Fe II photo-excite through coincident lines the upper levels of other Fe II lines lines seen in emission, while two others explain the selective excitation of solitary Ni II and Si I lines. Nine of the line products are decays from levels in Fe I and Fe II already known to be radiatively populated.

  15. UV Habitability of Possible Exomoons in Observed F-star Planetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Sato, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explore the astrobiological significance of F-type stars of spectral type between F5 V and F9.5 V, which possess Jupiter-type planets within or close to their climatological habitable zones. These planets, or at least a subset of them, may also possess rocky exomoons, which potentially offer habitable environments. Our work considers eight selected systems. The Jupiter-type planets in these systems are in notably different orbits with eccentricities ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. Particularly, we consider the stellar UV environments provided by the photospheric stellar radiation in regard to the circumstellar habitability of the system. According to previous studies, DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology might be based on hydrocarbons. Thus, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar UV radiation. Atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. ...

  16. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud: A Far-UV Spectroscopic Analysis

    E-print Network

    J. E. Herald; L. Bianchi

    2004-04-19

    We observed seven central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), and performed a model-based analysis of these spectra in conjunction with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectra in the UV and optical range to determine the stellar and nebular parameters. Most of the objects show wind features, and they have effective temperatures ranging from 38 to 60 kK with mass-loss rates of ~= 5x10^-8 Msun/yr. Five of the objects have typical LMC abundances. One object (SMP LMC 61) is a [WC4] star, and we fit its spectra with He/C/O-rich abundances typical of the [WC] class, and find its atmosphere to be iron-deficient. Most objects have very hot (T ~> 2000 K) molecular hydrogen in their nebulae, which may indicate a shocked environment. One of these (SMP LMC 62) also displays OVI 1032-38 nebular emission lines, rarely observed in PN.

  17. Ten years of the international review meetings on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence /CETI/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesek, R.; Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of ideas on CETI within the international community over the past five years is reviewed, and the outlook for future CETI activities is discussed. The growth of review sessions on CETI held annually by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is considered, with particular attention given to the issue of radio frequency allocation for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. CETI activities outside the IAA are then examined, including the Viking search for life on Mars, Project Orion for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems, SETI programs undertaken in the U.S. and Soviet Union, and the development of multispectral spectrum analyzers and signal processors. The expected future development of CETI strategies, techniques and instrumentation as well as popular and scientific interest in SETI are discussed, and it is noted that the IAA sessions remain the only regular international forum for the exchange of data on all aspects of CETI.

  18. Signals embedded in the radial velocity noise. Periodic variations in the tau Ceti velocities

    E-print Network

    Tuomi, Mikko; Jenkins, James S; Tinney, Chris G; Butler, R Paul; Vogt, Steve S; Barnes, John R; Wittenmyer, Robert A; O'Toole, Simon; Horner, Jonathan; Bailey, Jeremy; Carter, Brad D; Wright, Duncan J; Salter, Graeme S; Pinfield, David

    2012-01-01

    The abilities of radial velocity exoplanet surveys to detect the lowest-mass extra-solar planets are currently limited by a combination of instrument precision, lack of data, and "jitter". Jitter is a general term for any unknown features in the noise, and reflects a lack of detailed knowledge of stellar physics (asteroseismology, starspots, magnetic cycles, granulation, and other stellar surface phenomena), as well as the possible underestimation of instrument noise. We study an extensive set of radial velocities for the star HD 10700 ($\\tau$ Ceti) to determine the properties of the jitter arising from stellar surface inhomogeneities, activity, and telescope-instrument systems, and perform a comprehensive search for planetary signals in the radial velocities. We perform Bayesian comparisons of statistical models describing the radial velocity data to quantify the number of significant signals and the magnitude and properties of the excess noise in the data. We reach our goal by adding artificial signals to t...

  19. Star Formation in the Galaxy and the Fluctuating UV Radiation Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Parravano, A.; McKee, C.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We examine the formation of massive stars in the Galaxy, the resultant fluctuating UV radiation field, and the effect of this Field on the star-forming interstellar medium. Following previous researchers such as Habing (1968), we calculate the average interstellar radiation field at the Solar Circle of the Galaxy. However, our new calculations follow more closely the time dependence of the field at any point. We show that there is a significant difference between the mean field and the median field, and that there are substantial fluctuations of the field (on timescales of order 100 million years) at a given point. Far Ultraviolet Radiation (FUV, photon energies of 6 eV - 13.6 eV) has been recognized as the main source of heating of the neutral interstellar gas. Given the pressure of the interstellar medium (ISM) the FUV field determines whether the thermal balance of the neutral gas results in cold (T approximately 50 - 100 K) clouds (CNM), warm (T about 10,000 K) (WNM), for a combination of the two (the two phase ISM) We present results for the time history of the FUV field for points in the local ISM of the Milky Way Galaxy. The presence of this fluctuating heating rate converts CNM to WNM and vice versa. We show how to calculate the average fractions of the gas in the CNM and WNM when the interstellar gas is subject to this fluctuating FUV field. The knowledge of how these fractions depend on the gas properties (i.e. mean density and composition) and on the FUV-sources (i.e. the star formation rate, or the IMF, or the size distribution of associations) is a basic step in building any detailed model of the large scale behavior of the ISM and the mutual relation between the ISM and the SFR.

  20. Living with an Old Red Dwarf: X-ray-UV Emissions of Kapteyn’s Star - Effects of X-UV radiation on Habitable Zone Planets hosted by old Red Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Durbin, Allyn J.; Engle, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    Red dwarfs (dM) stars make up over 75% of the local stellar population and a significant fraction (~40-50%) are older than the Sun. Because of the high frequency of red dwarfs and their longevity (> 50 Gyr), there is a greater possibility of more advanced life in red dwarf-exoplanet systems. MEarths, UVES, SDSS-III, and the upcoming TESS mission are some surveys that are targeting red dwarfs in the search for hosted potentially habitalble planets. As part of Villanova's 'Living with a Red Dwarf' program, we have obtained HST-COS Ultraviolet spectra (1150-3000A) and Chandra X-ray observations of Kapteyn's star (GJ 191; M1 V, V = 8.85 mag , d = 12.76 +/- 0.05 ly). Kapyteyn's Star is important for the study of old red dwarfs because it is the nearest (Pop II) halo star with a radial velocity of +245.2 km/s and an estimated age of 11.2 +/-0.9 Gyrs. Recently Kapteyn's Star was found to host two super-Earth mass planets - one of these is orbiting inside the star's Habitable Zone (Anglada-Escude' 2014: MNRAS 443, L89). In our program, Kapteyn's star is the oldest red dwarf and as such serves as an anchor for our age, rotation, and activity relations. The spectra obtained from HST/COS provide one of the cleanest measurements of the important HI Lyman-alpha 1215.6 A emission flux for red dwarfs. This is due to the large Doppler shift from the high radial velocity, separating the stellar Ly-alpha emission from by the Ly-alpha ISM and local geo-coronal sources. These observations further provide calibrations at the old age/low rotation/low activity extremes for our relations. As the nearest and brightest old red dwarf star, Kapteyn's Star also provides insights into its magnetic properties to investigae coronal x-ray and UV emission for the large population of old, slowly rotating red dwarf stars. Kapteyn's star also serves as a proxy for the numerous metal-poor old disk - Pop II M dwarfs by providing information about X-UV emissions. This information is crucial for determining X-ray-UV irradiances for habitable zone planets hosted by these old numerous, cool low luminosity stars.We gratefully acknowledge the support from NSF/RUI Grant AST-1009903, NASA/Chandra Grants GO2-13020X, and HST-GO-13020

  1. An experimental test of the photometric calibration of the guide star catalog for the Spectrum-UV (WSO\\/UV) project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Shugarov; N. V. Chupina; A. E. Piskunov; N. V. Kharchenko

    2011-01-01

    A test of the photometric calibration accuracy for the guide-star catalog (Master Catalog) of the Spectrum-UV project (World\\u000a Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) has been performed using CCD observations in a spectral band close to that of the guide sensor\\u000a system of the T-170M space telescope. The mean photometric uncertainty of the Master Catalog at 14\\u000a m\\u000a –17\\u000a m\\u000a is 0.23\\u000a m\\u000a ;

  2. The GOODS UV Legacy Fields: A Full Census of Faint Star-Forming Galaxies at z~0.5-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Deep HST imaging has shown that the overall star formation density and UV light density at z>3 is dominated by faint, blue galaxies. Remarkably, very little is known about the equivalent galaxy population at lower redshifts. Understanding how these galaxies evolve across the epoch of peak cosmic star-formation is key to a complete picture of galaxy evolution. While we and others have been making every effort to use existing UV imaging data, a large fraction of the prior data were taken without post-flash and are not photometric. We now propose to obtain a robust legacy dataset for a complete census of faint star-forming galaxies at z~0.5-2, akin to what is achieved at z>3, using the unique capabilities of the WFC3/UVIS camera to obtain very deep UV imaging to 27.5-28.0 mag over the CANDELS Deep fields in GOODS North and South. We directly sample the FUV at z>~0.5 and we make these prime legacy fields for JWST with unique and essential UV/blue HST coverage. Together with the exquisite ancillary multi-wavelength data at high spatial resolution from ACS and WFC3/IR our program will result in accurate photometric redshifts for very faint sources and will enable a wealth of research by the community. This includes tracing the evolution of the FUV luminosity function over the peak of the star formation rate density from z~3 down to z~0.5, measuring the physical properties of sub-L* galaxies, and characterizing resolved stellar populations to decipher the build-up of the Hubble sequence from sub-galactic clumps. The lack of a future UV space telescope makes the acquisition of such legacy data imperative for the JWST era and beyond.

  3. UV spectroscopy of the hybrid PG 1159-type central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 7094 and Abell 43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Koesterke, L.; Kruk, J. W.

    2009-03-01

    Hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars have experienced a late helium-shell flash that mixes the hydrogen-rich envelope and the helium-rich intershell. The amount of hydrogen remaining in the stellar envelope depends on the particular moment when this late thermal pulse occurs. Previous spectral analyses of hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars revealed strong iron deficiencies of up to 1 dex. A possible explanation may be neutron captures due to an efficient s-process on the AGB that transformed iron into heavier elements. An enhanced nickel abundance would, thus, be an indication for this scenario. We performed a detailed spectral analysis by means of NLTE model-atmosphere techniques based on high-resolution UV observations of the two PG 1159-type central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 7094 and Abell 43 which are spectroscopic twins, i.e. they exhibit very similar spectra. We confirmed a strong iron-deficiency of at least one dex in both stars. The search for nickel lines in their UV spectra was entirely negative. We find that both stars are also nickel-deficient by at least one dex.

  4. Design and Implementation of the Widefield High-resolution UV\\/Optical Star Formation Camera for the THEIA Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Scowen; R. Jansen; M. Beasley; S. Macenka; S. Shaklan; D. Calzetti; S. Desch; A. Fullerton; J. Gallagher; S. Malhotra; M. McCaughrean; S. Nikzad; R. O'Connell; S. Oey; D. Padgett; J. Rhoads; A. Roberge; O. Siegmund; N. Smith; D. Stern; J. Tumlinson; R. Windhorst; R. Woodruff; D. Spergel; K. Sembach

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field ( 15'x19', > 280 arcmin2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV\\/optical dichroic camera for the 4-m THEIA space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a Blue (190--517nm) and a Red (517--1075nm) Channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the

  5. The effective temperature and surface gravity of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 of Messier 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Aikman, G. C. L.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of optical region spectrophotometry, IUE low dispersion fluxes, and the H-gamma profile with the predictions of metal-poor model atmospheres were used to derive the photospheric parameters of the UV-bright star Barnard 29. These were found to be T(eff) - 20, 250 K, log g - 3.15 after the application of reddening corrections. A solar He/H ratio and the metallicity of Messier 13 were assumed.

  6. A Morphological Study of UV-Bright Stars and Emission Nebulae in a Selection of Star Formation Regions in M31

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Hodge; O. Karl Krienke; Bianchi Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Using the data from the NOAO Local Group Survey, we have measured the Halpha fluxes of 291 nebulae associated with 21 of the van den Bergh OB associations. We have combined these data together with six-color HST WFPC2 photometry, in order to identify the most UV-bright stars in the region. The simple purpose of this article is to explore the

  7. The Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fontaine; P. Brassard

    2008-01-01

    We present a summary of what is currently known about the three distinct families of isolated pulsating white dwarfs. These are the GW Vir stars (He\\/C\\/O-atmosphere stars with Teff ~= 120,000 K), the V777 Her stars (He-atmosphere, Teff ~= 25,000 K), and the ZZ Ceti stars (H-atmosphere, Teff ~= 12,000 K), all showing multiperiodic luminosity variations caused by low-order and

  8. UV spectral variability in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. 11: The accretion interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    We report recent IUE high- and low-dispersion observations with the IUE long wavelength camera (LWP) and short wavelength camera (SWP) of the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. We have found a dramatic change in the structure of the Mg II h and k lines (2795.5, 2802.7 A) along with some continuum flux excesses especially at the short end of the SWP camera. LWP high dispersion observations of HR 5999 obtained between 1979 and 1990, at times of comparatively low UV continuum fluxes, exhibit P Cygni type m profiles in the Mg II resonance doublet. In contrast, observations made from September 1990 through March 16-18, 1992, with high W continuum fluxes, present Mg II lines with reverse P Cygni profiles indicative of some active episodic accretion. Accreting gas can also be detected in the additional red wings of the various Fe II and Mn II absorption lines, with velocities up to +300-350 km/s (September 1990). By September 10, 1992 the Mg II profile had returned to the type III P Cygni profile similar to those from earlier spectra. The correlation between the presence of large column densities of accreting gas and the continuum light variations supports suggestions by several authors that HR 5999 is surrounded by an optically thick, viscously heated accretion disk. Detection of accreting gas in the line of sight to HR 5999 permits us to place constraints on our viewing geometry for this system. A discussion is included comparing the spectral and physical similarities between HR 5999 and the more evolved proto-planetary candidate system, beta Pictoris.

  9. X-ray and Hubble/COS UV Measures of Kapteyn's Star: A Crucial Proxy of X-UV Irradiances for Old Red Dwarf Stars that May Host Habitable Zone Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Allyn J.; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Red dwarfs (dM) stars make up over 80% of the local stellar population and a significant fraction of them are old (age > 4 Gyr). Because of the high frequency of red dwarfs and their longevity, there is a greater possibility of more advanced life in red dwarf planet systems. MEarths, UVES, SDSS-III, and the upcoming TESS mission are some surveys that are targeting these objects. As part of Villanova’s Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained HST/COS spectra and Chandra X-ray observations of Kapteyn's star (M1V, V = 8.853, d = 12.76 +/- 0.05 ly, P_rot = 195 days). This star is crucial to the study of old red dwarfs as it is the nearest halo star with a radial velocity of +245.2 km/s and an estimated age of 10-12 Gyr. In our program, Kapteyn's star is the oldest red dwarf and as such serves as an anchor for our age, rotation, and activity relations. The spectra obtained from HST/COS provide one of the cleanest measurements of Lyman-alpha emission for red dwarfs. This is due to Doppler shift from the high radial velocity, separating the Lyman-alpha line from emission produced by the ISM and geocoronal sources. These observations further provide calibration at the old age/low rotation/low activity extremes for our relations. They also provide insights into the magnetic properties as investigating coronal x-ray and UV emission in very old, slowly rotating dM stars. Kapteyn’s star also serves as a proxy for metal-poor old disk/Pop II M dwarfs by providing information about X-UV emissions. This information is crucial for determining X-UV irradiances of possible habitable zone planets hosted by old red dwarfs. We gratefully acknowledge the support from NSF/RUI Grant AST-1009903, NASA/Chandra Grants GO1-12124X and GO2-13020X, and HST-GO-13020.

  10. The pulsations of ZZ Ceti stars. III - The driving mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Brickhill

    1991-01-01

    The outer layers of the variable white dwarfs are in a state of partial ionization. During the pulsation cycle the base of the ionization zone is strongly heated by the radiative layers below, in phase with the pressure perturbation. If this excess heat is not quickly lost at the surface, then the driving effect is strong. The surface flux perturbation

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Far-UV spectral atlas of O-type stars (Smith, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188Å for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188Å. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of "missed" features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas (Cat. J/ApJS/186/175), to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. (4 data files).

  12. Sensitivity of Biosignatures on Earth-like Planets orbiting in the Habitable Zone of Cool M-Dwarf Stars to varying Stellar UV Radiation and Surface Biomass Emissions

    E-print Network

    Grenfell, John Lee; von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Rauer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    We find that variations in the UV emissions of cool M-dwarf stars have a potentially large impact upon atmospheric biosignatures in simulations of Earth-like exoplanets i.e. planets with Earths development, and biomass and a molecular nitrogen-oxygen dominated atmosphere. Starting with an assumed black-body stellar emission for an M7 class dwarf star, the stellar UV irradiation was increased stepwise and the resulting climate-photochemical response of the planetary atmosphere was calculated. Results suggest a Goldilocks effect with respect to the spectral detection of ozone. At weak UV levels, the ozone column was weak (due to weaker production from the Chapman mechanism) hence its spectral detection was challenging. At strong UV levels, ozone formation is stronger but its associated stratospheric heating leads to a weakening in temperature gradients between the stratosphere and troposphere, which results in weakened spectral bands. Also, increased UV levels can lead to enhanced abundances of hydrogen oxides ...

  13. The photometric period in ES Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.; Patterson, J.; Steeghs, D.; Kemp, J.; Armstrong, E.; Rea, R.

    2011-06-01

    We present ULTRACAM photometry of ES Cet, an ultracompact binary with a 620-s orbital period. The mass transfer in systems such as this one is thought to be driven by gravitational radiation, which causes the binary to evolve to longer periods since the semidegenerate donor star expands in size as it loses mass. We supplement these ULTRACAM+William Herschel Telescope (WHT) data with observations made with smaller telescopes around the world over a 9-yr baseline. All of the observations show variation on the orbital period, and by timing this variation we track the period evolution of this system. We do not detect any significant departure from a linear ephemeris, implying a donor star that is of small mass and close to a fully degenerate state. This finding favours the double white dwarf formation channel for this AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) star. An alternative explanation is that the system is in the relatively short-lived phase in which the mass transfer rate climbs towards its long-term value.

  14. The Rest-Frame UV Luminosity Density of Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshifts z>3.5

    E-print Network

    M. Giavalisco; M. Dickinson; H. C. Ferguson; S. Ravindranath; C. Kretchmer; L. A. Moustakas; P. Madau; S. M. Fall; Jonathan P. Gardner; M. Livio; C. Papovich; A. Renzini; H. Spinrad; D. Stern; A. Riess

    2003-09-08

    We have measured the rest--frame lambda~1500 Ang comoving specific luminosity density of star--forming galaxies at redshift 3.5deep images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), obtained as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). We used color selection criteria to construct samples of star--forming galaxies at redshifts z~4, 5 and 6, identified by the signature of the 912 Ang Lyman continuum discontinuity and Lyman-alpha forest blanketing in their rest--frame UV colors (Lyman--break galaxies). The ACS samples cover ~0.09 square degree, and are also relatively deep, reaching between 0.2 and 0.5 L_3^*, depending on the redshift, where $L_3^*$ is the characteristic UV luminosity of Lyman--break galaxies at z~3. The specific luminosity density of Lyman--break galaxies appears to be nearly constant with redshift from z~3 to z~6, although the measure at z~6 remains relatively uncertain, because it depends on the accurate estimate of the faint counts of the z~6 sample. If Lyman--break galaxies are fair tracers of the cosmic star formation activity, our results suggest that at z~6 the universe was already producing stars as vigorously as it did near its maximum several Gyr later, at 1<~z<~3. Thus, the onset of large--scale star formation in the universe is to be sought at around z~6 or higher, namely at less than ~7% of the current cosmic age.

  15. Chromospherically active stars. VI - HD 136901 = UV CrB: A massive ellipsoidal K giant single-lined spectroscopic binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Yang, Xinxing; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    1989-01-01

    The variable star HD 136901 = UV CrB is a chromospherically active K2 III single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 18.665 days. It has modest-strength Ca H and K emission and UV features, while H-alpha is a strong absorption feature containing little or no emission. The inclination of the system is 53 + or - 12 deg. The v sin i of the primary is 42 + or - 2 km/s, resulting in a minimum radius of 15.5 + or - 0.8 solar. When compared with the Roche lobe radius, this results in a mass ratio of 2.90 or larger. Additional constraints indicate that the secondary has a mass between 0.85 and 1.25 solar. Thus, the mass of the primary is at least 2.5 solar and probably is in the range 2.5-4 solar.

  16. A Morphological Study of UV-Bright Stars and Emission Nebulae in a Selection of Star Formation Regions in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul W.; Krienke, O. Karl; Luciana, Bianchi

    2011-06-01

    Using the data from the NOAO Local Group Survey, we have measured the H? fluxes of 291 nebulae associated with 21 of the van den Bergh OB associations. We have combined these data together with six-color HST WFPC2 photometry, in order to identify the most UV-bright stars in the region. The simple purpose of this article is to explore the spatial relationships between these components. We find that there are basically three types of H?-hot star morphology. One type consists of a very bright H II region, with a tightly spaced group of hot stars at or near its center; we refer to these as monolithic structures. A second common arrangement is that of a ringlike bubble structure with an often-empty central area, where the hot stars are concentrated. We construct simple models of these objects, which show that their photometric profiles are like those of spherical shells. We refer to these as bubble structures A third morphology is a scattered distribution of small nebulae with a few hot stars that are widely spaced; these are called dispersed structures. We suggest that this sequence may be an evolutionary one.

  17. 3D-HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Discrepancies in the Optical/UV Star Formation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S.; Feldmeier, John; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2014-08-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope near-IR grism spectroscopy to examine the H? line strengths of 260 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. We show that at these epochs, the H? star formation rate (SFR) is a factor of ~1.8 higher than what would be expected from the systems' rest-frame UV flux density, suggesting a shift in the standard conversion between these quantities and SFR. We demonstrate that at least part of this shift can be attributed to metallicity, as H? is more enhanced in systems with lower oxygen abundance. This offset must be considered when measuring the SFR history of the universe. We also show that the relation between stellar and nebular extinction in our z ~ 2 sample is consistent with that observed in the local universe.

  18. The Rest-Frame UV Luminosity Density of Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshifts z>3.5

    E-print Network

    Giavalisco, M; Ferguson, H C; Ravindranath, S; Kretchmer, C; Moustakas, L A; Madau, P; Fall, S M; Gardner, J P; Livio, M; Papovich, C; Renzini, A; Spinrad, H; Stern, D; Riess, A; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the rest--frame lambda~1500 Ang comoving specific luminosity density of star--forming galaxies at redshift 3.5deep images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), obtained as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). We used color selection criteria to construct samples of star--forming galaxies at redshifts z~4, 5 and 6, identified by the signature of the 912 Ang Lyman continuum discontinuity and Lyman-alpha forest blanketing in their rest--frame UV colors (Lyman--break galaxies). The ACS samples cover ~0.09 square degree, and are also relatively deep, reaching between 0.2 and 0.5 L_3^*, depending on the redshift, where $L_3^*$ is the characteristic UV luminosity of Lyman--break galaxies at z~3. The specific luminosity density of Lyman--break galaxies appears to be nearly constant with redshift from z~3 to z~6, although the measure at z~6 remains relatively uncertain, because it depends on the accurate estimate...

  19. UV CONTINUUM SLOPE AND DUST OBSCURATION FROM z approx 6 TO z approx 2: THE STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bouwens; G. D. Illingworth; M. Franx; R.-R. Chary; G. R. Meurer; H. Ford; C. J. Conselice; M. Giavalisco; P. Van Dokkum

    2009-01-01

    We provide a systematic measurement of the rest-frame UV continuum slope beta over a wide range in redshift (z approx 2-6) and rest-frame UV luminosity (0.1 L* {sub z} {sub =} to 2 L* {sub z=}) to improve estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) density at high redshift. We utilize the deep optical and infrared data (Advanced Camera for

  20. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED PULSATING LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS: AN EXTENSION OF THE ZZ CETI INSTABILITY STRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Van Grootel, V.; Dupret, M.-A. [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l'Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l'Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P., E-mail: valerie.vangrootel@ulg.ac.be [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, C.P. 6128, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    In light of the exciting discovery of g-mode pulsations in extremely low-mass, He-core DA white dwarfs, we report on the results of a detailed stability survey aimed at explaining the existence of these new pulsators as well as their location in the spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. To this aim, we calculated some 28 evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses and chemical layering. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/{alpha} = 1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We pulsated the models with the nonadiabatic code MAD, which incorporates a detailed treatment of time-dependent convection. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes, including MAD, to account properly for the red edge of the strip, we resurrect the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. We thus estimated the location of that edge by requiring that the thermal timescale in the driving region-located at the base of the H convection zone-be equal to the critical period beyond which l = 1 g-modes cease to exist. Using this approach, we find that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip, including the low-gravity, low-temperature regime where the three new pulsators are found. We also account for the relatively long periods observed in these stars, and thus conclude that they are true ZZ Ceti stars, but with low masses.

  1. High-resolution UV studies of SAURON galaxies with WFC3: constraining recent star formation and its drivers in local early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata

    2011-10-01

    A significant recent discovery, using survey data in the rest-frame ultraviolet {UV}, is the unambiguous detection of widespread, low-level recent star formation {RSF} in nearby early-type galaxies {ETGs}. Its extreme sensitivity to young stars makes the UV the ideal tool to accurately quantify the weak star formation in ETGs, which were traditionally thought to be evolving largely passively. We aim to combine the UV capabilities of WFC3 with the powerful SAURON survey - which offers optical integral-field spectroscopy of local ETGs - to study RSF in ETGs in unprecedented detail. Our targets are a subset of SAURON with fully mapped molecular CO and signatures of star formation. For each target we aim to {1} use a pixel-by-pixel analysis to spatially map the properties of the young stars {ages/mass fractions/metallicities} {2} calculate ages/metallicities of individual globular clusters to probe the galaxyâ??s mass assembly over time {3} combine UV-derived RSF estimates with CO gas maps to study the star formation law on unprecedentedly small scales {4} compare the age-dated substructure to numerical simulations of minor mergers to constrain characteristics of the last merger event {e.g. mass ratios, satellite gas fractions} in ETGs that are likely to be merger remnants. The research leverages our past work with UV data {e.g. GALEX} and a published WFC3 study of NGC 4150, which we use to explicitly demonstrate the scope and quality of the science results. The unique WFC3 combination of high UV sensitivity and spatial resolution are critical and we demonstrate why this proposal cannot be fulfilled using any other facility. The proposal targets 10 ETGs with 15 orbits.

  2. Total ozone measured during EASOE by a UV-visible spectrometer which observes stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Fish; R. L. Jones; R. A. Freshwater; H. K. Roscoe; D. J. Oldham; J. E. Harries

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ground based measurement of column ozone from Abisko, Sweden (68.4[degrees]N), by means of a novel absorption spectroscopy technique. The instrument uses starlight, and moon glow as sources of UV and visible light for the absorption technique. These measurements were compared with ozonesonde measurements, and with space borne instruments.

  3. The spectral energy distributions of K+A galaxies from the UV to the mid-IR: stellar populations, star formation and hot dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, J.; De Propris, R.

    2013-05-01

    We present spectrum synthesis fits to 808 K+A galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and population synthesis of their spectral energy distributions, extending from the far-UV (0.15 ?m) to the mid-IR (22 ?m), based on the results of STARLIGHT code fitting to the SDSS spectra. Our modelling shows that K+A galaxies have undergone a large starburst, involving a median 50 per cent of their present stellar masses, superposed over an older stellar population. The metal abundance of the intermediate-age stars shows that star formation did not take place in pristine gas, but was part of a dramatic increase in the star formation rates for originally gas-rich objects. We find no evidence for ongoing QSO activity in the UV, which is well modelled by the emission of intermediate-age stars. We use K+A galaxies as local counterparts of high-redshift objects to test for the presence of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars in similarly aged populations and find no excess in the infrared due to emission from such stars, arguing that more distant galaxies are indeed old and massive at their redshift. All of our galaxies show significant excesses in the mid-IR compared to the light from their stars. We fit this ad hoc with a 300 K blackbody. Possible sources include TP-AGB stars, obscured young star clusters and hidden AGNs, heating a significant dust component.

  4. Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium in z > 6 UV-luminous Lyman-break Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Carilli, Chris L.; Wagg, Jeff; Wang, Ran

    2015-07-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) detections of atomic carbon line and dust continuum emission in two UV-luminous galaxies at redshift 6. The far-infrared (far-IR) luminosities of these galaxies are substantially lower than similar starbursts at later cosmic epochs, indicating an evolution in the dust properties with redshift, in agreement with the evolution seen in ultraviolet (UV) attenuation by dust. The [C ii] to FIR ratios are found to be higher than at low redshift showing that [C ii] should be readily detectable by ALMA within the reionization epoch. One of the two galaxies shows a complex merger nature with the less massive component dominating the UV emission and the more massive component dominating the FIR line and continuum. Using the interstellar atomic carbon line to derive the systemic redshifts we investigate the velocity of Ly? emission emerging from high-z galaxies. In contrast to previous work, we find no evidence for decreasing Ly? velocity shifts at high-redshift. We observe an increase in velocity shifts from z? 2 to z? 6, consistent with the effects of increased intergalactic medium absorption.

  5. Near-UV Observations of HD221170: New Insights into the Nature of r-Process-Rich Stars

    E-print Network

    Inese I. Ivans; Jennifer Simmerer; Christopher Sneden; James E. Lawler; John J. Cowan; Roberto Gallino; Sara Bisterzo

    2006-04-08

    Employing high resolution spectra obtained with the near-UV sensitive detector on the Keck I HIRES, supplemented by data obtained with the McDonald Observatory 2-d coude, we have performed a comprehensive chemical composition analysis of the bright r-process-rich metal-poor red giant star HD221170. Analysis of 57 individual neutral and ionized species yielded abundances for a total of 46 elements and significant upper limits for an additional five. Model stellar atmosphere parameters were derived with the aid of ~200 Fe-peak transitions. From more than 350 transitions of 35 neutron-capture (Z > 30) species, abundances for 30 neutron-capture elements and upper limits for three others were derived. Utilizing 36 transitions of La, 16 of Eu, and seven of Th, we derive ratios of log epsilon(Th/La) = -0.73 (sigma = 0.06) and log epsilon(Th/Eu) = -0.60 (sigma = 0.05), values in excellent agreement with those previously derived for other r-process-rich metal-poor stars such as CS22892-052, BD+17 3248, and HD115444. Based upon the Th/Eu chronometer, the inferred age is 11.7 +/- 2.8 Gyr. The abundance distribution of the heavier neutron-capture elements (Z >= 56) is fit well by the predicted scaled solar system r-process abundances, as also seen in other r-process-rich stars. Unlike other r-process-rich stars, however, we find that the abundances of the lighter neutron-capture elements (37 < Z < 56) in HD221170 are also statistically in better agreement with the abundances predicted for the scaled solar r-process pattern.

  6. Analysis of far-UV data of central stars of planetary nebulae: Occurrence and variability of stellar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M. A.; De Marco, O.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of stellar wind in the central star of a planetary nebula (CSPN) can be revealed by the presence of P Cygni profiles of high-excitation lines overimposed on its stellar continuum. We examined the entire Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) archive and merged all useful spectroscopic observations of CSPNe to produce the highest quality spectra that can be used to assess the frequency of stellar winds. Furthermore, the individual spectra of each CSPN were compared to search for variability in the P Cygni profile. P Cygni profiles of high-excitation lines have been found in 44 CSPNe, with a clear correlation between the ionization potential of the lines and the effective temperature of the star. We introduce a prescription to derive the terminal wind velocity (v?) from saturated and unsaturated P Cygni profiles and provide new values of v? for these stars. Another 23 CSPNe do not show P Cygni profiles, or else their data in the FUSE archive are not conclusive enough to determine the occurrence of P Cygni profiles. Variability in the P Cygni profile of high-excitation, far-UV lines is found for the first time in six CSPNe, namely Hen 2-131, NGC 40, NGC 1535, NGC 2392, Sp 3, and SwSt 1. This increases up to 13 the number of CSPNe with variable P Cygni profiles in the UV, including those previously reported using IUE or FUSE observations. Variability is seen primarily in the unsaturated P v and Si iv lines, but also in saturated C iii and O vi lines. The CSPNe with variable P Cygni profiles have similar stellar properties (relatively low log (g) and Teff) that suggest they are less evolved CSPNe. Some of the CSPNe with variable P Cygni profiles show O vi lines, while their effective temperature is insufficient to produce this ion. We suggest that this ion is produced by Auger ionization from X-rays associated to shocks in their stellar winds, as is the case in massive OB stars of high ionization potential ions that cannot be abundantly produced by photoionizations. ASCII tables of wavelengths and fluxes are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/553/A126

  7. Line-driven winds, ionizing fluxes and UV-spectra of hot stars at extremely low metallicity. I. Very massive O-stars

    E-print Network

    Rolf P. Kudritzki

    2002-05-14

    Wind models of very massive stars with metallicities in a range from 1E-4 to 1.0 solar are calculated using a new treatment of radiation driven winds with depth dependent radiative force multipliers and a comprehensive list of more than two million spectral lines in NLTE. The models are tested by a comparison with observed stellar wind properties of O stars in the Galaxy and the SMC. Satisfying agreement is found. The calculations yield mass-loss rates, wind velocities, wind momenta and wind energies as a function of metallicity and can be used to discuss the influence of stellar winds on the evolution of very massive stars in the early universe and on the interstellar medium in the early phases of galaxy formation. The normal scaling laws, which predict stellar mass-loss rates and wind momenta to decrease as a power law with metal abundance break down at a certain threshold. Analytical fit formulae for mass-loss rates are provided as a function of stellar parameters and metallicity. The new wind models are applied to calculate ionizing fluxes and observable spectra of very massive stars as a function of metallicity using the new hydrodynamic, non-LTE line-blanketed flux constant model atmosphere code developed by Pauldrach et al. Numbers of ionizing photons for the crucial ionization stages are given. For a fixed effective temperature the He II ionizing emergent flux depends very strongly on metallicity but also on stellar luminosity. A strong dependence on metallicity is also found for the C III, Ne II and O II ionizing photons, whereas the H I and He I ionizing flux is almost independent of metallicity. We also calculate UV spectra for all the models and discuss the behaviour of significant line features as a function of metallicity.

  8. Constraints on hot star X-ray source characteristics from combinded analysis of X-ray and UV observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from wind ionization calculations are presented which show how the P-Cygni profiles of 'superionized' species such as O VI can provide information about the X-ray source characteristics of early-type stars. Using detailed radiative and atomic physics models, we find that a significant source of X-ray emission from zeta Pup comes from a region in the wind located within rougly 1 to 2 stellar radii of the photosphere. Our results suggest that X-rays sources in which emission occurs exclusively at large radii (r greater than or approximately equal to a few R(sub *)) are inconsistent with UV P-Cygni profiles for O VI. Instead, we find that X-ray emission from shocks distributed throughout the lower regions of the wind (r approximately equal to 1-2 R(sub *)) is consistent with both X-ray and UV data, as well as mass loss rates deduced from radio and H-alpha observations.

  9. New Pulsating DB White Dwarf Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nitta; S. J. Kleinman; J. Krzesinski; S. O. Kepler; T. S. Metcalfe; Anjum S. Mukadam; Fergal Mullally; R. E. Nather; Denis J. Sullivan; Susan E. Thompson; D. E. Winget

    2009-01-01

    We are searching for new He atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DBVs) based on the newly found white dwarf stars from the spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. DBVs pulsate at hotter temperature ranges than their better known cousins, the H atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars). Since the evolution of white dwarf stars is characterized

  10. UV-continuum Slopes at z ~ 4-7 from the HUDF09+ERS+CANDELS Observations: Discovery of a Well-defined UV Color-Magnitude Relationship for z >= 4 Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Franx, M.; Labbé, I.; Trenti, M.; van Dokkum, P.; Carollo, C. M.; González, V.; Smit, R.; Magee, D.

    2012-08-01

    Ultra-deep Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and WFC3/IR HUDF+HUDF09 data, along with the wide-area GOODS+ERS+CANDELS data over the CDF-S GOODS field, are used to measure UV colors, expressed as the UV-continuum slope ?, of star-forming galaxies over a wide range of luminosity (0.1L* z = 3 to 2L* z = 3) at high redshift (z ~ 7 to z ~ 4). ? is measured using all ACS and WFC3/IR passbands uncontaminated by Ly? and spectral breaks. Extensive tests show that our ? measurements are only subject to minimal biases. Using a different selection procedure, Dunlop et al. recently found large biases in their ? measurements. To reconcile these different results, we simulated both approaches and found that ? measurements for faint sources are subject to large biases if the same passbands are used both to select the sources and to measure ?. High-redshift galaxies show a well-defined rest-frame UV color-magnitude (CM) relationship that becomes systematically bluer toward fainter UV luminosities. No evolution is seen in the slope of the UV CM relationship in the first 1.5 Gyr, though there is a small evolution in the zero point to redder colors from z ~ 7 to z ~ 4. This suggests that galaxies are evolving along a well-defined sequence in the L UV-color (?) plane (a "star-forming sequence"?). Dust appears to be the principal factor driving changes in the UV color ? with luminosity. These new larger ? samples lead to improved dust extinction estimates at z ~ 4-7 and confirm that the extinction is essentially zero at low luminosities and high redshifts. Inclusion of the new dust extinction results leads to (1) excellent agreement between the star formation rate (SFR) density at z ~ 4-8 and that inferred from the stellar mass density; and (2) to higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs) at z >~ 4, suggesting that the SSFR may evolve modestly (by factors of ~2) from z ~ 4-7 to z ~ 2. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11563 and 9797.

  11. FUV, UV, and Optical Observations of the He-sdO Star BD+39 3226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, Pierre; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-01-01

    Based on observations carried out with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, the MMT Observatory, and the Keck telescope HIRES spectrograph, we present a spectral analysis of the He-sdO star BD+39 3226. By fitting the MMT spectrum we obtain a gravity that is 0.7 dex higher than the one reported in the literature. The new atmospheric parameters will have an impact on the measurement of the HI column density toward BD+39 3226, and by this very fact on the deuterium abundance. The high-resolution spectra show stellar absorption lines coming from C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. The spectra also show lines from heavy elements such as Ge, As, and Sn. On the other hand, neither Zr nor Pb absorption lines are detected. The non-detection of lead in BD+39 3226 indicates that the star does not belong to the newly discovered group of lead-rich He-sdO stars. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a Public Works and Government Services of Canada contract.

  12. New binaries among UV-selected, hot subdwarf stars and population properties

    E-print Network

    Kawka, A; O'Toole, S; Nemeth, P; Burton, D; Kotze, E; Buckley, D A H

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the orbital parameters of seven close binaries, including six new objects, in a radial velocity survey of 38 objects comprising a hot subdwarf star with orbital periods ranging from ~0.17 to 3 d. One new system, GALEX J2205-3141, shows reflection on a M dwarf companion. Three other objects show significant short-period variations, but their orbital parameters could not be constrained. Two systems comprising a hot subdwarf paired with a bright main-sequence/giant companion display short-period photometric variations possibly due to irradiation or stellar activity and are also short-period candidates. All except two candidates were drawn from a selection of subluminous stars in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet sky survey. Our new identifications also include a low-mass subdwarf B star and likely progenitor of a low mass white dwarf (GALEX J0805-1058) paired with an unseen, possibly substellar, companion. The mass functions of the newly identified binaries imply minimum secondary masses...

