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Sample records for uv ceti stars

  1. Nucleosynthesis of Li-7 in flares on UV Ceti stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Worden, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    The possible production of Li-7 by nuclear reactions in UV Ceti flares has been considered. By utilizing solar observations and theory, a relationship is derived between flare energy and production rates for Li-7; approximately 100 erg of total flare energy is found to denote the formation of a Li-7 atom. Based on this value and best estimates of UV Ceti-type flare rates, it is concluded that less than 10% of the Li-7 observed in the intestellar medium may have been produced by this mechanism. Formation of significant amounts of interstellar deuterium by this method is ruled out.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of binary UV Ceti stars (Tamazian+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamazian, V.; Malkov, O.

    2015-01-01

    A catalogue of nearby UV Ceti type flare stars in (137) visual binary systems is presented in the form of two separate tables of information. The catalogue has developed from Catalogue and Bibliography of UV Cet stars (Gershberg et al., 1999, Cat. J/A+AS/139/555) and the list of nearby flare stars (Pettersen, 1991MmSAI..62..217P) by including more recent and additional information from catalogues of binary stars (WDS, Mason et al., 2001-2014, Cat. B/wds; ORB6, Hartkopf et al. 2006-2014; DM3, Mason+ 2006-2014) and data from the Catalog of Nearby Stars, Preliminary 3rd Version (Gliese et al., 1991, Cat. V/70), from Hipparcos, the New Reduction (van Leeuwen 2007, Cat. I/311) and from SIMBAD. Some issues relating to the mass, luminosity and spectrum relations of flare stars are also discussed. (2 data files).

  3. Microwave observations of the flare stars UV Ceti, AT Microscopii, and AU Microscopii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Jackson, P. D.; White, S. M.; Melozzi, M.

    1987-01-01

    The results of observations of three red dwarf flare star systems, UV Ceti, AT Mic, and AU Mic, made in February and March of 1985, are reported. Flaring was detected from all three systems, and quiescent emission from UV Cet and AU Mic. Models for the quiescent microwave-emitting corona of UV Cet are discussed. The gravitational scale height in current models is similar to or larger than the height of the corona, which is a striking difference from the case of the solar corona and confirms that magnetic structures are required to confine the radio-emitting corona. The role of precipitation into the chromosphere of the energetic particles in such a corona is explored, and it is shown that for plausible parameters it may be the dominant energy loss mechanism.

  4. A search for X-rays from UV Ceti flare stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Markert, T. H.; Moffett, T. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A search of MIT/OSO-7 data was made for evidence of X-ray emission from flares of UV Ceti flare stars. Observations from McDonald Observatory were used to identify the times of optical flares. The only instance of coincident coverage occurred on 1974 January 21 UT at 03:43:26 GMT for delta m(u)=0.86 flare of YZ CMi. No radio coverage of this particular event was obtained. Upper limits (3 sigma) of 0.8, 1.0, and 0.7 photons/sq cm-sec on the observed X-ray flux were set for the energy ranges greater than or approximately equal to 15, greater than or approximately equal to 3, and 1-10 keV, respectively.

  5. UV Spectroscopy of Star-Grazing Comets within the 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    E-print Network

    Miles, Brittany E; Welsh, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We present analysis of time-variable, shifted absorption features in far-UV spectra of the unusual 49 Ceti debris disk. This nearly edge-on disk is one of the brightest known, and is one of the very few containing detectable amounts of circumstellar gas as well as dust. In our two visits of Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra, variable absorption features are seen on the wings of lines arising from C II and C IV, but not for any of the other circumstellar absorption lines. Similar variable features have long been seen in spectra of the well-studied $\\beta$ Pictoris debris disk and attributed to the transits of star-grazing comets. We calculate the velocity ranges and apparent column densities of the 49 Cet variable gas, which appears to be moving at velocities of tens to hundreds of km s$^{-1}$ relative to the central star. The velocities of the gas in the redshifted variable event in Visit 2 show that the maximum distances of the infalling gas at the time of transit are about 0.05 to 0.2 AU from the central ...

  6. Detection of a compact companion of the mild barium star Xi-1 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Johnson, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the observation of a white dwarf companion of the mild Ba star Xi-1 Ceti (= 65 Ceti = HR 649 = HD 13611) is reported, taking into account also the properties of the mild Ba star and of its companion. The UV spectrum of Xi-1 Ceti is discussed along with an interpretation of this spectrum. Attention is given to the effective temperature of the companion, the absorption bands in the spectrum, the radius and mass of the Xi-1 Ceti companion, and questions regarding the obscuration of the companion by the atmosphere of the Ba star. It is found that the overall energy distribution of the Xi-1 Ceti companion can best be matched with a 14,000 K DA white dwarf of log g = 8 or less. However, the absolute intensity is too small and would require a radius too small and a mass too large for such a gravity.

  7. Discovery of eleven new ZZ Ceti stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Mullally, F.; Winget, D. E.; Koester, D.; Voss, B.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Napiwotzki, R.; Reimers, D.

    2006-04-01

    We report the discovery of eleven new ZZ Cetis using telescopes at OPD (Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA) in Brazil, the 4.1 m SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald observatory. The candidates were selected from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and SPY (ESO SN Ia progenitor survey), based on their Teff obtained from optical spectra fitting. This selection criterion yields the highest success rate of detecting new ZZ Cetis, above 90% in the Teff range from 12 000 to 11 000 K. We also report on a DA not observed to vary, with a Teff placing the star close to the blue edge of the instability strip. Among our new pulsators, one is slightly cooler than this star for which pulsations were not detected. Our observations are an important constraint on the location of the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Partially based on observations at Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA, the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope, a collaboration between CNPq-Brazil, NOAO, UNC and MSU, and McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  8. Discovery of eleven new ZZ Ceti stars

    E-print Network

    Castanheira, B G; Mullally, F; Winget, D E; Köster, D; Voss, B; Kleinman, S J; Nitta, A; Eisenstein, D J; Napiwotzki, R; Reimers, D

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of eleven new ZZ Cetis using telescopes at OPD (Observat\\'orio do Pico dos Dias/LNA) in Brazil, the 4.1 m SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald observatory. The candidates were selected from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and SPY (ESO SN Ia progenitor survey), based on their Teff obtained from optical spectra fitting. This selection criterion yields the highest success rate of detecting new ZZ Cetis, above 90% in the Teff range from 12000 to 11000 K. We also report on a DA not observed to vary, with a Teff placing the star close to the blue edge of the instability strip. Among our new pulsators, one is a little bit cooler than this star for which pulsations were not detected. Our observations are an important constraint on the location of the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip.