  13. Sensitivity of biosignatures on Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of cool M-dwarf Stars to varying stellar UV radiation and surface biomass emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, J. L.; Gebauer, S.; v. Paris, P.; Godolt, M.; Rauer, H.

    2014-08-01

    We find that variations in the UV emissions of cool M-dwarf stars have a potentially large impact upon atmospheric biosignatures in simulations of Earth-like exoplanets i.e. planets with Earth's development, and biomass and a molecular nitrogen-oxygen dominated atmosphere. Starting with an assumed black-body stellar emission for an M7 class dwarf star, the stellar UV irradiation was increased stepwise and the resulting climate-photochemical response of the planetary atmosphere was calculated. Results suggest a “Goldilocks” effect with respect to the spectral detection of ozone. At weak UV levels, the ozone column was weak (due to weaker production from the Chapman mechanism) hence its spectral detection was challenging. At strong UV levels, ozone formation is stronger but its associated stratospheric heating leads to a weakening in temperature gradients between the stratosphere and troposphere, which results in weakened spectral bands. Also, increased UV levels can lead to enhanced abundances of hydrogen oxides which oppose the ozone formation effect. At intermediate UV (i.e. with ×10 the stellar UV radiative flux of black body Planck curves corresponding to spectral class M7) the conditions are “just right” for spectral detection. Results suggest that the planetary ozone profile is sensitive to the UV output of the star from ~200-350 nm.We also investigated the effect of increasing the top-of-atmosphere incoming Lyman-? radiation but this had only a minimal effect on the biosignatures since it was efficiently absorbed in the uppermost planetary atmospheric layer, mainly by abundant methane. Earlier studies have suggested that the planetary methane is an important stratospheric heater which critically affects the vertical temperature gradient, hence the strength of spectral emission bands. We therefore varied methane and nitrous oxide biomass emissions, finding e.g. that a lowering in methane emissions by ×100 compared with the Earth can influence temperature hence have a significant effect on biosignature spectral bands such as those of nitrous oxide. Our work emphasises the need for future missions to characterise the UV of cool M-dwarf stars in order to understand potential biosignature signals.

  14. New binaries among UV-selected, hot subdwarf stars and population properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawka, A.; Vennes, S.; O'Toole, S.; Németh, P.; Burton, D.; Kotze, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.

    2015-07-01

    We have measured the orbital parameters of seven close binaries, including six new objects, in a radial velocity survey of 38 objects comprising a hot subdwarf star with orbital periods ranging from ˜0.17 to 3 d. One new system, GALEX J2205-3141, shows reflection on an M dwarf companion. Three other objects show significant short-period variations, but their orbital parameters could not be constrained. Two systems comprising a hot subdwarf paired with a bright main-sequence/giant companion display short-period photometric variations possibly due to irradiation or stellar activity and are also short-period candidates. All except two candidates were drawn from a selection of subluminous stars in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet sky survey. Our new identifications also include a low-mass subdwarf B star and likely progenitor of a low-mass white dwarf (GALEX J0805-1058) paired with an unseen, possibly substellar, companion. The mass functions of the newly identified binaries imply minimum secondary masses ranging from 0.03 to 0.39 M?. Photometric time series suggest that, apart from GALEX J0805-1058 and J2205-3141, the companions are most likely white dwarfs. We update the binary population statistics: close to 40 per cent of hot subdwarfs have a companion. Also, we found that the secondary mass distribution shows a low-mass peak attributed to late-type dwarfs, and a higher mass peak and tail distribution attributed to white dwarfs and a few spectroscopic composites. Also, we found that the population kinematics imply an old age and include a few likely halo population members.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A Finding List of Faint UV-Bright Stars (Lanning+, 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, H. H.

    1997-02-01

    The Sandage two-color photographic survey was originally made in support of the UHURU x-ray satellite in order to identify those optical counterparts of the detected x-ray sources found in the galactic plane. During inspection of the plates, however, many UV-bright objects fainter than 10th magnitude were seen in the general field. A larger image in the U filter suggested the possibility of a bluer object as in the case of low-luminosity stars, white dwarfs, novae, CVs, normal early B stars, etc. As these are interesting in themselves, it was decided to publish a catalog for the use of other observers. This multi-color photographic technique has been described, for example, by Haro and Herbig (1955). The survey was concentrated on objects with m(B)~10 or fainter. It employed the Palomar 48-in (Oschin) Schmidt telescope and was centered on the galactic plane with overlapping regions covering the galactic latitudes +- 9 degrees, and extending throughout most of the northern plane (l = 0 deg - 227 deg). Plates were taken by J. Kristian, A.R. Sandage, R.J. Brucato, and Lanning, primarily. The data presented here were found following a careful examination of the plates but it should not be assumed these data represent a complete survey of the fields examined. The categories were roughly calibrated against photoelectric (U-B) measures, but a full scale calibration program, including magnitude effects, etc. was not done. The numerical (U-B) limits of the tables should not therefore be taken precisely. The blue magnitude of the sources in the finding list has been estimated using these photoelectric values as a guide but should be considered accurate to only +- 0.5 mag. due to the difficulty of adjusting to the various plate characteristics. Positions were measured from images retrieved from the Space Telescope Science Institute collection of Guide Star digital plate scans. The accuracy of positions from the Guide Star Catalog images has been estimated to be on the order of 0.2-0.8 arcsec (Russell et al. 1990) Information provided by Bidelman (private communication) resulted in the discovery that 15 positions for objects listed in Paper II were in error. Investigation indicated that an incorrect header was associated with the scan of the Guide Star plate originally archived onto optical disk. The incorrect astrometric solution, based on the use of an incorrect origin point, was subsequently applied in the positional determination when centroiding the object. The average offset for positions in right ascension is 14.17 seconds of time, with no detectable trend in the numbers. The offsets in declination range from +6.56 arcseconds through zero to -6.85 arcseconds as one progresses from west to east across the plate. This is consistent with a rotation being introduced into the bad plate solution. Objects with incorrect positions included Lanning 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 108, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119, and 122. uv.dat contains the corrected coordinates. (2 data files).

  16. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN THE UNUSUAL 49 Ceti DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kamp, I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Montesinos, B. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, PO Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA, Avda Apoquindo 3846, Piso 19, Edificio Alsacia, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Meeus, G.; Eiroa, C. [Departmento Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Donaldson, J. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Olofsson, J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Moor, A. [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Augereau, J.-C.; Thi, W.-F. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, UMR 5274, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Howard, C.; Sandell, G. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Building N232, PO Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ardila, D. R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Woitke, P., E-mail: Aki.Roberge@nasa.gov [University of Vienna, Department of Astronomy, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the ''Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'' (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 {mu}m image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [O I] 63 {mu}m and [C II] 158 {mu}m. The C II line was detected at the 5{sigma} level-the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the O I line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra. We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the C II emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.

  17. Cetobacterium ceti gen. nov., sp. nov., a new gram-negative obligate anaerobe from sea mammals.

    PubMed

    Foster, G; Ross, H M; Naylor, R D; Collins, M D; Ramos, C P; Fernandez Garayzabal, F; Reid, R J

    1995-09-01

    Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on a Gram-negative obligately anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium isolated from two sea mammals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated the bacterium represents a hitherto unknown line of descent peripherally associated to the fusobacteria and low G+C relatives. Based on the result of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic criteria, it is proposed that the bacterium should be assigned to a new genus, Cetobacterium ceti gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Cetobacterium ceti sp. nov. is NCFB 3026. PMID:7576509

  18. MODELING THE NEAR-UV BAND OF GK STARS. II. NON-LTE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Short, C.; Campbell, Eamonn A. [Department of Astronomy and Physics and Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada); Pickup, Heather [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Hauschildt, Peter H., E-mail: ishort@ap.smu.ca, E-mail: yeti@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-10

    We present a grid of atmospheric models and synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for late-type dwarfs and giants of solar and 1/3 solar metallicity with many opacity sources computed in self-consistent non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), and compare them to the LTE grid of Short and Hauschildt (Paper I). We describe, for the first time, how the NLTE treatment affects the thermal equilibrium of the atmospheric structure (T({tau}) relation) and the SED as a finely sampled function of T{sub eff}, log g, and [A/H] among solar metallicity and mildly metal-poor red giants. We compare the computed SEDs to the library of observed spectrophotometry described in Paper I across the entire visible band, and in the blue and red regions of the spectrum separately. We find that for the giants of both metallicities, the NLTE models yield best-fit T{sub eff} values that are 30-90 K lower than those provided by LTE models, while providing greater consistency between log g values, and, for Arcturus, T{sub eff} values, fitted separately to the blue and red spectral regions. There is marginal evidence that NLTE models give more consistent best-fit T{sub eff} values between the red and blue bands for earlier spectral classes among the solar metallicity GK giants than they do for the later classes, but no model fits the blue-band spectrum well for any class. For the two dwarf spectral classes that we are able to study, the effect of NLTE on derived parameters is less significant. We compare our derived T{sub eff} values to several other spectroscopic and photometric T{sub eff} calibrations for red giants, including one that is less model dependent based on the infrared flux method (IRFM). We find that the NLTE models provide slightly better agreement to the IRFM calibration among the warmer stars in our sample, while giving approximately the same level of agreement for the cooler stars.

  19. Evolution over Time of Magentic Dynamo Driven UV & X-ray Emissions of dG-M Stars and Effects on Hosted Planets

    E-print Network

    Guinan, Edward F

    2007-01-01

    The evolution over time of the magnetic activity and the resulting X-ray and UV coronal and chromospheric emissions of main-sequence dG, dK, and dM stars with widely different ages are discussed. Young cool stars spin rapidly and have correspondingly very robust magnetic dynamos and strong coronal and chromospheric X-ray - UV (XUV) emissions. However, these stars spin-down with time as they lose angular momentum via magnetized winds and their magnetic generated activity and emissions significantly decrease. Studies of dK-dM stars over a wide range of ages and rotations show similar (but not identical) behavior. Particular emphasis is given to discussing the effects that XUV emissions have on the atmospheres and evolution of solar system planets as well as the increasing number of extrasolar planets found hosted by dG-dM stars. The results from modeling the early atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars using recently determined XUV irradiances and inferred winds of the young Sun are also briefly discussed. For ex...

  20. A Comprehensive COS Study of the Magnetic Dynamos, Rotations, UV Irradiances and Habitability of dM Stars with a Broad Span of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward

    2012-10-01

    We propose HST/COS FUV spectrophotometry of a carefully selected sample of 9 dM1-5 stars with recently reliably determined ages ranging from 1-12 Gyr. This program complements our Chandra Cycle 13 program of the same targets to determine their coronal X-ray properties. Ages {of all but one star} have recently been firmly determined from memberships in wide binaries with white dwarf {WD} companions having reliable cooling time+main-sequence evolution ages {Zhao et al. 2012, Garces et al 2011}. Until these studies, reliable age determinations for dM stars >2 Gyr were nearly impossible. However, we can now carry out a comprehensive UV study of dM star atmospheres across nearly the full age-range of the current Universe. The primary goals are 1} to study the evolution of their dynamo-generated X-ray and UV {XUV} emissions with age/rotation and to better define the heating and energetics of their atmospheres {via Age-Rotation-Activity-XUV Irradiance relations} and 2} to study the effects of the XUV radiation on planets hosted by red dwarfs. The COS UV spectral region contains numerous important diagnostic emission lines for characterizing the energy transfer and atmospheric structure, while line ratios yield valuable information about the electron density. Further, these data {when combined with our coronal X-ray measures} are also important for gauging dM star XUV emissions - critical for assessing the photochemical & photoionization evolution of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres that in turn strongly affect the possible development of life on hosted extrasolar planets. We are requesting a total of 19 HST orbits to achieve the science goals of the program.

  1. 29The Solar Neighborhood within 17 light years. There are 45 stars within 17

    E-print Network

    .9 Altair 300 16.6 Problem 1 - What is the distance between Sirius and Altair? Problem 2 - What is the distance between Kruger 60 and Altair? Problem 3 - Can you find a pair of stars that are closer to each light years. Problem 4 - One path consists of Sun-Barnards Star-Altair-Kruger 60- 61 Cygni-Tau Ceti

  2. Signals embedded in the radial velocity noise. Periodic variations in the ? Ceti velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, M.; Jones, H. R. A.; Jenkins, J. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S. S.; Barnes, J. R.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; O'Toole, S.; Horner, J.; Bailey, J.; Carter, B. D.; Wright, D. J.; Salter, G. S.; Pinfield, D.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The abilities of radial velocity exoplanet surveys to detect the lowest-mass extra-solar planets are currently limited by a combination of instrument precision, lack of data, and "jitter". Jitter is a general term for any unknown features in the noise, and reflects a lack of detailed knowledge of stellar physics (asteroseismology, starspots, magnetic cycles, granulation, and other stellar surface phenomena), as well as the possible underestimation of instrument noise. Aims: We study an extensive set of radial velocities for the star HD 10700 (? Ceti) to determine the properties of the jitter arising from stellar surface inhomogeneities, activity, and telescope-instrument systems, and perform a comprehensive search for planetary signals in the radial velocities. Methods: We performed Bayesian comparisons of statistical models describing the radial velocity data to quantify the number of significant signals and the magnitude and properties of the excess noise in the data. We reached our goal by adding artificial signals to the "flat" radial velocity data of HD 10700 and by seeing which one of our statistical noise models receives the greatest posterior probabilities while still being able to extract the artificial signals correctly from the data. We utilised various noise components to assess properties of the noise in the data and analyse the HARPS, AAPS, and HIRES data for HD 10700 to quantify these properties and search for previously unknown low-amplitude Keplerian signals. Results: According to our analyses, moving average components with an exponential decay with a timescale from a few hours to few days, and Gaussian white noise explains the jitter the best for all three data sets. Fitting the corresponding noise parameters results in significant improvements of the statistical models and enables the detection of very weak signals with amplitudes below 1 m s-1 level in our numerical experiments. We detect significant periodicities that have no activity-induced counterparts in the combined radial velocities. Three of these signals can be seen in the HARPS data alone, and a further two can be inferred by utilising the AAPS and Keck data. These periodicities could be interpreted as corresponding to planets on dynamically stable close-circular orbits with periods of 13.9, 35.4, 94, 168, and 640 days and minimum masses of 2.0, 3.1, 3.6, 4.3, and 6.6 M?, respectively. Radial velocities are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A79

  3. HERSCHEL DETECTION OF DUST EMISSION FROM UV-LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Atlee, David; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2012-10-20

    We report the Herschel/SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L {approx}> L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3. Our sample of 1913 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates is selected over an area of 5.3 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This is one of the largest samples of UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch and enables an investigation of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. We divide our sample into three luminosity bins and stack the Herschel/SPIRE data to measure the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of LBGs at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. We find that these galaxies have average IR luminosities of (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} and 60%-70% of their star formation obscured by dust. The FIR SEDs peak at {lambda}{sub rest} {approx}> 100 {mu}m suggesting dust temperatures (T{sub d} = 27-30 K) significantly colder than that of local galaxies of comparable IR luminosities. The observed IR-to-UV luminosity ratio (IRX {identical_to} L{sub IR}/L{sub UV}) is low ( Almost-Equal-To 3-4) compared with that observed for z Almost-Equal-To 2 LBGs (IRX{sub z{approx}2} Almost-Equal-To 7.1 {+-} 1.1). The correlation between the slope of the UV continuum and IRX for galaxies in the two lower luminosity bins suggests dust properties similar to those of local starburst galaxies. However, the galaxies in the highest luminosity bin appear to deviate from the local relation, suggesting that their dust properties may differ from those of their lower-luminosity and low-redshift counterparts. We speculate that the most UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch are being observed in a short-lived and young evolutionary phase.

  4. A Far Ultraviolet Study of the Hot White Dwarf in the Dwarf Nova WW Ceti

    E-print Network

    P. Godon; L. Seward; E. M. Sion; P. Szkody

    2006-02-06

    We present a synthetic spectral analysis of IUE archival and FUSE FUV spectra of the peculiar dwarf nova WW Ceti. During the quiescence of WW Ceti, a white dwarf with Twd=26,000K can account for the FUV flux and yields the proper distance. However, the best agreement with the observations is provided by a two-temperature white dwarf model with a cooler white dwarf at Twd=25,000K providing 75% of the FUV flux and a hotter region (accretion belt or optically thick disk ring) with T=40,000K contributing 25% of the flux for the proper distance. We find from the FUSE spectrum that the white dwarf is rotating with a projected rotational velocity V sin{i} = 600 km/s. Our temperature results provide an additional data point in the distribution of Twd versus orbital period above the CV period gap where few Twds are available.

  5. X-Ray and Radio Emission from UV-Selected Star Forming Galaxies at Redshifts 1.53.0 in the GOODS-North Field

    E-print Network

    Naveen A. Reddy; Charles C. Steidel

    2004-01-21

    We have examined the stacked radio and X-ray emission from UV-selected galaxies spectroscopically confirmed to lie between redshifts 1.5 3.0 in the GOODS-North field to determine their average extinction and star formation rates (SFRs). The X-ray and radio data are obtained from the Chandra 2 Msec survey and the Very Large Array, respectively. There is a good agreement between the X-ray, radio, and de-reddened UV estimates of the average SFR for our sample of z~2 galaxies of ~50 solar masses per year, indicating that the locally-calibrated SFR relations appear to be statistically valid from redshifts 1.5 3.0. We find that UV-estimated SFRs (uncorrected for extinction) underestimate the bolometric SFRs as determined from the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity by a factor of ~4.5 to 5.0 for galaxies over a large range in redshift from 1.0 < z < 3.5.

  6. Dust Obscuration and Metallicity at High Redshift: New Inferences from UV, H-alpha, and 8 Micron Observations of z~2 Star-Forming Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Naveen A; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C; Shapley, Alice E

    2010-01-01

    We use a sample of 90 spectroscopically-confirmed Lyman Break Galaxies with H-alpha and 24 micron observations to constrain the relationship between rest-frame 8 micron luminosity, L(8), and star formation rate (SFR) for L* galaxies at z~2. We find a tight correlation with 0.24 dex scatter between L8 and L(Ha)/SFR for z~2 galaxies with L(IR)~10^10 - 10^12 Lsun. Employing this relationship with a larger sample of 392 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, we find that the UV slope can be used to recover the dust attenuation of the vast majority of L* galaxies at z~2 to within 0.4 dex scatter using the local correlation. Separately, young galaxies with ages <100 Myr appear to follow an extinction curve that is steeper than the one found for local starburst galaxies. Therefore, such young galaxies may be significantly less dusty than inferred previously. Our results provide the first direct evidence, independent of the UV slope, for a correlation between UV and bolometric luminosity at high redshift, in the s...

  7. Comparison of Halpha and UV Star Formation Rates in the Local Volume: Systematic Discrepancies for Dwarf Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice C. Lee; Armando Gil de Paz; Christy Tremonti; Robert C. Kennicutt Jr.; Samir Salim; Matthew Bothwell; Daniela Calzetti; Julianne Dalcanton; Daniel Dale; Chad Engelbracht; S. J. José G. Funes; Benjamin Johnson; Shoko Sakai; Evan Skillman; Liese van Zee; Fabian Walter; Daniel Weisz

    2009-01-01

    Using a complete sample of ~300 star-forming galaxies within 11 Mpc of the Milky Way, we evaluate the consistency between star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from the far ultraviolet (FUV) non-ionizing continuum and Halpha nebular emission, assuming standard conversion recipes in which the SFR scales linearly with luminosity at a given wavelength. Our analysis probes SFRs over 5 orders of

  8. UV CONTINUUM SLOPE AND DUST OBSCURATION FROM z approx 6 TO z approx 2: THE STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chary, R.-R. [Divison of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meurer, G. R.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Conselice, C. J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottinghm NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Giavalisco, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Van Dokkum, P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We provide a systematic measurement of the rest-frame UV continuum slope beta over a wide range in redshift (z approx 2-6) and rest-frame UV luminosity (0.1 L* {sub z} {sub =} {sub 3} to 2 L* {sub z={sub 3}}) to improve estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) density at high redshift. We utilize the deep optical and infrared data (Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS) over the Chandra Deep Field-South and Hubble Deep Field-North Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, as well as the UDF for our primary UBVi 'dropout' Lyman Break Galaxy sample. We also use strong lensing clusters to identify a population of very low luminosity, high-redshift dropout galaxies. We correct the observed distributions for both selection biases and photometric scatter. We find that the UV-continuum slope of the most luminous galaxies is substantially redder at z approx 2-4 than it is at z approx 5-6 (from approx-2.4 at z approx 6 to approx-1.5 at z approx 2). Lower luminosity galaxies are also found to be bluer than higher luminosity galaxies at z approx 2.5 and z approx 4. We do not find a large number of galaxies with beta's as red as -1 in our dropout selections at z approx 4, and particularly at z approx> 5, even though such sources could be readily selected from our data (and also from Balmer Break Galaxy searches at z approx 4). This suggests that star-forming galaxies at z approx> 5 almost universally have very blue UV-continuum slopes, and that there are not likely to be a substantial number of dust-obscured galaxies at z approx> 5 that are missed in 'dropout' searches. Using the same relation between UV-continuum slope and dust extinction as has been found to be appropriate at both z approx 0 and z approx 2, we estimate the average dust extinction of galaxies as a function of redshift and UV luminosity in a consistent way. As expected, we find that the estimated dust extinction increases substantially with cosmic time for the most UV luminous galaxies, but remains small (approx<2 times) at all times for lower luminosity galaxies. Because these same lower luminosity galaxies dominate the luminosity density in the UV continuum, the overall dust extinction correction remains modest at all redshifts and the evolution of this correction with redshift is only modest. We include the contribution from ultra-luminous IR galaxies in our SFR density estimates at z approx 2-6, but find that they contribute only approx20% of the total at z approx 2.5 and approx<10% at z approx> 4.

  9. The discovery of a new DAV star using IUE temperature determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kanaan; S. O. Kepler; O. Giovannini; M. Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Observations of an unreported ZZ Ceti object designated as BPM 37093 are examined to determine whether the star is a pulsator. The photometric observations are conducted with two instruments, and the data are reduced by interpolation sky subtraction and extinction corrected by parabola fitting for IUE temperature determinations. BPM 37093 is shown to be a real pulsator and to have

  10. ACCESS - II. A complete census of star formation in the Shapley supercluster - UV and IR luminosity functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, C. P.; Busarello, G.; Merluzzi, P.; Smith, R. J.; Raychaudhury, S.; Mercurio, A.; Smith, G. P.

    2011-03-01

    We present panoramic Spitzer/MIPS mid- and far-infrared (MIR/FIR) and GALEX ultraviolet imaging of the most massive and dynamically active system in the local Universe, the Shapley supercluster at z= 0.048, covering the five clusters that make up the supercluster core. We combine these data with existing spectroscopic data from 814 confirmed supercluster members to produce the first study of a local rich cluster including both ultraviolet and infrared luminosity functions (LFs). This joint analysis allows us to produce a complete census of star formation (both obscured and unobscured), extending down to star formation rates (SFRs) ˜0.02-0.05 M? yr-1, and quantify the level of obscuration of star formation among cluster galaxies, providing a local benchmark for comparison to ongoing and future studies of cluster galaxies at higher redshifts with Spitzer and Herschel. The GALEX near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) luminosity functions (LFs) obtained have steeper faint-end slopes than the local field population, due largely to the contribution of massive, quiescent galaxies at MFUV?-16. The 24- and 70-?m galaxy LFs for the Shapley supercluster instead have shapes fully consistent with those obtained for the Coma cluster and for the local field galaxy population. This apparent lack of environmental dependence for the shape of the FIR luminosity function suggests that the bulk of the star-forming galaxies that make up the observed cluster infrared LF have been recently accreted from the field and have yet to have their star formation activity significantly affected by the cluster environment. We estimate a global SFR of 327 M? yr-1 over the whole supercluster core, of which just ˜20 per cent is visible directly in the ultraviolet continuum and ˜80 per cent is reprocessed by dust and emitted in the infrared. The level of obscuration (LIR/LFUV) in star-forming galaxies is seen to increase linearly with LK over 2 orders of magnitude in stellar mass.

  11. The Rest-Frame UV Luminosity Density of Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshifts z>3.5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Giavalisco; M. Dickinson; H. C. Ferguson; S. Ravindranath; C. Kretchmer; L. A. Moustakas; P. Madau; S. M. Fall; Jonathan P. Gardner; M. Livio; C. Papovich; A. Renzini; H. Spinrad; D. Stern; A. Riess

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the rest--frame lambda~1500 Ang comoving specific luminosity\\u000adensity of star--forming galaxies at redshift 3.5star--forming galaxies at\\u000aredshifts z~4, 5 and

  12. Preparation, characterization and application of a Ce-Ti oxide adsorbent for enhanced removal of arsenate from water.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shubo; Li, Zhijian; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2010-07-15

    Different metal doped TiO(2) adsorbents were prepared through the precipitation and hydrolysis-precipitation methods. The novel Ce-Ti oxide adsorbent obtained by the hydrolysis-precipitation had much higher sorption capacity for As(V) than both the pure titanium dioxide and cerium oxide adsorbents, and the preparation conditions including the Ti/Ce molar ratio and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) content were optimized. Environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopic investigations revealed that the amorphous Ce-Ti hybrid adsorbent was composed of some nanoparticles in the size range of 100-200 nm, which aggregated to form the porous hybrid adsorbents, and the amorphous compositions and the small nanoparticles were related to the high sorption capacity for As(V). Batch sorption experiments including sorption kinetics, isotherm, effect of pH and competitive ions were investigated. The Ce-Ti adsorbent exhibited high sorption capacity for As(V) at pH below 7. Column studies showed that about 72,085 bed volumes of As(V) solution at the concentration of 50 microg L(-1) and pH 6.5 were filtered when As(V) concentration in the effluent increased to 10 microg L(-1), and the average sorption capacity of As(V) on the Ce-Ti adsorbent was about 9.4 mg g(-1). PMID:20403658

  13. The UV Continuum of $z>1$ Star-forming Galaxies in the Hubble Ultraviolet UltraDeep Field

    E-print Network

    Kurczynski, Peter; Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry I; Acquaviva, Viviana; Brown, Thomas M; Coe, Dan; de Mello, Duilia F; Grogin, Norman A; Finkelstein, Steven; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, $\\beta$, for 923 galaxies in the range $1 = -1.382~(-1.830)\\pm0.002$ (random) $\\pm0.1$ (systematic). We find comparable scatter in $\\beta$ (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than $z>2$ galaxies. We study the trends of $\\beta$ with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, $d\\beta/dM = -0.11 \\pm 0.01$ and no evolution in $d\\beta/dM$ with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, $\\Delta E(B-V) \\sim 0.1$, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at $z2$, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range $1

  14. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of the ZZ Ceti Star HL Tau 76

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vauclair

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the Whole Earth Telescope observations of HL Tau 76 obtained in 1996 and in 1999. In the 1999 data, we find as much as 80 significant frequencies in the power spectrum, of which 33 are independent frequencies after removal of all linear combinations. In taking into account other frequencies present during the 1996 WET campaign and in

  15. Determination of the Core Composition of ZZ Ceti Stars through Seismic Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Charpinet, S.; Brassard, P.

    2015-06-01

    As we know, the exact chemical profile in the core of a white dwarf is still very much uncertain, and comparing results from different investigators yields significant differences with the addition of the numerical noise coming from the accumulated uncertainties through all the various stages of pre-white dwarf evolution. We believe that until significant progress is made on that front, we can only probe the bulk core composition as a whole. In effect, the low sensitivity of the pulsation periods on the core composition can be exploited as long as we rely on the detection of confined modes that have relatively large amplitudes in the core. We show that the bulk composition of Ross 548 can be effectively determined, while that of GD 165 is not easily pinned down due to the lack of detected confined modes in that latter case.

  16. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  17. A Unique Gas-Rich Debris Disk: Herschel Imaging and Spectroscopy of 49 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from only one or two debris disks, Beta Pictoris being one of them. Here we present Herschel GASPS observations of a well-known debris disk system, 49 Ceti. The dust disk is spatially resolved in thermal emission at 70 _m. Most interestingly, weak far-IR gas emission is detected. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission seen from this system with the far-IR gas detection and upper limits requires a low gas-to-dust ratio and possibly an unusual gas composition.

  18. Parametric Modeling in Action: High Accuracy Seismology of Kepler DAV Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Charpinet, S.; Brassard, P.; Greiss, S.

    2015-06-01

    We summarize here the efforts made on the quantitative seismic analyses performed on two ZZ Ceti stars observed with the Kepler satellite. One of them, KIC 11911480, is located close to the blue edge of the instability strip, while the other, GD 1212, is found at the red edge. We emphasize the need for parameterized modeling and the forward approach to uniquely establish the fundamental parameters of the stars. We show how the internal structures as well as rotation profiles are unravelled to surprisingly large depths for degenerates such as ZZ Ceti stars, which further confirms the loss of stellar angular momentum before the white dwarf stage detected previously in GW Vir pulsating white dwarfs. This opens up interesting prospects for the new mission to come, Kepler-2, in the field of white dwarf asteroseismology.

  19. Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about stars including star statistics, and a star gallery. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  20. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 9808578 (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  1. The Effect of Crystallization on the Pulsations of White Dwarf Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Montgomery; D. E. Winget

    1999-01-01

    We consider the pulsational properties of white dwarf star models with\\u000atemperatures appropriate for the ZZ Ceti instability strip and with masses\\u000alarge enough that they should be substantially crystallized. Our work is\\u000amotivated by the existence of a potentially crystallized DAV, BPM 37093, and\\u000athe expectation that digital surveys in progress will yield many more such\\u000amassive pulsators.\\u000a A

  2. Exploring high temperature magnetic order in CeTi1-xScxGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereni, J. G.; Pedrazzini, P.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Chacoma, A.; Encina, S.; Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2015-03-01

    We studied the magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of the alloy CeTi1-xScxGe in order to shed some light into the origin of the exceptionally large antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering temperature TN = 47 K in pure CeScGe. We observed a complex magnetic phase diagram, which present an interesting dichotomy: Despite strong changes in the nature of the ordered state, from ferromagnetic (FM) for x <= 0.55 to AFM for x > 0.55, the ordering temperature increases smoothly and continuously from TC = 7 K at x = 0.25 to TN = 47 K at x = 1. Within the AFM regime we observe a metamagnetic transition at a critical field increasing from H = 0 at x ? 0.55 to ?0 * H ? 6 Tesla at x = 1. Furthermore a second transition appears at TL <= TN for x >= 0.65. In contrast to observations in CeRh2Si2 or CeRh3B2, we found no evidence for a strong hybridization of the 4f electrons at large Sc contents. Therefore the exceptionally large TN of CeScGe could be attributed to the unusually strong RKKY interaction in this type of compounds.

  3. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  4. The UV spectrum of nebulae

    E-print Network

    F. Zagury

    2001-06-18

    This paper presents an analysis of the UV spectrum of some nebulae with clearly identified illuminating stars, all observed by the IUE satellite. The data show remarkable properties of the UV spectrum of the nebulae. Each spectrum is the product of the star spectrum and a linear function of 1/lambda. There is no peculiar behaviour in the spectrums at 2200A: no bump created in the spectrum of a nebula and no excess of scattering. When moving away from the star, the surface brightness of a nebula decreases as the inverse of the square of the angular distance to the star. These results can logically be interpreted in terms of scattering of starlight. They imply constant properties of the interstellar grains in the UV and in the directions of space sampled by the nebulae, and probably a strong forward scattering phase function. There is no evidence for any particular type of grain which would specifically extinguish starlight at 2200A. Concerning the UV spectrum of a star, this may imply a revisal of the traditional interpretation of the 2200A bump.

  5. UV Spectral Diagnostics of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2003-01-01

    New instrumentation now enable deep spectral surveys of galaxies at younger ages. At a redshift, z=1, all galaxies are less than 6 Gyr old and hence, have not yet formed horizontal-branch stars. Also, at z=1, the restframe-UV comes into view, and with it, a new set of spectral diagnostics. UV spectral features are especially important because most of the UV flux comes from stars at the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO). Hence, UV spectral diagnostics enable the most recent star formation episode of high-redshift galaxies to be estimated directly from MSTO stars. In preparation for these high-redshift spectral surveys, we are developing UV spectral templates for stellar populations younger than 6 Gyr using UV-optical spectra of stars observed by HST/STIS. We are also starting to supplement these observations with theoretical spectral grids of stars of various metallicities. In this paper, we present a progress report on UV spectral templates and spectral diagnostics.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Brucella ceti ST26 Strain Isolated from a Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) on the Coast of Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marcacci, Maurilia; Orsini, Massimiliano; Zilli, Katiuscia; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Garofolo, Giuliano; Cammà, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are important pathogens affecting a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. We report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Brucella ceti ST26 strain TE10759-12, isolated from a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Italian shoreline in March of 2012. PMID:24604638

  7. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Maquart; Philippe Le Flèche; Geoffrey Foster; Morten Tryland; Françoise Ramisse; Berit Djønne; Sascha Al Dahouk; Isabelle Jacques; Heinrich Neubauer; Karl Walravens; Jacques Godfroid; Axel Cloeckaert; Gilles Vergnaud

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella

  8. Local Interstellar Medium Properties and Deuterium Abundances for the Lines of Sight Toward HR 1099, 31 Comae, beta Ceti, and beta Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Dempsey, Robert C.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data to infer the properties of local interstellar gas and the Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) ratio for lines of sight toward four nearby late-type stars-HR 1099, 31 Comae, beta Ceti, and beta Cassiopeiae. The data consist of spectra of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman-(alpha) lines, and echelle spectra of the Mg IIh and k lines toward all stars except beta Cas. Spectra of the RS CVn-type spectroscopic binary system HR 1099 were obtained near opposite quadratures to determine the intrinsic stellar emission line profile and the interstellar absorption separately. Multiple-velocity components were found toward HR 1099 and beta Cet. The spectra of 31 Com and beta Cet are particularly interesting because they sample lines of sight toward the north and south Galactic poles, respectively, for which H I and D I column densities were not previously available. The north Galactic pole appears to be a region of low hydrogen density like the 'interstellar tunnel' toward epsilon CMa. The temperature and turbulent velocities of the Local InterStellar Medium (LISM) that we measure for the lines of sight toward HR 1099, 31 Com, beta Cet, and beta Cas are similar to previously measured values (T approx.7000 K and xi = 1.0-1.6 km/s). The deuterium/hydrogen ratios found for these lines of sight are also consistent with previous measurements of other short lines of sight, which suggest D/H approx. 1.6 x 10(sup -5). In contrast, the Mg abundance measured for the beta Cet line of sight (implying a logarithmic depletion of D(Mg) = +0.30 +/- 0.15) is about 5 times larger than the Mg abundance previously observed toward alpha Cen, and about 20 times larger than all other previous measurements for the LISM. These results demonstrate that metal abundances in the LISM vary greatly over distances of only a few parsecs.

  9. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  10. A Steep Faint-End Slope of the UV Luminosity Function at z~2-3: Implications for the Global Stellar Mass Density and Star Formation in Low Mass Halos

    E-print Network

    Naveen A. Reddy; Charles C. Steidel

    2008-10-15

    We use the deep ground-based optical photometry of the Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) Survey to derive robust measurements of the faint-end slope (alpha) of the UV LF at redshifts 1.92000 spectroscopic redshifts and ~31000 LBGs in 31 spatially-independent fields over a total area of 3261 arcmin^2. These data allow us to select galaxies to 0.07L* and 0.10L* at z~2 and z~3, respectively. A maximum likelihood analysis indicates steep values of alpha(z=2)=-1.73+/-0.07 and alpha(z=3)=-1.73+/-0.13. This result is robust to luminosity dependent systematics in the Ly-alpha equivalent width and reddening distributions, is similar to the steep values advocated at z>4, and implies that ~93% of the unobscured UV luminosity density at z~2-3 arises from sub-L* galaxies. With a realistic luminosity dependent reddening distribution, faint to moderately luminous galaxies account for >70% and >25% of the bolometric luminosity density and present-day stellar mass density, respectively, when integrated over 1.92 contrasts with the shallower value inferred locally, suggesting that the evolution in the faint-end slope may be dictated simply by the availability of low mass halos capable of supporting star formation at z<2. [Abridged

  11. Effects of the UV background radiation on galaxy formation

    E-print Network

    Masahiro Nagashima; Naoteru Gouda; Norimasa Sugiura

    1999-06-10

    We investigate the effects of the UV background radiation on galaxy formation by using the semi-analytic model including the photoionization process. The semi-analytic model is based on Cole et al. (1994) and we use almost the same parameters of their `fiducial' model. We find that the UV background mainly affects the formation of dwarf galaxies. Because of the suppression of star formation, the number density of small objects corresponding to dwarf galaxies decreases compared to the case of no UV radiation when the UV background exists until the present epoch. When the UV background vanishes at a low redshift, the number density of small objects is hardly changed but the colour becomes bluer, compared to the case of no UV radiation, because stars are newly formed after the UV background vanishes. On the other hand, the UV radiation hardly affects massive galaxies. This is because the massive galaxies are formed by mergers of small galaxies.

  12. Star Journey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn Anderson

    This National Geographic web-site contains information about the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) along with a star chart and facts about objects in the night sky. The HST section contains details about the building and structure of the HST, how it captures light, positioning the HST to targets, instruments used to record and measure infrared through UV wavelengths, how the HST is powered and communicates with the Earth. Star Attractions discusses properties of constellations, the Milky Way galaxy, other galaxies, star clusters and nebulae. This information is then put together on the National Geographic Star Chart. This chart contains maps of the heavens for the northern and southern hemispheres. The chart contains constellation names, location of stars and other objects, and links to HST images of various galaxies and objects on the chart with names and detailed descriptions. There is an image index to find HST images from the site, details about chart symbol meanings, and links for more information.

  13. Formation of cerium titanate, CeTi 2 O 6 , in sol–gel films studied by XRD and FAR infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongjit Kidchob; Luca Malfatti; Daniela Marongiu; Stefano Enzo; Plinio Innocenzi

    2009-01-01

    The process of formation of cerium titanate films as a function of annealing temperature and composition has been studied\\u000a by combining X-ray diffraction analysis and far infrared spectroscopy. The films have been prepared by a sol–gel synthesis\\u000a using metal chlorides as precursors; the synthesis allows obtaining cerium titanate films upon annealing in air. A brannerite\\u000a type, CeTi2O6, phase has been

  14. Far UV camera/spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Page, T.

    1972-01-01

    The far UV camera/spectrograph deployed in the Apollo 16 mission recorded light in the invisible band of wavelengths between 50 and 160 nm, approximately one-third the wavelength that can penetrate the atmosphere of the earth to ground based telescopes. The photographs obtained show hydrogen and other gases in the solar wind and interplanetary media, and provide new data on stars, nebulae, and galaxies. The instrument is described, the experimental goals outlined, and the preliminary results discussed.