  9. Discovery of eleven new ZZ Ceti stars

    E-print Network

    B. G. Castanheira; S. O. Kepler; F. Mullally; D. E. Winget; D. Koester; B. Voss; S. J. Kleinman; A. Nitta; D. J. Eisenstein; R. Napiwotzki; D. Reimers

    2005-11-29

    We report the discovery of eleven new ZZ Cetis using telescopes at OPD (Observat\\'orio do Pico dos Dias/LNA) in Brazil, the 4.1 m SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald observatory. The candidates were selected from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and SPY (ESO SN Ia progenitor survey), based on their Teff obtained from optical spectra fitting. This selection criterion yields the highest success rate of detecting new ZZ Cetis, above 90% in the Teff range from 12000 to 11000 K. We also report on a DA not observed to vary, with a Teff placing the star close to the blue edge of the instability strip. Among our new pulsators, one is a little bit cooler than this star for which pulsations were not detected. Our observations are an important constraint on the location of the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip.

  10. Mira Ceti and the Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    We consider the probability that the Gospel of Matthew could report the earliest observation of Mira Ceti. Some biblical remarks have to be considered in order to distinguish a scientific text in the modern acceptation and the content of Gospels regarding some astronomical arguments. Mira fulfills the basic requirements to be the Star of Bethlehem as described in the Gospel according to Matthew (Mt 2:1-12). In fact it was visible at least two times with a time interval (not specified in Mt text) in which it disappeared. Moreover Mira was close to the position were the triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurred in the years 7-6 b. C. and it could be observed during that period by ancient astronomers. The discovery of Mira in 1596 and its second observation 12.5 years later, made by David Fabricius, occurred when Jupiter approached it. Because of those reasons we study the maxima of Mira in order to evaluate both the frequency of one and of two consecutive bright apparitions eventually as observed by the Magi. We did an evaluation of the correlation between two following maxima in order to verify the probability of occurrence of two consecutive bright maxima, because that condition would have been indeed the most favorable for the candidature of Mira as the Bethlehem Star. Analyzing the maxima of Mira we found a probability of seeing it brighter than alpha Ceti once every 21 years. In this case, as in February 1997, Mira can be detected at the first sight as a new component near the most significant asterism in its zone, composed by alpha, gamma and delta Ceti. This condition could have happened in the case of the Bethlehem Star. We found also a correlation between the magnitude of two consecutive maxima: if a bright maximum occurs it is more probable that the following is a faint one.

  11. Asteroseismology of the ZZ Ceti star KUV 08368+4026

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Fu, J.-N.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Fox-Machado, L.; Michel, R.; Chavez, M.; Bertone, E.

    2015-06-01

    Asteroseismology is a unique tool to explore the internal structure of stars through both observational and theoretical research. The internal structure of pulsating hydrogen shell white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars) detected by asteroseismology is regarded as the representative of all DA white dwarfs. Observations for KUV 08368+4026, which locates in the middle of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, have been carried out in 1999 and from 2009 to 2012 with either single-site runs or multisite campaigns. Time series photometric data of about 300 h were collected in total. Through data reduction and analysis, 30 frequencies were extracted, including four triplets, two doublets, one single mode and further signals. The independent modes are identified as either l = 1 or l = 2 modes. Hence, a rotation period of 5.52 ± 0.22 d was deduced from the period spacing in the multiplets. Theoretical static models were built and a best-fitting model for KUV 08368+4026 was obtained with 0.692 ± 0.002 M?, (2.92 ± 0.02) × 10-3 L? and the hydrogen mass fraction of 10-4 stellar mass.

  12. Seismological studies of ZZ Ceti stars. I. The model grid and the application to individual stars

    E-print Network

    B. G. Castanheira; S. O. Kepler

    2007-12-12

    We calculate and explore an extensive adiabatic model grid for pulsating white dwarfs with H dominated atmospheres, the ZZ Ceti stars. We also compared the computed modes with the observed ones for five ZZ Ceti stars that are a representative sample of the whole class of pulsators. We describe our new approach for seismological studies, using the relative observed amplitudes to give weights for the periods in the fit and the external mass and temperature determinations as a guide. Our seismological study is clear evidence that seismology is indeed a powerful tool in the study of stellar structure and evolution.

  13. Amplitude Modulation in the ZZ Ceti Star GD 244

    E-print Network

    Bognár, Zs; Molnár, L; Plachy, E; Sódor, Á

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of GD 244 revealed seven pulsation frequencies (two doublets and three single periods) in the light variations of the star. The data obtained at McDonald Observatory between 2003 and 2006, and our additional measurements in 2006 and 2007 at Konkoly Observatory, allow the investigation of the long-term pulsational behaviour of GD 244. We found that the 307.1 s period component of one of the doublets show long-term, periodic amplitude modulation with a time scale of ~740 days. Possible explanations are that nonlinear resonant mode coupling is operating among the rotationally split frequency components, or two modes, unresolved in the yearly data are excited at ~307.1 s. This is the first time that such long-term periodic amplitude modulation is published on a ZZ Ceti star.

  14. A Convective Model for Light Curves of ZZ Ceti Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón, N.

    2005-07-01

    The erratic behavior of the luminosity in ZZ Ceti light curves may be explained in terms of the sum of several convective fluctuations, where the heat flux is propagated in time by thermal waves. We present simulations of the light curves of GD29-38, GD 358, and HL Tau-76.

  15. Asteroseismological study of massive ZZ Ceti stars with fully evolutionary models

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2013-12-10

    We present the first asteroseismological study for 42 massive ZZ Ceti stars based on a large set of fully evolutionary carbon-oxygen core DA white dwarf models characterized by a detailed and consistent chemical inner profile for the core and the envelope. Our sample comprises all of the ZZ Ceti stars with spectroscopic stellar masses between 0.72 and 1.05 M {sub ?} known to date. The asteroseismological analysis of a set of 42 stars enables study of the ensemble properties of the massive, pulsating white dwarf stars with carbon-oxygen cores, in particular the thickness of the hydrogen envelope and the stellar mass. A significant fraction of stars in our sample have stellar mass that is high enough to crystallize at the effective temperatures of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, which enables us to study the effects of crystallization on the pulsation properties of these stars. Our results show that the phase diagram presented in Horowitz et al. seems to be a good representation of the crystallization process inside white dwarf stars, in agreement with the results from white dwarf luminosity function in globular clusters.