  15. UV SPECTRAL SYNTHESIS OF VEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L., E-mail: edward.fitzpatrick@villanova.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2010-12-20

    We show that the UV spectrum (1280-3200 A) of the 'superficially normal' A-star Vega, as observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite at a resolution comparable to the star's rotational broadening width, can be fit remarkably well by a single-temperature synthetic spectrum based on LTE atmosphere models and a newly constructed UV line list. If Vega were a normal, equator-on, slow-rotating star, then its spectrum and our analysis would indicate a temperature of T{sub eff} {approx_equal}9550 K, surface gravity of log g {approx_equal}3.7, general surface metallicity of [m/H] {approx_equal}-0.5, and a microturbulence velocity of v{sub turb} {approx_equal}2.0 km s{sup -1}. Given its rapid rotation and nearly pole-on orientation, however, these parameters must be regarded as representing averages across the observed hemisphere. Modeling the complex UV line spectrum has allowed us to determine the specific surface abundances for 17 different chemical elements, including CNO, the light metals, and the iron group elements. The resultant abundance pattern agrees in general with previous results, although there is considerable scatter in the literature. Despite its peculiarities, Vega has turned out to provide a powerful test of the extent of our abilities to model the atmospheric properties of the early A-stars, particularly the detailed UV line spectrum. The value of the measurements from this pilot study will increase as this analysis is extended to more objects in the rich high-dispersion IUE data archive, including both normal and peculiar objects.

  16. UV Spectral Dating of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara

    1997-07-01

    We are working to calculate a highly accurate library of UV stellar spectra that can be used to estimate the age and metallicity of galaxies of intermediate age {between 1 and 8 Gyrs}. The critical step in this effort is to test the model spectra against high-quality UV spectra of real stars. Only by verifying the models in this way can we have confidence in the synthetic spectra, especially those for the very high metallicity found in the cores of elliptical galaxies. We therefore propose to obtain STIS/E230M spectra of 16 late-A and F-type stars for this purpose. We will then use our library of UV spectra in conjunction with current evolutionary models to explore the effects of age, metallicity, non-solar abundance ratios, and IMF on the rest-frame UV spectrum of a galaxy. Our goal is to break the age-metallicity degeneracy that stymies present methods of dating galaxies.

  17. UV Spectral Synthesis of Vega

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, E L

    2010-01-01

    We show that the UV spectrum (1280-3200 A) of the "superficially normal" A-star Vega, as observed by the IUE satellite at a resolution comparable to the star's rotational broadening width, can be fit remarkably well by a single-temperature synthetic spectrum based on LTE atmosphere models and a newly constructed UV line list. If Vega were a normal, equator-on, slow-rotating star, then its spectrum and our analysis would indicate a temperature of Teff ~ 9550 K, surface gravity of log g ~ 3.7, general surface metallicity of [m/H] ~ -0.5, and a microturbulence velocity of v(turb) ~ 2.0 km/s. Given its rapid rotation and nearly pole-on orientation, however, these parameters must be regarded as representing averages across the observed hemisphere. Modeling the complex UV line spectrum has allowed us to determine the specific surface abundances for 17 different chemical elements, including CNO, the light metals, and the iron group elements. The resultant abundance pattern agrees in general with previous results, al...

  18. Early-type stars observed in the ESO UVES Paranal Observatory Project: I -- Interstellar Na I UV, Ti II and Ca II K observations

    E-print Network

    I. Hunter; J. V. Smoker; F. P. Keenan; C. Ledoux; E. Jehin; R. Cabanac; C. Melo; S. Bagnulo

    2006-01-17

    We present an analysis of interstellar Na I (lambda=3302.37\\AA, 3302.98\\AA), Ti II (lambda=3383.76\\AA) and Ca II K (lambda=3933.66\\AA) absorption features for 74 sightlines towards O- and B-type stars in the Galactic disc. The data were obtained from the UVES Paranal Observatory Project, at a spectral resolution of 3.75km/s and with mean signal to noise ratios per pixel of 260, 300 and 430 for the Na I, Ti II and Ca II observations, respectively. Interstellar features were detected in all but one of the Ti II sightlines and all of the Ca II sightlines. The dependence of the column density of these three species with distance, height relative to the Galactic plane, H I column density, reddening and depletion relative to the solar abundance has been investigated. We also examine the accuracy of using the Na I column density as an indicator of that for H I. In general we find similar strong correlations for both Ti and Ca, and weaker correlations for Na. Our results confirm the general belief that Ti and Ca occur in the same regions of the interstellar medium and also that the Ti II/Ca II ratio is constant over all parameters. We hence conclude that the absorption properties of Ti and Ca are essentially constant under the general interstellar medium conditions of the Galactic disc.

  19. The UV Upturn: From M32 to Distant Clusters

    E-print Network

    Thomas M. Brown

    2003-08-28

    I review the observational constraints on the stars responsible for the upturn in the UV spectra of ellipticals, ranging from galaxies in the local Universe to distant clusters. In nearby galaxies, this UV upturn is produced by a minority population of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars, with the large variations observed in the UV-to-optical flux ratio driven by variations in the number of EHB stars, and not the type of UV-bright stars. Deep UV images of the nearest elliptical galaxy, M32, show that it has a well-populated EHB, even though it has the weakest UV upturn of any known elliptical galaxy. However, M32 suffers from a striking dearth of the hot post-HB stars expected from canonical evolutionary theory. As we observe to larger lookback times in more distant galaxy clusters, the UV upturn fades, as predicted by theories of stellar and galactic evolution, but does so gradually. Because the EHB stars do not appear suddenly in the Universe, their presence is likely driven by a large dispersion in the parameters that govern HB morphology.

  20. Statistical error analysis in CCD time-resolved photometry with applications to variable stars and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Warnock, Archibald, III; Mitchell, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Differential photometric time series obtained from CCD frames are tested for intrinsic variability using a newly developed analysis of variance technique. In general, the objects used for differential photometry will not all be of equal magnitude, so the techniques derived here explicitly correct for differences in the measured variances due to photon statistics. Other random-noise terms are also considered. The technique tests for the presence of intrinsic variability without regard to its random or periodic nature. It is then applied to observations of the variable stars ZZ Ceti and US 943 and the active extragalactic objects OQ 530, US 211, US 844, LB 9743, and OJ 287.

  1. The pulsating central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, A. D.; Bond, H. E.

    1984-02-01

    High-speed photometry of the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16 shows it to be a low-amplitude pulsating variable. The dominant period is 28.3 minutes, with a semiamplitude that is usually about 0.01 mag. However, several additional periods sometimes appear in power spectra computed from light curves, and on two occasions a rapid drop into, or emergence from, a state in which no detectable variations were present was observed. Such 'mode switching' is typical of some of the ZZ Ceti-type white dwarf nonradial pulsators, but, at effective temperatures higher than 80,000 K, K1-16 is much too hot to be a ZZ Ceti variable. Spectroscopically and photometrically, the central star of K1-16 closely resembles the previously known hot pulsator PG 1159-035; these two objects represent a new pulsational instability mechanism for extremely hot degenerate or predegenerate stars. It is predicted that the evolutionary contraction of K1-16 will lead to a period decrease so rapid that it should be detectable over an interval of about 2 yr.

  2. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  3. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  4. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  5. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  6. UV-Visible Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clark, Jim

    This webpage, part of a larger project "Understanding Chemistry", provides an introduction to UV-visible spectroscopy suitable for use in introductory chemistry and introductory analytical chemistry courses. The pages discuss UV-visible light, absorption, Beer's law, the double-beam spectrometer, and introduce some standard applications of UV-vis spectroscopy.

  7. Hot Jupiters and Hot Spots: The Short- and Long-term Chromospheric Activity on Stars with Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    E. Shkolnik; G. A. H. Walker; D. A. Bohlender; P. -G. Gu; M. Kürster

    2004-11-24

    We monitored the chromospheric activity in the Ca II H & K lines of 13 solar-type stars (including the Sun); 8 of them over three years at the CFHT and 5 in a single run at the VLT. Ten of the 13 targets have close planetary companions. All of the stars observed at the CFHT show long-term (months to years) changes in H & K intensity levels. Four stars display short-term (days) cyclical activity. For two, HD 73256 and kappa^1 Ceti, the activity is likely associated with an active region rotating with the star, however, the flaring in excess of the rotational modulation may be associated with a hot jupiter. A planetary companion remains a possibility for kappa^1 Ceti. For the other two, HD 179949 and upsilon And, the cyclic variation is synchronized to the hot jupiter's orbit. For both stars this synchronicity with the orbit is clearly seen in two out of three epochs. The effect is only marginal in the third epoch at which the seasonal level of chromospheric activity had changed for both stars. Short-term chromospheric activity appears weakly dependent on the mean K-line reversal intensities for the sample of 13 stars. Also, a suggestive correlation exists between this activity and the M_p sin(i) of the star's hot jupiter. Because of their small separation (<= 0.1 AU), many of the hot jupiters lie within the Alfv\\'en radius of their host stars which allows a direct magnetic interaction with the stellar surface. We discuss the conditions under which a planet's magnetic field might induce activity on the stellar surface and why no such effect was seen for the prime candidate, tau Boo. This work opens up the possibility of characterizing planet-star interactions, with implications for extrasolar planet magnetic fields and the energy contribution to stellar atmospheres.

  8. GALEX catalogue of UV point sources in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, Dale; Stanek, K. Z.

    2015-07-01

    The hottest stars (>10 000 K), and by extension typically the most massive ones, are those that will be prevalent in the ultraviolet (UV) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and we expect to numerous B, O and WR (WR) stars to be bright in UV data. In this paper, we update the previous point source UV catalogue of M33, created using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), using data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We utilize point spread function photometry to optimally photometer sources in the crowded regions of the galaxy, and benefit from GALEX's increased sensitivity compared to UIT. We match our detections with data from the Local Group Galaxies Survey to create a catalogue with photometry spanning from the far-UV through the optical for a final list of 24 738 sources. All of these sources have far-UV (FUV; 1516 Å), near-UV (NUV; 2267 Å) and V data, and a significant fraction also have U, B, R and I data as well. We also present an additional 3000 sources that have no matching optical counterpart. We compare all of our sources to a catalogue of known WR stars in M33 and find that we recover 114 of 206 stars with spatially-coincident UV point sources. Additionally, we highlight and investigate those sources with unique colours as well as a selection of other well-studied sources in M33.

  9. UV Spectral Templates for High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara; Lindler, Don; Lanz, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    New instrumentation such as DEIMOS on Keck-II now enable deep spectral surveys, and thereby samples of galaxies at younger ages. At a redshift, z = 1, all galaxies are less than 6 Gyr old and hence, have not yet formed horizontal-branch stars. Also, at z = 1, the restframe-UV comes into view, and with it, a new set of spectral diagnostics. UV spectral features are especially important because most of the UV flux comes from stars at the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO). Hence, UV spectral diagnostics enable the ages of z = 1 galaxies to be estimated directly from MSTO stars. In preparation for these high-redshift spectral surveys, we are developing UV spectral templates for stellar populations younger than 6 Gyr using UV-optical spectra of stars observed by HST/STIS. We are also planning to supplement these observations with theoretical spectral grids of stars of various metallicities. In this paper, we present a progress report on the observation-based spectral templates and spectral diagnostics.

  10. New Pulsating DB White Dwarf Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    E-print Network

    A. Nitta; S. J. Kleinman; J. Krzesinski; S. O. Kepler; T. S. Metcalfe; Anjum S. Mukadam; Fergal Mullally; R. E. Nather; Denis J. Sullivan; Susan E. Thompson; D. E. Winget

    2008-09-04

    We are searching for new He atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DBVs) based on the newly found white dwarf stars from the spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. DBVs pulsate at hotter temperature ranges than their better known cousins, the H atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars). Since the evolution of white dwarf stars is characterized by cooling, asteroseismological studies of DBVs give us opportunities to study white dwarf structure at a different evolutionary stage than the DAVs. The hottest DBVs are thought to have neutrino luminosities exceeding their photon luminosities (Winget et al. 2004), a quantity measurable through asteroseismology. Therefore, they can also be used to study neutrino physics in the stellar interior. So far we have discovered nine new DBVs, doubling the number of previously known DBVs. Here we report the new pulsators' lightcurves and power spectra.

  11. The emergence of "super-canonical" stars in R136-type star-burst clusters

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    ) · "Monster star"s: most massive star discovered so far! (M )300M 30 Doradus (Tarantula Nebula) and R136. 2009). 2.2 R136 Our UV/optical/infrared spectroscopic ana hydrogen-rich WN5h Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars

  12. Measurements of the UV Upturn in Local and Intermediate-Redshift Ellipticals

    E-print Network

    Thomas M. Brown

    1999-05-28

    The rest-frame UV contains the most sensitive indicators of age for elliptical galaxies. While the near-UV flux from young ellipticals isolates the main sequence turnoff, the far-UV flux in old ellipticals is dominated by hot horizontal branch (HB) stars. This evolved population was first revealed by early UV observations showing a sharp flux increase shortward of rest-frame 2500 A, subsequently dubbed the "UV upturn." The phenomenon has since been characterized in many local ellipticals, and measurements at intermediate redshifts are now underway. Once ellipticals reach ages of 5-10 Gyr, stellar and galactic evolution theories predict that the UV-to-optical flux ratio can increase by orders of magnitude over timescales of a few Gyr, making the UV upturn the most rapidly evolving feature of these galaxies. It is thus expected to fade dramatically with increasing redshift. I review the imaging and spectroscopic evidence for the nature of the UV upturn in nearby ellipticals, and then present observations that measure the UV upturn at an epoch significantly earlier than our own. Far-UV data from the HUT demonstrate that the spectra of nearby ellipticals are dominated by hot HB stars. FOC UV imaging of M32 and the M31 bulge detected the UV-bright phases of post-HB stars, but did not reach the HB itself. Recent STIS observations were the first to image the hot HB and post-HB stars in the center of the nearest elliptical galaxy, M32; these observations also show a striking lack of UV-bright post-AGB stars. FOC observations of Abell 370, a rich galaxy cluster at z=0.375, show that giant ellipticals at a lookback time of 4 Gyr can exhibit strong UV luminosity, with no evidence of evolution in the UV upturn between this epoch and our own, thus implying a high redshift of formation (z_f > 4).

  13. Hot Stars in Globular Clusters

    E-print Network

    S. Moehler

    1998-12-08

    Blue horizontal branch and UV bright stars in several globular clusters are analysed spectroscopically and the results are compared with predictions of stellar evolutionary theory. We find that the distribution of temperatures and surface gravities of the blue HB stars may be explained by the effects of deep mixing. The masses derived for these stars are too low unless one uses the long distance scale for globular clusters. First results on blue HB stars in metal rich clusters are presented. Analyses of hot UV bright stars in globular clusters uncovered a lack of genuine post-asymptotic giant branch stars which may explain the lack of planetary nebulae in globular clusters seen by Jacoby et al. (1997). Abundance analyses of post-AGB stars in two globular clusters suggest that gas and dust may separate during the AGB phase.

  14. Solar UV variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) provide solar UV flux in the 160 to 400 nm wavelength range, backed up by independent measurement in the 115 to 305 nm range from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME). The full disc UV flux from spatially resolved measurements of solar activity was modeled, which provides a better understanding of why the UV variations have their observed temporal and wavelength dependencies. Long term, intermediate term, and short term variations are briefly examined.

  15. Protosteller Disks Under the Influence of Winds and UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Star formation and the creation of protostellar disks generally occur in a crowded environment. Nearby young stars and protostars can influence the disks of their closets neighbors by a combination of outflows and hard radiation. The central stars themselves can have a stellar wind and may produce sufficient UV and X-ray to ultimately destroy their surrounding disks. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the influence that an external UV source and a central star's wind can have on its circumstellar disk. The numerical method (axial symmetry assumed) is described elsewhere. We find that protostellar disks will be destroyed on a relatively short time scale ( 10(sup 5)yr) unless they are well shielded from O-stars. Initially isotropic T-Tauri winds do not significantly influence their disks, but instead are focused toward the rotation axis by the disk wind from photoevaporation.

  16. UV Becomes 3Dimensional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Biehler; Erich Beck; Klaus Menzel; Sven Titusson; Andreas Daiss

    The usage of radiation curable coatings is well established in the field of flat substrates. UV coatings show both ecological and economical benefits. Five different industrial coating technologies have been compared regarding the coating of doors by using the Ecoefficency Analysis. The results showed that UV curing is the most ecoefficient alternative 1 . The most frequent applications of the

  17. Far-UV Radiation of the Early Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Far-UV radiation is responsible for the photolysis of important greenhouse gases such as CO2, NH3 (ammonia), CH4 (methane) and more generally, the global UV photochemistry of the early atmosphere. In our project, we are concentrating on the young Sun's effect on methane, since UV sunlight (lambda less than 1450 Angstroms) was the main destruction mechanism for methane in the early Earth's atmosphere. Since the UV luminosity of the early Sun cannot be calculated a priori; it can only be estimated from observations of stars similar to the young Sun. We report our results based on Hubble + FUSE spectra of stars selected from Gaidos (1998) Catalog of Nearby Young Solar Analogs (YSA's).

  18. Child universes UV regularization?

    E-print Network

    E. I. Guendelman

    2007-03-26

    It is argued that high energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space time. This decoupling prevents these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which takes into account gravitational effects. Also child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of tranplanckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis and in particular connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed.

  19. Mid-UV Determination of Elliptical Galaxy Abundances and Ages

    E-print Network

    Jennifer M. Lotz; Henry C. Ferguson; Ralph C. Bohlin

    1999-11-12

    We investigate the effects of abundance and age on the mid-UV spectra and Mg_{2} strengths of stellar populations using simple population synthesis models. These models are used to constrain the star formation history of four nearby elliptical galaxies and spiral bulges. The mid-UV (1800 - 3200 \\AA) light of evolved stellar populations (> 1 Gyr) is dominated by the main sequence turn-off, unlike the optical light which is dominated by the red giant branch. A detailed investigation of the mid-UV features of elliptical galaxies may help break the age-metallicity degeneracy that plagues optical techniques. Also, a better understanding of this wavelength region is useful for the studies of 0.5 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 1.5 galaxies for which the rest frame mid-UV is redshifted into the visible. We create simple, single age (3-20 Gyr), single metallicity (Z = 0.0004 - 0.05) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) extending into the UV using the Kurucz model stellar fluxes. Comparison to standard stars' mid-UV spectra reveals that the Kurucz model fluxes accurately model a blend feature of FeI and MgI at 2538 {\\AA} (Bl2538) and the slope of the continuum between 2600 and 3100 {\\AA} (S2850). We find that our simple single age, single metallicity SEDs agree well with these mid-UV features of globular clusters. However, the majority of the galaxies do not agree with the Bl2538, S2850, and Mg_{2} values given by these simple models. The mid-UV features appear to require both an old metal-rich and a small old metal-poor (Z $\\leq$ 0.001) population. Despite being limited by the quality of the model stellar fluxes, our study has yielded two promising mid-UV spectral diagnostics (Bl2538 and S2850) and suggests unique and complex star formation histories for elliptical galaxies.

  20. Observing the First Stars in Luminous, Red Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2010-01-01

    Modern cosmological simulations predict that the first stars are to be found today in luminous, red galaxies. Although observing such stars individually against a background of younger, metal-rich stars is impossible, the first stars should make their presence known by their strong, line-free ultraviolet flux. We have found evidence for a UV-bright stellar population in Sloan spectra of LRG's at z=0.4-0.5. We present arguments for interpreting this UV-bright stellar population as the oldest stars, rather than other types of stellar populations (e.g. young stars or blue straggler stars in the dominant, metal-rich stellar population

  1. The ultraviolet signature of massive stars in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmelle, Robert; Leitherer, Claus; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies in different spectral regimes of starburst galaxies clearly indicate the presence of hot, massive stars. However, only the UV spectral region can be used to directly identify the spectroscopic signature of these stars. The typical contributor to the integrated continuum at approximately 1400 A of a starburst is from the hot B stars. More massive stars are responsible for the majority to the UV lines which are broad photospheric absorption lines and wind emission or P Cygni profiles. We present a progress report of a study of the massive star population in starburst galaxies using the UV spectral region.

  2. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Waxman, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Topaz, J. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Aharonson, O. [Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kulkarni, S. R.; Phinney, E. S. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakar, E.; Maoz, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 93387 Tel Aviv (Israel); Beichman, C. [Division of Geophysics and Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91105 (United States); Murthy, J. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Worden, S. P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our predictions using a fiducial set of observational parameters which are similar to those envisaged for the proposed ULTRASAT mission. We show that such a mission would be able to revolutionize our knowledge about massive star explosions by measuring the early UV emission from hundreds of events, revealing key physical parameters of the exploding progenitor stars. Such a mission would also detect the UV emission from many tens of tidal-disruption events of stars by supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei and enable a measurement of the rate of such events. The overlap of such a wide-field UV mission with existing and planned gravitational-wave and high-energy neutrino telescopes makes it especially timely.

  3. Detecting UV Light

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students learn about ultraviolet light in this Moveable Museum unit, where they detect UV rays and then explore ways to block them. The four-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity notes, step-by-step directions, and information about where to obtain supplies. Students make a bracelet from beads that respond to UV light by changing color, and test it in different light environments.

  4. Bull. Astr. Soc. India (2004) 32, 151158 A model of the stellar radiation field in the UV

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    Bull. Astr. Soc. India (2004) 32, 151­158 A model of the stellar radiation field in the UV N components of the UV (912 °A - 3000 °A) radiation field over the entire sky. We have developed a model to predict the ISRF in the UV within a few hundred parsecs of the Sun using the Hipparcos star catalog. We

  5. UV signature mutations.

    PubMed

    Brash, Douglas E

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations—deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen—and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ?60% of mutations are C?T at a dipyrimidine site, with ?5% CC?TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the nontranscribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; UV's nonsignature mutations may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  6. H-function in problems with a point source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinin, V. P.

    Two astrophysical applications of the H-functions in problems with a point source are considered: 1) non-stationary reflection effect in flares of the UV Ceti stars, 2) the problem of diffuse reflection of light of a point source by the atmosphere of a cool dwarf taking into account Rayleigh scattering.

  7. Degradation of antipyrine by UV, UV/H?O? and UV/PS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoqun; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Yongji; Sui, Minghao; Deng, Jing; Zhou, Shiqing

    2013-09-15

    Degradation of antipyrine (AP) in water by three UV-based photolysis processes (i.e., direct UV, UV/H?O?, UV/persulfate (UV/PS)) was studied. For all the oxidation processes, the AP decomposition exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Generally, UV/H?O? and UV/PS significantly improved the degradation rate relevant to UV treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants (kobs) were, to different degrees, affected by initial AP concentration, oxidant dose, pH, UV irradiation intensity, and co-existing chemicals such as humic acid, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate. The three oxidation processes followed the order in terms of treatment costs: UV/PS>UV>UV/H?O? if the energy and chemical costs are considered. Finally, the AP degradation pathways in the UV/H?O? and UV/PS processes are proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/H?O? and UV/PS are potential alternatives to control water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as AP. PMID:23892168

  8. Environmental UV photobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.R.; Bjoern, L.O.; Moan, J.; Nultsch, W. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This book looks at the global depletion of stratospheric ozone and the consequences of the predicted increases of solar ultraviolet radiation. The introductory chapter deals with a characterization of solar UV-B and how radiation in this waveband can be influenced by ozone reduction in different locations. Two chapters deal with some technical aspects of measuring and simulating solar UV-B radiation. Seven chapters deal with the adverse effects of various aspects of human health that are anticipated in response to a change in level of solar UV-B, four dealing specifically with skin cancer. Two chapters address the basic aspects of ultraviolet photobiology, and finally the book addresses the implications of ozone reduction for aquatic ecosystems and for terrestrial plants.

  9. UV Extinction in High Latitude Clouds. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    We propose to determine the LTV extinction in a number of nearby high latitude molecular clouds (HLC's) by obtaining low-dispersion spectra of early B stars located behind the clouds. The HLC's are nearby (typically within -200 pc) and isolated, with little confusion from other clouds along the same lines of sight; they are thus excellent candidates for comparing the emission and absorption characteristics of individual interstellar clouds. Comparison of the LTV extinction with the infrared emission observed by IRAS should provide constraints on the grain size and composition distributions, and may lead to better understanding of the relationships among AV, Iv (100 microns) and cloud mass and of what role shocks may have played in the formation or the HLC's. Knowledge of the UV extinction is also essential for understanding the ambient radiation field in the cloud cores, and thus for studies of the ionization equilibrium, abundances, and molecular chemistry. The UV extinction curve obtained during the previous year for HD 210121, a B3 V star located behind the dense core of an HLC is among the steepest known in the Galaxy. Additional early B stars have been identified in the vicinities of other HLC's; we would like to extend our study of the extinction characteristics of these objects to determine whether such extreme extinction is a common feature, thus perhaps providing clues to understanding the IR emission and enhanced molecular abundances.

  10. Are You UV Safe?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brenda Capobianco

    2006-09-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? How could we help them find out the science behind this important health precaution? We found the perfect opportunity when we developed this series of practical strategies to promote students' investigation skills. We integrated several scientific processes into a lesson on UV light radiation and absorption for fourth-grade students and preservice elementary methods students. These teaching tools help students develop their abilities to ask testable questions, plan and design investigations, and interpret what they find.

  11. Magnetic fields and UV-line variability in $?$ Cephei

    E-print Network

    R. S. Schnerr; H. F. Henrichs; S. P. Owocki; A. ud-Doula; R. H. D. Townsend

    2006-03-16

    We present results of numerical simulations of wind variability in the magnetic B1 IVe star $\\beta$ Cephei. 2D-MHD simulations are used to determine the structure of the wind. From these wind models we calculate line profiles for different aspect angles to simulate rotation. The results are compared with the observed UV wind line profiles.

  12. The relation between far-UV and visible extinctions

    E-print Network

    Frederic Zagury

    2002-02-05

    For directions of sufficcient reddening (E(B-V) >~ 0.25), there is a simple relation between the slope of the extinction curve in the far-UV and E(B-V). Regardless of direction, the far-UV extinction curve is proportional to 1/lambda^n exp(-2e(B-V)/lambda) (lambda in micron, n = 4), in accordance with the idea that reddened stars spectra are contaminated by scattered light (Zagury, 2001b). This relation is not compatible with the standard theory of extinction which states that far-UV and visible extinctions are due to different classes of grains. In the standard theory model the two (far-UV and visible) extinctions vary thus independently according to the proportion of each type of grains. In preceding papers I have shown that the standard theory cannot explain UV observations of nebulae, and is contradicted by the UV spectra of stars with very low reddening: for how long shall the standard theory be considered as the interpretation of the extinction curve?

  13. IR emission and UV extinction in two open clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwell, James A.; Hecht, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent models of interstellar extinction have shown the importance of understanding both the UV and IR properties of interstellar dust grains. IRAS data have shown variations in 60 and 100 micron emissions presumably due to the presence of IR cirrus, while recent observations in the UV by Fitzpatrick and Massa have identified components in the UV extinction curve which vary in different star regions. A Draine and Anderson model connects these results by proposing that different size variations in interstellar grains would cause distinct changes in both the IR emission and the UV extinction. In order to test this model it is necessary to make observations in well defined locations away from peculiar extinction regions. In the infrared this means looking away from the galactic plane so as to limit non-local sources of IR radiation. Two open clusters that are out of the galactic plane and which contain a number of late B and early A stars suitable for UV extinction studies, and whose IRAS data show variations in the 60/100 micron ratio were studied. Based on the Drain and Anderson model, variations were expected in their UV extinction curves that correlate with the IR cirrus emission.

  14. Far UV camera \\/FAUST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Riviere; J.-M. Deharveng

    1978-01-01

    This instrument consists of a Wynne telescope coupled with an image detector including an ultraviolet image intensifier with film recording. The resolution is about 2 arcmin. Owing to its large field (7.5 deg) and high sensitivity (limiting magnitude of 17), this camera is well suited for far-UV deep surveys; it will be flown on the first Spacelab flight.

  15. Are You UV Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda; Thiel, Elizabeth Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? The authors of this article found the perfect opportunity to help students find out the science behind this important health precaution, when they developed a series of practical strategies…

  16. The UV Sky Surveys: a Roadmap for Future UV Missions

    E-print Network

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The UV Sky Surveys: a Road­map for Future UV Missions Luciana Bianchi #3; , Boryana Efremova #3, Baltimore, USA + INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy Abstract. Surveys of the sky in two bands surveys and the resulting catalogs of UV sources, linked to a multi­wavelength archive, allow us to detect

  17. Characterising exoplanets and their environment with UV transmission spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fossati, L; Ehrenreich, D; Haswell, C A; Kislyakova, K G; Lammer, H; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Alibert, Y; Ayres, T R; Ballester, G E; Barnes, J; Bisikalo, D V; Collier, A; Cameron,; Czesla, S; Desert, J -M; France, K; Guedel, M; Guenther, E; Helling, Ch; Heng, K; Homstrom, M; Kaltenegger, L; Koskinen, T; Lanza, A F; Linsky, J L; Mordasini, C; Pagano, I; Pollacco, D; Rauer, H; Reiners, A; Salz, M; Schneider, P C; Shematovich, V I; Staab, D; Vidotto, A A; Wheatley, P J; Wood, B E; Yelle, R V

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet science is now in its full expansion, particularly after the CoRoT and Kepler space missions that led us to the discovery of thousands of extra-solar planets. The last decade has taught us that UV observations play a major role in advancing our understanding of planets and of their host stars, but the necessary UV observations can be carried out only by HST, and this is going to be the case for many years to come. It is therefore crucial to build a treasury data archive of UV exoplanet observations formed by a dozen "golden systems" for which observations will be available from the UV to the infrared. Only in this way we will be able to fully exploit JWST observations for exoplanet science, one of the key JWST science case.

  18. Observations of Circumstellar Material Around Evolved Stars With the ISI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P. G.; Weiner, J.; Townes, C. H.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The U.C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) is a stellar interferometer operating in the 9-12 micron region and has been in operation from 1988 until the present. It utilizes heterodyne detection using CO2 laser local oscillators and currently includes two 1.65 m movable telescopes mounted in semi-trailers and baselines up to about 65 m in length. A third telescope is being integrated with the other two and within the next year will operate as an imaging interferometer providing data with three simultaneous baselines and a closure phase, and baselines up to about 75 m. During the past twelve years the ISI has been used extensively for studies of circumstellar material around evolved stars. Multi-epoch observations of a sample of prototypical sources have elucidated the location and time scales for dust formation around these stars. These time scales can be as short as approx.10 years for Mira stars and as long as approx. 100 years for supergiants. For stars like Mira itself there is evidence for departure from spherical symmetry and episodes of dust formation and destruction. For some stars motion of dust has been observed -- IK Tau is one example, and NML Cyg is another. The molecules Silane and Ammonia were observed for the extreme carbon star IRC +10216 and the supergiant VY CMa pinpointing their location relative to the inner radius of the dust shell. Somewhat surprisingly, these molecules were found to form many stellar radii away from the inner radius of the dust shell, implying that they form by interactions with the surfaces of dust grains. Last year observations with the longest baselines lead to new precision diameters of $o$ Ceti and $\\alpha$ Orionis, and are continuing on a somewhat larger set of Mira variable and supergiant stars.

  19. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  20. UVS is rare in seabirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel E. Machovsky Capuska; Leon Huynen; David Lambert; David Raubenheimer

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet-sensitive vision (UVS), believed to have evolved from an ancestral state of violet-sensitive vision (VS), is widespread among terrestrial birds, where it is thought to play a role in orientation, foraging, and sexual selection. Less is known, however, about the distribution and significance of UVS in seabirds. To date UVS has been definitively demonstrated only in two families (Laridae and

  1. UV immobilized phospholipid bilayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E UZGIRIS

    1987-01-01

    Dinitrophenyl phosphotidylethanolamine-containing bilayers have been immobilized on carbon-shadowed support films by UV irradiation of the first monolayer transferred to the support film. The immobilized bilayer is capable of allowing bound protein (anti-DNP antibody) to organize into 2-D arrays in the presence of organic solvents such as acetonitrile and dilute concentrations of detergents such as beta-octyl glucoside. The ability of the

  2. The Star Formation Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Scowen; Rolf Jansen; Matthew Beasley; Daniela Calzetti; Steven Desch; Alex Fullerton; John Gallagher; Doug Lisman; Steve Macenka; Sangeeta Malhotra; Mark McCaughrean; Shouleh Nikzad; Robert O'Connell; Sally Oey; Deborah Padgett; James Rhoads; Aki Roberge; Oswald Siegmund; Stuart Shaklan; Nathan Smith; Daniel Stern; Jason Tumlinson; Rogier Windhorst; Robert Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV\\/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the

  3. The evolution of protostellar disks under the influence of external UV radiation and central stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.; Richling, S.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution and appearance of circumstellar disks in star forming regions can be influenced strongly by the radiation from nearby hot stars. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the evolution of protostellar disks and their immediate surroundings under the influence of external UV radiation.

  4. Observations of the diffuse UV radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, R. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Tennyson, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra are presented for the diffuse UV radiation field between 1250 to 3100 A from eight different regions of the sky, which were obtained with the Johns Hopkins UVX experiment. UVX flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) in January 1986 as part of the Get-Away Special project. The experiment consisted of two 1/4 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometers, covering the spectral range 1250 to 1700 A at 17 A resolution and 1600 to 3100 A at 27 A resolution, respectively, with a field of view of 4 x .25 deg, sufficiently small to pick out regions of the sky with no stars in the line of sight. Values were found for the diffuse cosmic background ranging in intensity from 300 to 900 photons/sq cm/sec/sr/A. The cosmic background is spectrally flat from 1250 to 3100 A, within the uncertainties of each spectrometer. The zodiacal light begins to play a significant role in the diffuse radiation field above 2000 A, and its brightness was determined relative to the solar emission. Observed brightnesses of the zodiacal light in the UV remain almost constant with ecliptic latitude, unlike the declining visible brightnesses, possibly indicating that those (smaller) grains responsible for the UV scattering have a much more uniform distribution with distance from the ecliptic plane than do those grains responsible for the visible scattering.

  5. Statistical Properties of Galactic ? Scuti Stars: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.

    2013-05-01

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 ? Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodríguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of ? Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodríguez's work. All the ? Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing ? Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  6. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT): Tests of UV Flux-Based SFR Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simones, Jacob; Weisz, D. R.; Skillman, E. D.; Dalcanton, J.; Dolphin, A. E.; Williams, B. F.; PHAT Team

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) flux is often used to trace and quantify recent star formation in nearby and distant galaxies. With new observations of resolved stars in the disk of M31 from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT), we are able to test the validity of estimating ages and masses of stellar populations based on integrated UV flux. We use a maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram fitting method (Dolphin, 2002), optimized to fit the main sequence, with the PHAT optical photometry to measure recent (within the last ~200 Myr) star formation histories and extinctions for 33 UV-bright regions in a 7.4 kpc2 area. With these results, we draw comparisons with single-age characterizations of these regions derived from integrated NUV and FUV GALEX flux by Kang et al. (2009). This study is the beginning of our effort to investigate all UV-bright regions within the entire PHAT survey area.

  7. UV Observations of the Galaxy Cluster Abell 1795 with the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittaz, J. P. D.; Kaastra, J. S.; Tamura, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotzky, F.; Peterson, J. R.; Ikebe, Y.; Lumb, D. H.; Paerels, F.; Stewart, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of broad band UV observations of the central regions of Abell 1795 observed with the optical monitor on XMM-Newton. As have been found with other UV observations of the central regions of clusters of galaxies, we find evidence for star formation. However, we also find evidence for absorption in the cD galaxy on a more extended scale than has been seen with optical imaging. We also report the first UV observation of part of the filamentary structure seen in H-alpha, X-rays and very deep U band imaging. The part of the filament we see is very blue with UV colours consistent with a very early (O/B) stellar population. This is the first direct evidence of a dominant population of early type stars at the centre of Abell 1795 and implies very recent star formation. The relationship of this emission to emission at other wavebands is discussed.

  8. A Comparison of Star Formation Rate Indicators for Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dong-xin; Li, Jin-rong; Pan, Zhi-zheng; Shi, Fei; Fang, Guan-wen; Kong, Xu

    2013-04-01

    With the multi-wavelength data from UV to sub-millimeter in the region of H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) Science Demonstration Phase (SDP), in combination with the population synthesis model and dust model, the total infrared luminosities of the galaxies were calculated. On this basis, for respectively the strong and weak star-forming galaxies, we studied the differences in the star formation rates calculated by the UV luminosity, infrared luminosity and H? line, as well as the intrinsic physical origin of such differences. It was found that for the galaxies of strong star-formation activity, the 3 kinds of star formation rate indicators give the basically consistent results with a small dispersion. But at the end of high star formation rate, the star formation rate calculated by the UV luminosity is slightly smaller than that calculated by the H?-line flux; at the end of low star formation rate, the UV indicator tends to be greater than the H? indicator; and at both ends, the infrared indicator and H? indicator have no significant difference. For the weak star-forming galaxies, significant differences exist among the 3 kinds of indicators, and there is a rather large dispersion. The dispersions and systematic difference of the star formation rates calculated by the UV luminosity and H? line increase with the galactic age and mass. The main cause for the increased systematic difference is that when the extinction of an weak star-forming galaxy is calibrated by its UV continuum spectral slope ?, the UV extinction of the galaxy is overestimated, it makes the UV luminosity tends to be large after the extinction correction. In addition, the star formation rates (H?) of weak starforming galaxies in the MPA/JHU (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University) database are generally less than the real values.

  9. Far-UV Line Strengths in Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    H. C. Ferguson; T. M. Brown; A. F. Davidsen

    1996-04-02

    Much of the far-UV emission from elliptical galaxies is thought to arise from extreme horizontal branch stars and related objects. Only about 10% of the stellar population needs to evolve through this phase even in galaxies with the strongest UV upturn. However it is not yet clear if this population represents the extreme low-metallicity or high-metallicty tail of the distribution, or rather arises from the overall population through some metallicity-insensitive mechanism that causes increased mass loss in a small fraction of RGB stars. We investigate the utility of far-UV line strengths for deciding between these possiblities. Complications include the fact that the line strengths reflect both the temperature distribution and the metallicity distribution of the stars, that there may be abundance anomalies introduced on the RGB, and that metals are likely to be redistributed by gravitational settling and radiative diffusion in the atmospheres of hot high-gravity stars. Line-strength measurements from Astro-2 HUT spectra are considered in this context.