  16. delta Ceti is not monoperiodic: seismic modeling of a beta Cephei star from MOST spacebased photometry

    E-print Network

    C. Aerts; S. V. Marchenko; J. M. Matthews; R. Kuschnig; D. B. Guenther; A. F. J. Moffat; S. M. Rucinski; D. Sasselov; G. A. H. Walker; W. W. Weiss

    2006-02-02

    The beta Cephei star delta Ceti was considered one of the few monoperiodic variables in the class. Despite (or perhaps because of) its apparently simple oscillation spectrum, it has been challenging and controversial to identify this star's pulsation mode and constrain its physical parameters seismically. Broadband time-resolved photometry of delta Ceti spanning 18.7 days with a duty cycle of about 65% obtained by the MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite -- the first scientific observations ever obtained by MOST -- reveals that the star is actually multiperiodic. Besides the well-known dominant frequency of f1 = 6.205886/d, we have discovered in the MOST data its first harmonic 2f1 and three other frequencies (f2 = 3.737/d, f3 = 3.673/d and f4 = 0.318/d), all detected with S/N > 4. In retrospect, f2 was also present in archival spectral line profile data but at lower S/N. We present seismic models whose modes match exactly the frequencies f1 and f2. Only one model falls within the common part of the error boxes of the star's observed surface gravity and effective temperature from photometry and spectroscopy. In this model, f1 is the radial (l = 0) first overtone and f2 is the g2 (l = 2, m = 0) mode. This model has a mass of 10.2+/-0.2 Msun and an age of 17.9+/-0.3 million years, making delta Ceti an evolved beta Cephei star. If f2 and f3 are rotationally split components of the same g2 mode, then the star's equatorial rotation velocity is either 27.6 km/s or half this value. Given its vsini of about 1 km/s, this implies we are seeing delta Ceti nearly pole-on.

  17. A Resolved Molecular Gas Disk around the Nearby A Star 49 Ceti

    E-print Network

    A. M. Hughes; D. J. Wilner; I. Kamp; M. R. Hogerheijde

    2008-03-24

    The A star 49 Ceti, at a distance of 61 pc, is unusual in retaining a substantial quantity of molecular gas while exhibiting dust properties similar to those of a debris disk. We present resolved observations of the disk around 49 Ceti from the Submillimeter Array in the J=2-1 rotational transition of CO with a resolution of 1.0x1.2 arcsec. The observed emission reveals an extended rotating structure viewed approximately edge-on and clear of detectable CO emission out to a distance of ~90 AU from the star. No 1.3 millimeter continuum emission is detected at a 3-sigma sensitivity of 2.1 mJy/beam. Models of disk structure and chemistry indicate that the inner disk is devoid of molecular gas, while the outer gas disk between 40 and 200 AU from the star is dominated by photochemistry from stellar and interstellar radiation. We determine parameters for a model that reproduces the basic features of the spatially resolved CO J=2-1 emission, the spectral energy distribution, and the unresolved CO J=3-2 spectrum. We investigate variations in disk chemistry and observable properties for a range of structural parameters. 49 Ceti appears to be a rare example of a system in a late stage of transition between a gas-rich protoplanetary disk and a tenuous, virtually gas-free debris disk.

  18. The effective temperature of the white-dwarf star and ZZ Ceti candidate Wolf 485A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, S. W.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Previous multichannel observations of W485A (WD 1327-08) have placed it in the instability strip, the effective temperature range 11,000-13,000 K. In the instability strip, most of the stars (the ZZ Ceti stars) are variable, but W485A has not been detected to be variable. In this paper, high-resolution spectra of W485A and improved hydrogen-line broadening routines are used in the ATLAS model-atmospheres program to find the temperature of W485A; the estimate of effective temperature most consistent with the other data on the star is 14,600 K, outside the instability strip.

  19. Seismological procedures for ZZ Ceti stars and an application to G 117-B15A

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.A.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we outline the procedure for seismological analysis of the ZZ Ceti stars, which are pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres. We use G 117-B15A as the example for this process and derive constraints on the mass and internal structure. The hydrogen layer mass is either about 10(-4)M* or 10(-7)M* depending on whether the l = 1 mode near 215 s is k = 2 or k = 1, respectively. In both cases, the best fitting mass is 0.60M solar, in agreement with spectroscopic log g values.

  20. Asteroseismological constraints on the structure of the ZZ Ceti star HL Tau 76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, D.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results derived from an asteroseismological study of the cool ZZ Ceti star HL Tau 76. A grid of models has been computed in a parameter space covering the range of log g and Teff, formerly determined by spectroscopy, and a large range of hydrogen mass fraction. The adiabatic non-radial oscillations for all the models have been computed for the modes of degrees ?=1 and ?=2. An algorithm based on a ? 2 test was applied to evaluate the quality of the fit between observed and theoretical periods. This method resulted in selecting a best fitting model for which the average relative matching of the periods is 0.7%. Then, a detailed comparison between the observed and the computed periods for the ?=1 and ?=2 modes of the best fitting model was achieved in order to identify as many observed modes as possible. To perform this identification we used the calculated periods for which we applied the rotational splitting as deduced from the observations. Through this process we identify the 36 independent modes observed in HL Tau 76. The best fitting model for HL Tau 76 is well constrained due to the large number of oscillations detected in this ZZ Ceti star. The main stellar parameters of HL Tau 76 derived from this analysis are: the total mass Mstar=0.575 ±0.005 M?, the hydrogen mass fraction qH, estimated as thick as 2.35 ±0.10× 10-4. The helium mass fraction consistent with qH must be qHe=~1× 10-2. The method is not sensitive to Teff variations in the narrow domain of temperature derived from spectroscopy for HL Tau 76. The best adjustment is found however for Teff= 11 375 K. The other derived stellar parameters are the luminosity (L/L?= 0.00389) and the radius (R/R?= 0.0162). We note some trends in the fit of the observed periods with the computed ones which suggest that the rotational splitting could be non-uniform and that the large amplitude modes might contain information on the convection-driven excitation mechanism.

  1. Whole Earth telescope observations of the ZZ Ceti star HL Tau 76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolez, N.; Vauclair, G.; Kleinman, S. J.; Chevreton, M.; Fu, J. N.; Solheim, J.-E.; González Perez, J. M.; Ulla, A.; Fraga, L.; Kanaan, A.; Reed, M.; Kawaler, S.; O'Brien, M. S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Nather, R. E.; Sanwal, D.; Klumpe, E. W.; Mukadam, A.; Wood, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.; Silvestri, N.; Sullivan, D.; Sullivan, T.; Jiang, X. J.; Xu, D. W.; Ashoka, B. N.; Leibowitz, E.; Ibbetson, P.; Ofek, E.; Kilkenny, D.; Meištas, E. G.; Alisauskas, D.; Janulis, R.; Kalytis, R.; Moskalik, P.; Zola, S.; Krzesinski, J.; Ogloza, W.; Handler, G.; Silvotti, R.; Bernabei, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the Whole Earth Telescope observations of HL Tau 76, the first discovered pulsating DA white dwarf. The star was observed during two Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. It was a second priority target during the XCOV13 campaign in 1996 and the first priority one during the XCOV18 campaign in 1999. The 1999 campaign reached 66.5% duty cycle. With a total duration of 18 days, the frequency resolution achieved is 0.68 ?Hz. With such a frequency resolution, we were able to find as many as 78 significant frequencies in the power spectrum, of which 34 are independent frequencies after removal of all linear combinations. In taking into account other frequencies present during the 1996 WET campaign and those present in earlier data, which do not show up in the 1999 data set, we find a total of 43 independent frequencies. This makes HL Tau 76 the richest ZZ Ceti star in terms of number of observed pulsation modes. We use those pulsation frequencies to determine as much as possible of the internal structure of HL Tau 76. The pulsations in HL Tau 76 cover a wide range of periods between 380 s and 1390 s. We propose an identification for 39 of those 43 frequencies in terms of ?=1 and ?=2 non-radial g-modes split by rotation. We derive an average rotation period of 2.2 days. The period distribution of HL Tau 76 is best reproduced if the star has a moderately "thick" hydrogen mass fraction log qH ? -7.0. The results presented in this paper constitute a starting point for a detailed comparison of the observed periods with the periods calculated for models as representative as possible of HL Tau 76.

  2. Gamma Ray Bursts and CETI

    E-print Network

    Frank D. Smith Jr

    1993-02-10

    Gamma ray burst sources are isotropically distributed. They could be located at distances $\\sim 1000$ AU. (Katz \\cite{JK92}) GRB signals have many narrow peaks that are unresolved at the millisecond time resolution of existing observations. \\cite{JK87} CETI could use stars as gravitational lenses for interstellar gamma ray laser beam communication. Much better time resolution of GRB signals could rule out (or confirm?) the speculative hypothesis that GRB = CETI.

  3. A 40 Myr OLD GASEOUS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AT 49 CETI: MASSIVE CO-RICH COMET CLOUDS AT YOUNG A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Song, Inseok E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu

    2012-10-20

    The gaseous molecular disk that orbits the main-sequence A-type star 49 Ceti has been known since 1995, but the stellar age and the origin of the observed carbon monoxide molecules have been unknown. We now identify 49 Ceti as a member of the 40 Myr old Argus Association and present a colliding comet model to explain the high CO concentrations seen at 49 Ceti and the 30 Myr old A-type star HD 21997. The model suggests that massive-400 Earth mass-analogs of the Sun's Kuiper Belt are in orbit around some A-type stars, that these large masses are composed primarily of comet-like objects, and that these objects are rich in CO and perhaps also CO{sub 2}. We identify additional early-type members of the Argus Association and the Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations; some of these stars display excess mid-infrared emission as measured with the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer.

  4. UV habitable zones around M stars

    E-print Network

    Andrea P. Buccino; Guillermo A. Lemarchand; Pablo J. D. Mauas

    2007-08-14

    During the last decade, there was a paradigm-shift in order to consider terrestrial planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars, as suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Here we analyze the influence of UV boundary conditions to three planetary systems around dM (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020). We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) (Buccino et al. 2006) to these cases and show that during the quiescent UV output there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ in order to trigger biogenic processes. We also analyze the cases of two other M flare stars and show that the flares of moderate intensity could provide the necessary energy to trigger those biogenic processes, while the strong flares not necessary rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  5. Solar-like oscillations in the G8 V star ? Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, T. C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Bedding, T. R.; Bouchy, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Dall, T.; Frandsen, S.; Karoff, C.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Pijpers, F. P.

    2009-01-01

    We used HARPS to measure oscillations in the low-mass star ? Cet. Although the data were compromised by instrumental noise, we have been able to extract the main features of the oscillations. We found ? Cet to oscillate with an amplitude that is about half that of the Sun, and with a mode lifetime that is slightly shorter than solar. The large frequency separation is 169 ?Hz, and we have identified modes with degrees 0, 1, 2, and 3. We used the frequencies to estimate the mean density of the star to an accuracy of 0.45% which, combined with the interferometric radius, gives a mass of 0.783 ± 0.012 M? (1.6%). Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO Programme 74.D-0380).

  6. Pulsations of massive ZZ Ceti stars with carbon/oxygen and oxygen/neon cores

    E-print Network

    A. H. Corsico; E. Garcia-Berro; L. G. Althaus; J. Isern

    2004-08-12

    We explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of massive white dwarf stars with hydrogen-rich envelopes and oxygen/neon and carbon/oxygen cores. To this end, we compute the cooling of massive white dwarf models for both core compositions taking into account the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars and the chemical evolution caused by time-dependent element diffusion. In particular, for the oxygen/neon models, we adopt the chemical profile resulting from repeated carbon-burning shell flashes expected in very massive white dwarf progenitors. For carbon/oxygen white dwarfs we consider the chemical profiles resulting from phase separation upon crystallization. For both compositions we also take into account the effects of crystallization on the oscillation eigenmodes. We find that the pulsational properties of oxygen/neon white dwarfs are notably different from those made of carbon/oxygen, thus making asteroseismological techniques a promising way to distinguish between both types of stars and, hence, to obtain valuable information about their progenitors.

  7. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of the ZZ Ceti Star HL Tau 76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauclair, G.; Wet Collaboration

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyses the Whole Earth Telescope observations of HL Tau 76 obtained in 1996 and in 1999. In the 1999 data, we find as much as 80 significant frequencies in the power spectrum, of which 33 are independent frequencies after removal of all linear combinations. In taking into account other frequencies present during the 1996 WET campaign and in earlier data, we find a total of 40 independent modes. We use those modes to determine as much as possible of the internal structure of HL Tau 76. The pulsations in HL Tau 76 covers a wide range of periods between 380 s and 1390 s. We propose an identification for many of those modes in terms of ?=1 and ?=2 nonradial g-modes split by rotation. We derive an average rotation period of 2.2 days. The period distribution of HL Tau 76 is best reproduced if the star has a ``thick'' hydrogen mass fraction -4.5? log qH ?-4.0. These results have to be confirmed by a detailed comparison of the observed periods with the periods calculated for models as representative as possible of HL Tau 76.