  10. Local character of the highest antiferromagnetic temperature of Ce systems in Sc-rich CeTi1 -xScxGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereni, J. G.; Pedrazzini, P.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Chacoma, A.; Encina, S.; Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2015-05-01

    The highest antiferromagnetic (AFM) temperature in Ce based compounds has been reported for CeScGe with TN=47 K , but its local or itinerant nature has not been deeply investigated yet. In order to shed more light into this unusually high ordering temperature we have investigated structural, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of CeTi1 -xScxGe alloys within the range of stability of the CeScSi-type structure: 0.25 ?x ?1 . Along this concentration range, this strongly anisotropic system presents a complex magnetic phase diagram with a continuous modification of its magnetic behavior, from ferromagnetism for 0.25 ?x ?0.50 (with 7 K?TC?16 K ) to AFM for 0.60 ?x ?1 (with 19 K?TN?47 K ). The onset of the AFM phase is associated to a metamagnetic transition with a critical field increasing from Hcr=0 at x ?0.55 to ?6 T at x =1 , coincident with an increasing contribution of the first excited crystal electric field doublet. At a critical point xcr?0.65 a second transition appears at TL?TN . In contrast to observations in itinerant systems like CeRh2Si2 or CeRh3B2 , no evidences for significant hybridization of the 4 f electrons at large Sc contents were found. Therefore, the exceptionally large TN of CeScGe can be attributed to an increasing Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between Ce double layers as Sc content grows.

  11. UV immobilized phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Uzgiris, E E

    1987-08-14

    Dinitrophenyl phosphotidylethanolamine-containing bilayers have been immobilized on carbon-shadowed support films by UV irradiation of the first monolayer transferred to the support film. The immobilized bilayer is capable of allowing bound protein (anti-DNP antibody) to organize into 2-D arrays in the presence of organic solvents such as acetonitrile and dilute concentrations of detergents such as beta-octyl glucoside. The ability of the bilayers to remain attached to supports under various conditions that include organic solvents and detergents as well as divalent ions is of potential interest in the study of protein crystallization and particularly in the study of membrane proteins. PMID:3619917

  12. UV immobilized phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Uzgiris, E.E.

    1987-08-14

    Dinitrophenyl phosphotidylethanolamine-containing bilayers have been immobilized on carbon-shadowed support films by UV irradiation of the first monolayer transferred to the support film. The immobilized bilayer is capable of allowing bound protein (anti-DNP antibody) to organize into 2-D arrays in the presence of organic solvents such as acetonitrile and dilute concentrations of detergents such as beta-octyl glucoside. The ability of the bilayers to remain attached to supports under various conditions that include organic solvents and detergents as well as divalent ions is of potential interest in the study of protein crystallization and particularly in the study of membrane proteins.

  13. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    E-print Network

    L. G. Althaus; A. H. Corsico; A. Gautschy; Z. Han; A. M. Serenelli; J. A. Panei

    2003-09-09

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33 Msun white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. The evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation are also fully accounted for by computing the conservative binary evolution of an initially 2.5-Msun Pop. I star with a 1.25 Msun companion, and period P_i= 3 days. Evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. We find that chemical diffusion induces the occurrence of an additional hydrogen thermonuclear flash which leads to stellar models with thin hydrogen envelopes. As a result, a fast cooling is encountered at advanced stages of evolution. In addition, we explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarf models. As compared with their helium-core counterparts, low-mass oxygen-core white dwarfs are characterized by a pulsational spectrum much more featured, an aspect which could eventually be used for distinguishing both types of stars if low-mass white dwarfs were in fact found to pulsate as ZZ Ceti-type variables. Finally, we perform a non-adiabatic pulsational analysis on the resulting carbon/oxygen low-mass white dwarf models.

  14. The UV enigma of post-starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Jorge; De Propris, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    We have studied the panchromatic broad-band properties from the FUV to the MIR of a sample of 808 post-starburst galaxies. We find that in the optical and near-IR bands post-starburst galaxies (PSGs) form a remarkably uniform class of objects and that, on average, simple populations synthesis models (SSP) reproduce very well the SEDs of PSGs over a broad wavelength range, but not in the UV. We also find that, while the photometric variance in the optical and near-IR properties of the sample is small and comparable to the observational errors, both in the UV and the mid-IR the observed variance is much larger than the errors. We find a strong correlation between the UV fluxes and those in the mid-IR, indicating that the large variance in UV properties of PSGs could be related to a non-uniform distribution of dust covering the intermediate age populations. The disagreement between models and observations in the UV could be due to inadequate modelling; to the contribution of AGB and post-AGB stars; or to a non-uniform distribution of dust; possibly all three. Further progress in understanding this important class of galaxies, therefore, requires at the same time better modelling and better observations in the UV and mid-IR.

  15. Binary stars and the UVX in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, Fabiola; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2014-11-01

    We use the Hernández-Pérez and Bruzual (HB13) stellar population synthesis models to study the role of interacting binary pairs as progenitors of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. We assemble a sample of 3417 early-type galaxies observed both in the optical (SDSS-DR8) and the UV (GALEX-GR6). The galaxies in our sample can be classified according to their position in the colour-colour diagram as UV-weak or red-sequence galaxies (˜48 per cent), UV-strong or UVX galaxies (˜9 per cent), and recent star-forming galaxies (˜43 per cent). Analysing this sample using the HB13 models for various choices of basic model parameters, we conclude that (a) the UVr colours of UV-weak and UV-strong galaxies are reproduced by the models as long as the fraction of binary stars is at least 15 per cent. (b) Higher metallicity models (Z = 0.02 and 0.03) reproduce the colours of UV-weak and UV-strong galaxies better than lower Z models. The Z = 0.03 model is slightly bluer than the Z = 0.02 model in the UV-strong region, indicating a weak relationship between UVX and Z. (c) The strength of UVX increases with age in the model population. This is at variance with the results of other models that include binary stars as progenitors of EHB stars.

  16. Phantom without UV pathology

    E-print Network

    V. A. Rubakov

    2006-05-17

    We present a simple model in which the weak energy condition is violated for spatially homogeneous, slowly evolving fields. The excitations about Lorentz-violating background in Minkowski space do not contain ghosts, tachyons or superluminal modes at spatial momenta ranging from some low scale epsilon to the UV cutoff scale, while tachyons and possibly ghosts do exist at p^2 < epsilon^2. We show that in the absence of other matter, slow roll cosmological regime is possible; in this regime p+rho<0, and yet homogeneity and isotropy are not completely spoiled (at the expence of fine-tuning), since for given conformal momentum, the tachyon mode grows for short enough period of time.

  17. Micro-UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-12-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  18. Micro UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-09-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  19. Deep UV Imaging of Galaxies in the Fornax Cluster Karen O' Neil and G.D. Bothun

    E-print Network

    O'Neil, Karen

    Deep UV Imaging of Galaxies in the Fornax Cluster Karen O' Neil and G.D. Bothun Dept. of Physics population of extreme horizontal branch stars. With the failure of the near UV camera aboard the Astro­2; February 13, 1997 2 ABSTRACT We compare the Astro­1 Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) deep image

  20. Hot Stars in Globular Cluster - A Spectroscopist's View

    E-print Network

    S. Moehler

    2001-05-09

    Globular clusters are ideal laboratories to study the evolution of low-mass stars. In this work we concentrate on three types of hot stars observed in globular clusters: horizontal branch stars, UV bright stars, and white dwarfs. After providing some historical background and information on gaps and blue tails we discuss extensively hot horizontal branch stars in metal-poor globular clusters, esp. their abundance anomalies and the consequences for the determination of their atmospheric parameters and evolutionary status. Hot horizontal branch stars in metal-rich globular clusters are found to form a small, but rather inhomogeneous group that cannot be explained by one evolutionary scenario. Hot UV bright stars show a lack of classic post-AGB stars that may explain the lack of planetary nebulae in globular clusters. Finally we discuss first results of spectroscopic observations of white dwarfs in globular clusters.

  1. 8, 27452769, 2008 Personal UV

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discussion Abstract Mountain sites experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concurrent experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concur-5 rent effects of shorter radiation path Sapienza - University of Rome, Dept. of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, Rome, Italy Received: 3 January

  2. Substantial reservoirs of molecular hydrogen in the debris disks around young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thi, W. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Zadelhoff, G. J.; Horn, J. M.; Becklin, E. E.; Mannings, V.; Sargent, A. I.; van Den Ancker, M. E.; Natta, A.

    2001-01-01

    Circumstellar accretion disks transfer matter from molecular clouds to young stars and to the sites of planet formation. The disks observed around pre-main-sequence stars have properties consistent with those expected for the pre-solar nebula from which our own Solar System formed 4.5 Gyr ago. But the 'debris' disks that encircle more than 15% of nearby main-sequence stars appear to have very small amounts of gas, based on observations of the tracer molecule carbon monoxide: these observations have yielded gas/dust ratios much less than 0.1, whereas the interstellar value is about 100 (ref. 9). Here we report observations of the lowest rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) that reveal large quantities of gas in the debris disks around the stars beta Pictoris, 49 Ceti and HD135344. The gas masses calculated from the data are several hundreds to a thousand times greater than those estimated from the CO observations, and yield gas/dust ratios of the same order as the interstellar value.

  3. Triggered star formation in the environment of young massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, T.; Heitsch, F.; Burkert, A.

    Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope show clear evidence that star formation takes place in the surrounding of young massive O-type stars, which are shaping their environment due to their powerful radiation and stellar winds. In this work we investigate the effect of ionising radiation of massive stars on the ambient interstellar medium (ISM): In particular we want to examine whether the UV-radiation of O-type stars can lead to the observed pillar-like structures and can trigger star formation. We developed a new implementation, based on a parallel Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code (VINE), that allows an efficient treatment of the effect of ionising radiation from massive stars on their turbulent gaseous environment. Here we present first results at very high resolution. We show that ionising radiation can trigger the collapse of an otherwise stable molecular cloud. The arising structures resemble observed structures (e.g. the pillars of creation in the Eagle Nebula (M16) or the Horsehead Nebula B33). Including the effect of gravitation we find small regions that can be identified as formation places of individual stars. We conclude that ionising radiation from massive stars alone can trigger substantial star formation in molecular clouds.

  4. Triggered Star Formation in the Environment of Young Massive Stars

    E-print Network

    M. Gritschneder; T. Naab; F. Heitsch; A. Burkert

    2006-09-26

    Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope show clear evidence that star formation takes place in the surrounding of young massive O-type stars, which are shaping their environment due to their powerful radiation and stellar winds. In this work we investigate the effect of ionising radiation of massive stars on the ambient interstellar medium (ISM): In particular we want to examine whether the UV-radiation of O-type stars can lead to the observed pillar-like structures and can trigger star formation. We developed a new implementation, based on a parallel Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code (called IVINE), that allows an efficient treatment of the effect of ionising radiation from massive stars on their turbulent gaseous environment. Here we present first results at very high resolution. We show that ionising radiation can trigger the collapse of an otherwise stable molecular cloud. The arising structures resemble observed structures (e.g. the pillars of creation in the Eagle Nebula (M16) or the Horsehead Nebula B33). Including the effect of gravitation we find small regions that can be identified as formation places of individual stars. We conclude that ionising radiation from massive stars alone can trigger substantial star formation in molecular clouds.

  5. III-Nitride UV Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif Khan, M.; Shatalov, M.; Maruska, H. P.; Wang, H. M.; Kuokstis, E.

    2005-10-01

    The need for efficient, compact and robust solid-state UV optical sources and sensors had stimulated the development of optical devices based on III-nitride material system. Rapid progress in material growth, device fabrication and packaging enabled demonstration of high efficiency visible-blind and solar-blind photodetectors, deep-UV light-emitting diodes with emission from 400 to 250 nm, and UV laser diodes with operation wavelengths ranging from 340 to 350 nm. Applications of these UV optical devices include flame sensing; fluorescence-based biochemical sensing; covert communications; air, water and food purification and disinfection; and biomedical instrumentation. This paper provides a review of recent advances in the development of UV optical devices. Performance of state-of-the-art devices as well as future prospects and challenges are discussed.

  6. The GALEX Catalog of UV Sources in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, David A.; Bianchi, L.; Simons, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed unprecedented imaging surveys of the Magellanic Clouds (MC) and their surrounding areas including the Magellanic Bridge (MB) in near-UV (NUV, 1771-2831 Å) and far-UV (FUV, 1344-1786 Å) bands at 5? resolution. Substantially more area was covered in the NUV than FUV, particularly in the bright central regions, because of the GALEX FUV detector failure. The 5? depth of the NUV imaging varies between 20.8 and 22.7 (ABmag). Such imaging provides the first sensitive view of the entire content of hot stars in the Magellanic System, revealing the presence of young populations even in sites with extremely low star-formation rate surface density like the MB, owing to high sensitivity of the UV data to hot stars and the dark sky at these wavelengths. Crowding limits the quality of source detection and photometry from the standard mission pipeline processing. Therefore, we performed custom PSF-fitting photometry of the GALEX data in the MC survey region (<15° from the LMC, <10° from the SMC). After merging multiple detections of sources in overlapping images, the resulting catalog we have produced contains many million unique NUV point sources. This poster provides a first look at the GALEX MC survey and highlights some of the science investigations that the catalog and imaging dataset will make possible.

  7. Interstellar Extinction Toward Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present work on a molecular hydrogen (H2) fluorescence model to characterize the ultraviolet (UV) extinction curve along the line of sight towards young stars with circumstellar disks. Stellar UV radiation plays a strong role in heating the disk gas and driving chemical reactions, so it is important to measure the UV extinction curve in order to reconstruct the intrinsic stellar UV flux impacting the disk. To measure the extinction, we compare modeled H2 fluorescence spectra to observed H2 lines. Lyman-alpha radiation from the stars pumps electronic transitions of H2 in the disk, and we model the flux that is re-emitted through the subsequent fluorescent cascade. We then extract the extinction along the line-of-sight over the 1100-1700 Angstrom wavelength region from the difference between the modeled H2 fluorescence and the HST-COS data. The shape of the extinction curve allows us to characterize the dust grain distribution in the intervening material as well as to recover the intrinsic spectral energy distribution of the stars over a wide wavelength range.

  8. Hot Subdwarfs in Binaries as the Source of the Far-UV Excess in Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Philipp Podsiadlowski; Zhanwen Han; Anthony E. Lynas-Gray; David Brown

    2008-08-05

    The excess of far-ultraviolet (far-UV) radiation in elliptical galaxies has remained one of their most enduring puzzles. In contrast, the origin of old blue stars in the Milky Way, hot subdwarfs, is now reasonably well understood: they are hot stars that have lost their hydrogen envelopes by various binary interactions. Here, we review the main evolutionary channels that produce hot subdwarfs in the Galaxy and present the results of binary population synthesis simulations that reproduce the main properties of the Galactic hot-subdwarf population. Applying the same model to elliptical galaxies, we show how this model can explain the main observational properties of the far-UV excess, including the far-UV spectrum, without the need to invoke ad hoc physical processes. The model implies that the UV excess is not a sign of age, as has been postulated previously, and predicts that it should not be strongly dependent on the metallicity of the population.

  9. Exocomets and variable circumstellar gas absorption in the debris disks of nearby A-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Welsh, Barry; Bukoski, Benjamin; Strausbaugh, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, more than a dozen new star systems have been discovered that are similar to the famous and well-described Beta Pictoris system. Like Beta Pictoris, these systems include a young A-type star, a circumstellar gas-poor debris disk, and infalling exocomets. The presence of comets has been inferred from night-to-night changes in the absorption-line characteristics of the circumstellar disk CaII K-line at 3933Å towards these stars. As described by the Falling Evaporated Bodies model of Beust et al (1990, 1998), comet-like planetesimals residing in the outer regions of the dust disk are perturbed into eccentric star-grazing orbits by the action of either mutual collisions or by the gravitational influence of an accompanying massive exoplanet. The plume of gas is liberated at the comet's close approach to the star.We present new high resolution absorption spectra of the CaII K line recorded over several nights towards the nearby and young (< 50 Myr) A-type stars HD 80007 and HD 109573. Both stars exhibit circumstellar absorption variability that is similar to that frequently observed in other `exocomet-systems', such as Beta Pictoris and 49 Ceti. We also present a list of the physical characteristics of ~40 A-type stars with associated debris disks that possess circumstellar absorption spectra of the CaII K-line observed by us over several nights. Using all of these data we comment on which stellar parameter(s) seem to be the most important in determining whether or not exocomets will be detected in a given system.

  10. Influence of UV radiation from a massive YSO on the chemistry of its envelope

    E-print Network

    P. Stauber; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; J. K. Jorgensen; A. O. Benz

    2004-06-24

    We have studied the influence of far ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a massive young stellar object (YSO) on the chemistry of its own envelope by extending the models of Doty et al. (2002) to include a central source of UV radiation. The models are applied to the massive star-forming region AFGL 2591 for different inner UV field strengths. Depth-dependent abundance profiles for several molecules are presented and discussed. We predict enhanced column densities for more than 30 species, especially radicals and ions. Comparison between observations and models is improved with a moderate UV field incident on the inner envelope, corresponding to an enhancement factor G0~10-100 at 200 AU from the star with an optical depth tau~15-17. Subtle differences are found compared with traditional models of Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) because of the higher temperatures and higher gas-phase H2O abundance caused by evaporation of ices in the inner region. In particular, the CN/HCN ratio is not a sensitive tracer of the inner UV field, in contrast with the situation for normal PDRs: for low UV fields, the extra CN reacts with H2 in the inner dense and warm region and produces more HCN. It is found that the CH+ abundance is strongly enhanced and grows steadily with increasing UV field. High-J lines of molecules like CN and HCN are most sensitive to the inner dense region where UV radiation plays a role. Thus, even though the total column density affected by UV photons is small, comparison of high-J and low-J lines can selectively trace and distinguish the inner UV field from the outer one. In addition, future Herschel-HIFI observations of hydrides can sensitively probe the inner UV field.

  11. Formation of Sub-galactic Clouds under UV Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Tetsu Kitayama; Satoru Ikeuchi

    1999-08-07

    The effects of the UV background radiation on the formation of sub-galactic clouds are studied by means of one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. The radiative transfer of the ionizing photons due to the absorption by HI, HeI and HeII, neglecting the emission, is explicitly taken into account. We find that the complete suppression of collapse occurs for the clouds with circular velocities typically in the range V_c \\sim 15-40 km/s and the 50% reduction in the cooled gas mass with V_c \\sim 20-55 km/s. These values depend most sensitively on the collapse epoch of the cloud, the shape of the UV spectrum, and the evolution of the UV intensity. Compared to the optically thin case, previously investigated by Thoul & Weinberg (1996), the absorption of the external UV photon by the intervening medium systematically lowers the above threshold values by \\Delta V_c \\sim 5 km/s. Whether the gas can contract or keeps expanding is roughly determined by the balance between the gravitational force and the thermal pressure gradient when it is maximally exposed to the external UV flux. Based on our simulation results, we discuss a number of implications on galaxy formation, cosmic star formation history, and the observations of quasar absorption lines. In Appendix, we derive analytical formulae for the photoionization coefficients and heating rates, which incorporate the frequency/direction-dependent transfer of external photons.

  12. World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO/UV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsteker, W.; Shustov, B. M.

    We describe the WSO/UV Project. The WSO/UV Project -lead by the Russian Space Agency Rosaviakosmos- consists of a spectroscopic and imaging mission on a 1.7 m telescope in the Ultraviolet domain (110nm -- 320nm). The spectroscopic capabilities include both a low resolution long slit mode at R ? 1,000 and a high resolution mode (slitless aperture only )at R ? 55,000 The operational orbit of the WSO/UV is in a halo orbit around Lagrangian 2. The WSO/UV mission which will supply an important observing capability for the astrophysical community, allowing to address fundamental questions associated with the evolution of heavy element abundances in the Universe, and to address also the primary questions related to the formation of stars and the subsequent planet formation. It will also present an important follow-up capability for the UV Sky Surveys of GALEX and TAUVEX. This mission, foreseen for Launch in the 2008 time frame, has been conceived in innovative ways to assure that early participation of developing countries in a space science mission will contribute in an extremely cost effective way to capacity building in these countries. The direct involvement of Developing Nations in the project without crippling costs, presents a unique cooperation opportunity for coordinated joint capacity building involving close collaboration between both space fairing and non-space fairing nations to mutual benefit.

  13. Star Formation and Feedback in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shawfeng; Lin, D. N. C.; Murray, S. D.

    2003-10-01

    We examine the star formation history and stellar feedback effects of dwarf galaxies under the influence of extragalactic ultraviolet radiation. Previous work has indicated that the background UV flux can easily ionize the gas within typical dwarf galaxies, delaying or even preventing cooling and star formation within them. Many dwarf galaxies within the Local Group are, however, observed to contain multiple generations of stars, the oldest of which formed in the early epochs of cosmic evolution, when the background UV flux was intense. In order to address this paradox, we consider the dynamical evolution of gas in dwarf galaxies using a one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian numerical scheme to compute the effects of radiative transfer and photoionization. We include a physically motivated star formation recipe and consider the effects of feedback. This scheme allows us to follow the history of the gas and of star formation within dwarf galaxies, as influenced by both external and internal UV radiation. Our results indicate that star formation in the severe environment of dwarf galaxies is a difficult and inefficient process. In potentials with total mass less than a few times 106 Msolar and velocity dispersion less than a few kilometers per second, residual gas is efficiently photoionized by cosmic background UV radiation. Since the density scale height of the gas within these galaxies is comparable to their size, gas may be tidally removed from them, leaving behind starless residual dark matter clumps. For intermediate-mass systems, such as the dSphs around the Galaxy, star formation can proceed within early cosmic epochs despite the intense background UV flux. Triggering processes such as merger events, collisions, and tidal disturbance can lead to density enhancements, reducing the recombination timescale, allowing gas to cool and star formation to proceed. However, the star formation and gas retention efficiency may vary widely in galaxies with similar dark matter potentials because they depend on many factors, such as the baryonic fraction, external perturbation, initial mass function, and background UV intensity. We suggest that the presence of very old stars in these dwarf galaxies indicates that their initial baryonic-to-dark matter content was comparable to the cosmic value. This constraint suggests that the initial density fluctuation of baryonic matter may be correlated with that of the dark matter. For the more massive dwarf elliptical galaxies, the star formation efficiency and gas retention rate are much higher. Their mass-to-light ratio is regulated by star formation feedback and is expected to be nearly independent of their absolute luminosity. The results of our theoretical models reproduce the observed (M/L)-Mv correlation.

  14. THE HOPKINS ULTRAVIOLET TELESCOPE FARUV SPECTRAL ATLAS OF WOLFRAYET STARS

    E-print Network

    shuttle observatory, we obtained far­UV spectra of the four WN stars WR 6 (WN5), WR 134 (WN6), WR 24 (WN7+a) and WR 40 (WN8) with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope. These data, extending from 820 to 1840 š gives reference to earlier far­UV spectroscopy of W­R stars.) During the Astro­1 flight in 1990 December

  15. Using stars for remote sensing of the Earth's stratosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Roscoe; R. A. Freshwater; R. Wolfenden; R. L. Jones; D. J. Fish; J. E. Harries; A. M. South; D. J. Oldham

    1994-01-01

    A UV-visible spectrometer system is reported to measure light absorption from planets and stars by Earth's atmospheric constituents. Wavelength coverage of the system is suitable for stratospheric measurements concerning polar ozone loss and measurements of ozone itself. The system involves a small telescope, a UV-visible spectrometer, and an array detector.

  16. UVMag: stellar formation, evolution, structure and environment with space UV and visible spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Baade, D.; Fullerton, A.; Gry, C.; Hussain, G.; Lèbre, A.; Morin, J.; Petit, P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; ud-Doula, A.; Vidotto, A. A.; Wade, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Important insights into the formation, structure, evolution and environment of all types of stars can be obtained through the measurement of their winds and possible magnetospheres. However, this has hardly been done up to now mainly because of the lack of UV instrumentation available for long periods of time. To reach this aim, we have designed UVMag, an M-size space mission equipped with a high-resolution spectropolarimeter working in the UV and visible spectral range. The UV domain is crucial in stellar physics as it is very rich in atomic and molecular lines and contains most of the flux of hot stars. Moreover, covering the UV and visible spectral domains at the same time will allow us to study the star and its environment simultaneously. Adding polarimetric power to the spectrograph will multiply tenfold the capabilities of extracting information on stellar magnetospheres, winds, disks, and magnetic fields. Examples of science objectives that can be reached with UVMag are presented for pre-main sequence, main sequence and evolved stars. They will cast new light onto stellar physics by addressing many exciting and important questions. UVMag is currently undergoing a Research & Technology study and will be proposed at the forthcoming ESA call for M-size missions. This spectropolarimeter could also be installed on a large UV and visible observatory (e.g. NASA's LUVOIR project) within a suite of instruments.

  17. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  18. Active Galaxies in the UV

    E-print Network

    Wolfram Kollatschny; Wang Ting-Gui

    2006-04-21

    In this article we present different aspects of AGN studies demonstrating the importance of the UV spectral range. Most important diagnostic lines for studying the general physical conditions as well as the metalicities in the central broad line region in AGN are emitted in the UV. The UV/FUV continuum in AGN excites not only the emission lines in the immediate surrounding but it is responsible for the ionization of the intergalactic medium in the early stages of the universe. Variability studies of the emission line profiles of AGN in the UV give us information on the structure and kinematics of the immediate surrounding of the central supermassive black hole as well as on its mass itself.

  19. UV radiation from the young sun and oxygen and ozone levels in the prebiological palaeoatmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Levine, J. S.; Augustsson, T. R.; Imhoff, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    UV measurements of young T-Tauri stars, resembling the sun at an age of a few million years, have recently been made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. They indicate that young stars emit up to 10,000 times more UV than the present sun. The implications for the origin and evolution of O2 and O3 in the prebiological palaeoatmosphere are presented here. The results of photochemical calculations indicate that the O2 surface mixing ratio was a factor 10,000-1,000,000 times greater than the standard value of 10 to the -15. This new value reconciles the simultaneous existence of oxidized iron and reduced uranium.

  20. The Carbon Mira UV Aurigae and its Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.

    2009-11-01

    The carbon Mira UV Aur (photometric period 394 days) and its companion present several interesting spectroscopic issues. The late B-type companion, at a separation of 3farcs36, is seen through at least two shells expanding from the C9-type primary, as evidenced by a series of narrow, displaced absorption features at the D1,2 lines of Na I. The (projected) expansion velocity of the fastest shell is about 116 km s-1, much larger than the typical outflow velocity of about 15 km s-1 seen in C-type giants, but reminiscent of the velocities observed in the envelope of another C-type Mira, V Hya. Emission lines of H, Ca II, and Na I are present in UV Aur A; its Balmer emission lines are heavily mutilated by overlying C-type absorptions (much as is seen in Me-type Miras), so they must be formed at a lower level. UV Aur B offers the opportunity to test a speculation that the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), believed to be a family of carbon-containing polyatomic molecules, may be formed in cool, carbon-rich stars. Moderately strong DIBs are indeed present in the spectrum of UV Aur B at about the same strength and velocity seen in nearby (in the sky) B-type stars. But the essential question is, are DIBs present in the outflow from UV Aur A, at the velocities of the Na I shell components? The answer is no, at least at the level permitted by the signal-to-noise ratio of these Keck/HIRES spectrograms.

  1. UVS is rare in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Machovsky Capuska, Gabriel E; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David; Raubenheimer, David

    2011-06-21

    Ultraviolet-sensitive vision (UVS), believed to have evolved from an ancestral state of violet-sensitive vision (VS), is widespread among terrestrial birds, where it is thought to play a role in orientation, foraging, and sexual selection. Less is known, however, about the distribution and significance of UVS in seabirds. To date UVS has been definitively demonstrated only in two families (Laridae and Sternidae), although indirect evidence has been used to argue for a more widespread occurrence. In this study we analyzed short-wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsin DNA sequences to determine the distribution of ancestral (VS) and derived (UVS) amino acid spectral tuning sites in 16 seabird species representing 8 families with diverse ecological niches. Our results revealed sequences associated with UVS pigments (UVSs) in the Black-backed gull (Larus dominicanus), providing further evidence of its widespread occurrence within the Laridae. The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) and White-fronted tern (Sterna striata), however, were found to have VSs, suggesting an evolutionary reversion to the ancestral state within Sternidae. VSs were also detected in an additional six families. Our results raise interesting questions about the functions of UV vision in marine environments. PMID:21527267

  2. Variable Stars Pulsating Stars: periodic

    E-print Network

    Basu, Shantanu

    Variable Stars · Pulsating Stars: periodic expansion and contraction, e.g., Cepheids, RR Lyrae increases . Why? #12;Pulsating Stars Cepheid variables: giant stars, very luminous Type II Cepheids: lower Z's · Catacylsmic and Eruptive Variables: sudden large changes, e.g., novae and supernovae · Others: changes

  3. UV-Bright Stellar Populations in the Core of M15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haurberg, Nathalie; Lubell, G. M. G.; Lugger, P. M.; Cohn, H. N.; Anderson, J.; Cool, A.; Serenelli, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a deep photometric study of the central region of the Galactic globular cluster M15 from archival HST data taken on the High Resolution Channel and Solar Blind Channel of ACS. Our data set consists of images in FUV (F140LP), NUV (F220W), and B (F435W). The addition of an optical filter in our work complements previous work done on M15 in the UV by providing a constraint on the nature of the UV-bright stellar populations. Using color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) constructed from photometry in these three filters we have identified several intriguing populations that arise from non-canonical stellar evolution including candidate blue stragglers, extreme horizontal branch stars, blue hook stars, cataclysmic variables, and helium-core white dwarfs. Furthermore, we have identified a class of UV-bright stars that lie between the blue horizontal branch and WD cooling sequences, a location not usually populated on cluster CMDs. These stars do not seem to belong to any of the standard UV-bright stellar populations and we explore several possibilities as to their nature, including the hypothesis that these stars may be very young low-mass helium-core white dwarfs. We also investigate an intriguing subset of cataclysmic variable candidates that appear in the gap between the MS and WDs in FUV-NUV but lie securely on the MS in NUV-B.

  4. VUV-UV absorption spectroscopy of DNA and UV screens suggests strategies for UV resistance during evolution and space travel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreja Zalar; David Tepfer; Søren V. Hoffmann; Albert Kollmann; Sydney Leach

    2007-01-01

    Early life on Earth had to cope with harsh conditions, including full spectrum solar UV. Since DNA absorbs in the highly energetic UV-C and VUV, solar irradiation was likely an obstacle to the expansion of life on Earth, until biological mechanisms evolved to cope with UV liability (including the biosynthesis of UV screens) and ozone (derived from oxygen produced by

  5. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  6. Limits of detection in debris disks around young stars with NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.

    2014-09-01

    To understand the formation and evolution of solar systems and planets formations in the stars neighbourhood, we need to obtain information of their state at different time of their evolution. Here, we focus on debris disks around young stars aged of ten to few tens of Myr, we analyze NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations in the L' band (3.8 ?m) of eight objects (beta Pictoris, AU Mic, 49 Ceti, eta Tel, Fomalhaut, G Lupi, HD182327 and HR8799). The aim is to get limits of detection about the mass of the debris orbiting around their stars. The SAM technique consists in transforming a single telescope into a Fizeau interferometer using a non redundant mask inserted in a pupil plane of the instrument. The analysis of the observations was completed with the sparse aperture mode pipeline. Interference fringes are fitted to obtain complex visibilities of the object, then the closure phases are calibrated and evaluated. Finally, a map of the detection limits is obtained as it is related to the closure phases previously estimated. In order to obtain an estimation of the mass corresponding to the luminosity measured with the reduction pipeline we are using theoretical isochrones interpolated into synthetic color tables. The results are maps of detection limits in unit of Jupiter Mass in a range of up to 450 mas around the stars.

  7. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soojung Lim

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the

  8. Influence of UV activity on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2014-03-01

    A wide range of potentially rocky transiting planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been detected by Kepler as well as ground-based searches. The spectral type of the host star will influence our ability to detect atmospheric features with future space and ground based missions like JWST, GMT and E-ELT. Particularly the active and inactive M stars are a stellar class that covers a wide range of UV luminosity that influence the detectability of habitable conditions. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by Hubble as well as IUE, we Earth-like planets over a wide range of M-stars host stars from M0 to M9 for both active and inactive stars. These planets are the first ones that should become available to observations with JWST and E-ELT. A wide range of such targets will soon be identified in our Solar Neighborhood by the TESS mission that will launch in 2017.

  9. Search for transition zone lines in early dwarf A stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Freire Ferrero

    1986-01-01

    The presence of hot external atmospheric layers in some A stars, demonstrated by the X-ray detections with the Einstein satellite, stimulated the search for optical counterparts, in particular, the search for the UV transition zone indicators like Si IV, C IV and He II lines. The observations of a sample of early dwarf A stars with IUE allows one to

  10. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Protopapas, P., E-mail: seowony@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  11. DETECTING STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES WITH GALEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, A. K.; Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Mushotzky, R., E-mail: ahicks@alum.mit.ed, E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.ed, E-mail: richard@astro.umd.ed [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We present the results of GALEX observations of 17 cool core (CC) clusters of galaxies. We show that GALEX is easily capable of detecting star formation in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) out to z {>=} 0.45 and 50-100 kpc. In most of the CC clusters studied, we find significant UV luminosity excesses and colors that strongly suggest recent and/or current star formation. The BCGs are found to have blue UV colors in the center which become increasingly redder with radius, indicating that the UV signature of star formation is most easily detected in the central regions. Our findings show good agreement between UV star formation rates and estimates based on H{alpha} observations. IR observations coupled with our data indicate moderate-to-high dust attenuation. Comparisons between our UV results and the X-ray properties of our sample suggest clear correlations between UV excess, cluster entropy, and central cooling time, confirming that star formation is directly and incontrovertibly related to the cooling gas.

  12. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS): Revolutionary UV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Leonardo

    2014-06-01

    The Treasury program LEGUS (HST/GO-13364) is a 154-orbit Hubble Space Telescope survey that is obtaining HST/WFC3 and HST/ACS NUV, U, B, V, and I-band imaging of 50 star-forming galaxies at distances of 4-12 Mpc. The LEGUS targets have been carefully selected to uniformly sample a full range of global galaxy properties such as morphology, star formation rate, mass, metallicity, internal structure, and interaction state.We provide a first taste of the type and quality of the data products that will be made available to the community through the website legus.stsci.edu. The data includes: state of the art science-ready mosaics in five wavelengths; band-merged catalogs of stellar sources (including location and photometry), band-merged catalogs of star clusters (locations, photometry, aperture corrections), catalogs of star cluster properties (ages, masses, extinction). and ancillary data available for this galaxy sample such as GALEX, Spitzer and WISE imaging.The above catalogs will enable a wide range of scientific applications, including color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams of both stars and clusters, to derive star formation histories, cluster formation histories, the evolution of stars/association/cluster clustering, and the dependence of these on galactic environment. These are only a few of the potential applications enabled by a diverse sample like LEGUS.

  13. UV detective quantum efficiency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1999-11-01

    We have been testing the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) response of several types of detectors, supporting investigators developing photodiodes made of GaN, near UV photocathodes, and Electron-Bombarded CCDs (EBCCDs). We are currently supporting 4 independent research groups developing GaN most of which have produced devices with significant sensitivity down to 1200 Angstroms. Over the past year, we have also tested bare CCDs with coatings to enhance ultraviolet response. Detectors based on microchannel plate (MCP) have been used extensively for a wide variety of NASA mission and continue to be the standard to beat. Two particularly promising detector technologies are (1) EBCCDs which offer an immediate factor of 3 - 4 improvement in sensitivity and (2) devices made of GaN or GaAlN which may eventually offer factors of 6 - 8 increased sensitivity, both compared to MCPs for wavelengths between 1200 to 3000 Angstroms. We present latest results and plans to expand our vacuum UV testing.

  14. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  15. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika, E-mail: yuika@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kawata, Satoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumamoto, Yasuaki [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340?nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  16. The role of UV-optical obscuration in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The starburst phenomenon was viewed as increasingly important since the recognition that some galaxies have regions in which stars are forming so rapidly that a transient event must be seen. Such starbursts populate samples of galaxies selected either for UV or IR excess, and some were found from IRAS source identifications that must be quite heavily obscured at optical wavelengths. Many interpretations of the physical conditions in these objects and their stellar populations have relied on scaling from models of individual H II regions, and this certainly seems justified from the gross appearance of the optical spectra and IR spectral shapes. Collection of complementary UV, optical, and near-IR data is presented on a set of starbursts, with a preliminary analysis of models for more realistic internal structure.

  17. SM-2 UV Monitoring and Cool-down Procedure (PID 7016 and 7122)

    E-print Network

    Sirianni, Marco

    that are able to restore the UV throughput to its original value. For filters like F170W the standard con. This results in the precaution of avoiding the bright earth (Bright Earth Avoidance, or BEA) for 10 days after-SMOV first epoch observations for a number of new photometric standard stars, since our normal standards

  18. Observational evidence for helium production in stars - The helium abundance of hot subdwarfs, central stars of planetary nebulae, very massive O-stars and OBN-stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Kudritzki; R. H. Mendez; K. P. Simon; U. Heber; D. Schonberner

    1983-01-01

    The determination of helium abundances in the photospheres of O stars is discussed. A method is presented consisting of detailed analyses of high resolution visual and UV spectra using a complete non-LTE technique. A grid on non-LTE model atmospheres is computed and used for additional line formation calculations for He I and He II. A fit of the observed profiles

  19. Deep X-ray and UV Surveys of Galaxies with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and GALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Only with the deepest Chandra surveys has X-ray emission from normal and star forming galaxies (as opposed to AGN, which dominate the X-ray sky) been accessible at cosmologically interesting distances. The X-ray emission from accreting binaries provide a critical glimpse into the binary phase of stellar evolution and studies of the hot gas reservoir constrain past star formation. UV studies provide important, sensitive diagnostics of the young star forming populations and provide the most mature means for studying galaxies at 2 < zeta < 4. This talk will review current progress on studying X-ray emission in concert with UV emission from normal/star-forming galaxies at higher redshift. We will also report on our new, deep surveys with GALEX and XMM-Newton in the nearby Coma cluster. These studies are relevant to DEEP06 as Coma is the nearest rich cluster of galaxies and provides an important benchmark for high-redshift studies in the X-ray and UV wavebands. The 30 ks GALEX (note: similar depth to the GALEX Deep Imaging Survey) and the 110 ks XMM observations provide extremely deep coverage of a Coma outskirts field, allowing the construction of the UV and X-ray luminosity function of galaxies and important constraints on star formation scaling relations such as the X-ray-Star Formation Rate correlation and the X-ray/Stellar Mass correlation. We will discuss what we learn from these deep observations of Coma, including the recently established suppression of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the Coma outskirts that is likely associated with lower levels of past star formation and/or the results of tidal gas stripping.

  20. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  1. UV-induced skin damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ichihashi; M. Ueda; A. Budiyanto; T. Bito; M. Oka; M. Fukunaga; K. Tsuru; T. Horikawa

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290–320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320–400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation

  2. Melanoma and lifetime UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cam C. Solomon; Emily White; Alan R. Kristal; Thomas Vaughan

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveBecause most risk factors for melanoma are immutable constitutional factors such as skin type, it is important to more fully understand the relationship between melanoma risk and sun exposure, one of the few modifiable risk factors for the disease. The goal of this case–control study was to quantify the risks of melanoma associated with UV exposure at different periods of

  3. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  4. The DQ Herculis stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1994-03-01

    We review the properties of the DQ Herculis stars: cataclysmic variables containing an accreting, magnetic, rapidly rotating white dwarf. These stars are characterized by strong X-ray emission, high-excitation spectra, and very stable optical and X-ray pulsations in their light curves. There is considerable resemblance to their more famous cousins, the AM Herculis stars, but the latter class is additionally characterized by spin-orbit synchronism and the presence of strong circular polarization. We list eighteen stars passing muster as certain or very likely DQ Her stars. The rotational periods range from 33 s to 2.0 hr. Additional periods can result when the rotating searchlight illuminates other structures in the binary. A single hypothesis explains most of the observed properties: magnetically channeled accretion within a truncated disk. Some accretion flow still seems to proceed directly to the magnetosphere, however. The white dwarfs' magnetic moments are in the range 1032 - 1034 G cc, slightly weaker than in AM Her stars but with some probable overlap. The more important reason why DQ Hers have broken synchronism is probably their greater accretion rate and orbital separation. The observed Lx/LV values are surprisingly low for a radially accreting white dwarf, suggesting that most of the accretion energy is not radiated in a strong shock above the magnetic pole. The fluxes can be more satisfactorily explained if most of the radial infall energy manages to bypass the shock and deposit itse lf directly in the white dwarf photosphere, where it should emerge as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. This also provides an adequate source of ionizing photons to power the high-excitation optical and UV emission lines. This is probably the DQ Her analog to the famous 'soft X-ray excess' in AM Her stars. However, unlike the AM Her case, this radiation has not been directly observed, so the analogy must not (yet) be embraced too firmly. There is some conventional wisdom today which segregates the short-period from the long-period DQ Her stars. But the observational grounds for this distinction are slim, except in one respect: X-ray emission from short-period systems appears to be weaker and softer. This must be due to the shallower depth of the potential well, and/or the greater difficulty the fast rotators have in enforcing radial accretion flow.

  5. The DQ Herculis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We review the properties of the DQ Herculis stars: cataclysmic variables containing an accreting, magnetic, rapidly rotating white dwarf. These stars are characterized by strong X-ray emission, high-excitation spectra, and very stable optical and X-ray pulsations in their light curves. There is considerable resemblance to their more famous cousins, the AM Herculis stars, but the latter class is additionally characterized by spin-orbit synchronism and the presence of strong circular polarization. We list eighteen stars passing muster as certain or very likely DQ Her stars. The rotational periods range from 33 s to 2.0 hr. Additional periods can result when the rotating searchlight illuminates other structures in the binary. A single hypothesis explains most of the observed properties: magnetically channeled accretion within a truncated disk. Some accretion flow still seems to proceed directly to the magnetosphere, however. The white dwarfs' magnetic moments are in the range 10(sup 32) - 10(sup 34) G cc, slightly weaker than in AM Her stars but with some probable overlap. The more important reason why DQ Hers have broken synchronism is probably their greater accretion rate and orbital separation. The observed L(sub x)/L(sub V) values are surprisingly low for a radially accreting white dwarf, suggesting that most of the accretion energy is not radiated in a strong shock above the magnetic pole. The fluxes can be more satisfactorily explained if most of the radial infall energy manages to bypass the shock and deposit itse lf directly in the white dwarf photosphere, where it should emerge as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. This also provides an adequate source of ionizing photons to power the high-excitation optical and UV emission lines. This is probably the DQ Her analog to the famous 'soft X-ray excess' in AM Her stars. However, unlike the AM Her case, this radiation has not been directly observed, so the analogy must not (yet) be embraced too firmly. There is some conventional wisdom today which segregates the short-period from the long-period DQ Her stars. But the observational grounds for this distinction are slim, except in one respect: X-ray emission from short-period systems appears to be weaker and softer. This must be due to the shallower depth of the potential well, and/or the greater difficulty the fast rotators have in enforcing radial accretion flow.

  6. A Global Perspective on Star Formation

    E-print Network

    S. Michael Fall

    1996-11-20

    We outline a method to infer the global history of star formation in galaxies with input only from absorption-line observations of quasars. The application of the method to existing data leads to the conclusion that most stars formed at relatively low redshifts (z <~ 2). We combine the global rate of star formation with stellar population synthesis models to compute the mean comoving emissivity and mean intensity of background radiation from far-UV to far-IR wavelengths. These predictions are consistent with all the available measurements and observational limits, including recent results from HST and COBE.

  7. Testing White Dwarf Crystallization Theory with Asteroseismology of the Massive Pulsating DA Star BPM 37093

    E-print Network

    T. S. Metcalfe; M. H. Montgomery; A. Kanaan

    2004-03-09

    It was predicted more than 40 years ago that the cores of the coolest white dwarf stars should eventually crystallize. This effect is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in white dwarf cooling models, which are now routinely used to estimate the ages of stellar populations in both the Galactic disk and the halo. We are attempting to minimize this source of uncertainty by calibrating the models, using observations of pulsating white dwarfs. In a typical mass white dwarf model, crystallization does not begin until the surface temperature reaches 6000-8000 K. In more massive white dwarf models the effect begins at higher surface temperatures, where pulsations are observed in the ZZ Ceti (DAV) stars. We use the observed pulsation periods of BPM 37093, the most massive DAV white dwarf presently known, to probe the interior and determine the size of the crystallized core empirically. Our initial exploration of the models strongly suggests the presence of a solid core containing about 90% of the stellar mass, which is consistent with our theoretical expectations.

  8. The GALEX Extended Mission: Surveying UV Tracers of the Hidden Side of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher Martin, D.

    2010-06-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) continues its surveys of the ultraviolet sky. GALEX surveys have supported the following galaxy evolution investigations: calibrating UV as a star formation rate tracer, using wide and deep surveys to measure star formation history, studying the evolution of dust extinction and metallicity, selecting and analyzing galaxies in transitory states, finding local analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies, probing and time-dating star formation in a wide variety of physical regimes. Our continuing mission is focussed on relating star formation history and galaxy evolution paths to the properties of dark matter halos and their assembly history, and on beginning to relate the evolution of galaxies to that of black holes and the intergalactic medium. GALEX has proven that the UV is an ideal band to find and map star formation in low mass, low density objects, and potentially in primordial gas. With future UV missions it may be possible to map emission from the intergalactic and circum-galactic medium, and make a definitive connection between galaxy evolution and the cooling, accretion, heating, and enrichment of gas in the cosmic web.

  9. Classification and properties of UV extinction curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, G.; Mazzei, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Patriarchi, P.; Perinotto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The catalog of Savage et al. (\\cite{ref27}) reporting colour excesses of 1415 stars from ANS photometry offers the opportunity to deeply investigate the characteristics of UV extinction curves which differ from the standard extinction of the diffuse interstellar medium. To this aim we have selected a sample of 252 curves, which have been compared with the relations derived by Cardelli et al. (\\cite{ref4}; CCM in the following) for a variety of R_V values in the range 2.4-5 and have been classified as normal if they fit at least one of the CCM curves or anomalous otherwise. We find that normal curves with small R_V are just as numerous as those with large R_V. The anomalous objects are arranged into two groups according to the strength of the bump at 0.217 mu . For a given value of c_2 this increases along the sequence: type A anomalous, normals and type B anomalous, suggesting that this sequence should correspond to an increase of the amount of small grains along the sightline. Considerations concerning the environmental characteristics indicate that the anomalous behaviour is not necessarily tied to the existence of dense gas clouds along the line of sight.

  10. Mapping the Dark Matter From UV Light at High Redshift: An Empirical Approach to Understand Galaxy Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.; Giavalisco, Mauro; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Conroy, Charlie; /Princeton U. Observ.; Wechsler, Risa H; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Dickinson, Mark E.; /NOAO, Tucson; Urry, Claudia M.; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.

    2009-08-03

    We present a simple formalism to interpret the observations of two galaxy statistics, the UV luminosity function (LF) and two-point correlation functions for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4, 5 and 6 in the context of {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Both statistics are the result of how star formation takes place in dark matter halos, and thus are used to constrain how UV light depends on halo properties, in particular halo mass. The two physical quantities we explore are the star formation duty cycle, and the range of UV luminosity that a halo of mass M can have (mean and variance). The former directly addresses the typical duration of star formation activity in halos while the latter addresses the averaged star formation history and regularity of gas inflow into these systems. In the context of this formalism, we explore various physical models consistent with all the available observational data, and find the following: (1) the typical duration of star formation observed in the data is {approx}< 0.4 Gyr (1{sigma}), (2) the inferred scaling law between the observed L{sub UV} and halo mass M from the observed faint-end slope of the luminosity functions is roughly linear out to M {approx} 10{sup 11.5} - 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} at all redshifts probed in this work, and (3) the observed L{sub UV} for a fixed halo mass M decreases with time, implying that the star formation efficiency (after dust extinction) is higher at earlier times. We explore several different physical scenarios relating star formation to halo mass, but find that these scenarios are indistinguishable due to the limited range of halo mass probed by our data. In order to discriminate between different scenarios, we discuss the possibility of using the bright-faint galaxy cross-correlation functions and more robust determination of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias for future surveys.

  11. PULSED UV: REALITIES OF ENHANCED DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative measurements of the light output from low pressure (LP), medium pressure (MP) and the pulsed UV lamps were made using calibrated spectrometry, chemical actinometry and biodosimetry approaches to compare their relative efficiency in producing germicidal UV energy. Fur...

  12. UV Spectroscopy of Newly Discovered Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    When a star passes within the sphere of disruption of a massive black hole, tidal forces will overcome self-gravity and unbind the star. While approximately half of the stellar debris is ejected at high velocities, the remaining material remains bound to the black hole and accretes, resulting in a luminous, long-lived transient known as a tidal disruption flare (TDF). Aside from serving as a unique laboratory for accretion physics, TDFs offer the hope of measuring black hole masses in galaxies much too distant for resolved kinematic studies. In the simplest analytic models, the black hole mass should scale as dt^2, where dt is the time delay between the disruption and the start of the flare. Two primary factors have so far limited precise black hole mass estimates from current TDF searches: 1) The difficulty of distinguishing a bona fide TDF from the many other transients that can occur in galactic nuclei; 2) Determing the nature of the disrupted star from the observed electromagnetic signal (in particular the presence or absence of H in optical spectra). Here we request non-disruptive ToO spectra of two nearby TDF candidates in the UV with STIS. Our objectives are to search for unique "smoking gun" signatures of the tidal disruption process, and to constrain the geometry and composition of the newly formed accretion disk (and hence the disrupted star). Much like type Ia supernovae, these observations will furthermore serve as a cornerstone for future high-redshift TDF discoveries by LSST, where the rest-frame UV emission is redshifted into the optical bandpass.

  13. Review: Magnetic Fields of O-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, strong, organized magnetic fields have been firmly detected at the surfaces of about 10 Galactic O-type stars. In this paper I will review the characteristics of the inferred fields of individual stars as well as the overall population. I will discuss the extension of the “magnetic desert,” first inferred among the A-type stars, to O stars up to 60 M?. I will discuss the interaction of the winds of the magnetic stars with the fields above their surfaces, generating complex “dynamical magnetosphere” structures detected in optical and UV lines, and in X-ray lines and continuum. Finally, I will discuss the detection of a small number of variable O stars in the LMC and SMC that exhibit spectral characteristics analogous to the known Galactic magnetic stars, and that almost certainly represent the first known examples of extragalactic magnetic stars.

  14. Searching for Star Formation in the Smith Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ashley; Stark, D.; Kannappan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries of star formation in regions previously thought impossible implies new criteria for where stars can form. The Smith Cloud, a high velocity cloud (HVC) primarily comprised of neutral hydrogen located 12 kpc away in the halo of the Milky Way, meets these criteria by having a large reservoir of gas and the tidal pull of the Milky Way as a mechanism for perturbing the gas. We obtained GALEX NUV magnitudes for stars in the field of the Smith Cloud. These sources were matched with WISE and 2MASS catalogs to obtain infrared magnitudes. We determined the expected colors of young stars in these wavelength bands using synthetic spectral libraries. By comparing the observed UV and IR colors of stars to the expected colors of young stars, while also comparing star positions to existing 21cm data, we aim to isolate possible recent star formation in the Smith Cloud.

  15. HIRES Dust Imaging of the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.

    1997-01-01

    We present here our final report for the NASA grant "HIRES Dust Imaging of the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex." This project was designed to study the photodissociation regions surrounding several OB stars in this cloud complex. NGC 6334 is unique in having at least seven distinct massive star forming regions in the same molecular cloud complex. The obvious advantage of studying young stars in the same molecular complex is that the stars all formed in the same global environment. Consequently, global factors like density waves, abundances, global magnetic field strength, and age of the parental molecular cloud cannot contribute to the differences among the star forming regions. Instead, the differences must arise only from local effects such as the mass, age, and UV fields of the individual stars. A study of NGC 6334 will greatly simplify the general problem of comparing different star formation regions by eliminating global effects.

  16. Sea Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, aren’t doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathan’s investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  17. Modulation of Immune Function by UV Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret L. Kripke; Warwick L. Morison

    1985-01-01

    In addition to its carcinogenic activity, ultraviolet (UV) radiation is capable of modifying certain immunologic reactions. Immunologic alterations induced in mice by UV radiation include both local and distant effects. Local alterations result from a direct effect of UV radiation on an immune reaction that takes place at the site of irradiation. Distant alterations are those in which exposure of

  18. 5, 46794700, 2005 UV radiation below

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 4679­4700, 2005 UV radiation below depleted Arctic vortices B. M. Knudsen et al. Title Page Discussions UV radiation below an Arctic vortex with severe ozone depletion B. M. Knudsen1 , H. Jønch a Creative Commons License. 4679 #12;ACPD 5, 4679­4700, 2005 UV radiation below depleted Arctic vortices B. M

  19. 8, 59195938, 2008 Distribution of UV

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as a consequence of large cumulative doses of the UV radiation (development of skin cancers, changeACPD 8, 5919­5938, 2008 Distribution of UV radiation over Slovakia A. Pribullov´a and M. Chmel Union. 5919 #12;ACPD 8, 5919­5938, 2008 Distribution of UV radiation over Slovakia A. Pribullov´a and M

  20. 8, 119, 2008 UV doses during

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 1­19, 2008 UV doses during psoriasis climate therapy at Gran Canaria L. T. N. Nilsen et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Estimated UV doses to psoriasis patients during climate therapy at Gran Correspondence to: L. T. N. Nilsen (lill.tove.nilsen@nrpa.no) 1 #12;ACPD 8, 1­19, 2008 UV doses during psoriasis

  1. Instant colour photography: chemistry and UV stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Usmani; I. O. Salyer

    1983-01-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) screening agent precursor, dinonylphenylisophthalate, applied as a component of a surface coating on instant colour positive photographic prints stabilizes the dyes that are used and prevents the fading of colour that otherwise occurs. It is believed that upon exposure to UV light the ester precursor rearrangesin situ to form substituted benzophenones, which are effective UV screening agents.

  2. Experimenting with UV-sensitive Beads

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Participants will experiment with ultraviolet light sensitive plastic beads, which are generally white but turn colors when exposed to UV light. Participants are informed about the nature and risks of UV light and are asked to be the scientist to explore what types of materials keep the beads, and hence the user, safe from UV light.

  3. Scintillating Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Riddle

    2003-02-01

    Often, a bright planet that is visible over the horizon will be mistaken for a star. Some believe they can tell the difference between a star and a planet because stars twinkle, or scintillate , and planets do not. In actuality however, both will twinkle because any light that passes through our atmosphere, whether it be reflected from a planet or generated by a star, will be interfered with by the atmospheric elements. This month's column sheds light on this "scintillating" subject and engages students in a research activity that revolves around the question: Is Pluto a planet?

  4. Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  5. Circumstellar disk chemistry: 2D UV radiative transfer and effects of stellar UV

    E-print Network

    Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan van

    Circumstellar disk chemistry: 2D UV radiative transfer and effects of stellar UV G.J. van Zadelhoff interstellar abundances are modified. Photodissociation by UV radiation in the upper layers and freeze radiative transfer for a correct abundance determination If CO can be photodissociated by the stellar UV

  6. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim. PMID:25594122

  7. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  8. Research on UV scattering communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ke-yan; Lou, Yan; Ding, Ying; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hongliang; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2013-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) scattering communication is a broadcast communication mode of information transmission by particles in the atmosphere scattering effect on the blind band ultraviolet light, there are many advantages such as unaffected by electromagnetic radiation, good confidentiality, non-line-of sight communication. This type communication mainly used in a short distance, secure communication, which was superior to no line communication in aspect of anti-jamming and secrecy. Firstly the military requirement of UV scattering communication is analyzed in this paper, The development trend is introduced, then the composition and working principle of ultraviolet scattering communication system are also discussed, The key influential factors of UV communication system path transmission loss effects on parameters such as receiver, transmitter and received beam divergence angle, pitch angle and the communication distance were analyzed. Attenuation was quantitatively simulated under different atmospheres, communication patterns and structure parameters. The results show that: transmission distance increases with increasing beam divergence angle and decreasing field angle. And the received view angle of influence on the communication distance is far greater than the emission beam divergence angle; transmission distance increases with increasing beam divergence angle and decreasing field and field angle effects on communication distance is greater than beam divergence angle.

  9. Subdwarf B and O Stars: Which Evolutionary Pathways?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napiwotzki, R.

    2009-03-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (spectral types subdwarf B and O) are long lived stars producing a large amount of UV radiation. This makes them excellent candidates to explain the UV radiation observed in old populations. However, the origin of both classes of hot subdwarfs is unclear. I review possible single star and binary channels. High resolution observations of hot subdwarfs taken in the course of the Supernova type Ia Progenitor surveY (SPY) are presented. The SPY observations are used for a systematic assessment of the frequency of close binaries among hot subdwarfs. Results are a high binary fraction among the subdwarf B stars - albeit not as high as in a previous investigation, but a very low binary frequency in helium-rich hot subdwarf O stars. Implications for the evolutionary status of hot subdwarfs are discussed.

  10. A 'Rosetta Stone' to Interpret the UV-HST Photometry of Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzini, Alvio

    2011-10-01

    In this proposal we intend to firmly identify the chemical species responsible for the UV and UV-optical color differences exhibited by the multiple stellar populations harboured by two Galactic globular clusters: omega Centauri and 47 Tucanae, one with highly helium enriched sub-populations {omega Centauri}, the other not.We plan to collect ultraviolet STIS spectra for stars in the crowded cores of the clusters, where HST photometry is already available for thousands of stars in more than 10 filters, from F225W to F850LP. This WFC3+ACS photometric database has allowed us to show that UV colors are remarkably effective in separating the different cluster sub-populations, and with the proposed STIS spectroscopy we can quantify the chemical abundance differences among such sub-populations, most notably in Nitrogen and Oxygen. The resulting calibration of the UV colors in terms of CNO abundances will provide a new effective tool for the chemical characterization of large numbers of globular cluster stars belonging to the various sub-populations in each cluster, and to better isolate the specific role of the helium abundance.The plan is to observe at least one star for each of the main principal stellar sub-populations in each of the two clusters. These objects are selected on the basis of their accurate photometry and astrometry already in hand, based on existing UV-HST images.

  11. UV blocking filters for polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayl, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of incorporating UV screening agents in silicone resins as a means of protecting underlying solar cell covers and adhesives from UV degradation is presented. A silicone hard-coat resin incorporating a UV screening agent was selected as a suitable coating material for PFA Teflon solar cell covers. Consideration is given to fabrication procedures and techniques for introduction of the UV screening agents into silicone resins and application of these UV-inhibited coatings to the Teflons. Some preliminary environmental tests, such as thermal shock and temperature humidity, were conducted.

  12. Photometry in UV astronomical images of extended sources in crowded field using deblended images in optical visible bands as Bayesian priors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vibert; M. Zamojski; S. Conseil; A. Llebaria; S. Arnouts; B. Milliard; M. Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Photometry of astrophysical sources, galaxies and stars, in crowded field images, if an old problem, is still a challenging goal, as new space survey missions are launched, releasing new data with increased sensibility, resolution and field of view. The GALEX mission, observes in two UV bands and produces deep sky images of millions of galaxies or stars mixed together. These

  13. Mutational Effects of Intermittent Jolts of Supernova UV Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalo, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Williams, P.

    2001-11-01

    We estimate the frequency of intermittent hypermutation events and disruptions of planetary/satellite photochemistry due to ultraviolet radiation from core collapse supernova explosions. Calculations are presented for planetary systems in the local Milky Way, including the important moderating effects of vertical Galactic structure and UV absorption by interstellar dust. The events are particularly frequent for satellites of giant gas planets at distances more than 5-10 AU from solar-type parent stars, or in the conventional habitable zones for planets orbiting spectral type K and M parent stars, with rates of significant jolts about 103 - 104 per Gyr. The steep source spectra and existing data on UVA and longer-wavelength radiation damage in terrestrial organisms suggest that the mutational effects may operate even on planets with ozone shields. We argue that the mutation doubling dose for UV radiation should be much smaller than the mean lethal dose, using terrestrial prokaryotic organisms as our model, and that jolts may lead to real-time evolutionary effects (fixation of mutations) if the jolt durations are longer than about a week, corresponding to several hundred generation times, or much less if the equivalent of resting state adaptive mutations exist in extraterrestrial organisms. Longer-term phylogenetic effects are likely if atmospheric photochemical disturbances lead to niche creation or destruction in relevant habitats. This work was supported by NSF grant 9907582.

  14. Microbial UV fluence-response assessment using a novel UV-LED collimated beam system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen Bowker; Amanda Sain; Max Shatalov; Joel Ducoste

    2011-01-01

    A research study has been performed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) fluence-response of several target non-pathogenic microorganisms to UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) by performing collimated beam tests. UV-LEDs do not contain toxic mercury, offer design flexibility due to their small size, and have a longer operational life than mercury lamps. Comsol Multiphysics was utilized to create an optimal UV-LED

  15. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  16. IR/UV and UV/UV double-resonance study of guaiacol and eugenol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longarte, Asier; Redondo, Carolina; Fernández, José A.; Castaño, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) molecules are biologically active phenol derivatives with an intramolecular -OH⋯OCH3 hydrogen bond (H bond). Pulsed supersonic expansions of mixtures of either of the two molecules with He yield weakly bound homodimers as well as other higher-order complexes. A number of complementary and powerful laser spectroscopic techniques, including UV-UV and IR-UV double resonances, have been employed to interrogate the species formed in the expansion in order to get information on their structures and spectroscopic properties. The interpretation of the spectra of eugenol dimer is complex and required a previous investigation on a similar but simpler molecule both to gain insight into the possible structures and support the conclusions. Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) has been used for that purpose. The combination of the broad laser study combined with ab initio calculations at the Becke 3 Lee-Yang-Parr/6-31+G(d) level has provided the isomer structures, the potential-energy wells, and shed light on the inter- and intramolecular interactions involved. Guaiacol homodimer has been shown to have a single isomer whereas eugenol dimer has at least two. The comparison between the computed geometries of the dimers, their respective energies, and the vibrational normal modes permits the identification of the spectra.

  17. Microbial UV fluence-response assessment using a novel UV-LED collimated beam system.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Colleen; Sain, Amanda; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel

    2011-02-01

    A research study has been performed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) fluence-response of several target non-pathogenic microorganisms to UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) by performing collimated beam tests. UV-LEDs do not contain toxic mercury, offer design flexibility due to their small size, and have a longer operational life than mercury lamps. Comsol Multiphysics was utilized to create an optimal UV-LED collimated beam design based on number and spacing of UV-LEDs and distance of the sample from the light source while minimizing the overall cost. The optimized UV-LED collimated beam apparatus and a low-pressure mercury lamp collimated beam apparatus were used to determine the UV fluence-response of three surrogate microorganisms (Escherichia coli, MS-2, T7) to 255 nm UV-LEDs, 275 nm UV-LEDs, and 254 nm low-pressure mercury lamps. Irradiation by low-pressure mercury lamps produced greater E. coli and MS-2 inactivation than 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs and similar T7 inactivation to irradiation by 275 nm UV-LEDs. The 275 nm UV-LEDs produced more efficient T7 and E. coli inactivation than 255 nm UV-LEDs while both 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs produced comparable microbial inactivation for MS-2. Differences may have been caused by a departure from the time-dose reciprocity law due to microbial repair mechanisms. PMID:21220143

  18. A Spectral Atlas of lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of lambda Bootes stars, a permanent confusion about their classification can be found in literature. This group of non-magnetic, Population I, metal-poor A to F-type stars, has often been used as some sort of trash can for "exotic" and spectroscopically dubious objects. Some attempts have been made to establish a homogeneous group of stars which share the same common properties. Unfortunately, the flood of "new" information (e.g. UV and IR data) led again to a whole zoo of objects classified as lambda Bootes stars, which, however, are apparent non-members. To overcome this unsatisfying situation, a spectral atlas of well established lambda Bootes stars for the classical optical domain was compiled. It includes intermediate dispersion (40 and 120 Å mm^{-1}) spectra of three lambda Bootes, as well as appropriate MK standard stars. Furthermore, "suspicious" objects, such as shell and Field Horizontal Branch stars, have been considered in order to provide to classifiers a homogeneous reference. As a further step, a high resolution (8 Å mm^{-1}) spectrum of one "classical" lambda Bootes star in the same wavelength region (3800-4600 Å) is presented. In total, 55 lines can be used for this particular star to derive detailed abundances for nine heavy elements (Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr and Ba).

  19. Star dust.

    PubMed

    Ney, E P

    1977-02-11

    Infrared astronomy has shown that certain classes of stars are abundant producers of refractory grains, which condense in their atmospheres and are blown into interstellar space by the radiation pressure of these stars. Metallic silicates of the kind that produce terrestrial planets are injected by the oxygen-rich stars and carbon and its refractories by carbon stars. Much of the interstellar dust may be produced by this mechanism. A number of "infrared stars" are completely surrounded by their own dust, and a few of these exhibit a unique morphology that suggests the formation of a planetary system or a stage in the evolution of a planetary nebula. Certain novae also condense grains, which are blown out in their shells. In our own solar system, comets are found to contain the same silicates that are present elsewhere in the galaxy, suggesting that these constituents were present in the primeval solar nebula. PMID:17732279

  20. UV/IR mixing and the Goldstone theorem in noncommutative field theory

    E-print Network

    F. Ruiz Ruiz

    2002-05-27

    Noncommutative IR singularities and UV/IR mixing in relation with the Goldstone theorem for complex scalar field theory are investigated. The classical model has two coupling constants, $\\lambda_1$ and $\\lambda_2$, associated to the two noncommutative extensions $\\phi^*\\star\\phi\\star\\phi^*\\star\\phi$ and $\\phi^*\\star\\phi^*\\star\\phi\\star\\phi$ of the interaction term $|\\phi|^4$ on commutative spacetime. It is shown that the symmetric phase is one-loop renormalizable for all $\\lambda_1$ and $\\lambda_2$ compatible with perturbation theory, whereas the broken phase is proved to exist at one loop only if $\\lambda_2=0$, a condition required by the Ward identities for global U(1) invariance. Explicit expressions for the noncommutative IR singularities in the 1PI Green functions of both phases are given. They show that UV/IR duality does not hold for any of the phases and that the broken phase is free of quadratic noncommutative IR singularities. More remarkably, the pion selfenergy does not have noncommutative IR singularities at all, which proves essential to formulate the Goldstone theorem at one loop for all values of the spacetime noncommutativity parameter $\\theta$.

  1. UV/IR mixing and the Goldstone theorem in noncommutative field theory

    E-print Network

    Ruiz, F R

    2002-01-01

    Noncommutative IR singularities and UV/IR mixing in relation with the Goldstone theorem for complex scalar field theory are investigated. The classical model has two coupling constants, $\\lambda_1$ and $\\lambda_2$, associated to the two noncommutative extensions $\\phi^*\\star\\phi\\star\\phi^*\\star\\phi$ and $\\phi^*\\star\\phi^*\\star\\phi\\star\\phi$ of the interaction term $|\\phi|^4$ on commutative spacetime. It is shown that the symmetric phase is one-loop renormalizable for all $\\lambda_1$ and $\\lambda_2$ compatible with perturbation theory, whereas the broken phase is proved to exist at one loop only if $\\lambda_2=0$, a condition required by the Ward identities for global U(1) invariance. Explicit expressions for the noncommutative IR singularities in the 1PI Green functions of both phases are given. They show that UV/IR duality does not hold for any of the phases and that the broken phase is free of quadratic noncommutative IR singularities. More remarkably, the pion selfenergy does not have noncommutative IR sing...

  2. The ultraviolet-bright stars of Omega Centauri, M3, and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Whitney, Jonathan H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hill, Robert S.; Maran, Stephen P.; Parise, Ronald A.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew A.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new UV-bright stars detected within 2 arcmin of the center of Omega Cen are spectroscopically investigated with the short-wavelength spectrograph of the IUE. The IUE spectra of the UV-bright stars UIT-1 and UIT-2 in the core of Omega Cen superficially resemble those of Population I mid-B stars. The absorption lines of the core UV-bright stars are significantly weaker than in Population I stars, consistent with their membership in the cluster. Synthetic spectra calculated from low-metallicity Kurucz model stellar atmospheres are compared with the spectra. These objects are insufficiently luminous to be classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars. They may be evolved hot horizontal branch stars which have been brightened by more than 3 mag since leaving the zero-age horizontal branch. It is inferred from the spectra and luminosity of the core UV-bright stars that similar objects could provide the source of the UV light in elliptical galaxies.

  3. Studies on the Recombination Genes of Bacteriophage T4: Suppression of uvsX and uvsY Mutations by uvsW Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Yonesaki, Tetsuro; Minagawa, Teiichi

    1987-01-01

    Genes uvsW, uvsX and uvsY are dispensable for T4 growth but are implicated in recombination and in the repair of damaged DNA. We found that large-plaque mutants arose efficiently from small-plaque uvsX and uvsY mutants at 42° and were pseudorevertants containing a new mutation in uvsW. Using reconstructed double mutants, we confirmed that a mutation in uvsW partially increases the burst size and UV resistance of uvsX and uvsY mutants. At 41° the uvsW mutation completely restores the arrest in DNA synthesis caused by mutations in genes uvsX, uvsY and 46, but at 30° it only partially restores DNA synthesis in a gene 46 mutant and does not restore DNA synthesis in uvsX and uvsY mutants. Restored DNA synthesis at 41° was paralleled by the overproduction of single-stranded DNA and gene 32 protein. Based on these findings, we propose that the uvsW gene regulates the production of single-stranded DNA and we discuss the phenotype of uvsW mutants and their suppression of some uvsX and uvsY phenotypes. Infection of restrictive cells with am uvsW mutants revealed a defect in the synthesis of a protein of molecular weight 53,000 daltons, suggesting that this protein is the uvsW gene product. PMID:3549448

  4. IUE observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.

    1982-01-01

    The main photometric and spectroscopic characteristics in the ultraviolet and visual range of the most extensively studied symbiotic stars are reviewed. The main data obtained with IUE concern: (1) the determination of the shape of the UV continuum, which, in some cases, proves without doubt the presence of a hot companion; and the determination of the interstellar extinction by means of the lambda 2200 feature; (2) the measurement of emission lines, which enables us to derive the electron temperature and density of the circumstellar envelope, and, taken together with those lines observed in the visual, give more complete information on which spectroscopic mechanisms operate in the envelope; (3) the observation of absorption lines in the UV, which are present in just a few cases.

  5. Infrared photometry of O stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, J. I.; Simon, T.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a survey of 50 O stars in the J, H, K, L, and M bands are described. The observations are described, and the fitting of reddening relations to them is discussed. The zero points in the reddening relations are related to the intrinsic colors of the samples of normal stars, and these are compared with theoretical colors. The comparison reveals anomalies at L and M, which are discussed. The residuals for an individual star from the reddening relations are a measure of its infrared excesses, if indeed it has any. How the excesses can be fitted to a stellar wind model to derive a parameter that involves the rate of mass loss in the wind, the stellar radius and temperature, and wind terminal velocity is considered. The results for a number of individual stars are discussed and compared with other mass loss measurements, and it is concluded that no single model is capable of reconciling the IR, UV, radio, and H-alpha observations for the stars.

  6. Influence of UV activity on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Segura, Antigona; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2014-06-01

    A wide range of potentially rocky transiting planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been detected by Kepler as well as ground-based searches. The spectral type of the host star will influence our ability to detect atmospheric features with future space and ground based missions like JWST, GMT and E-ELT. Particularly the active and inactive M stars are a stellar class, covering a wide range of UV luminosity, that will influence the detectability of habitable conditions. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by Hubble as well as IUE, we model Earth-like planets orbiting a wide range of M-dwarfs from M0 to M9 for both active and inactive stars. These planets are the first ones that should become available to observations with JWST and E-ELT. A wide range of such targets will soon be identified in our Solar Neighborhood by the 2017 TESS mission.

  7. Small observatories for the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah; Balabanov, Vladimir; Behar, Ehud

    2014-11-01

    We describe concepts for small space telescopes that are able to provide significant UV science and can be realized with small (but realistic) budgets. The concepts are based on nano-satellites carrying small optics, with no redundancy, without producing intermediate models prior to flight model, and using COTS (custom off-the-shelf) components. We describe a few concepts of deployable optics that could provide large collecting areas and high angular resolution while packaged in the small volume of a nano-satellite. We point out areas where technological development is still required.

  8. A search for near-infrared molecular hydrogen emission in the CTTS LkHalpha 264 and the debris disk 49 Ceti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Carmona; M. E. van den Ancker; Th. Henning; M. Goto; D. Fedele; B. Stecklum

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first results of a search for molecular hydrogen emission from protoplanetary disks using CRIRES, ESO's new VLT Adaptive Optics high resolution near-infrared spectrograph. We observed the classical T Tauri star LkHalpha 264 and the debris disk 49 Cet, and searched for upsilo= 1-0 S(1) H2 emission at 2.1218 mum, upsilo = 1-0 S(0) H2 emission at

  9. The research of UV curing injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pengcheng; Chang, Le; Song, Le; Cai, Tianze; Ding, Yumei; Yang, Weimin

    2015-05-01

    The micro-injection molding technology and the UV (ultraviolet) curing technique are combined to bring about a new plastic forming method, UV curing injection molding. The mean weight of micro-product is an important process characteristic for UV curing injection molding as well as the surface quality of micro-features is another important process characteristic for this new plastic forming method. This research investigates three effects of processing factors on the mass-change rate of micro-product and the surface quality of micro-features. In every particular, the following two factors are considered: UV material system temperature and the packing pressure. The study revealed that as usual, the micro-products gain weight with the imported increasing UV material system temperature and the improved packing pressure. Meanwhile, the increasing packing pressure also improves the surface quality, yet, warming the UV system temperature up has no effect on the quality of the product.

  10. Stars equilibrium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    What causes the fusion reaction in a star's core? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to processes inside a star. Students read about the equilibrium process in a star, in which outward gas pressure equals inward gravitational pressure. Then, an interactive lab activity offers students the opportunity to predict temperature, pressure, and gravity changes that occur during equilibrium. The chemical reactions of the fusion process are presented, and more specific detailed reactions are available in a pop-up box. Student practice quizzes about the equilibrium process and pressure and gravity interactions inside the star are included, as are answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter and gravitational physics. Observations of neutron stars from sources such as radio pulsars, low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray bursts and thermally-emitting neutron stars are setting bounds to neutron star masses, radii, rotation rates, temperatures and ages. Mass measurements constrain the equation of state at the highest densities and set firm bounds to the highest possible density of cold matter. Radii constrain the equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density and yield information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are in remarkable agreement with observational bounds.

  12. Scattered starlight contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars

    E-print Network

    Frederic Zagury

    2001-07-10

    The comparison, undertaken in preceding papers, of the UV observations of nebulae and of reddened stars reveals contradictory aspects of interstellar extinction. The aim of this paper is to understand the implications hidden behind the apparent contradictions. The questions treated will be: how can small grains with an isotropic phase function make an appreciable contribution in the UV spectrum of a star? Why are small grains not observed in the spectrum of a nebula? How much of starlight can be scattered by large grains in the forward direction?

  13. Tycho's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A supernova remnant in Cassiopeia, 7.7° north of ? Cas, which suddenly appeared as a brilliant naked-eye star in November 1572 and reached a maximum apparent magnitude of -3.5. Until its disappearance 16 months later, it was extensively studied by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), who described its early appearance as follows: `Initially, the new star was brighter than any other fixe...

  14. Tycho's Star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    A supernova remnant in Cassiopeia, 7.7° north of alpha Cas, which suddenly appeared as a brilliant naked-eye star in November 1572 and reached a maximum apparent magnitude of -3.5. Until its disappearance 16 months later, it was extensively studied by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), who described its early appearance as follows: `Initially, the new star was brighter than

  15. UV filters for lighting of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-01-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  16. Quantification of Biological Effectiveness of UV Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Horneck; P. Rettberg; R. Facius; K. Scherer

    To assess the risks to human health and ecosystems from an enhanced UV-B radiation, accurate and reliable UV monitoring systems\\u000a are required that weights the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. Biological dosimetry\\u000a meets these requirements by directly weighting the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the biological effectiveness\\u000a of the different wavelengths and to

  17. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  18. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants.

    PubMed

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  19. Transcriptional profiling of summer wheat, grown under different realistic UV-B irradiation regimes.

    PubMed

    Zinser, Christian; Seidlitz, Harald K; Welzl, Gerhard; Sandermann, Heinrich; Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter; Rau, Werner

    2007-07-01

    There is limited information on the impact of present-day ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on a reprogramming of gene expression in crops. Summer wheat was cultivated in controlled environmental facilities under simulated realistic climatic conditions. We investigated the effect of different regimes of UV-B radiation on summer wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Nandu, Star and Turbo. Until recently, these were most important in Bavaria. Different cultivars of crops often show great differences in their sensitivity towards UV-B radiation. To identify genes that might be involved in UV-B defence mechanisms, we first analyzed selected genes known to be involved in plant defence mechanisms. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA isolated from the flag leaf of 84-day-old plants showed differences in transcript levels among the cultivars. Flag leaves are known to be important for grain development, which was completed at 84 days post-anthesis. Catalase 2 (Cat2) transcripts were elevated by increased UV irradiation in all cultivars with highest levels in cv. Nandu. Pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) transcripts were elevated only in cv. Star. A minor influence on transcripts for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was observed in all three cultivars. This indicates different levels of acclimation to UV-B radiation in the wheat cultivars studied. To analyze these responses in more detail, UV-B-exposed flag leaves of 84-day-old wheat (cv. Nandu) were pooled to isolate cDNAs of induced genes by suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH). Among the initially isolated cDNA clones, 13 were verified by RNA gel blot analysis showing an up-regulation at elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Functional classification revealed genes encoding proteins associated with protein assembly, chaperonins, programmed cell death and signal transduction. We also studied growth, flowering time, ear development and yield as more typical agricultural parameters. Plant growth of young plants was reduced at increased UV-B radiation. Flowering and ear development were delayed concomitantly, whereas total grain weight was not influenced at any of the UV-B irradiation regimes. PMID:16893592

  20. Chemical abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacox, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An abundance analysis has been conducted of 21 elements in 21 Hg-Mn, two Si-Cr, and six normal stars using model atmospheres and high-dispersion spectroscopy in the visible and UV. Manganese line strengths imply abundances that correlate well with stellar effective temperature. Within the studied sample of Hg-Mn stars there appears to be no correlation of abundances of any element with projected rotational velocity. Abundances in several Hg-Mn stars show patterns that are probably consistent with diffusion but difficult to reconcile with equilibrium nucleosynthesis. In general, no combination of gross stellar physical parameters is sufficient to characterize the patterns of line strengths observed in Hg-Mb Hg-Mn stars.