  8. UV-bright stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights globular cluster studies with Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in three areas: the discrepancy between observed ultraviolet HB magnitudes and predictions of theoretical HB models; the discovery of two hot subdwarfs in NGC 1851, a globular not previously known to contain such stars; and spectroscopic follow up of newly identified UV-bright stars in M79 and w Cen. I also present results of a recent observation of NGC 6397 with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer.

  9. Constraining the Evolution of ZZ Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Kepler, S. O.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Kilic, M.; Mullally, F.; vonHippel, T.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Guzik, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report our analysis of the stability of pulsation periods in the DAV star (pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf) ZZ Ceti, also called R548. On the basis of observations that span 31 years, we conclude that the period 213.13 s observed in ZZ Ceti drifts at a rate dP/dt 5 (5.5 plus or minus 1.9) x 10(exp -15) ss(sup -1), after correcting for proper motion. Our results are consistent with previous P values for this mode and an improvement over them because of the larger time base. The characteristic stability timescale implied for the pulsation period is |P||P(raised dot)|greater than or equal to 1.2 Gyr, comparable to the theoretical cooling timescale for the star. Our current stability limit for the period 213.13 s is only slightly less than the present measurement for another DAV, G117-B15A, for the period 215.2 s, establishing this mode in ZZ Ceti as the second most stable optical clock known, comparable to atomic clocks and more stable than most pulsars. Constraining the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti aids theoretical evolutionary models and white dwarf cosmochronology. The drift rate of this clock is small enough that we can set interesting limits on reflex motion due to planetary companions.

  10. Tau Ceti: our nearest cousin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Folco, E.; Péricaud, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Marshall, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 10 Gyr old G8V star ?Ceti is the closest Solar analogue. It harbors the less massive exo-Kuiper belt detected so far among debris disks stars. With a total disk mass only ten times larger than that of our Kuiper belt, it represents a case study of evolved debris disks. Whether its disk has been continuously eroded by steady-state collisions of planetesimals or recently regenerated by a dynamical instability remains a puzzling question. The detection of the dust points to the existence of (undetected) planetary bodies, which are expected to sculpt the belt and may scatter material inwards to the terrestrial planet region, where hot dust is also observed. Unfortunately, the disk morphology remains unknown. We report a recent Herschel PACS (70? and 160?)detection of a 15 au ring-like structure which is in conflict with the earlier SCUBA discovery. The disk is partly resolved by Herschel and we derive its morphology and the dust properties from the images and SED analysis with the GraTer modeling code. ?Ceti is a unique laboratory to highlight the long-term dynamical evolution of planetary systems and may represent an alternative outcome to the evolution of our Solar system.

  11. Re-defining the Empirical ZZ Ceti Instability Strip

    E-print Network

    Anjum S. Mukadam; D. E. Winget; Ted von Hippel; M. H. Montgomery; S. O. Kepler; A. F. M. Costa

    2004-05-28

    We use the new ZZ Ceti stars (hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf variables; DAVs) discovered within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Mukadam et al. 2004) to re-define the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. This is the first time since the discovery of white dwarf variables in 1968 that we have a homogeneous set of spectra acquired using the same instrument on the same telescope, and with consistent data reductions, for a statistically significant sample of ZZ Ceti stars. The homogeneity of the spectra reduces the scatter in the spectroscopic temperatures and we find a narrow instability strip of width ~950K, from 10850--11800K. We question the purity of the DAV instability strip as we find several non-variables within. We present our best fit for the red edge and our constraint for the blue edge of the instability strip, determined using a statistical approach.

  12. Calibrating UV Star Formation Rates for Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Mitchell, Noah P

    2015-01-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing star formation activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The datasets are from the panchromatic STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS) and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, HST optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs - using four different models - agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far UV predicted fluxes do not. Further, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated far U...

  13. Constraining the Axion Mass through the Asteroseismology of the ZZ Ceti Star G117-B15A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Romero, A. D.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; García-Berro, E.; Isern, J.

    2012-09-01

    We perform an asteroseismological study on the DAV star G117-B15A on the basis of a modern set of fully evolutionary DA white dwarf models that have consistent chemical profiles at the core and the envelope. We found an asteroseismological model for G117-B15A that closely reproduces its observed pulsation periods. Then, we use the most recently measured value of the rate of period change for the dominant mode of this pulsating star to impose a preliminary upper limit to the mass of the axion.

  14. Observations in UV band and problems of star formation studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, D.

    2008-12-01

    In this contibution I consider those aspects of the modern star formation theory, which can be substantiated with observations in UV band, paying special attention to early stages of molecular cloud formation and initial conditions for the chemical evolution of starless cores. I describe main results of available diffuse cloud observations in UV band as well a s prospective directions for future studies.

  15. Interferometric Observations of the Mira Star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI Instrument in the Near-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driebe, T.; Woodruff, H. C.; Eberhardt, M.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Ohnaka, K.; Richichi, A.; Schertl, D.; Schöller, M.; Scholz, M.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M.; Wood, P. R.

    We present K-band commissioning observations of the Mira star prototype o Cet obtained at the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) with the VINCI instrument and two siderostats mounted to the VLTI stations EO and GO, forming an unprojected baseline length of 16 m. Rosseland angular radii were derived from the measured visibilities by fitting theoretical visibility functions obtained from center-to-limb intensity variations (CLVs) of different Mira star models, and the phase dependence of the visibility function and the apparent diameter have been investigated. Comparison of the derived Rosseland radii, effective temperatures, and the shape of the observed visibility functions with model predictions suggests that o Cet is a fundamental mode pulsator.