  1. The UV Index and Sun Protection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the Government of Canada provides educational materials on the UV index (created from data from thirteen monitoring sites across Canada), UV radiation, ozone, and issues in weather and ozone depletion. It is intended to create awareness of health risks of UV radiation by offering activities for children and reading materials for adults on the matter. A summary of UV radiation and ozone science, information on ozone and radiation monitoring activities by Canada and the US, and links to data sets and publications are given. Among the "bells and whistles" are a printable poster and coloring pages for children and RealPlayer movies.

  2. Star formation in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, J. M. Rodriguez; Rudy, Richard J.; Jones, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the IRAS data for a sample of classical (optically selected) Seyfert galaxies is presented. The IRAS fluxes at 25 micron, 60 micron, and 100 micron are found to be uncorrelated or only very weakly correlated with the UV/Optical continuum flux and the near and mid IR flux at 3.5 and 10 microns. To investigate the possibility that star formation accounts for the far IR flux, the IRAS measurements for the Seyfert galaxies are compared to IRAS observations of a sample of normal spiral galaxies, and a sample of Starburst galaxies. It is shown that the far IR luminosities and far IR colors of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable from those of the Starburst galaxies. Besides, normal galaxies are an order of magnitude less luminous than both the Seyfert and the Starburst galaxies. This indicates that star formation produces the bulk of the far infrared emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  3. New technologies for UV detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Several technologies are currently being developed, leading to substantial improvements in the performance of UV detectors or significant reductions in power or weight. Four technologies discussed are (1) thin-film coatings to enhance the UV sensitivity of CCD's, (2) highly innovative magnet assemblies that dramatically reduce weight and result in virtually no external flux, (3) new techniques for curving microchannel plates (MCP's) so that single plates can be used to prevent ion feedback and present highly localized charge clouds to an anode structure, and (4) high-performance alternatives to glass-based MCP's. In item (2), for example, very robust magnets are made out of rare earth materials such as samarium cobalt, and cladding magnets are employed to prevent flux from escaping from the detector into the external environment. These new ultralight magnet assemblies are able to create strong, exceptionally uniform magnetic fields for image intensification and focusing of photoelectrons. The principle advantage of such detectors is the quantum efficiencies of 70-80 percent obtained throughout ultraviolet wavelengths (900-2000 A), the highest of any device. Despite the improvements achieved under item (3), high-performance alternatives to conventional glass-based MCP's potentially offer three distinct new advantages that include (1) a 30-100-fold improvement in dynamic range resulting in correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratios, (2) the use of pure dielectric and semiconductor materials that will not outgas contaminants that eventually destroy photocathodes, and (3) channels that have constant spacing providing long-ranged order since the plates are made using photolithography techniques from the semiconductor industry. The manufacturers of these advanced-technology MCP's, however, are a couple of years away from actually producing a functioning image intensifier. In contrast to the use of CCD's for optical, ground based observations, there is no single detector technology in the ultraviolet that dominates or is as universally suitable for all applications. Thus, several technological problems, recent advances, and the impact that these new enabling technologies represent for UV applications are addressed.

  4. Tomographic separation of composite spectra. The components of Plaskett's Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of Plaskett's Star (HD 47129), a 14.4 day period, double lined O-type spectroscopic binary were analyzed. Archival data from IUE (17 spectra well distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with several techniques. A cross correlation analysis, which showed that the secondary produces significant lines in the UV, indicates that the mass ratio is q = 1.18 + or - 0.12 (secondary slightly more massive). A tomography algorithm was used to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The interpolated spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, 07.3 I and 06.2 I, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. The intensity ratio of the stars in the UV is 0.53 + or - 0.05 (primary brighter). The secondary lines appear rotationally broadened, and the projected rotational velocity V sin i for this star is estimated to be 310 + or - 20 km/s. The possible evolutionary history of this system is discussed through a comparison of the positions of the components and evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

  5. Star Formation Efficiency in the Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N.; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and H? (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to H? luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and H? morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given H? luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/H? ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ~ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ~0.05 M sun yr-1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ~5 M sun yr-1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, H?, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14+18 - 8%. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  6. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rupke, David S. N., E-mail: mcdonald@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and H{alpha} (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to H{alpha} luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and H{alpha} morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given H{alpha} luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/H{alpha} ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) {approx} 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from {approx}0.05 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to {approx}5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, H{alpha}, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14{sup +18}{sub -8}%. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  7. Fundamental parameters of Wolf-Rayet stars. III. The evolutionary status of WNL stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, P. A.; Smith, L. J.; Hillier, D. J.; Schmutz, W.

    1995-01-01

    New high S/N optical observations of 9 Galactic WNL (WN7-8) stars are presented. The spectra have been analysed using tailored non-LTE model atmospheres by Crowther et al. (1994c). Here we use the derived stellar parameters and abundances for a thorough investigation of the evolutionary status and mass-loss properties of WNL stars. We have identified two distinct groups of WNL stars from their observed properties. The WNL+abs and WN7 stars have high luminosities (log L/Lsun_~5.9) and form a continuity in morphology and physical parameters from the Of stars. They appear to be intimately related to these stars, confirming the suspicion of Walborn (1973) and are descended from extremely massive progenitors (M_initial_>60Msun_) through the sequence O->Of->WNL+abs->WN7(->WNE)->WC->SN. In contrast, the evolutionary sequence for WN8 stars is identified as O->LBV or RSG->WN8->WNE->WC->SN. These stars, with lower luminosities (log L/Lsun_~5.5), are descended from less massive stars, and have either red supergiant (RSG, 25Msun_stars have in common with LBVs, e.g. spatial distribution, association with ejecta nebulae, low binary frequency, large photometric variability. We also find that those stars with the highest terminal velocities (WN7+abs stars) have the lowest variability while the WN8 stars and LBVs (low wind velocities) are the most variable. The smooth progression of mass loss properties from O supergiants to WNL stars found by Lamers & Leitherer (1993) is confirmed with the WNL+abs stars lying intermediately between the WN8 stars and O stars. The spectroscopic differences between Ofpe and WNL+abs stars appear to be attributable principally to a difference in wind density. This naturally explains the often ambiguous Of-WN spectral classification of some Of and WNL stars (Conti & Bohannan 1989). Finally, interstellar reddenings are determined using two independent methods based on the model atmosphere continuum distributions and the observed ubv colours. We find that the UV reddening towards WR25 (WN7+abs) is highly anomalous (R=4.6), confiming the findings of Tapia et al. (1988) for stars in Tr 16 in the Carina nebula.

  8. Measurements of UV radiation on rotating vertical plane at the ALOMAR Observatory (69° N, 16° E), Norway, June 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, P.; Krzy?cin, J. W.; Jaroslawski, J.; Stebel, K.

    2008-06-01

    Erythemaly weighted UV and total UV-A irradiance measured at the ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research; 69° N, 16° E) in June 2007 by two Kipp & Zonen UV broadband meters type, UV-S-EA-T, are examined. One unit is mounted on rotating vertical plane and the other is permanently fixed horizontally. The UV broadband meters measure simultaneously to compare UV irradiances on vertical and horizontal planes. The entire range of such relative exposure variations during clear-sky and overcast conditions over ALOMAR in the period March June 2007 is examined using STAR and Radonic1 model (developed at the Meteorological Institute, University of Munich) for various action spectra: erythema, UV-A, and vitamin D3. The model and observations support that the daily means of relative exposures are quite stable, i.e., vary within the range 0.4 0.6 with the mean around 0.5 when the averaged intra-day, day-to-day, and seasonal changes of the relative erythemal exposures are considered. It seems that multiplication of the daily mean dose from a broadband meter placed horizontally by the factor of 0.5 gives reasonable estimation of the daily mean exposure on a vertically oriented receiver randomly oriented towards the Sun. The model studies during clear-sky conditions show that the extreme value and daily variability of relative exposure are the highest for UV-A, next for erythemal UV, then for vitamin D3 weighed UV irradiance. The minima of relative exposure (~0.20 0.30) are almost the same for all weighting functions. The comparison of model simulations and measurements suggests that specific cloud configuration could lead to significant enhancement of UV exposure of rotating receiver.

  9. The Ultraviolet Sky: final catalogs of unique UV sources from GALEX, and characterization of the UV-emitting sources across the sky, and of the Milky Way extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Conti, A.; Shiao, B.; Keller, G. R.; Thilker, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which imaged the sky at Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for about 9 years, is its unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects. GALEX's data, the first substantial sky surveys at UV wavelengths, offer an unprecedented view of the sky and a unique opportunity for an unbiased characterization of several classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, QSOs at red-shift about 1, UV-peculiar QSOs, star-forming galaxies, among others. Bianchi et al. (2013, J. Adv. Space Res. (2013), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.045) have constructed final catalogs of UV sources, with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source ('unique' source catalogs), and excluding rim artifacts and bad photometry. The catalogs are constructed improving on the recipe of Bianchi et al. 2011 (MNRAS, 411, 2770, which presented the earlier version of these catalogs) and include all data for the major surveys, AIS and MIS. Considering the fields where both FUV and NUV detectors were exposed, the catalogs contain about 71 and 16.6 million unique sources respectively. We show several maps illustrating the content of UV sources across the sky, globally, and separately for bright/faint, hot, stellar/extragalactic objects. We matched the UV-source catalogs with optical-IR data from the SDSS, GSC2, 2MASS surveys. We are also in the process of matching the catalogs with preliminary PanSTARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey photometry which already provides twice the sky coverage of SDSS, at slightly fainter magnitude limits. The sources' SED from FUV to optical wavelengths enables classification, derivation of the object physical parameters, and ultimately also a map of the Milky Way extinction. The catalogs will be available on MAST, Vizier (where the previous version already is), and in reduced form (for agile downloading), with related tools, from the author web site " http://dolomiti.pha.jhu.edu/uvsky "

  10. Standard stars for photometry of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, Wayne H.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Carsenty, Uri; Millis, Robert L.; Schleicher, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnitudes are presented in 10 bandpasses for 63 stars that can be used as standards in photometric observations of comets. The bandpasses are, in addition to those for three (UV, blue, and red) continuum points, those which measure C2, C3, CN, CO(+), H2O(+), OH, and NH emissions. After correction for extinction, the derived magnitudes were transformed to a zero point such that all filters showed magnitude 5.88 for the star HD 3379. The internal agreement among the present observations and the agreement obtained between the observations and independently published measures indicate that the derived magnitudes are generally accurate to + or - 0.01 mag.

  11. UV Cameras for Volcanic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburelllo, G.; Swanson, E.

    2011-12-01

    Levels of SO2 emission provide valuable information on the activity status of volcanic systems and are routinely used in hazard and risk assessment. A recent development in this field is UV camera technology, an effective and easy to use method for remote monitoring of volcanic emissions, which provides information across the full field of view and real time analysis of equipment set-up and performance. This study, carried out on Stromboli, Italy, in July 2010 sought to explore the range of data available from this technique and improve issues relating to instrument calibration, building on the findings of Kantazas et al (2010) and Kern et al (2010). A 1Hz passive and explosive degassing data set was obtained using a dual camera set-up, filters focused on 310 nm and 330 nm wavelengths, in conjunction with a fixed point USB2000 spectrometer. The cameras were initially calibrated using cells containing known values of SO2. During recording periods the adoption of a new rapid calibration protocol provided enhanced data quality whilst minimising monitoring down time. Data was analysed using an in house built Lab View VI routine (Tamburello et al 2011). The ability to take multi directional plume cross sections improved the accuracy of obliquely angled plume data, whilst enabling within program measurement of plume speed. Explosive masses were also measured with values obtained for both short duration and prolonged release events. In addition to emitted SO2, the visual aspect of data sets enabled measurement and monitoring of ascent velocities, direction of ejection, plume collimation and changes between explosive types. Furthermore, flexibility within post processing set-up permitted concurrent analysis of passive and active degassing behaviours. Time shifting of plume traces to the start times of explosive events allowing interplay between these two behaviours to be directly studied. This work demonstrates that UV cameras are versatile and a valuable contributor to the systematic study of volcanic degassing processes.

  12. Response of biological uv dosimeters to the simulated extraterrestrial uv radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bérces; G. Rontó; T. Kerékgyártó; G. Kovács; H. Lammer

    2002-01-01

    In the Laboratory polycrystalline uracil thin layer and bacteriophage T7 detectors have been developed for UV dosimetry on the EarthSs surface. Exponential response of the uracil polycrystal has been detected both by absorption spectroscopy and measurements of the refractive index under the influence of terrestrial solar radiation or using UV-C sources. In UV biological dosimetry the UV dose scale is

  13. UV and optical spectrum variability of T Tau and RY Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Quliyev, N. Kh.; Khalilov, O. V.; Adigezalzade, H. N.

    2013-03-01

    In this report we have presented results of spectral observations of classical T Tauri type stars T Tau and RY Tau. Observational dates were obtained from following sources: spectrograms of the UV range from the IUE archive data, and spectrograms of the visual range obtained in the 2 m telescope of ShAO of the NAS of Azerbaijan (Ismailov et al. 2010). For both of stars on the Scargle method we have searched a periodicity of variations in equivalent widths of emission lines in the optical and UV ranges. In the RY Tau firstly was detected the periodic variability in MgII ?2800 Å emission doublet intensities with a period of 23 days. The observed period had also revealed with the equivalent widths and displacements of components of H? and H+H? and K CaII emission.

  14. The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of PAHs: A Semi-Empirical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted PAH emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) PAH ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for PAH ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates PAH ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of PAH ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR PAH features.

  15. Proline Accumulates in Plants Exposed to uv Radiation and Protects Them against uv-Induced Peroxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Saradhi; S. AliaArora; K. V. S. K. Prasad

    1995-01-01

    Proline accumulated in the shoots of seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa), mustard (Brassica juncea) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) exposed to UV radiations. The level of proline in the seedlings increased significantly with increase in UV exposure time. The production of malondialdehyde (an indice of lipid peroxidation) was also higher in the shoots of seedlings exposed to UV radiation, as

  16. Characterizing a UV chamber with mercury lamps for assessment of comparability to natural UV conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Heikkilä; P. Kärhä; A. Tanskanen; M. Kaunismaa; T. Koskela; J. Kaurola; T. Ture; S. Syrjälä

    2009-01-01

    UV radiation conditions in a UV chamber equipped with four 300-W mercury vapour lamps have been characterized to assess the exposure received by the specimens aged in the chamber. Spectrally resolved measurements were performed on UV radiation emitted by new lamps and lamps operated for 4850h in the chamber. An intensity decrease of as much as 75% with a strong

  17. The Rest Frame UV to Optical Colors and SEDs of z~4-7 Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentino Gonzalez; Rychard Bouwens; Ivo Labbe; Garth Illingworth; Pascal Oesch; Marijn Franx; Dan Magee

    2011-01-01

    We use the ultra-deep HUDF09 and the deep ERS data from the HST WFC3\\/IR camera, along with the wide area Spitzer\\/IRAC data from GOODS-S to derive SEDs of star-forming galaxies from the rest-frame UV to the optical over a wide luminosity range (M_1500 ~ -21 to M_1500 ~ -18) from z ~ 7 to z ~ 4. The sample contains

  18. Are Dusty Galaxies Blue? Insights on UV Attenuation from Dust-selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, C. M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N.; Cooray, A.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Capak, P.; Conley, A.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 ?m in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (?) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L IR/L UV ? IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR >~ 50 M ? yr-1 deviate from the nominal IRX-? relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of Lt1% at z <~ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M ? yr-1, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ~ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  19. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  20. Tenuous Disks around Young G Stars: Temperature & Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Kamp; Fatima Sammar

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of circumstellar disks around young (~10 Myr) solar-type stars is mainly driven by the strong UV radiation field of the central star. Stationary non-flaring disk models are used to derive self-consistently the chemical composition and gas\\/dust temperatures. Such models and high resolution observations are needed for a better understanding of the transition phase from gaseous protoplanetary disks to

  1. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. de Gruijl

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

  2. Detectivity of a UV-B photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, Joseph C.; Baisley, V. C.; Huffman, Robert E.; Meade, Robert D.; Joannopoulos, John D.

    1994-09-01

    This paper reports on the transmission by a thin silver filter of the UV-B band, and on the suitability of this filter for use in combination with a silicon photodiode to make a simple, versatile detector for the UV-B band. The UV-B band, from 280 to 320 nanometers, is considered the most dangerous region of ultraviolet sunlight which reaches the earth's surface, since it is the most likely UV radiation to cause skin cancer. Skin cancer cases are increasing, and the increase is linked to increased surface UV radiation due to the thinning levels of stratospheric ozone. Thus, there is a need to develop simple methods for monitoring UV-B. The fortuitous transmission of silver films in the UV-B band, known to the authors from a single reference, has apparently been overlooked in recent instrumentation papers. The transmission and detectivity measurements given here indicate that thin silver films may indeed have a use in simple UV-B exposure meters.

  3. UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dpeletion of stratospheric O3 layer should result in enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation at the earth's surface compared to present, with potentially damaging effects on biological systems. his paper briefly summarizes some key findings for UV-B effects on terrestri...

  4. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  5. UV\\/visible albedos from airborne measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Webb; A. Kylling; I. Stromberg

    2003-01-01

    During the INSPECTRO campaign effective surface albedo was measured at UV and visible wavelengths from two airborne platforms, a Cessna light aircraft and a hot air balloon. On board the Cessna was a scanning spectroradiometer measuring from 300 - 500nm at 10nm intervals. The NILU cube, with 6 faces and two UV channels at 312 and 340nm, was suspended beneath

  6. Dynamic Characterization of a UV Fluorescent Lamp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koksal Erenturk

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescent lamp has been addressed in this paper. Based on a recently developed lamp model, a semiempirical modeling technique has been applied for dynamic modeling of a UV fluorescent lamp. In the modeling stage, simple electrical measurements have been used. In the proposed mathematical model, model parameters have been determined from electrical voltage and

  7. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a "variable star". The percentage is much higher among large, cool stars ("red giants") - in fact, almost all luminous stars of that type are variable. Such stars are known as Mira-variables ; the name comes from the most prominent member of this class, Omicron Ceti in the constellation Cetus (The Whale), also known as "Stella Mira" (The Wonderful Star). Its brightness changes with a period of 332 days and it is about 1500 times brighter at maximum (visible magnitude 2 and one of the fifty brightest stars in the sky) than at minimum (magnitude 10 and only visible in small telescopes) [2]. Stars like Omicron Ceti are nearing the end of their life. They are very large and have sizes from a few hundred to about a thousand times that of the Sun. The brightness variation is due to pulsations during which the star's temperature and size change dramatically. In the following evolutionary phase, Mira-variables will shed their outer layers into surrounding space and become visible as planetary nebulae with a hot and compact star (a "white dwarf") at the middle of a nebula of gas and dust (cf. the "Dumbbell Nebula" - ESO PR Photo 38a-b/98 ). Several thousand Mira-type stars are currently known in the Milky Way galaxy and a few hundred have been found in other nearby galaxies, including the Magellanic Clouds. The peculiar galaxy Centaurus A ESO PR Photo 14a/03 ESO PR Photo 14a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 53k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 528k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3612 x 4075 pix - 8.4M] ESO PR Photo 14b/03 ESO PR Photo 14b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 570 x 400 pix - 52k [Normal - JPEG: 1140 x 800 pix - 392k] ESO PR Photo 14c/03 ESO PR Photo 14c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 61k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 768k] ESO PR Photo 14d/03 ESO PR Photo 14d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 56k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 760k] Captions : PR Photo 14a/03 is a colour composite photo of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) , obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) cam

  8. THE FAR-INFRARED, UV, AND MOLECULAR GAS RELATION IN GALAXIES UP TO z = 2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Nordon, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Magnelli, B.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J., E-mail: nordon@astro.tau.ac.il [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-10

    We use the infrared excess (IRX) FIR/UV luminosity ratio to study the relation between the effective UV attenuation (A {sub IRX}) and the UV spectral slope ({beta}) in a sample of 450 1 < z < 2.5 galaxies. The FIR data are from very deep Herschel observations in the GOODS fields that allow us to detect galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) typical of galaxies with log(M {sub *}) > 9.3. Thus, we are able to study galaxies on and even below the main SFR-stellar mass relation (main sequence). We find that main-sequence galaxies form a tight sequence in the IRX-{beta} plane, which has a flatter slope than commonly used relations. This slope favors a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-like UV extinction curve, though the interpretation is model dependent. The scatter in the A {sub IRX}-{beta} plane correlates with the position of the galaxies in the SFR-M {sub *} plane. Using a smaller sample of galaxies with CO gas masses, we study the relation between the UV attenuation and the molecular gas content. We find a very tight relation between the scatter in the IRX-{beta} plane and the specific attenuation S{sub A} , a quantity that represents the attenuation contributed by the molecular gas mass per young star. S{sub A} is sensitive to both the geometrical arrangement of stars and dust and to the compactness of the star-forming regions. We use this empirical relation to derive a method for estimating molecular gas masses using only widely available integrated rest-frame UV and FIR photometry. The method produces gas masses with an accuracy between 0.12 and 0.16 dex in samples of normal galaxies between z {approx} 0 and z {approx} 1.5. Major mergers and submillimeter galaxies follow a different S{sub A} relation.

  9. The Far-infrared, UV, and Molecular Gas Relation in Galaxies up to z = 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Magnelli, B.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    We use the infrared excess (IRX) FIR/UV luminosity ratio to study the relation between the effective UV attenuation (A IRX) and the UV spectral slope (?) in a sample of 450 1 < z < 2.5 galaxies. The FIR data are from very deep Herschel observations in the GOODS fields that allow us to detect galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) typical of galaxies with log(M *) > 9.3. Thus, we are able to study galaxies on and even below the main SFR-stellar mass relation (main sequence). We find that main-sequence galaxies form a tight sequence in the IRX-? plane, which has a flatter slope than commonly used relations. This slope favors a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-like UV extinction curve, though the interpretation is model dependent. The scatter in the A IRX-? plane correlates with the position of the galaxies in the SFR-M * plane. Using a smaller sample of galaxies with CO gas masses, we study the relation between the UV attenuation and the molecular gas content. We find a very tight relation between the scatter in the IRX-? plane and the specific attenuation SA , a quantity that represents the attenuation contributed by the molecular gas mass per young star. SA is sensitive to both the geometrical arrangement of stars and dust and to the compactness of the star-forming regions. We use this empirical relation to derive a method for estimating molecular gas masses using only widely available integrated rest-frame UV and FIR photometry. The method produces gas masses with an accuracy between 0.12 and 0.16 dex in samples of normal galaxies between z ~ 0 and z ~ 1.5. Major mergers and submillimeter galaxies follow a different SA relation.

  10. UV Microspot Irradiator at Columbia University

    PubMed Central

    Bigelow, Alan W.; Ponnaiya, Brian; Targoff, Kimara L.; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) at Columbia University has recently added a UV microspot irradiator to a microbeam irradiation platform. This UV microspot irradiator applies multiphoton excitation at the focal point of an incident laser as the source for cell damage, and with this approach, a single cell within a 3D sample can be targeted and exposed to damaging UV. The UV microspot’s ability to impart cellular damage within 3D is an advantage over all other microbeam techniques, which instead impart damage to numerous cells along microbeam tracks. This short communication is an overview and a description of the UV microspot including the following applications and demonstrations of selective damage to live single cell targets: DNA damage foci formation, patterned irradiation, photoactivation, targeting of mitochondria, and targeting of individual cardiomyocytes in the live zebrafish embryo. PMID:23708525

  11. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  12. UV sensors based on liquid crystals mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanishvili, Andro; Petriashvili, Gia; Chilaya, Guram; Barberi, Riccardo; De Santo, Maria P.; Matranga, Mario A.; Ciuchi, F.

    2006-04-01

    The Erythemal Response Spectrum is a scientific expression that describes the sensitivity of the skin to the ultraviolet radiation. The skin sensitivity strongly depends on the UV wavelength: a long exposition to UV radiation causes erythema once a threshold dose has been exceeded. In the past years several devices have been developed in order to monitor the UV exposure, most of them are based on inorganic materials that are able to mimic the human skin behaviour under UV radiation. We present a new device based on liquid crystals technology. The sensor is based on a liquid crystalline mixture that absorbs photons at UV wavelength and emits them at a longer one. This system presents several innovative features: the absorption range of the mixture can be varied to be sensitive to different wavelengths, the luminescence intensity can be tuned, the system can be implemented on flexible devices.

  13. X-ray properties of planet-bearing host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Jurgen

    2007-10-01

    We propose to carry out a complete X-ray census of planet-bearing host stars with a distance limit of 30 pc. We specifically propose to obtain well-exposed EPIC spectra of those stars harboring close-in (Porb < 10 days) planets and to carry out detection experiments on planet-bearing stars hitherto not detected in X-rays. With the these data we will characterize the high-energy radiation field for a representative sample of nearby planet-bearing stars, compute the expected evaporation rates due to the host stars' X-ray and UV irradiation, study the metal abundance of the coronae of planet bearing host stars, assess the frequency of flaring events in our sample, construct luminosity distribution functions and place the high-energy environment of the Sun in the context of that for extrasolar planets.

  14. Energy Star 

    E-print Network

    Reihl, K.; Tullos, A.

    2012-01-01

    to design, track, and report energy use of projects ESL-KT-12-10-08 CATEE 2012: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 Source: 2006 Lunch & Learn Workshop. ?Energy Star ? New Building Design.? Karen P. Butler.... US Environmental Protection Agency. ESL-KT-12-10-08 CATEE 2012: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 Source: 2006 Lunch & Learn Workshop. ?Energy Star ? New Building Design.? Karen P. Butler. US...

  15. Star struck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closer to home, astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope recently took a close-up photograph of the red supergiant star Betelgeuse, providing astronomers with their first direct look at the surface of a star besides the Sun.Andrea Dupree of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute presented pictures of Betelgeuse revealing an extended atmosphere and a surface marked by a bright spot more than 10 Earths wide and as much as 2000 K warmer than the rest of the surface.

  16. Plant responses to UV-B irradiation are modified by UV-A irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B irradiation studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B irradiances were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective daily UV-B irradiances (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A irradiances were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B irradiated plants.

  17. Hot Stars: Old-Fashioned or Trendy? (With 24 Figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.

    Spectroscopic analyses with the intention of the interpretation of the UV-spectra of the brightest stars as individuals - supernovae - or as components of star-forming regions - massive O stars - provide a powerful tool with great astrophysical potential for the determination of extragalactic distances and of the chemical composition of star-forming galaxies even at high redshifts. The perspectives of already initiated work with the new generation of tools for quantitative UV-spectroscopy of Hot Stars that have been developed during the last two decades are presented and the status of the continuing effort to construct corresponding models for Hot Star atmospheres is reviewed. Because the physics of the atmospheres of Hot Stars are strongly affected by velocity expansion dominating the spectra at all wavelength ranges, hydrodynamic model atmospheres for O-type stars and explosion models for Supernovae of Type Ia are necessary as basis for the synthesis and analysis of the spectra. It is shown that stellar parameters, abundances and stellar wind properties can be determined by the methods of spectral diagnostics already developed. Additionally, it will be demonstrated that models and synthetic spectra of Type Ia Supernovae of required quality are already available that make it possible to tackle the question of whether Supernovae Ia are standard candles in a cosmological sense and the SN-luminosity distances thus indicate accelerated expansion of the universe.

  18. Are Dusty Galaxies Blue? Insights on UV Attenuation from Dust-Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Caitlin; Scoville, Nicholas; Sanders, David B.; Lee, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha R.; Capak, Peter L.; Conley, Alexander J.; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Farrah, Duncan; Fu, Hai; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Ivison, Rob; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates. While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far- infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 ?m in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich dataset on local galaxies, we find a empirical variation in the relationship between rest-frame UV slope (?) and ratio of infrared-to- ultraviolet emission (LIR/LUV?IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total star formation rate, SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ?> 50 M? yr-1 deviate from the nominal IRX-? relation towards bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z= 4 - 10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in LBG searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g. galaxies with > 50 M? yr-1, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ~ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  19. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by following this approach of "numerical prototyping", it is possible to "build" and analyze several virtual reactors before the construction of a physical prototype. As such, this procedure allows effective development of efficient reactors.

  20. Uv-Spectroscopy of a Peculiar Highly Magnetic White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Stefan

    1996-07-01

    HE 1211-1707 was discovered in the Hamburg-ESO Quasar Surveyas a blue object, showing a very peculiar spectrum duringoptical follow-up spectroscopy with EFOSC at the 3.6 mTelescope at ESO in March 1993. Subsequent observations inJanuary 1994 and March 1995 showed very strong spectralvariations within 20 min. We interpret this variability asbeing due to a magnetic field on the surface of a rotatingwhite dwarf, having a relatively uniform magnetic field on onehemisphere and a much larger spread of field strengths visibleduring other phases of the rotational period. Unfortunately,all efforts have failed to determine approximate magneticfield strengths by comparison with sophisticated modelcalculations for hydrogen rich atmospheres and fieldstrengths below 1000 MG. Therefore, either helium is thedominating absorber or the object possesses the highestmagnetic field ever measured on the surface of a white dwarf.A UV spectrum would considerably help to set constraints tothe range of possible field strengths by measuring theposition of the blue shifted Lyman Alpha Sigma component, ifhydrogen is present in the atmosphere. Although HE 1211-1707is one of the hottest magnetic white dwarfs the relativefaintness of the star did not allow such an analysis with twoUV spectra taken with the IUE satellite, and an observationwith the HST is needed to understand this unique andmysterious object.

  1. A database of UV variables from the GALEX surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Alberto; Bianchi, Luciana; Chopra, Nitish; Orio, Marina; Shiao, Bernie

    2014-03-01

    We present the first part of a comprehensive study to search for variability in the UV GALEX archive. GALEX provided photometric measurements for over 200 million objects in FUV and NUV, from sky surveys with different depth and coverage. In this work we extract 410,408 unique sources showing variability (?NUV?0.6 mag , ?FUV?0.4 mag) in both NUV and FUV from a total of 2,106,816 measurements. We restrict our analysis to 7264 sources that have at least 30 measurements, sampled with serendipitous time coverage. This first sample selection includes both extragalactic sources and Milky Way stellar objects, displaying both periodic and non-periodic variability, of various types including RR Lyrae, flare stars, transients, and eclipsing binaries. Amplitudes of magnitude variations are found from our minimum selection threshold up to several magnitudes. We describe the selection criteria and procedures, we characterize the main classes of variables within the sample, and present the layout of the resulting catalog which will be also made available as on-line resource. Beyond our immediate goals of discovering and characterizing UV-selected variables, this work provides synergy with existing and planned surveys at other wavelengths (e.g. SDSS, PanSTARRS, LSST, GAIA).

  2. UV transition moments of tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Fornander, Louise H; Feng, Bobo; Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Nordén, Bengt

    2014-08-01

    To assist polarized-light spectroscopy for protein-structure analysis, the UV spectrum of p-cresol, the chromophore of tyrosine, was studied with respect to transition moment directions and perturbation by solvent environment. From linear dichroism (LD) spectra of p-cresol aligned in stretched matrices of poly(vinyl alcohol) and polyethylene, the lowest ?-?* transition (Lb) is found to have pure polarization over its entire absorption (250-300 nm) with a transition moment perpendicular to the symmetry axis (C1-C4), both in polar and nonpolar environments. For the second transition (La), polarized parallel with the symmetry axis, a certain admixture of intensity with orthogonal polarization is noticed, depending on the environment. While the Lb spectrum in cyclohexane shows a pronounced vibrational structure, it is blurred in methanol, which can be modeled as due to many microscopic polar environments. With the use of quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, the transition moments and solvent effects were analyzed with the B3LYP and ?B97X-D functionals in cyclohexane, water, and methanol using a combination of implicit and explicit solvent models. The blurred Lb band is explained by solvent hydrogen bonds, where both accepting and donating a hydrogen causes energy shifts. The inhomogeneous solvent-shift sensitivity in combination with robust polarization can be exploited for analyzing tyrosine orientation distributions in protein complexes using LD spectroscopy. PMID:25020040

  3. Photometric Analysis of UV Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Kyle; Angione, R.; Sievers, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present light curves and analyses of the RS CVn eclipsing system UV Psc. Greenwood (1981, M.S. thesis San Diego State University) obtained uvby photoelectric data at Mount Laguna Observatory in 1980 using the 0.4-m telescope. Because this system has a strongly variable light curve and the data is unpublished, we reanalysed these data using the physically more realistic models of Wilson-Devinney and the ELC program (Orosz, J. A., & Hauschildt, P. H. 2000 A&A, 364, 265). Both modeling programs yielded similar results, which were also consistent with other published results (Kjurkchieva, et al. 2005 AJ, 129, 1084). The determination of the global parameters was somewhat affected by the night to night variations typical of RS CVn systems. A new time of primary minimum was determined. This determination was consistent with other minima reported during this time period (Shengbang, et al. 1999, Ap&SS, 266, 259). This work was supported in part through an REU grant (AST-0453609) to SDSU.

  4. Unveiling the X-ray/UV Connection in AGN Winds: the PG 1126-041 Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Margherita

    2014-10-01

    Winds are key to understanding the nature of AGN at small and large scales. Winds are common in AGN, and likely play a role in regulating the black hole growth and star formation in the surrounding galaxies. Models of radiatively-driven winds predict that X-ray absorbing gas acts as a shield, preventing over-ionization of the UV outflowing gas by the strong illuminating continuum source. However, recent observations are putting the hypothesis of this X-ray absorbing gas to the test.We propose a 2-cycle small GO program of 4 HST+XMM coordinated observations with the goal of exploring the connection (if any) between the UV and X-ray absorbing wind phase(s). PG 1126-041 is a low redshift (z=0.06) luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy that displays complex and variable UV and X-ray absorption. A 1992 simultaneous IUE+ROSAT observation revealed X-ray absorption in the OVII/OVIII band, and broad blueshifted (v~-5,000 km/s) UV absorption in, at least, CIV and NV transitions. Later, independent IUE and XMM-Newton observations showed that UV and X-ray absorption is highly variable, but no more UV+X-ray simultaneous observations have been carried out since 1992. The X-ray absorbing gas could be acting as a "patchy" porous shield, and its variations in our line-of-sight could be causing the observed UV variability; if so, a correlation between UV and X-ray absorption is expected. COS observations will cover a large range of transitions, allowing the detections of changes in the ionization of the UV absorber. Our results will be a direct test of the relation between the UV and the X-ray phases of the wind, and as such will be of crucial interest to test AGN wind models.

  5. STAR Highlights

    E-print Network

    Hiroshi Masui; for the STAR Collaboration

    2011-06-29

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  6. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  7. Star Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners create a star show and discover how they can prevent light pollution. Using simple materials, learners first design constellation boxes. Next, learners use their constellation boxes and desk lamps to explore how city lights impact the visibility of constellations. Finally, learners design shields to reduce light pollution and increase the visibility of constellations.

  8. Brittle Star

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tiny brittle star (the central disc is smaller than a dime) clings to the branches of a soft coral in a sample bucket brought into the shipboard laboratory from a submersible dive. This creature makes its home on the deep, dark ocean floor. ...

  9. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  10. Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

  11. On The Origin of HI in Galaxies: Photodissociation and the ``Schmidt Law'' for Global Star Formation

    E-print Network

    Ronald J. Allen

    2002-05-13

    Young stars in the disks of galaxies produce HI from their parent H2 clouds by photodissociation. This process is widespread in late-type galaxies, and follows the distribution of Far-UV photons produced primarily by B-type stars. An estimate of the amount of dissociated gas can be made using observed Far-UV fluxes and simple approximations for the physics of photodissociation. This leads to the startling conclusion that much, and perhaps even all, of the HI in galaxy disks can be produced in this way. This result offers a simple, but inverse, cause-effect explanation for the ``Schmidt Law'' of Global Star Formation in galaxies.

  12. Bright Hot Impacts by Erupted Fragments Falling Back on the Sun: UV Redshifts in Stellar Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Testa, P.; Landi, E.; Schrijver, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    A solar eruption after a flare on 2011 June 7 produced EUV-bright impacts of fallbacks far from the eruption site, observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These impacts can be taken as a template for the impact of stellar accretion flows. Broad redshifted UV lines have been commonly observed in young accreting stars. Here we study the emission from the impacts in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's UV channels and compare the inferred velocity distribution to stellar observations. We model the impacts with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the localized UV 1600 Å emission and its timing with respect to the EUV emission can be explained by the impact of a cloud of fragments. The first impacts produce strong initial upflows. The following fragments are hit and shocked by these upflows. The UV emission comes mostly from the shocked front shell of the fragments while they are still falling, and is therefore redshifted when observed from above. The EUV emission instead continues from the hot surface layer that is fed by the impacts. Fragmented accretion can therefore explain broad redshifted UV lines (e.g., C IV 1550 Å) to speeds around 400 km s-1 observed in accreting young stellar objects.

  13. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  14. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. These simulations followed a Lagrangian approach, wherein the UV radiation intensity field was mapped onto simulated particle trajectories for prediction of the UV dose delivered to each particle. By repeating these calculations for a large number of simulated particle trajectories, an estimate of the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor can be made. In turn, these dose distribution estimates are integrated with the UV dose-response behavior described above to yield an estimate of microbial inactivation accomplished by the reactor. This modeling approach has the advantage of allowing simulation of many reactor configurations in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by following this approach of "numerical prototyping," it is possible to "build" and analyze several virtual reactors before the construction of a physical prototype. As such, this procedure allows effective development of efficient reactors.

  15. Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Petra Y. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Institute of Ecopreneurship, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland) and University of Zuerich, Institute of Plant Biology, Limnology, CH-8802 Kilchberg (Switzerland)]. E-mail: petra.kunz@fhnw.ch; Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Institute of Ecopreneurship, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch

    2006-11-15

    UV-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used for protection against UV radiation in sunscreens and in a variety of cosmetic products and materials. Depending on the breadth and factor of UV protection, they are added as single compounds or as a combination thereof. Some UV filters have estrogenic activity, but their activity and interactions in mixtures are largely unknown. In this work, we analyzed 8 commonly used UV filters, which are pure or partial hER{alpha} agonists, for their estrogenic activity in equieffective mixtures in a recombinant yeast assay carrying the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER{alpha}). Mixtures of two, four and eight UV filters alone, or in combination with 17 {beta} estradiol (E2), were assessed at different effect levels and no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC). Predictions of the joint effects of these mixtures were calculated by employing the concentration addition (Canada) and independent action (IA) model. Most binary mixtures comprising of pure hER{alpha} agonists showed a synergistic activity at all mixture combinations. Only in combination with benzophenone-1, antagonistic activity was observed at some effect levels. All mixtures of four or eight, pure or pure and partial hER{alpha} agonists, alone or including E2, showed synergistic activity at concentrations giving an increase of 10% of basal activity (BC10). This occurred even at concentrations that were at the NOEC level of each single compound. Hence, there were substantial mixture effects even though each UV filter was present at its NOEC level. These results show that significant interactions occur in UV filter mixtures, which is important for the hazard and risk assessments of these personal care products.