  16. Interferometric observations of the Mira star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI instrument in the near-infrared

    E-print Network

    H. C. Woodruff; M. Eberhardt; T. Driebe; K. -H. Hofmann; K. Ohnaka; A. Richichi; D. Schertl; M. Schoeller; M. Scholz; G. Weigelt; M. Wittkowski; P. R. Wood

    2004-04-13

    We present K-band commissioning observations of the Mira star prototype o Cet obtained at the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) with the VINCI instrument and two siderostats. The observations were carried out between 2001 October and December, in 2002 January and December, and in 2003 January. Rosseland angular radii are derived from the measured visibilities by fitting theoretical visibility functions obtained from center-to-limb intensity variations (CLVs) of Mira star models (Bessel et al. 1996, Hofmann et al. 1998, Tej et al. 2003). Using the derived Rosseland angular radii and the SEDs reconstructed from available photometric and spectrophotometric data, we find effective temperatures ranging from T_eff=3192 +/- 200 K at phase phi=0.13 to 2918 +/- 183 K at phi=0.26. Comparison of these Rosseland radii, effective temperatures, and the shape of the observed visibility functions with model predictions suggests that o Cet is a fundamental mode pulsator. Furthermore, we investigated the variation of visibility function and diameter with phase. The Rosseland angular diameter of o Cet increased from 28.9 +/- 0.3 mas (corresponding to a Rosseland radius of 332 +/- 38 R_sun for a distance of D=107 +/- 12 pc) at phi=0.13 to 34.9 +/- 0.4 mas (402 +/- 46 R_sun) at phi=0.4. The error of the Rosseland linear radius almost entirely results from the error of the parallax, since the error of the angular diameter is only approximately 1 %.

  17. Why UV Observatories are crucial to understand massive stars ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Garcia, Miriam

    2012-07-01

    Each Ultraviolet (UV) mission has brought a breakthrough to our knowledge of massive stars. The first rocket UV spectra of O-type stars showed powerful P-Cygni profiles, which revealed that O stars have an expanding atmosphere or stellar wind. After IUE, FUSE and HST-STIS we now know that these winds are not static nor homogeneous, with shocks and mechanisms for extra ionization in the outflow. Radiation driven winds are actually one of the main pillars of the current paradigm of massive stars, as through mass-removal they dictate the sequence of evolutionary stages, duration, ionizing power and yields to the ISM, and the fate of the star as supernova. But many questions remain open: the weak-wind problem, the driving mechanism of very metal-poor massive stars (our connection to the first stars), and a proper characterization of wind inhomogeneities and shocks, to name a few. HST-COS and the up-coming WSO spectrographs will play a crucial role in solving these issues --crucial to calculate massive star feedback to the Universe-- thanks to the wealth of UV metallic transitions that offer many diagnostics to these physical phenomena.

  18. VOLATILE-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR GAS IN THE UNUSUAL 49 CETI DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, Aki; Grady, Carol A.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2014-11-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph far-UV spectra of the edge-on disk around 49 Ceti, one of the very few debris disks showing submillimeter CO emission. Many atomic absorption lines are present in the spectra, most of which arise from circumstellar gas lying along the line-of-sight to the central star. We determined the line-of-sight C I column density, estimated the total carbon column density, and set limits on the O I column density. Surprisingly, no line-of-sight CO absorption was seen. We discuss possible explanations for this non-detection, and present preliminary estimates of the carbon abundances in the line-of-sight gas. The C/Fe ratio is much greater than the solar value, suggesting that 49 Cet harbors a volatile-rich gas disk similar to that of ? Pictoris.

  19. Volatile-Rich Circumstellar Gas in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry Y.; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Grady, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph far-UV spectra of the edge-on disk around 49 Ceti, one of the very few debris disks showing submillimeter CO emission. Many atomic absorption lines are present in the spectra, most of which arise from circumstellar gas lying along the line-of-sight to the central star. We determined the line-of-sight C(sub I) column density, estimated the total carbon column density, and set limits on the O(sub I) column density. Surprisingly, no line-of-sight CO absorption was seen. We discuss possible explanations for this non-detection, and present preliminary estimates of the carbon abundances in the line-of-sight gas. The C/Fe ratio is much greater than the solar value, suggesting that 49 Cet harbors a volatile-rich gas disk similar to that of Beta Pictoris.

  20. Brucella ceti and Brucellosis in Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties, and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type, and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings, and death. PMID:22919595

  1. A Complete UV Atlas of Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    2000-01-01

    The general objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive ultraviolet spectral atlas of stars based on the data in the IUE Final Archive. The data have been uniformly processed by the IUE NEWSIPS pipeline system. The NEWSIPS gives an improved signal to noise ratio for the data that will be especially beneficial to low signal portions of the spectra; and it also gives more accurate fluxes for stars by adopting the latest absolute calibration and measured instrument parameters. Our new atlas, therefore, provides more uniform and accurate data than the version previously published. In addition, considerable efforts were devoted to obtain reliable spectral types, V,B-V, and E(B-V). Our goal is to provide the information which can be used with reasonable confidence by scientists.

  2. UV and visible photometry of the brightest Pleiades stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golay, M.; Mauron, N.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes 7-color photometric observations of the brightest stars in the Pleiades taken over the last 20 years. These data are analyzed in conjunction with UV photometric and spectroscopic observations made with the OAO-II, IUE satellites and a balloon-borne photometer. Accurate determinations of the interstellar extinction are obtained and the age of the brightest Pleiades stars is given. The behavior of the energy distribution between 2000 and 6500 A is discussed for the case of three Be stars, among them Pleione.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A ZZ CETI IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Oestensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Telting, John; Southworth, John; Everett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first identified pulsating DA white dwarf, WD J1916+3938 (Kepler ID 4552982), in the field of the Kepler mission. This ZZ Ceti star was first identified through ground-based, time-series photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy confirms that it is a hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf with T {sub eff} = 11,129 {+-} 115 K and log g = 8.34 {+-} 0.06, placing it within the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. The object shows up to 0.5% amplitude variability at several periods between 800 and 1450 s. Extended Kepler observations of WD J1916+3938 could yield the best light curve, to date, of any pulsating white dwarf, allowing us to directly study the interior of an evolved object representative of the fate of the majority of stars in our Galaxy.

  4. Nonradial pulsation of the $?$ Scuti star UV Trianguli

    E-print Network

    Ai-Ying Zhou; Zong-Li Liu; E. Rodríguez

    2002-05-24

    We present the results of a three-year photometric study of the $\\delta$ Scuti star UV Trianguli. Our data sets consist of 9378 differential measurements in Johnson V together with a few data collected into the Str\\"{o}mgren {\\em uvby$\\beta$} system. UV Tri is at least a biperiodic variable. The two best-fitting frequencies, $f_1$=9.3298 d$^{-1}$ and $f_2$=10.8513 d$^{-1}$, are still not the complete set of pulsation frequencies representing the star's light variations. A suspected third frequency might present in the star. Several ``anomalous cycles'' are observed in the light curves. They seem real, but are aperiodic. We derive the colour indices and physical parameters for the variable and conclude that it is a Population I $\\delta$ Sct star with normal metal abundance ([Me/H]=0.0$\\pm$n0.1 dex) evolving on its main sequence stage at an early evolutionary phase before the turn-off point. Finally, we compare the observed oscillation frequencies with theoretical models. The two pulsation modes of UV Tri are likely nonradial to be gravity modes.

  5. Calibrating UV Star Formation Rates for Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Mitchell, Noah P.

    2015-08-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation (SF) traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing SF activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The data sets are from the panchromatic Starburst Irregular Dwarf Survey and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near-UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs—using four different models—agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near-UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far-UV (FUV) predicted fluxes do not. Furthermore, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated FUV luminosities and existing scaling relations, and the SFRs based on the resolved stellar populations. This offset is not driven by different SF timescales, variations in SFRs, UV attenuation, nor stochastic effects. This first comparison between CMD-based SFRs and an integrated FUV emission SFR indicator suggests that the most likely cause of the discrepancy is the theoretical FUV-SFR calibration from stellar evolutionary libraries and/or stellar atmospheric models. We present an empirical calibration of the FUV-based SFR relation for dwarf galaxies, with uncertainties, which is ˜53% larger than previous relations. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA).

  6. The UV + IR Hybrid Star Formation Rate Across NGC6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Lehmer, Bret; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies is essential to understand galaxy evolution and thus determining reliable, simple tracers of star-forming activity is of paramount importance to astrophysics. For instance, intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) emission from young stars is an excellent tracer of the SFR. Observed UV luminosities, however, have been strongly attenuated by intervening interstellar dust. Since emission from hot dust is readily available from IRAS, Spitzer, and WISE, it is common practice to combine mid-IR emission (around 25 ?m) with observed UV in order to obtain an SFR diagnostic of the form Lobs(FUV) + acorr × Lobs(25 ?m). Conventionally, a single correction acorr, previously determined for a sample of galaxies, is used. Here we test the reliability of this hybrid SFR diagnostic, allowing for a variable correction factor acorr. For this, we have performed broadband UV-to-IR SED fittings in order to model the star formation histories across the spiral galaxy NGC6946. We have obtained SFRs and stellar masses across the galaxy, from physical scales of 5 kpc down to 500 pc. We find that acorr varies significantly across the galaxy and increases with increasing specific star formation rate (sSFR), the ratio of SFR and stellar mass (or the ratio of young and old stars). The correction acorr does not seem to be correlated to the amount of attenuation AV. Variation of acorr is most likely caused by different mixes of young and old stellar populations across the galaxy. This finding agrees well with our previous results for the interacting spiral galaxy NGC 6872, for which we have demonstrated the variation of acorr and a its correlation with sSFR. Our results show the need of caution when using only two broadband filters in order to determine SFR of individual galaxies or sub-galactic regions. The dust emission most likely overestimates SFR for highly star-forming, high sSFR regions, and underestimates it for more quiescent, low sSFR regions.

  7. Time variations of UV emission features of Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahng, J. D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The UV spectra of three Be stars (gamma Cas, sigma Tau, eta Cen) were studied. Of the six Be stars observed in the first four lines of the Balmer series, three stars showed at least one of the Balmer lines to be variable in the equivalent width amounting to a few percent with time scales of 3 to 30 minutes. Photoelectric spectrum scans of five southern Wolf-Rayet stars showed night-to-night variations. A simple model is proposed to account for the behavior of these emission lines. Scans of gamma square Vel showed rapid variations of emission strengths of He II 4686 and C III - IV 4650. These variations have time scales of 1 minute and longer. Night-to-night variations were also found. Scans of four Be stars in H alpha showed a definite variation of 3 to 4 percent, with time scales of 1 minute and longer in sigma Tau. In 48 Per and kappa Dra the variations are not as well established. No variation of any significance was found for nu Gem.

  8. The Instability Strip of ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grootel, V.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2015-06-01

    The determination of the location of the theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip in the log g-Teff diagram has remained a challenge over the years, due to the lack of a suitable treatment for convection in these stars. We report here a detailed stability survey over the whole ZZ Ceti regime, including the low and extremely low masses. We computed to this aim 29 evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses, chemical layering, and core compositions. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/?=1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We computed pulsation spectra for these models with the Liège nonadiabatic pulsation code MAD, which is the only one to conveniently incorporate a full time-dependent convection treatment and, thus, provides the best available description of the blue edge of the instability strip. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes to account properly for the red edge of the strip, including MAD, we tested the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. Using this approach, we found that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip.

  9. HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Barman, Travis S. E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-10-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a 'saturated' level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t {sup –1}. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models.

  10. UV-selected Young Massive Star Cluster Populations in Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Linda J.

    2015-08-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is an HST Treasury program aimed at the investigation of star-formation and its relationship to environment in nearby galaxies. The results of a UV-selected study of young massive star clusters in a sample of nearby galaxies (< 10 Mpc) using detections based on the WFC3/UVIS F275W filter will be presented. Previous studies have used V or I-band detections and tend to ignore clusters younger than 10 Myr old. This very young population, which represents the most recent cluster-forming event in the LEGUS galaxies will be discussed.This poster is presented on behalf of the LEGUS team (PI Daniela Calzetti).

  11. HAZMAT I: The Evolution of X-ray, Far-UV and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, E.; Barman, T.

    2014-03-01

    With the recent discoveries of several super-earths orbiting M dwarfs well within their habitable zones (0.1 to 0.4 AU), and with many more such planets to come, it is critical to assess the evolution of the high-energy radiation environment of these systems. We have begun the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) program by first measuring the drop in near-UV and far-UV flux in early M stars from 10 Myr to several Gyr using photometry from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We focus this study on the confirmed low-mass members of nearby young moving groups, the Hyades cluster, and old field stars. We show a relatively slow decline in UV flux up until at least 650 Myr with a sharper drop in the old M dwarfs. Yet without confirmed M dwarfs in nearby star clusters with ages of 1-2 Gyr, mapping the precise evolution at these older ages is not currently possible. The UV data also provide much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which are currently insufficient for predicting UV emission from M dwarfs. Our analysis will aid empirically motivated upper-atmospheric modeling for the young and old M stars, which can then be used to predict the extreme-UV fluxes most critical to the evolution of a planetary atmosphere. (See HAZMAT II abstract by Peacock et al.) The HAZMAT program is the first comprehensive study of the UV history of M stars.

  12. Cataclysmic Variables and a New Class of Faint UV Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    E-print Network

    Adrienne M. Cool; Jonathan E. Grindlay; Haldan N. Cohn; Phyllis N. Lugger; Charles D. Bailyn

    1998-09-26

    We present evidence that the globular cluster NGC 6397 contains two distinct classes of centrally-concentrated UV-bright stars. Color-magnitude diagrams constructed from U, B, V, and I data obtained with the HST/WFPC2 reveal seven UV-bright stars fainter than the main-sequence turnoff, three of which had previously been identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs). Lightcurves of these stars show the characteristic ``flicker'' of CVs, as well as longer-term variability. A fourth star is identified as a CV candidate on the basis of its variability and UV excess. Three additional UV-bright stars show no photometric variability and have broad-band colors characteristic of B stars. These non-flickering UV stars are too faint to be extended horizontal branch stars. We suggest that they could be low-mass helium white dwarfs, formed when the evolution of a red giant is interrupted, due either to Roche-lobe overflow onto a binary companion, or to envelope ejection following a common-envelope phase in a tidal-capture binary. Alternatively, they could be very-low-mass core-He-burning stars. Both the CVs and the new class of faint UV stars are strongly concentrated toward the cluster center, to the extent that mass segregation from 2-body relaxation alone may be unable to explain their distribution.

  13. HAZMAT. I. The Evolution of Far-UV and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Barman, Travis S.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a "saturated" level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t -1. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models. Based on observations made with the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). GALEX was operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  14. KIC 11911480: the second ZZ Ceti in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Steeghs, D.; Koester, D.; Ramsay, G.; Barclay, T.; Townsley, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    We report the discovery of the second pulsating hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarf in the Kepler field, KIC 11911480. It was selected from the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) on the basis of its colours and its variable nature was confirmed using ground-based time series photometry. An atmosphere model fit to an intermediate-resolution spectrum of KIC 11911480 places this DA white dwarf close to the blue edge of the empirical boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip: Teff = 12 160 ± 250 K and log g = 7.94 ± 0.10. Assuming a mass-radius relation and cooling models for DA white dwarfs, the atmospheric parameters yield: MWD = 0.57 ± 0.06 M?. We also obtained two quarters (Q12 and Q16) of nearly uninterrupted short-cadence Kepler data on this star. We detect a total of six independent pulsation modes with a ?3? confidence in its amplitude power spectrum. These pulsations have periods ranging between 172.9 and 324.5 s, typical of the hotter ZZ Ceti stars. Our preliminary asteroseismic study suggests that KIC 11911480 has a rotation rate of 3.5±0.5 days.

  15. HAZMAT I: The Evolution of Far-UV and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    E-print Network

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2014-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs), which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a "saturated" level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field ...

  16. KIC 4552982: Outbursts and Asteroseismology from the Longest Pseudo-continuous Light Curve of a ZZ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, J. J.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Moorhead, Sean; Montgomery, M. H.; Østensen, Roy; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-08-01

    We present the Kepler light curve of KIC 4552982, the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf star) discovered in the Kepler field of view. Our data span more than 1.5 years, with a 86% duty cycle, making it the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever recorded for a ZZ Ceti. This extensive data set provides the most complete coverage to date of amplitude and frequency variations in a cool ZZ Ceti. We detect 20 independent frequencies of variability in the data that we compare with asteroseismic models to demonstrate that this star has a mass M*> 0.6 M?. We identify a rotationally split pulsation mode and derive a probable rotation period for this star of 17.47 ± 0.04 hr. In addition to pulsation signatures, the Kepler light curve exhibits sporadic, energetic outbursts that increase the star’s relative flux by 2%-17%, last 4-25 hr, and recur on an average timescale of 2.7 days. These are the first detections of a new dynamic white dwarf phenomenon that may be related to the pulsations of this relatively cool (Teff =10,860 ± 120 K) ZZ Ceti star near the red edge of the instability strip.

  17. Ultraviolet Morphology and Unobscured UV Star Formation Rates of CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Fogarty, Kevin; Li, Yuan; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Moustakas, John; Bradley, Larry; Ford, Holland

    2015-06-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are usually quiescent, but many exhibit star formation. Here we exploit the opportunity provided by rest-frame UV imaging of galaxy clusters in the Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury Project to reveal the diversity of UV morphologies in BCGs and to compare them with recent simulations of the cool, star-forming gas structures produced by precipitation-driven feedback. All of the CLASH BCGs are detected in the rest-frame UV (280 nm), regardless of their star formation activity, because evolved stellar populations produce a modest amount of UV light that traces the relatively smooth, symmetric, and centrally peaked stellar distribution seen in the near infrared. Ultraviolet morphologies among the BCGs with strong UV excesses exhibit distinctive knots, multiple elongated clumps, and extended filaments of emission that distinctly differ from the smooth profiles of the UV-quiet BCGs. These structures, which are similar to those seen in the few star-forming BCGs observed in the UV at low redshift, are suggestive of bi-polar streams of clumpy star formation, but not of spiral arms or large, kiloparsec-scale disks. Based on the number of streams and lack of culprit companion galaxies, these streams are unlikely to have arisen from multiple collisions with gas-rich galaxies. These star-forming UV structures are morphologically similar to the cold-gas structures produced in simulations of precipitation-driven active galactic nucleus feedback in which jets uplift low-entropy gas to greater altitudes, causing it to condense. Unobscured star formation rates estimated from CLASH UV images using the Kennicutt relation range up to 80 {{M}? } y{{r}-1} in the most extended and highly structured systems. The circumgalactic gas-entropy threshold for star formation in CLASH BCGs at z ˜ 0.2-0.5 is indistinguishable from that for clusters at z\\lt 0.2.

  18. A Be star atlas of far UV and optical high-resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doazan, V.; Sedmak, G.; Barylak, M.; Rusconi, L.; Battrick, Bruce

    1991-11-01

    An overview of the spectral characteristics of Be stars in both the far UV and optical wavelength ranges is provided and details of their variable behavior are given when data are available. Line profiles of H alpha and/or H beta are given for the majority of these stars. The Be star variability is illustrated in the broadest possible wavelength range, from 1230 to 3030A. Because Be-Be shell transitions of Ne stars in the optical regions are spectacular and have important modeling implications, it was intended to present a complete Be and Be-shell type spectrum in the far UV. The recent phase transition of Pleione from Be-shell to Be enabled two types of spectra to be presented for the same star. Selected spectral regions containing lines of special interest for Be star modeling are presented for all the Be stars observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) up to 1988; that is, 166 Be stars.

  19. Infant Mortality of Star Clusters: on the Origin of the Diffuse UV Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, A.; Meyer, M. J.; Harris, J.; Calzetti, D.

    2009-03-01

    We present HST images in which we discovered the presence of a large number of massive stars in the field of the