  16. The Stellar Composition of the Star Formation Region CMa R1. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Observations of 9 Young Stars

    E-print Network

    H. R. E. Tjin A Djie; M. E. van den Ancker; P. F. C. Blondel; V. S. Shevchenko; O. V. Ezhkova; D. de Winter; K. N. Grankin

    2001-03-21

    We present new high and low resolution spectroscopic and photometric data of nine members of the young association CMa R1. All the stars have circumstellar dust at some distance as could be expected from their association with reflection nebulosity. Four stars (HD 52721, HD 53367, LkHalpha 220 and LkHalpha 218) show Halpha emission and we argue that they are Herbig Be stars with discs. Our photometric and spectroscopic observations on these stars reveal new characteristics of their variability. We present first interpretations of the variability of HD 52721, HD 53367 and the two LkHalpha stars in terms of a partially eclipsing binary, a magnetic activity cycle and circumstellar dust variations, respectively. The remaining five stars show no clear indications of Halpha emission in their spectra, although their spectral types and ages are comparable with those of HD 52721 and HD 53367. This indicates that the presence of a disc around a star in CMa R1 may depend on the environment of the star. In particular we find that all Halpha emission stars are located at or outside the arc-shaped border of the H II region, which suggests that the stars inside the arc have lost their discs through evaporation by UV photons from nearby O stars, or from the nearby (< 25 pc) supernova, about 1 Myr ago.

  17. IUE observations of new A star candidate proto-planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the detection of accreting gas in the A5e PMS Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, most of the observations for this IUE program were devoted to Herbig Ae stars rather than to main sequence A stars. Mid-UV emission at optical minimum light was detected for UX Ori (A1e), BF Ori (A5e), and CQ Tau (F2e). The presence of accreting gas in HD 45677 and HD 50138 prompted reclassification of these stars as Herbig Be stars rather than as protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed results are discussed.

  18. H2 in the UV-rich Environment of Orion's Veil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Nicholas; Ferland, Gary J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Troland, Thomas H.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the physics of molecular gas, almost by definition, requires understanding the physics of molecular hydrogen. H2 is the most abundant molecule in molecular clouds, the formation of H2 initiates the transition from warmer atomic to cooler molecular gas, and H2 serves as a catalyst in the formation of other molecules like CO that are widely used to study star-forming regions. It is no exaggeration to say that a fundamental understanding of the earliest phases of star formation is impossible without a fundamental understanding of the physics of H2. In this presentation, we will present high-resolution UV absorption spectroscopy towards the Trapezium stars in the Orion Nebula. Using the STIS E140H setting of HST, we now have an S/N = 50 - 150 spectral dataset between 1133 - 1335 Angstroms, with a spectral resolution of 2.5 km/s. This dataset will allow us to determine the H2 column density in a PDR which has a very low H2 column density (H2/H(tot) < 10^-5). By observing the column density of high rotational/vibrational levels of H2, and combining the observations a detailed model of ISM physics using Cloudy, we hope to better understand the physics of H2 in high-UV flux environments, which has applications to star-forming environments at the galactic and extra-galactic level.

  19. Spectroscopy: Star Light, Star Bright

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a student reading about the different types of spectra: continuous, absorption, and emission. Learners will read about the differences between each and see graphical representations of each. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

  20. The winds of O-stars. II - The terminal velocities of stellar winds of O-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The SEI method (Lamers et al., 1987) is used to obtain P Cygni profiles of the UV resonance lines of C IV, N V, and S IV and of the subordinate UV lines of N IV and C III observed in the spectra of 27 O-type stars. Theoretical profiles which include the turbulence effects agree well with the observations, and they can account for the deep absorption troughs, the shape of the violet absorption wings, and the wavelength of the emission peak. The resulting terminal velocities of the stellar winds are found to be systematically lower by about 400 km/s than previous estimates obtained using the Sobolev approximation (Castor and Lamers, 1979), suggesting that the narrow absorption components, observed in the UV resonance lines of O and B stars, reach the terminal velocity of the winds.

  1. UV Clumpy Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Emmaris; De Mello, D. F.; Bond, N. A.; Straughn, A.; Gardner, J. P.; Teplitz, H. I.

    2013-01-01

    We present an investigation of the ultraviolet morphologies of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in the rest-frame UV. We performed an analysis of individual star-forming clumps in 18 galaxies at 0.62star forming regions.

  2. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... See Also: Facts and tips about sunglasses. UV Light: Good in Moderation for a Good Night's Sleep ... accumulated during the day. Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to ...

  3. Accelerated Solar-UV Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Laue, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Medium-pressure mercury-vapor lamps provide high ratio of ultraviolet to total power. Chamber for evaluating solar-ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage permits accelerated testing without overheating test specimens.

  4. UV Curable Coatings in Aluminum Can Production

    E-print Network

    Donhowe, E. T.

    based coatings. The Coors Brewing Company Can Manufacturing Plant has been utilizing this technology in full scale aluminum can production since 1975, and therefore has had the opportunity to evaluate practical operations of the UV technology...

  5. UV Curable Coatings in Aluminum Can Production 

    E-print Network

    Donhowe, E. T.

    1994-01-01

    based coatings. The Coors Brewing Company Can Manufacturing Plant has been utilizing this technology in full scale aluminum can production since 1975, and therefore has had the opportunity to evaluate practical operations of the UV technology...

  6. Road Signs for UV-Completion

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali; Andre Franca; Cesar Gomez

    2012-04-28

    We confront the concepts of Wilsonian UV-completion versus self-completion by Classicalization in theories with derivatively-coupled scalars. We observe that the information about the UV-completion road is encoded in the sign of the derivative terms. We note that the sign of the derivative couplings for which there is no consistent Wilsonian UV-completion is the one that allows for consistent classicalons. This is an indication that for such a sign the vertex must be treated as fundamental and the theory self-protects against potential inconsistencies, such as superluminality, via self-completion by classicalization. Applying this reasoning to the UV-completion of the Standard Model, we see that the information about the Higgs versus classicalization is encoded in the sign of the scattering amplitude of longitudinal W-bosons. Negative sign excludes Higgs or any other weakly-coupled Wilsonian physics.

  7. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  8. UV disinfection for onsite sand filter effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, J.D.; Romatzick, S.

    1982-05-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using ultraviolet (uv) light as a viable alternative to chlorine as the required disinfectant for onsite sand filter effluents discharged to surface waters in Maine was determined. To obtain a reliable cross section of performance for sand filters in Maine, 74 filters were selected for an effluent characterization program. The effluent characterization study allowed general conclusions to be made with regard to the potential of uv disinfection. A simple suspended lamp uv disinfection unit was designed, constructed, and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The efficiency of the uv disinfection unit was determined through field testing at 10 of the 74 sand filter sites used in the effluent characterization program.

  9. Effective temperatures of A and F stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1982-01-01

    Effective temperatures of late A and early F stars are determined from the observed fluxes in the visual at 1900 A and 1420 A. The observed ratios are compared with those calculated by Kurucz (1979). A correction of the theoretical fluxes at 1900 A brings the effective temperatures obtained from different ratios into reasonable agreement. The effective temperatures determined in this way for late A stars agree well with those obtained from the optical region. For F stars, however, the effective temperatures obtained from the UV are found to be higher than those obtained from the optical region if radiative equilibrium models are used for the comparison. It is thought that this discrepancy may derive from the effects of temperature, pressure, and absorption coefficient inhomogeneities caused by convection.

  10. Far UV responsivity of commercial silicon photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caria, M.; Barberini, L.; Cadeddu, S.; Giannattasio, A.; Lai, A.; Rusani, A.; Sesselego, A.

    2001-06-01

    Responsivity measurements have been performed on commercial silicon photodetectors in the UV range 200-400 nm. The microstrip and pixel detectors have been reverse biased in fully depleted condition (more than 25 V reverse bias) and in partially depleted condition (5 V reverse bias). We have also performed measurements in back illumination geometry, of particular interest in most industrial applications. Promising results obtained with commercial photodetectors in the UV range in terms of photocurrent stability and sensitivity open a variety of applications.

  11. UV radiation and skin cancer in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Medhaug; J. A. Olseth; J. Reuder

    2009-01-01

    A distinct increase in skin cancer incidences is observed since the registration started in Norway in the 1950s. As UV radiation is assumed to be the main risk factor for skin cancer, hourly values of the UV irradiance were reconstructed for the period 1957–2005 for 17 of the Norwegian counties (58–70°N). For reconstruction, a radiation transfer model is run with

  12. Medium-pressure UV for oocyst inactivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zia Bukhari; Thomas M. Hargy; James R. Bolton; Bertrand Dussert; Jennifer L. Clancy

    1999-01-01

    Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in finished drinking water by medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) light was investigated at bench scale using a collimated beam apparatus and at demonstration scale using a UV reactor. Oocyst viability was assessed in vitro (using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole with propidium iodide and maximized in vitro excystation) and in vivo (using neonatal mouse infectivity assays). In vivo bench-scale studies

  13. Energy Star

    E-print Network

    Reihl, K.; Tullos, A.

    2012-01-01

    ENERGY STAR ENERGY TARGETS ESL-KT-12-10-08 CATEE 2012: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 POP QUIZ!!!! What is EUI?? Energy Use Intensity Do you know the EUI and any of the buildings you designed... submit anytime before earn utility bills ? Project Types ? Commercial buildings (office, schools, hotels, banks, courthouses, warehouses, big box retail, etc.) ? Target Finder ? Achieve an EPA rating of 75 or greater ? Submit two documents 1...

  14. Christmas star.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bia?a, J.

    There are continuous attempts to identify the legendary Christmas Star with a real astronomical event accompanying the birth of Jesus from Nazareth. Unfortunately, the date of birth is difficult to establish on the basis of historical records with better accuracy than a few years. During that period a number of peculiar astronomical events were observed and it seem to be impossible to identify the right one unambiguously.

  15. HST/STIS UV Spectroscopy of Two Quiescent X-ray Novae: A0620-00 and Centaurus X-4

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey E. McClintock; Ronald A. Remillard

    1999-11-08

    In 1998 we made UV spectroscopic observations with HST/STIS of A0620-00 and Cen X-4, which are two X-ray novae (aka soft X-ray transients). These binary systems are similar in all respects except that the former contains a black hole and the latter contains a neutron star. A UV spectrum (1700-3100A) is presented for the quiescent state of each system in the context of previously published UV/optical and X-ray data. The non-stellar, continuum spectrum of black hole A0620-00 has a prominent UV/optical peak centered at about 3500A. In contrast the spectrum of neutron-star Cen X-4 lacks a peak and rises steadily with frequency over the entire UV/optical band. In the optical, the two systems are comparably luminous. However, black hole A0620-00 is about 6 times less luminous at 1700A, and about 40 times less luminous in the X-ray band. The broadband spectrum of A0620-00 is discussed in terms of the advection-dominated accretion flow model.

  16. Modulation of immune function by UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kripke, M.L.; Morison, W.L.

    1985-07-01

    In addition to its carcinogenic activity, ultraviolet (UV) radiation is capable of modifying certain immunologic reactions. Immunologic alterations induced in mice by UV radiation include both local and distant effects. Local alterations result from a direct effect of UV radiation on an immune reaction that takes place at the site of irradiation. Distant alterations are those in which exposure of skin to UV radiation at one site modifies an immune reaction occurring at a distant, unexposed site. Based on recent studies, the authors propose that there may be two types of distant alterations. One is nonspecific, may be due to accumulation of leukocytes at the site of UV-induced inflammation, and is exemplified by the suppression of delayed hypersensitivity and local graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions. The second may result from DNA damage, may involve a soluble mediator, and is manifested by the systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity and the formation of antigen-specific suppressor T lymphocytes. These immunologic effects of exposure to UV radiation may be important in the pathogenesis of skin cancer and other cutaneous diseases.

  17. The Shining Future of UV Spectral Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Anne; Finkelstein, Steven L.

    2010-04-01

    With the coming generation of instruments and telescopes capable of spectroscopy of high redshift galaxies, the spectral synthesis technique in the rest-frame UV and Far-UV range will become one of a few number of tools remaining to study their young stellar populations in detail. The rest-frame UV lines and continuum of high redshift galaxies, observed with visible and infrared telescopes on Earth, can be used for accurate line profile fitting such as Pv??1118, 1128, Ciii?1176, and Civ?1550. These lines are very precise diagnostic tools to estimate ages, metallicities, and masses of stellar populations. Here we discuss the potential for spectral synthesis of rest-frame UV spectra obtained at the Keck telescope. As an example, we study the 8 o'clock arc, a lensed galaxy at z=2.7322. We show that the poor spectral type coverage of the actual UV empirical spectral libraries limits the age and metallicity diagnostic. In order to improve our knowledge of high redshift galaxies using spectral synthesis, UV stellar libraries need to be extended to obtain accurate age, metallicity, and mass estimates likely to be occuring in young stellar populations observed in the early universe.

  18. Kinetics of UV inactivation of wastewater bioflocs.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Y; Allen, D G; Farnood, R R

    2012-08-01

    Ultraviolet disinfection is a physical method of disinfecting secondary treated wastewaters. Bioflocs formed during secondary treatment harbor and protect microbes from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and significantly decrease the efficiency of disinfection at high UV doses causing the tailing phenomena. However, the exact mechanism of tailing and the role of biofloc properties and treatment conditions are not widely understood. It is hypothesized that sludge bioflocs are composed of an easily disinfectable loose outer shell, and a physically stronger compact core inside that accounts for the tailing phenomena. Hydrodynamic shear stress was applied to the bioflocs to peel off the looser outer shell to isolate the cores. Biofloc and core samples were fractionated into narrow size distributions by sieving and their UV disinfection kinetics were determined and compared. The results showed that for bioflocs, the tailing level elevates as the biofloc size increases, showing greater resistance to disinfection. However, for the cores larger than 45?m, it was found that the UV inactivation curves overlap, and show very close to identical inactivation kinetics. Comparing bioflocs and cores of similar size fraction, it was found that in all cases cores were harder to disinfect with UV light, and showed a higher tailing level. This study suggests that physical structure of bioflocs plays a significant role in the UV inactivation kinetics. PMID:22608608

  19. Are many hot subdwarf stars hidden in binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Richard

    The Palomar-Green (PG) survey of UV-excess objects yielded an abundant harvest of hot subdwarf (sdO/sdB) stars. Based on visual and near IR (2MASS) colors, about one-third of these are binary (composite colors). Many additional candidate PG stars that might also be hot subdwarfs in binaries were rejected from the final PG catalog, because the Ca II K line appears in their spectra; this line was interpreted to mean that the candidates are cool metal-poor stars (sdF) with low UV line-blocking, so they were U-B color-selected for the wrong reason. An alternate explanation is that these objects are additional composite-spectrum binaries consisting of a hot subdwarf and a main sequence (A or F) star. Optical data alone cannot easily distinguish between these possibilities. A recent theory of binary sdB formation channels predicts that many sdB+A/F systems exist undiscovered, and the rejected PG stars are pointed to as a specific example of where they might be found. With a targeted archival study using GALEX imaging data to search for radiation from a hot star, we can learn whether or not these rejected objects from the PG survey are in fact mostly sdB binaries, with consequences for the origin and numbers of hot evolved stars.

  20. Chemical Abundances in Three Population II Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Piercarlo

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the abundance analysis of three Pop II stars. Chapter one is a historical review aimed at illustrating how the present-day concepts on stellar populations and the formation of the chemical elements came about. Chapter 2 describes the current views on the chemical an dynamical history of the Galaxy. Chapter 3 contains a brief description of two classes of Pop II stars: blue HB stars and extremely metal-poor G-type stars. The stars which are the object of this thesis belong to these two classes. Feige 86 is a field HB star which has an anomalous chemical composition. We shall argue, in chapter 6, that it represents a Pop II analogue of the Pop I CP stars. Instead CS 22881-39 and CS 22885-96 are ``normal'' G-type giants whose peculiarity is that the iron abundance is some two orders of magnitude below that of the most metal poor globular clusters. This metal deficiency is taken as evidence that these stars were formed out of extremely metal-poor gas, and is not attributed to some sort of atmospheric peculiarity as is the case for the anomalous abundances of Feige 86. Chapter 4 reviews some of the methods used to fix the atmospheric parameters of B-type and G-type stars. Chapter 5 is devoted to the study of the far UV spectrum of the Pop I B-type star Iota Her. The reason for performing this study, and for including it in this thesis, is to provide a ``standard'' spectrum against which the spectrum of ``peculiar'' objects, such as Feige 86, may be compared. This ``standard'' spectrum also provides an ideal test ground for the spectrum synthesis code used throughout this work. Chapter 6 describes the abundance analysis of Feige 86. Chapter 7 describes the abundance analysis of CS 22881-39 and CS 22885-96. In the appendices we provide plots of the UV spectra of Iota Her and Feige 86.

  1. Overview of the observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viotti, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    The term Symbiotic stars commonly denotes variable stars whose optical spectra simultaneously present a cool absorption spectrum (typically TiO absorption bands) and emission lines of high ionization energy. This term is now used for the category of variable stars with composite spectrum. The main spectral features of these objects are: (1) the presence of the red continuum typical of a cool star, (2) the rich emission line spectrum, and (3) the UV excess, frequently with the Balmer continuum in emission. In addition to the peculiar spectrum, the very irregular photometric and spectroscopic variability is the major feature of the symbiotic stars. Moreover, the light curve is basic to identify the different phases of activity in a symbiotic star. The physical mechanisms that cause the symbiotic phenomenon and its variety are the focus of this paper. An astronomical phenomenon characterized by a composite stellar spectrum with two apparently conflicting features, and large variability has been observed. Our research set out to find the origin of this behavior and, in particular, to identify and measure the physical mechanism(s) responsible for the observed phenomena.

  2. THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF UV-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 2-3

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Shapley, Alice E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    We present new results for a sample of 33 narrow-lined UV-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified in the course of a spectroscopic survey for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2-3. The rest-frame UV composite spectrum for our AGN sample shows several emission lines characteristic of AGNs, as well as interstellar absorption features detected in star-forming Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). We report a detection of N IV] {lambda}1486, which has been observed in high-redshift radio galaxies, as well as in rare optically selected quasars. The UV continuum slope of the composite spectrum is significantly redder than that of a sample of non-AGN UV-selected star-forming galaxies. Blueshifted Si IV absorption provides evidence for outflowing highly ionized gas in these objects at speeds of {approx}10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}, quantitatively different from what is seen in the outflows of non-AGN LBGs. Grouping the individual AGNs by parameters such as the Ly{alpha} equivalent width, redshift, and UV continuum magnitude allows for an analysis of the major spectroscopic trends within the sample. Stronger Ly{alpha} emission is coupled with weaker low-ionization absorption, which is similar to what is seen in the non-AGN LBGs, and highlights the role that cool interstellar gas plays in the escape of Ly{alpha} photons. However, the AGN composite does not show the same trends between Ly{alpha} strength and extinction seen in the non-AGN LBGs. These results represent the first such comparison at high redshift between star-forming galaxies and similar galaxies that host AGN activity.

  3. The sun, our star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  4. Effect of UV irradiation on the apoptosis and necrosis of Jurkat cells using UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Morita, Akimichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy is a very effective method for treating most of the incurable skin diseases. A fluorescent light bulb is used as a conventional UV light source for this type of therapy. However, infrared radiation from the light source sometimes causes serious problems on patient's health. In addition, the normal part of the skin is irradiated when a large fluorescent light bulb is used. Moreover, a conventional UV irradiation system is heavy and has a short lifetime and a high electrical power consumption. Therefore, a new UV light source for solving the problems of phototherapy is required. To realize low-power-consumption, lightweight and long-lifetime systems, group III nitride-based UV-A1 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. We examined the UV LED irradiation of Jurkat cell, which is a tumor cell and more sensitive to UV light than a healthy cell. The numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells were confirmed to be the same using a UV LED and a conventional lamp system. The UV LED showed the possibility of realizing a new UV light source for phototherapy.

  5. Measurements of UV radiation on rotating vertical plane at the ALOMAR Observatory (69° N, 16° E), Norway, June 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, P.; Krzy?cin, J. W.; Jaros?awski, J.; Stebel, K.

    2008-01-01

    Erythemaly weighted UV and total UVA irradiance measured at the ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research; 69° N, 16° E) in June 2007 by two Kipp & Zonen UV broadband meters type, UV-S-AE-T, are examined. One unit is movable and mounted to rotating vertical plane, and the other is permanently fixed horizontally. The UV broadband meters measure simultaneously to allow the comparison of UV irradiances on vertical and horizontal plane. The entire range of relative exposure variations during clear-sky conditions over ALOMAR is examined using STAR and Radonic1 model (developed at the Meteorological Institute, Munich) for various action spectra (erythema, UVA, and vitamin D3). It seems that multiplication of the daily mean dose from a standard broadband meter placed horizontally by 0.5 gives reasonable estimation of the daily mean exposure on a vertical plane randomly oriented towards Sun. The extreme value and daily variability of relative exposure are the highest for UVA, next for UVB, then for vitamin D3 weighed UV irradiance. The minima of relative exposure (~0.20-0.30) are almost the same for all weighting functions. Specific cloud configuration could lead to significant enhancement of UV relative exposure of rotating plane being the most pronounced when biometer is in shadow. A statistical model is proposed, that it is able to simulate vitamin D3 weighted UV irradiances on vertical surface using explanatory variables: erythemal and total UVA irradiance from standard (horizontal) observations by Kipp & Zonen dual band biometer, the orientation of vertical plane, solar zenith angle, and column amount of total ozone. Statistical model will allow to reconstruct (or monitor) vitamin D3 weighted UV irradiances using available past (or actual) data.

  6. GALEX UV observations of the interacting galaxy NGC 4438 in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    A. Boselli; S. Boissier; L. Cortese; A. Gil de Paz; V. Buat; J. Iglesias-Paramo; B. F. Madore; T. Barlow; L. Bianchi; Y. -I. Byun; J. Donas; K. Forster; P. G. Friedman; T. M. Heckman; P. Jelinsky; Y. -W. Lee; R. Malina; D. C. Martin; B. Milliard; P. Morrissey; S. Neff; R. M. Rich; D. Schiminovich; M. Seibert; O. Siegmund; T. Small; A. S. Szalay; B. Welsh; T. K. Wyder

    2005-02-02

    We present GALEX NUV (2310 A) and FUV (1530 A) images of the interacting galaxy NGC 4438 (Arp 120) in the center of the Virgo cluster. These images show an extended (20 kpc) tidal tail at the north-west edge of the galaxy previously undetected at other wavelengths, at 15-25 kpc from its nucleus. Except in the nucleus, the UV morphology of NGC 4438 is totally different from the Halpha+[NII] one, more similar to the X-ray emission, confirming its gas cooling origin. We study the star formation history of NGC 4438 combining spectro-photometric data in the UV-visible-near-IR wavelength range with population synthesis and galaxy evolution models. The data are consistent with a recent (~ 10 Myr), instantaneous burst of star formation in the newly discovered UV north-western tail which is significantly younger than the age of the tidal interaction with NGC 4435, dated by dynamical models at ~ 100 Myr ago. Recent star formation events are also present at the edge of the northern arm and in the southern tail, while totally lacking in the other regions, which are dominated by the old stellar population perturbed during the dynamical interaction with NGC 4435. The contribution of this recent starburst to the total galaxy stellar mass is lower than 0.1%, an extremely low value for such a violent interaction. High-velocity, off-center tidal encounters such as that observed in Arp 120 are thus not sufficient to significantly increase the star formation activity of cluster galaxies.

  7. Habitable Niches In Single and Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Joni; Mason, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate habitable niches, defined as locations with optimum conditions for complex life to exist. The recent discovery of planets in several binaries motivates this study to examine favorable habitability circumstances in both single and binary star systems. Stellar evolution calculations are used to model time dependent stellar luminosity, UV flux, photo-synthetic flux and atmospheric water photolysis. Tidal interactions such as synchronization timescales, heat generation, and forcing frequency are also investigated. An Earth-analogue planet in the habitable zone of a 0.8 solar mass star is well suited for complex life. Several high quality niches are available to planets in habitable zones of binaries. For example, orbiting a pair of twin stars each 0.75 solar masses with a binary period of ten days will provide ample photo-synthetic radiation without an overdose of UV radiation, and tidal effects mimicking the Earth-Moon. A solar like star with a close red dwarf companion, like the recently discovered Kepler 47, provides a high quality niche because both stars are relatively long lived and the habitable zone has abundant photo-synthetic light while avoiding harmful UV light. A similar niche exists with a sun like star, which in turn is orbited by a distant red dwarf, providing a roughly annual enhanced red photo-synthetic flux. Also, moons orbiting Jupiter mass planets may exist within habitable zones of both single and binary stars. Such moons might be synchronized to the planet rather than the star. Due to the abundance of binary systems and the presence of high quality niches; binaries may harbor a significant fraction of inhabited planets within the universe. The present study allows for selection of the best habitability follow up targets for large telescopes.

  8. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  9. Dust-Induced Systematic Errors in Ultraviolet-Derived Star Formation Rates

    E-print Network

    Eric F. Bell

    2002-05-24

    Rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) luminosities form the `backbone' of our understanding of star formation at all cosmic epochs. These luminosities are typically corrected for dust by assuming that the tight relationship between the UV spectral slopes and the FUV attenuations of starburst galaxies applies for all star-forming galaxies. Data from seven independent UV experiments demonstrates that quiescent, `normal' star-forming galaxies deviate substantially from the starburst galaxy spectral slope-attenuation correlation, in the sense that normal galaxies are redder than starbursts. Spatially resolved data for the Large Magellanic Cloud suggests that dust geometry and properties, coupled with a small contribution from older stellar populations, cause deviations from the starburst galaxy spectral slope-attenuation correlation. Folding in data for starbursts and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, it is clear that neither rest-frame UV-optical colors nor UV/H-alpha significantly help in constraining the UV attenuation. These results argue that the estimation of SF rates from rest-frame UV and optical data alone is subject to large (factors of at least a few) systematic uncertainties because of dust, which cannot be reliably corrected for using only UV/optical diagnostics.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV and FIR properties of nearby galaxies (Iglesias-Paramo+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Buat, V.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Xu, K.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Burgarella, D.; Madore, B. F.; Gil de Paz, A.; Bianchi, L.; Barlow, T. A.; Byun, Y.-I.; Donas, J.; Forster, K.; Friedman, P. G.; Heckman, T. M.; Jelinski, P. N.; Lee, Y.-W.; Malina, R. F.; Martin, D. C.; Milliard, B.; Morrissey, P. F.; Neff, S. G.; Rich, R. M.; Schiminovich, D.; Seibert, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Small, T.; Szalay, A. S.; Welsh, B. Y.; Wyder, T. K.

    2007-09-01

    This work presents the main ultraviolet (UV) and far-infrared (FIR) properties of two samples of nearby galaxies selected from the GALEX ({lambda}=2315{AA}, hereafter NUV) and IRAS ({lambda}=60{mu}m) surveys, respectively. They are built in order to obtain detection at both wavelengths for most of the galaxies. Star formation rate (SFR) estimators based on the UV and FIR emissions are compared. Systematic differences are found between the SFR estimators for individual galaxies based on the NUV fluxes corrected for dust attenuation and on the total IR luminosity. (3 data files).

  11. Influence of uvA on the erythematogenic and therapeutic effects of uvB irradiation in psoriasis; photoaugmentation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Suurmond, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to an additive dose of long ultraviolet (uvA) radiation on the erythemogenic and therapeutic effects of middle ultraviolet (uvB) irradiation was investigated in 8 patients with psoriasis. The surface of the backs of these patients was divided into 2 parts, 1 of which received only uvB irradiation 4 times a week and the other uvA + uvB. uvB was provided by Philips TL-12 lamps and uvA by glass-filtered Philips TL-09 lamps. uvA was held constantly at 10 J/cm2, whereas uvB alone were evaluated by 4 tests during the treatment to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). Test I (at the start of the therapy) showed a photoaugmentative effect which was no longer apparent in Test III (third week). Test III showed a reversal of the ratios of the MEDs of the sites irradiated with the uvA + uvB and uvB (MED A + B/MED B). This is ascribed to the marked pigmentation which appeared after repeated irradiation with the uvA + uvB combination. Comparison showed for the improvement of the psoriasis no distinct differences between uvA + uvB irradiation and uvB alone, but the former had the cosmetic advantage of giving pleasing tan.

  12. DIFFUSE FAR-UV LINE EMISSION FROM THE LOW-REDSHIFT LYMAN BREAK GALAXY ANALOG KISSR242

    SciTech Connect

    France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Green, James C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Leitherer, Claus, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2010-10-10

    We present new ultraviolet (UV) observations of the luminous compact blue galaxy KISSR242, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST-COS). We identify multiple resolved sub-arcsecond near-UV sources within the COS aperture. The far-UV spectroscopic data show strong outflow absorption lines, consistent with feedback processes related to an episode of massive star formation. O I, C II, and Si II-Si IV are observed with a mean outflow velocity (v {sub out}) = -60 km s{sup -1}. We also detect faint fine-structure emission lines of singly ionized silicon for the first time in a low-redshift starburst galaxy. These emissions have been seen previously in deep Lyman break galaxy surveys at z {approx} 3. The Si II* lines are at the galaxy rest velocity, and they exhibit a quantitatively different line profile from the absorption features. These lines have a width of {approx}75 km s{sup -1}, too broad for point-like emission sources such as the H II regions surrounding individual star clusters. The size of the Si II* emitting region is estimated to be {approx}250 pc. We discuss the possibility of this emission arising in overlapping super star cluster H II regions, but find this explanation to be unlikely in light of existing far-UV observations of local star-forming galaxies. We suggest that the observed Si II* emission originates in a diffuse warm halo populated by interstellar gas driven out by intense star formation and/or accreted during a recent interaction that may be fueling the present starburst episode in KISSR242.

  13. Are Main-Sequence K-type Stars the "Goldilocks" Stars for Hosting Long-term Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Aaron; Guinan, E. F.; Datin, K. M.; DeWarf, L. E.; Engle, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Main-sequence K-type (dwarf K = dK) stars have masses and luminosities ranging from ˜0.6-0.85 M? and ˜0.1-0.45 L?. In addition, dK stars have significantly longer main-sequence lifetimes than our Sun -- lasting ˜20-50 billion yrs. Moreover, these cool, low luminosity orange dwarfs are much more numerous (˜6-10×) than solar-type stars and also have been found to host an increasing number of planets. Their liquid-water habitable zones (HZs) extend from ˜0.4-1.2 AU. Because dK-stars evolve more slowly than G-stars, their HZs are essentially fixed for billions of years. As an extension of the Villanova "Sun in Time" program, we have been studying the suitability of dK stars as hosts to habitable planets. To this end we have measured the coronal X-ray and chromospheric emissions of dK0-8 stars with wide ranges of age, rotation, and magnetic-dynamo generated coronal and chromospheric X-UV activity. We have established well defined age-rotation-activity relations for this sample. We have used archival X-ray (mostly ROSAT) and UV data (from FUSE and IUE). The rotation periods were determined using photometry from starspot modulations. Although their optical luminosities remain essentially fixed up to ˜10+ Gyrs, the magnetic dynamo X-UV radiances decay rapidly with age. Young dK stars rotate rapidly and have correspondingly strong magnetic dynamos and strong coronal X-ray and chromospheric UV emissions (as well as frequent flaring). Here we discuss the suitability of dK stars as hosts for life-supporting planets where long-term life is sustainable and compare them with properties of planets hosted by G and M-type stars. From this study we conclude that these orange dwarf stars may be the best choices for hosting planets with evolved, complex life. This research is supported by grants from NSF/RUI (AST5-07542) and NASA/FUSE (NNG04G0386) which we gratefully acknowledge.

  14. SURFACE UV RADIATION MONITORING BASED ON GOME AND SCIAMACHY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos van Geffen; Ronald van der A; Michiel van Weele; Marc Allaart; Henk Eskes

    Solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is moni- tored by means of two quantities: the clear-sky UV index at local solar noon and the daily UV dose. Each quan- tity is determined on the basis of two action spectra, de- scribing wavelength dependent biological effects of UV radiation, namely erythema (sunburn) and DNA-damage. The quantities are derived from total

  15. UV Atlas version 2: What you get for your money

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Bodeker; H. Shiona; R. Scott-Weekly; K. Oltmanns; P. King; H. Chisholm; R. L. McKenzie

    The purpose of the NIWA UV Atlas project is to produce maps and time series of parameters describi ng the UV radiation environment over New Zealand since 1960. This paper describes the new version 2 NIWA UV Atlas and outlines the improvements made from version 1. The second version of the UV Atlas, together with infor mation on how to

  16. STAR-FORMING GALAXY EVOLUTION IN NEARBY RICH CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K. D.; Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bai, L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Room 101, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-08-20

    Dense environments are known to quench star formation in galaxies, but it is still unknown what mechanism(s) are directly responsible. In this paper, we study the star formation of galaxies in A2029 and compare it to that of Coma, combining indicators at 24 {mu}m, H{alpha}, and UV down to rates of 0.03 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show that A2029's star-forming galaxies follow the same mass-SFR relation as the field. The Coma cluster, on the other hand, has a population of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) significantly lower than the field mass-SFR relation, indicative of galaxies in the process of being quenched. Over half of these galaxies also host active galactic nuclei. Ram-pressure stripping and starvation/strangulation are the most likely mechanisms for suppressing the star formation in these galaxies, but we are unable to disentangle which is dominating. The differences we see between the two clusters' populations of star-forming galaxies may be related to their accretion histories, with A2029 having accreted its star-forming galaxies more recently than Coma. Additionally, many early-type galaxies in A2029 are detected at 24 {mu}m and/or in the far-UV, but this emission is not directly related to star formation. Similar galaxies have probably been classified as star forming in previous studies of dense clusters, possibly obscuring some of the effects of the cluster environment on true star-forming galaxies.

  17. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars. PMID:17749544

  18. Star formation in infrared bright and infrared faint starburst interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Bushouse, Howard A.; Towns, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Short wavelength IUE spectra of Arp 248b and UGC 8315N are combined with optical spectra and interpreted using a combination of spectrum synthesis and spectral diagnostics to place constraints on the massive star populations of the central regions of these galaxies and to deduce information about the star formation histories in the last 10(exp 8) years. The authors find that both galaxies have substantial fractions of their optical light coming from massive stars and that Arp 248b may be dominated in the UV by WR stars. The UV spectra are dominated by radiation from evolved massive stars and the authors place and age on the burst in Arp 248b of a few tens of millions of years.

  19. UV transparency in NZ lakes and the impact of UV on freshwater zooplankton and benthic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Hawes; Rowena Rae; Clive Howard-Williams; Dieter Hanelt; Dirk Wübben

    This paper summarises recent research on the transparency of New Zealand lakes to UV radiation, and the sensitivity of key groups of organisms to direct, deleterious impacts. The research has focused on the oligotrophic lakes of the South Island. These lakes show a wide range of UV transparencies, with much of the variation resulting from differences in concentrations of dissolved

  20. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Barnes; Stephan D. Flint; James R. Slusser; Wei Gao; Ronald J. Ryel

    2008-01-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah,

  1. UV Plasmonic Structures: Direct Observations of UV Extraordinary Optical Transmission and Localized Field Enhancement Through Nanoslits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiaoqiang Gan; Liangcheng Zhou; Volkmar Dierolf; Filbert J. Bartoli

    2009-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) extraordinary optical transmission through nanoslit structures in the far field and the localized field enhancement in the near field are directly observed and compared with each other. Numerical modeling results are also presented, and the distribution properties of the UV Surface Plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are analyzed, showing agreement with the experiment results. These phenomena may enrich the

  2. New UV detectors for solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochedez, Jean-Francois E.; Schuehle, Udo H.; Pau, Jose L.; Alvarez, Jose; Hainaut, Olivier; Appourchaux, Thierry P.; Auret, F. D.; Belsky, Andrei; Bergonzo, Philippe; Castex, M. C.; Deneuville, A.; Dhez, Pierre; Fleck, Bernhard; Haenen, Ken; Idir, Mourad; Kleider, Jean Paul; Lefeuvre, Elie; Lemaire, Philippe; Monroy, E.; Muret, P.; Munoz, Elias; Nesladek, Milos; Omnes, Franck; Pace, Emanuele; Peacock, Anthony J.; Van Hoof, Chris A.

    2003-02-01

    BOLD (Blind to the Optical Light Detectors) is an international initiative dedicated to the development of novel imaging detectors for UV solar observations. It relies on the properties of wide bandgap materials (in particular diamond and Al-Ga-nitrides). The investigation is proposed in view of the Solar Orbiter (S.O.) UV instruments, for which the expected benefits of the new sensors -primarily visible blindness and radiation hardness- will be highly valuable. Despite various advances in the technology of imaging detectors over the last decades, the present UV imagers based on silicon CCDs or microchannel plates exhibit limitations inherent to their actual material and technology. Yet, the utmost spatial resolution, fast temporal cadence, sensitivity, and photometric accuracy will be decisive for the forthcoming solar space missions. The advent of imagers based on wide-bandgap materials will permit new observations and, by simplifying their design, cheaper instruments. As for the Solar Orbiter, the aspiration for wide-bandgap material (WBGM) based UV detectors is still more sensible because the spacecraft will approach the Sun where the heat and the radiation fluxes are high. We describe the motivations, and present the program to achieve revolutionary flight cameras within the Solar Orbiter schedule as well as relevant UV measurements.

  3. Photobiological safety evaluation of UV nail lamps.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated six UV nail lamps representative of major US manufacturers to evaluate radiant hazards as defined in ANSI/IESNA RP-27 Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety. Lamps were evaluated at three positions, 1 cm above the inner surface approximating exposure to the hand and the 20 cm RP-27 non-general light source distance, oriented normal and 45° to the opening. Hazard to skin at intended use distance classified these devices into Risk Group 1 or 2 (Low to Moderate) with S(?) weighted Actinic UV ranging 1.2-1.7 ?W cm(-2) and 29.8-276.25 min permissible daily exposure. At 20 cm on center and 45° UV risk to skin and eyes were all within Exempt classification. Actinic UV ranged 0.001-0.078 ?W cm(-2) and unweighted near UV (320-400 nm) ranged 0.001-0.483 mW cm(-2). Likewise the retinal photochemical blue light hazard and retinal thermal and cornea/lens IR were also Exempt. One device had aphakic eye hazard slightly rising into Risk Group 1 (Low). There were no other photobiological risks to normal individuals. Total exposure following programmed times and steps accumulate to only a small fraction of RP-27 permissible daily occupational exposure. These risks are further mitigated in realistic nonoccupational use scenarios as it is unlikely to be a daily occurrence. PMID:23550905

  4. UV-enhanced fish predation and the differential migration of zooplankton in response to UV radiation and fish

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Craig E.

    to influence fish predation on zooplankton. However, in clear-water systems, ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR)-transparent systems, UV radiation (UVR) may also enhance fish predation on zooplankton, both directly and indirectly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, ,1­2 mg L21). Within the UV spectrum, UV-A radiation (320­400 nm) penetrates

  5. Kinetic parameters of uracil dosimeter in simulated extraterrestrial UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kovács; P. Gróf; A. Bérces; M. R. Patel; H. Lammer; Gy. Rontó

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B (280 nm - 315 nm) and the UV-C (200 nm - 280 nm) ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B

  6. Epidermal UV-screening in vascular plants from Svalbard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Line Nybakken; Wolfgang Bilger; Ulf Johanson; Lars Olof Bjorn; Mathias Zielke; Bjørn Solheim; Norwegian Arctic

    Stratospheric ozone depletion is most pro- nounced at high latitudes, and the concurring increased UV-B radiation might adversely affect plants from polar areas. However, vascular plants may protect themselves against UV-B radiation by UV-absorbing compounds located in the epidermis. In this 3-year study, epidermal UV-B (kmax 314 nm) and UV-A (kmax 366 nm) screening was assessed using a fluorescence method

  7. Neutrino signatures from the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Daigne, Frederic; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris VI, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014, Paris (France); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Sandick, Pearl [Department of Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Evidence from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization data indicates that the Universe may have been reionized at very high redshift. It is often suggested that the ionizing UV flux originates from an early population of massive or very massive stars. Depending on their mass, such stars can explode either as type II supernovae or pair-instability supernovae, or may entirely collapse into a black hole. The resulting neutrino emission can be quite different in each case. We consider here the relic neutrino background produced by an early burst of Population III stars coupled with a normal mode of star formation at lower redshift. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation and is based on cosmic star formation histories constrained to reproduce the observed star formation rate at redshift z < or approx. 6, the observed chemical abundances in damped Lyman alpha absorbers and in the intergalactic medium, and to allow for an early reionization of the Universe at z{approx}10-20. We find that although the high redshift burst of Population III stars does lead to an appreciable flux of neutrinos at relatively low energy (E{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}1 MeV), the observable neutrino flux is dominated by the normal mode of star formation. We also find that predicted fluxes are at the present level of the SuperK limit. As a consequence, the supernova relic neutrino background has a direct impact on models of chemical evolution and/or supernova dynamics.

  8. Reconstruction techniques of erythemal UV-radiation and future UV predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J. E.; Rieder, H. E.; Simic, S.; Weihs, P.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion more than 30 year ago, the scientific community has shown an increasing interest in UV-B radiation and started to monitor UV-radiation. However, difficulties involved in the routine operation and maintenance of the instruments have limited the length of reliable data records to about two decades. Further the number of places where they were measured, resulting in a set of observations too short and too sparse for a good understanding of past UV changes. Moreover state of the art climate models do not calculate future scenarios of UV-doses. Therefore detailed information about past and future UV-trends are lacking. Reconstruction techniques are indispensable to derive long-term time series of UV-radiation and fill this gap. Apart from the astronomical parameters, like solar zenith angle and sun-earth-distance, UV radiation is strongly influenced by clouds, ozone and surface albedo. We developed and evaluated a reconstruction technique for UV-doses that first calculates the UV-doses under clear-sky condition and afterwards applies corrections in order to take cloud effects into account. Since the input parameters cloud cover, total ozone column and surface albedo are available from the Regional Climate Model (REMO), we applied our reconstruction technique also for future scenarios using REMO data as input. Hence we are able to derive a seamless UV long-term time series from the past to the future. Our method was applied for the high alpine station Hoher Sonnblick (3108m) situated in Austrian Alps.

  9. A UV flux constraint on the formation of direct collapse black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Bovino, S.; Van Borm, C.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.

    2014-09-01

    The ability of metal-free gas to cool by molecular hydrogen in primordial haloes is strongly associated with the strength of ultraviolet (UV) flux produced by the stellar populations in the first galaxies. Depending on the stellar spectrum, these UV photons can either dissociate H2 molecules directly or indirectly by photodetachment of H- as the latter provides the main pathway for H2 formation in the early universe. In this study, we aim to determine the critical strength of the UV flux above which the formation of molecular hydrogen remains suppressed for a sample of five distinct haloes at z > 10 by employing a higher order chemical solver and a Jeans resolution of 32 cells. We presume that such flux is emitted by Pop II stars implying atmospheric temperatures of 104 K. We performed three-dimensional cosmological simulations and varied the strength of the UV flux below the Lyman limit in units of J21. Our findings show that the value of J_{21}^crit varies from halo to halo and is sensitive to the local thermal conditions of the gas. For the simulated haloes, it varies from 400 to 700 with the exception of one halo where J_{21}^crit ? 1500. This has important implications for the formation of direct collapse black holes and their estimated population at z > 6. It reduces the number density of direct collapse black holes by almost three orders of magnitude compared to the previous estimates.

  10. Direct-to-diffuse UV Solar Irradiance Ratio for a UV rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer and a UV Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, K.; Kiedron, P.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Michalsky, J.; Slusser, J.

    2008-12-01

    . Two spectroradiometers reside that measure direct and diffuse UV solar irradiance are located at the Table Mountain Test Facility, 8 km north of Boulder, CO. The UV- Rotating Shadowband Spectrograph (UV-RSS) measures diffuse and direct solar irradiance from 290 - 400 nm. The UV Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) measures diffuse and direct solar irradiance in seven 2-nm wide bands, i.e. 300, 305, 311, 317, 325, and 368 nm. The purpose of the work is to compare radiative transfer model calculations (TUV) with the results from the UV-Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (UV-RSS) and the UV-MFRSR to estimate direct-to-diffuse solar irradiance ratios (DDR) that are used to evaluate the possibility of retrieving aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) under a variety of atmospheric conditions: large and small aerosol loading, large and small surface albedo. For the radiative transfer calculations, total ozone measurements are obtained from a collocated Brewer spectrophotometer.

  11. UnISIS: Laser Guide Star and Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Laird A.; Teare, Scott W.; Xiong, Yao-Heng; Castle, Richard M.; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Gruendl, Robert A.; Leach, Robert W.

    2009-05-01

    UnISIS (University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System) is a versatile adaptive optics system mounted on a large optics bench at the coudé focus of the Mount Wilson 2.5-m telescope. It was designed to have both laser guide star (LGS) and natural guide star (NGS) adaptive optics capabilities. The LGS side of the system relies on a pulsed UV laser with raw power of 30 W capable of creating an artificial laser star via Rayleigh scattering 18 km above the telescope. The LGS system can work at temporal response rates as high as 333 Hz-limited by the UV laser pulse rate-and the NGS system can work at rates up to 1.4 kHz. Each side of the system has its own high-speed wavefront sensor that runs separately, but in the LGS mode the NGS wavefront sensor is converted into a natural star tip-tilt sensor. The deformable mirror is conjugate to the telescope's primary mirror and has one of the most densely packed sets of actuators of any adaptive optics system currently in operation. This paper provides details of the UnISIS design and describes key updates we have made to the system. We show NGS AO-corrected images from the sky from the 900 nm K band.

  12. The (BETA) Pictoris Phenomenon Among Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, M. R.; Talavera, A.; Bjorkman, K. S.; deWinter, D.; The, P.-S.; Molster, F. J.; vandenAncker, M. E.; Sitko, M. L.; Morrison, N. D.; Beaver, M. L.; McCollum, B.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a survey of high dispersion UV and optical spectra of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars. We find accreting, circumstellar gas over the velocity range +100 to +400 km/s, and absorption profiles similar to those seen toward Beta Pic, in 36% of the 33 HAeBe stars with IUE data as well as in 3 non-emission B stars. We also find evidence of accretion in 7 HAeBe stars with optical data only. Line profile variability appears ubiquitous. As a group, the stars with accreting gas signatures have higher v sin i than the stars with outflowing material, and tend to exhibit large amplitude (greater than or equal to 1(sup m)) optical light variations. All of the program stars with polarimetric variations that are anti-correlated with the optical light, previously interpreted as the signature of a dust disk viewed close to equator-on, also show spectral signatures of accreting gas. These data imply that accretion activity in HAeBe stars is preferentially observed when the line of sight transits the circumstellar dust disk. Our data imply that the spectroscopic signatures of accreting circumstellar material seen in Beta Pic are not unique to that object, but instead are consistent with interpretation of Beta Pic as a comparatively young A star with its associated circumstellar disk.

  13. Correlations of solar cycle 22 UV irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, L.; Brueckner, G.; Crane, P.; Prinz, D.; Herring, L.

    1997-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor (SUSIM) onboard the upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS) is an absolutely calibrated UV spectrometer which has measured the solar spectral irradiance over the wavelengths 115 nm to 410 nm since October 1991. This data set now extends for about six years from near the peak of solar cycle 22, through its minimum, to the initial rise associated with solar cycle 23. Generally, the time series of UV spectral irradiances obtained shows behavior similar to that of other solar activity indices. The conditions on the sun, which can in result in dominant 13.5-day periodicity, are analyzed and illustrated. It is found that any combination of presence or absence of dominant 13.5-day in UV irradiance and solar wind velocity is possible depending entirely on the particular surface distribution and orientation of solar active regions.

  14. Multilayer Coatings for UV Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloushev, Ilko; Tenev, Tihomir; Peyeva, Rumiana; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2010-01-01

    Optical coatings for the UV spectral range play currently a significant role in the modern optical devices. For reducing of manufacturing cost the reliable design is essential. Therefore, better understanding of the optical properties of the used materials is indispensable for the proper design and manufacturing of the multilayer UV coatings. In this work we present some results on the preparation of reflective UV coatings. The implemented materials are magnesium fluoride and lanthanum fluoride. Their optical constants are determined from spectral characteristics of single layers in the 200-800 nm spectral range, obtained by thermal boat evaporation in high vacuum conditions. These results are subsequently used for the analysis of high reflection (HR) stack made of 40 layers deposited by the same deposition process.

  15. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  16. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G

    2000-01-01

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance. (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb, (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve, and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters. PMID:12038484

  17. UV photolysis, organic molecules in young disks, and the origin of meteoritic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2011-04-01

    The origin of complex organic molecules such as amino acids and their precursors found in meteorites and comets is unknown. Previous studies have accounted for the complex organic inventory of the Solar System by aqueous chemistry on warm meteoritic parent bodies, or by accretion of organics formed in the interstellar medium. This paper proposes a third possibility: that complex organics were created in situ by ultraviolet light from nearby O/B stars irradiating ices already in the Sun's protoplanetary disk. If the Sun was born in a dense cluster near UV-bright stars, the flux hitting the disk from external stars could be many orders of magnitude higher than that from the Sun alone. Such photolysis of ices in the laboratory can rapidly produce amino acid precursors and other complex organic molecules. I present a simple model coupling grain growth and UV exposure in a young circumstellar disk. It is shown that the production may be sufficient to create the Solar System's entire complex organic inventory within 10 6 yr. Subsequent aqueous alteration on meteoritic parent bodies is not ruled out.

  18. UV protection for sunglasses: revisiting the standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masili, Mauro; Schiabel, Homero; Ventura, Liliane

    2014-02-01

    In a continuing work of establishing safe limits for UV protection on sunglasses, we have estimated the incident UV radiation for the 280 nm - 400 nm range for 5500 locations in Brazil. Current literature establishes safe limits regarding ultraviolet radiation exposure in the spectral region 180nm-400nm for weighted and unweighted UV radiant exposure. British Standard BSEN1836(2005) and American Standard ANZI Z80.3(2009) require the UV protection in the spectral range 280nm-380nm, and The Brazilian Standard for sunglasses protection, NBR15111(20013), currently requires protection for the 280nm - 400nm range as established by literature. However, none of them take into account the total (unweighted) UVA radiant exposure.Calculations of these limits have been made for 5500 Brazilian locations which included the geographic position of the city; altitude, inclination angle of the Earth; typical atmospheric data (ozone column; water vapor and others) as well as scattering from concrete, grass, sand, water, etc.. Furthermore, regarding UV safety for the ocular media, the resistance to irradiance test required on this standard of irradiating the lenses for 25 continuous hours with a 450W sunlight simulator leads to a correspondence of 26 hours and 10 minutes of continuous exposure to the Sun. Moreover, since the sun irradiance in Brazil is quite large, integrations made for the 280-400 nm range shows an average of 45% of greater ultraviolet radiant exposure than for the 280-380 nm range. Suggestions on the parameters of these tests are made in order to establish safe limits according to the UV irradiance in Brazil.

  19. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. Properties of Hot, Massive Stars: The Impact of FUSE

    E-print Network

    Paul A. Crowther

    2004-10-01

    The impact of FUSE upon the fundamental parameters of OB stars and Wolf-Rayet stars is reviewed. The stellar wind signatures available in the far-UV provide us with important additional diagnostics of effective temperature. Together with improved non-LTE stellar atmosphere models allowing for line blanketing and stellar winds, this has led to a downward revision in the spectral type-temperature calibration for O stars versus Vacca et al. (1996) In addition, the Lyman continuum ionizing fluxes from O dwarfs are compared with previous calibrations of Panagia (1973) and Vacca et al. We also discuss mass-loss rates in OB stars, such that agreement between recent theoretical predictions (Vink et al. 2000, 2001) and observations of O supergiants is possible, solely if winds are clumped in the far-UV and H-alpha line forming regions, as favoured by line profile comparisons for PV 1118-28 (early to mid O) or SIV 1062-1073 (late O to early B) in FUSE datasets. In contrast, B supergiant wind strengths are predicted to be much higher than observations indicates, especially if their winds are also clumped. Finally, significant upward revisions in wind velocities of very late WN stars are indicated by NII 1085 resonance line observations, plus elemental abundances in OB and WR stars are briefly discussed.

  1. UV signaling pathways within the skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxiang; Weng, Qing Yu; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of UVR on the skin include tanning, carcinogenesis, immunomodulation, and synthesis of vitamin D, among others. Melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphisms correlate with skin pigmentation, UV sensitivity, and skin cancer risk. This article reviews pathways through which UVR induces cutaneous stress and the pigmentation response. Modulators of the UV tanning pathway include sunscreen agents, MC1R activators, adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase 4D3 inhibitors, T oligos, and MITF regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors. UVR, as one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens, represents both a challenge and enormous opportunity in skin cancer prevention. PMID:24759085

  2. Bioassay and dose measurement in UV disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, R G; Johnson, J D

    1983-01-01

    A bioassay method was developed to measure the average intensity within a UV disinfection reactor. The survival of spores of Bacillus subtilis was determined as a function of UV dose to prepare a standard curve. Spores were added to unknown systems, and the survival rate was used to determine the average intensity. A modification was used for flow-through reactors by which spores were injected as a spike and collected at a known time after injection. A point source summation method for calculating intensity was verified by bioassay measurements in a simple cylinder. This calculation method was also applied to multiple-lamp reactors. PMID:6405690

  3. UV signaling pathways within the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxiang; Weng, Qing Y; Fisher, David E

    2014-08-01

    The effects of UVR on the skin include tanning, carcinogenesis, immunomodulation, and synthesis of vitamin D, among others. Melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphisms correlate with skin pigmentation, UV sensitivity, and skin cancer risk. This article reviews pathways through which UVR induces cutaneous stress and the pigmentation response. Modulators of the UV-tanning pathway include sunscreen agents, melanocortin 1 receptor activators, adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase 4D3 inhibitors, T-oligos, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor regulators such as histone deacetylase inhibitors. UVR, as one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens, represents both a challenge and an enormous opportunity in skin cancer prevention. PMID:24759085

  4. UV curable hard coatings on polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datashvili, Tea; Brostow, Witold; Kao, David

    2006-10-01

    UV curable, hard and transparent hybrid inorganic-organic coatings with covalent links between the inorganic and the organic networks were prepared using organically crosslinked heteropolysiloxanes based on the sol-gel process. The materials were applied onto polyester sheets and UV cured. The deposition was followed by a thermal treatment to improve mechanical properties of the coatings. High light transmission and the resulting thermophysical properties indicate the presence of a nanoscale hybrid composition. The coatings show excellent adhesion to polyesters even without using primers. Further mechanical characterization shows that the coatings provide high hardness and good abrasion resistance.

  5. Extreme supercontinuum generation to the deep UV.

    PubMed

    Stark, S P; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2012-03-01

    We report the formation of an ultrabroad supercontinuum down to 280 nm in the deep UV by pumping sharply tapered (5-30 mm taper lengths) solid-core photonic crystal fibers with 130 fs, 2 nJ pulses at 800 nm. The taper moves the point of soliton fission to a position where the core is narrower, a process that requires normal dispersion at the input face of the fiber. We find that the generation of deep-UV radiation is limited by strong two-photon absorption in the silica. PMID:22378388

  6. The Relation Between the Spectral Synthesis of Galaxies in the Visible Region and Their UV Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantas, M. L.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    The STARLIGHT Project has analyzed almost a million spectra extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by using the empirical spectral synthesis approach described by Cid Fernandes et al.(2005). Spectral synthesis consists on the optical spectrum fitting by using simple stellar population libraries, such as Bruzual & Charlot (2003). It also considers the reddening caused by dust and the velocity dispersion due to the motion of the stars within the galaxy. Since the model that best fits the optical region can also be extended to the ultraviolet, we compare our predictions to the UV photometry of the same galaxies measured by the GALEX satellite, studying the systematics and nature of the differences. In this current presentation, we show the upcoming challenges in order to accomplish this investigation. The main motivation of this study is to obtain realistic spectral models from the UV to the optical regions for the study of high redshift galaxies.

  7. Atomic Data for Stellar Astrophysics: from the UV to the IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of stars and stellar evolution relies heavily on the analysis of stellar spectra. The need for atomic line data from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (lR) regions is greater now than ever. In the past twenty years, the time since the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, great progress has been made in acquiring atomic data for UV transitions. The optical wavelength region, now expanded by progress in detector technology, continues to provide motivation for new atomic data. In addition, investments in new instrumentation for ground-based and space observatories has lead to the availability of high-quality spectra at IR wavelengths, where the need for atomic data is most critical. In this review, examples are provided of the progress made in generating atomic data for stellar studies, with a look to the future for addressing the accuracy and completeness of atomic data for anticipated needs.

  8. Estimation of global solar UV index from UV-B irradiance measured with a narrow-band UV-B radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Shu; Sasaki, Masako

    2005-08-01

    The global solar UV index is an indicator for notifying the level of harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the earth and the general public. It was proposed by the WHO/WMO/UNEP/ICNIRP and was standardized by the CIE in 2003. This index is derived from the product of the spectral solar UV irradiance from 250 to 400 nm and the CIE standard of reference erythema spectrum. For calculation of the UV index, the measurement of spectral solar UV irradiance is needed. Spectral radiometry is the best method of measurement of solar UV irradiance, however spectral radiometers are cost prohibitive. On the other hand, a narrow-band solar UV-B radiometer is widely used for measurement of solar UV-B irradiance in the world. The Tokai Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, and the UV Monitoring Network-Japan performed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies are two examples of monitoring networks using narrow-band solar UV-B radiometer in Japan. In this paper an estimation method of the UV index from the measured UV-B irradiance with the narrow-band UV-B radiometer.

  9. UV--NIR Restframe Luminosity Functions of the Galaxy Cluster EIS0048 at z~0.64

    E-print Network

    M. Massarotti; G. Busarello; F. La Barbera; P. Merluzzi

    2003-04-24

    We derive the galaxy luminosity functions in V, R, I, and K bands of the cluster EIS 0048 at z~0.64 from data taken at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The data span the restframe wavelength range from UV, which is sensitive to even low rates of star formation, to the NIR, which maps the bulk of the stellar mass. By comparing our data and previous results with pure luminosity evolution models, we conclude that bright (M<= M^*+1) cluster galaxies are already assembled at z~1 and that star formation is almost completed at z~1.5.

  10. Star Search

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-02

    In this online activity, learners can test their skills at finding constellations in the northern hemisphere's night sky. Learners can choose during which season to look, and then look for four constellations in that season. The simulation shows a simple representation of the night sky with key stars highlighted. Use this as a practice before going outside or just to give learners an idea of the difficulties involved in identifying constellations. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  11. First ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of Be stars from the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, K. S.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Code, A. D.; Anderson, C. M.; Babler, B. L.; Clayton, G. C.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Meade, M. R.; Nook, M. A.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    The first UV spectropolarimetric observations of Be stars are presented. They were obtained with the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) aboard the Astro-1 mission. WUPPE data on the Be stars Zeta Tau and Pi Aqr, along with near-simultaneous optical data obtained at the Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO). Combined WUPPE and PBO data give polarization as a function of wavelength across a very broad spectral region, from 1400 to 7600 A. Existing Be star models predicted increasing polarization toward shorter wavelengths in the UV, but this is not supported by the WUPPE observations. Instead, the observations show a constant or slightly declining continuum polarization shortward of the Balmer jump, and broad UV polarization dips around 1700 and 1900 A, which may be a result of Fe-line-attenuation effects on the polarized flux. Supporting evidence for this conclusion comes from the optical data, in which decreases in polarization across Fe II lines in Zeta Tau were discovered.

  12. Fractal dust grains around R Coronae Borealis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.L. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Discrete dipole approximation calculations of the optical properties of random fractal aggregates of graphite spheroids show a UV absorption feature that is too wide and centered at too long a wavelength to fit the observed interstellar 2200-A feature, but which is a good match to the 2400-A feature seen in the hydrogen-deficient R CrB stars reported by Hecht et al. (1984). Graphite fractal grains also match the UV bump and large long-wavelenvth extinction seen in laboratory studies of carbon smoke published by Bussoletti et al. (1987), which are usually attributed to amorphous carbon. 16 refs.

  13. Quantitative Studies of the Optical and UV Spectra of Galactic Early B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searle, S. C.; Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D.; Ryans, R.

    2008-01-01

    We undertake an optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 20 Galactic B0-B5 supergiants of luminosity classes Ia, Ib, Iab, and II. Fundamental stellar parameters are obtained from optical diagnostics and a critical comparison of the model predictions to observed UV spectral features is made. Methods. Fundamental parameters (e.g., T(sub eff), log L(sub *), mass-loss rates and CNO abundances) are derived for individual stars using CMFGEN, a nLTE, line-blanketed model atmosphere code. The impact of these newly derived parameters on the Galactic B supergiant Ten scale, mass discrepancy, and wind-momentum luminosity relation is examined. Results. The B supergiant temperature scale derived here shows a reduction of about 1000-3000 K compared to previous results using unblanketed codes. Mass-loss rate estimates are in good agreement with predicted theoretical values, and all of the 20 BO-B5 supergiants analysed show evidence of CNO processing. A mass discrepancy still exists between spectroscopic and evolutionary masses, with the largest discrepancy occuring at log (L/(solar)L approx. 5.4. The observed WLR values calculated for B0-B0.7 supergiants are higher than predicted values, whereas the reverse is true for B1-B5 supergiants. This means that the discrepancy between observed and theoretical values cannot be resolved by adopting clumped (i.e., lower) mass-loss rates as for O stars. The most surprising result is that, although CMFGEN succeeds in reproducing the optical stellar spectrum accurately, it fails to precisely reproduce key UV diagnostics, such as the N v and C IV P Cygni profiles. This problem arises because the models are not ionised enough and fail to reproduce the full extent of the observed absorption trough of the P Cygni profiles. Conclusions. Newly-derived fundamental parameters for early B supergiants are in good agreement with similar work in the field. The most significant discovery, however, is the failure of CMFGEN to predict the correct ionisation fraction for some ions. Such findings add further support to revising the current standard model of massive star winds, as our understanding of these winds is incomplete without a precise knowledge of the ionisation structure and distribution of clumping in the wind. Key words. techniques: spectroscopic - stars: mass-loss - stars: supergiants - stars: abundances - stars: atmospheres - stars: fundamental parameters

  14. Magnitude calibration of a fixed head star tracker using Astro-1 flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John M.; West, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The Astro-1 UV astronomy mission was hampered by the failures of the automatic star acquisition procedure. The acquisition procedure depended on the Instrument Pointing Subsystem's Fixed Head Star Trackers (FHST) to acquire, track and identify guidestars of known visual magnitude. During the Astro-1 mission it was suspected that the star magnitudes measured by the FHST were much lower than predicted. A postflight investigation of the Astro-1 flight data confirmed and quantified this suspicion. Star magnitude calibration curves computed from the flight data depict the variance from the preflight calibration curves. These results are helping engineers to plan improvements to the acquisition procedure for the upcoming Astro-2 mission.

  15. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (editor); Thomas, Richard (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  16. The spiral structure of M 51 from Halpha and 2000A UV images. A new tracer of density waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Petit; C. T. Hua; D. Bersier; G. Courtes

    1996-01-01

    A deeper detection of the spiral structure of the Sbc galaxy M 51 is the main goal of this paper. New UV data in the 2000A range were obtained with a high altitude balloon of the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale de Marseille and the Observatoire de Geneve, (LAS-OG). The data reveal the location of hot, evolved low-mass stars predominantly along the

  17. X-ray and UV correlation in the quiescent emission of Cen X-4, evidence of accretion and reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.; Brown, E. F.; D'Angelo, C.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Wijnands, R.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted the first long-term (60 days), multiwavelength (optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray) simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4 with daily Swift observations, with the goal of understanding variability in the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 during quiescence. We found Cen X-4 to be highly variable in all energy bands on timescales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent variability a factor of 22 drop in the X-ray count rate in only 4 days. The X-ray, UV and optical (V band) emission are correlated on timescales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index ? about 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen NS atmosphere (kT = 59 - 80 eV) and a power law (with spectral index ? = 1.4 - 2.0), with the spectral shape remaining constant as the flux varies. Both components vary in tandem, with each responsible for about 50% of the total X-ray flux, implying that they are physically linked. We conclude that the X-rays are likely generated by matter accreting down to the NS surface. Moreover, based on the short timescale of the correlation, we also unambiguously demonstrate that the UV emission can not be due to either thermal emission from the stream impact point, or a standard optically thick, geometrically thin disc. The spectral energy distribution shows a small UV emitting region, too hot to arise from the accretion disk, that we identified as a hot spot on the companion star. Therefore, the UV emission is most likely produced by reprocessing from the companion star, indeed the vertical size of the disc is small and can only reprocess a marginal fraction of the X-ray emission. We also found the accretion disc in quiescence to likely be UV faint, with a minimal contribution to the whole UV flux.

  18. Stand-Off Deep UV Resonance Raman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarcea, N.; Ringer, J.; Wilsenack, F.; Schmitt, M.; Popp, J.

    2014-06-01

    A mobile experimental breadboard was built from a cw frequency-quadrupled diode pumped solid state laser at 244 nm, an optical telescope with 7cm aperture and a high throughput (f/4.6) — high resolution spectrometer with UV enhanced CCD camera.

  19. UV fluorescence lidar detection of bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Christesen, S.D.; DeSha, M.S.; Wong, A. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Merrow, C.N.; Wilson, M.W.; Butler, J. [Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Biological agents (e.g. bacterial spores, viruses, toxins) pose a serious threat to military forces on the modern battlefield. Remote detection of these agents is crucial to providing early warning of an attack and to allow for the avoidance of contaminated areas. Here, a UV fluorescence lidar system for the remote detection of bioaerosols has been built and tested. At the heart of the UV-LIDAR Fluorosensor system are a 200mJ quadrupled ND:YAG laser at 266nm and a 16 inch cassagrain telescope. Operating on three data collection channels, the UV lidar is capable of real time monitoring of 266nm elastic backscatter, the total fluorescence between 300 and 400nm, and the dispersed fluorescence spectrum (using a small spectrograph and gated intensified CCD array). The goal in this effort was to assess the capabilities of biofluorescence for quantitative detection and discrimination of bioaerosols. To this end, the UV-LIDAR Fluorosensor system was tested against the aerosolized bacterial spore Bacillus subtilus var. niger sp. globiggi (BG) and several likely interferences at several ranges from approximately 600 to 3000 meters. The tests with BG indicate a detection limit of approximately 500 mg/cubic meter at a range of 3000m.

  20. Dimer formation during UV photolysis of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G

    2013-11-01

    Dimer formation was observed during ultraviolet (UV) photolysis of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, and confirmed with mass spectrometry, NMR and fluorescence analysis. The dimers were combinations of the two parent molecules or of the parent and the product of photolysis, and had visible color. Radical formation during UV exposure and dissolved oxygen photosensitized reactions played a role in dimer formation. Singlet oxygen formed via photosensitization by photolysis products of diclofenac. It reacted with diclofenac to form an epoxide which is an intermediate in some dimer formation pathways. Quantum yield of photolysis for diclofenac was 0.21±0.02 and 0.19±0.02 for UV irradiation from medium pressure and low pressure mercury vapor lamps, respectively. Band pass filter experiments revealed that the quantum yield is constant at wavelengths >200 nm. The same dimers formed in laboratory grade water when either of the two UV sources was used. Dimers did not form in wastewater effluent matrix, and diclofenac epoxide molecules may have formed bonds with organic matter rather than each other Implications for the importance of dimer formation in NOM are discussed. PMID:23911263

  1. UV Treatment Enhances Flavonoid Content in Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...

  2. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Kimlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development

  3. UV-induced synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.M.; Huerta, A.J. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Suspension-cultured rose cells irradiated with UV (254 mm, 558 J m{sup {minus}2}) showed a transient efflux of K{sup +}, and a production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} measured by chemiluminescence of luminol in the presence of peroxidase. The peak concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, attained at about 60-90 min after irradiation, was 2-5 uM. The addition of superoxide dismutase to irradiated cells stimulated luminscence, suggesting that the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} came at least in part from superoxide that was present in the extracellular medium. Treatments that inhibited the UV-induced efflux of K{sup +} also inhibited the appearance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, though the converse was not always true, suggesting that K{sup +} efflux was necessary for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} synthesis, but not vice-versa. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the extracellular space is required for lignin synthesis in many plant tissues. Phenolic compounds, the other substrates for lignin, are induced by UV. We suggest that the UV-stimulated production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is part of a coordinated induction of lignin synthesis.

  4. UV\\/ozone cleaning of surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Vig; J. W. Lebus

    1976-01-01

    The UV ozone cleaning procedure is shown to be an effective method of rapidly removing a variety of contaminants from surfaces. It is a simple-to-use dry process which is inexpensive to set up and operate. It can produce clean surfaces in air, at ambient temperatures. The experiments were performed on quartz and metal surfaces. The contaminants which were successfully removed

  5. UV\\/Ozone Cleaning of Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN R. VIG; J. LeBus

    1976-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV)\\/ozone cleaning procedure is shown to be an effective method of rapidly removing a variety of contaminants from surfaces. It is a simple-to-use dry process which is inexpensive to set up and operate. It can produce · clean surfaces in air, at ambient temperatures. The experiments were performed on quartz and metal surfaces. The contaminants which were successfully

  6. SOLAR UV RADIATION AND AQUATIC BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade significant interest has developed in the influence of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in surface waters of lakes and the sea. A major portion of this research has focused on photoreactions of the colored component of dissolved organic matter, ...

  7. Laser reflexotherapy in UV and IR wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokretsov, V. V.; Utz, Sergei R.; Vinichenko, N. V.; Barabanov, Alexander Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this work was the investigation of the effects of UV and IR laser irradiation on the central and regional hemodynamics of agricultural mechanization workers with border limited arterial hypertension, whose arterial pressure was within the limits from 140 to 90 mm of mercury column up to 159 and 94 mm mercury column.

  8. Moon-based UV reflecting coronagraph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Vial; S. Koutchmy; R. N. Smartt

    1994-01-01

    UV observations of the solar disc, and above the limb, have evidenced a wide range of possible diagnostics, especially in the Lyman alpha line. On the disc, Lyman alpha traces the magnetic (sometimes unexpected) structuring of the top of the atmosphere; out from the limb, it allows measurement of radial velocities up to a few solar radii where most optical

  9. UV-Bright Stellar Populations and Their Evolutionary Implications in the Collapsed-Core Cluster M15

    E-print Network

    Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cohn, Haldan N; Lugger, Phyllis M; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M; Serenelli, Aldo; 10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/158

    2010-01-01

    We performed deep photometry of the central region of Galactic globular cluster M15 from archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on the High Resolution Channel and Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Our data set consists of images in far-UV (FUV$_{140}$; F140LP), near-UV (NUV$_{220}$; F220W), and blue (B$_{435}$; F435W) filters. The addition of an optical filter complements previous UV work on M15 by providing an additional constraint on the UV-bright stellar populations. Using color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) we identified several populations that arise from non-canonical evolution including candidate blue stragglers, extreme horizontal branch stars, blue hook stars (BHks), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and helium-core white dwarfs (He WDs). Due to preliminary identification of several He WD and BHk candidates, we add M15 as a cluster containing a He WD sequence and suggest it be included among clusters with a BHk population. We also investigated a subset of CV candidates that appear in...

  10. Counting Your Lucky Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shannon Ricles

    2013-01-30

    In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

  11. RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Horace A.

    2004-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The absolute magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars; 3. RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters; 4. RR Lyrae stars of the galactic field; 5. Period changes, the Blanzhko effect, and the double mode pulsation; 6. RR Lyrae stars beyond the Milky Way; Glossary of symbols; Short list of journal abbreviations; References; Index.

  12. UV-Filter combinations under UV-A exposure: concomitant quantification of over-all spectral stability and molecular integrity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Elisabetta; Baschong, Werner; Greci, Lucedio

    2007-05-25

    Efficient UV-absorbing molecules are designed to protect against UV-light over-exposure. However, upon UV exposure they may change spectral performance or act as photooxidants via generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species alone or in combination with others. Therefore, information about their photointegrity which comprises (i) stable absorbance and (ii) absence of UV-induced molecular breakdown, is fundamental. In this study, seven commonly used UV-A, UV-B and broad spectrum UV-AB filters and their combinations, were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based liposomes and exposed to UV-A (275 kJ/m(2)). Spectral integrity, evaluated by recording UV-absorbance spectra of the extracted filter molecules and molecular integrity, assessed indirectly via quantification of UV-A induced PC peroxidation, revealed that spectral stability of filter molecules alone or in combination (e.g. trianilino p-carboxyethylhexyl triazine, EHT plus ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate, OMC) does not necessarily imply absence of radical generation and that spectral lability does not necessarily have to lead to radical generation and molecular decay (e.g. OMC). This simple system capable of discriminating between essentially photostable and photounstable UV-absorbing molecules alone and in mixtures, might be useful for determining the influence of UV-protection as well as of photostability of UV-absorbers with regard to UV-induced genotoxic/phototoxic and photoageing-related, radical-based processes. PMID:17428672

  13. Evidence of increased UV Fe II emission in quasars in candidate overdense regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Kathryn A.; Williger, G. M.; Haberzettl, L.; Mitchell, S.; Farrah, D.; Graham, M. J.; Davé, R.; Younger, M. P.; Söchting, I. K.

    2013-11-01

    We present evidence for a skewed distribution of UV Fe II emission in quasars within candidate overdense regions spanning spatial scales of ˜50 Mpc at 1.11 < z < 1.67, compared to quasars in field environments at comparable redshifts. The overdense regions have an excess of high-equivalent-width sources (W2400 > 42 Å) and a dearth of low-equivalent-width sources. There are various possible explanations for this effect, including dust, Ly? fluorescence, microturbulence and iron abundance. We find that the most plausible of these is enhanced iron abundance in the overdense regions, consistent with an enhanced star formation rate in the overdense regions compared to the field.

  14. UV-B absorbance and UV-B absorbing compounds (para-coumaric acid) in pollen and sporopollenin: the perspective to track historic UV-B levels.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Broekman, R A; Blokker, P; Meijkamp, B B; de Bakker, N; van de Staaij, J; van Beem, A; Ariese, F; Kars, S M

    2001-09-01

    UV-B absorbance and UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) of the pollen of Vicia faba, Betula pendula, Helleborus foetidus and Pinus sylvestris were studied. Sequential extraction demonstrated considerable UV-B absorbance both in the soluble (acid methanol) and insoluble sporopollenin (acetolysis resistant residue) fractions of UACs, while the wall-bound fraction of UACs was small. The UV-B absorbance of the soluble and sporopollenin fraction of pollen of Vicia faba plants exposed to enhanced UV-B (10 kJ m(-2) day(-1) UV-B(BE)) was higher than that of plants that received 0 kJ m(-2) day(-1) UV-B(BB). Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) analysis of pollen demonstrated that p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid formed part of the sporopollenin fraction of the pollen. The amount of these aromatic monomers in the sporopollenin of Vicia faba appeared to increase in response to enhanced UV-B (10 kJ m(-2) day(-1) UV-B(BE)). The detection limit of pyGC-MS was sufficiently low to quantify these phenolic acids in ten pollen grains of Betula and Pinus. The experimental data presented provide evidence for the possibility that polyphenolic compounds in pollen of plants are indicators of solar UV-B and may be applied as a new proxy for the reconstruction of historic variation in solar UV-B levels. PMID:11693361

  15. The standard theory of extinction and the spectrum of stars with very little reddening

    E-print Network

    Frederic Zagury

    2001-07-10

    This paper examines the relationship between spectra of stars of same spectral type with extremely low reddenings. According to the standard theory, the relationship between the spectrum of stars with same spectral type and small, but different reddenings should be different in the optical and in the UV. This difference is not observed: the ratio of the spectra of two stars in directions where the reddening is large enough to be detected and low enough not to give a noticeable 2200Ang. bump is an exponential of 1/lambda from the near-infrared to the far-UV. This result is in conformity with the ideas introduced in preceding papers: the exponential optical extinction extends to the UV, and the spectrum of stars with enough reddening is contaminated by light scattered at close angular distance from the stars. An application will be the determination of the spectrum of a non-reddened star from the spectrum of a star of same spectral type with little reddening.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF EPISODIC STAR FORMATION ON THE FUV-NUV COLORS OF STAR FORMING REGIONS IN OUTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dowell, Jayce D., E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jdowell@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and H? colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; ? model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and H? observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10{sup –8} to 4 × 10{sup –9} yr{sup –1}. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L{sub H{sub ?}}/L{sub FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing ? and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ?2 × 10{sup –6} M{sub ?} yr{sup –1}, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical evolution of spiral galaxies.

  17. The Effects of Episodic Star Formation on the FUV-NUV Colors of Star Forming Regions in Outer Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Kate L.; van Zee, Liese; Dowell, Jayce D.

    2013-09-01

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and H? colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; ? model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and H? observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10-8 to 4 × 10-9 yr-1. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L_{H_{\\alpha }}/L_{FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing ? and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ~2 × 10-6 M ? yr-1, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical evolution of spiral galaxies.

  18. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  19. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stierwalt, Sabrina [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neff, Susan G., E-mail: shan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: sabrina@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [NASA GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  20. IUE observations of the chromospheric activity-age relation in young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    Except for the synoptic observations of the chromospheric Ca II H-K lines by Wilson (1978), in which he sought evidence for magnetic activity cycles, there is still scant data on stellar activity, especially at UV and X-ray wavelengths where 105K transition regions and 106 - 107K coronae are expected to radiate. This paper presents new UV data, obtained with the IUE spacecraft, for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The purpose is to study the evolution of transition region and chromospheric emission with stellar age, and also the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes.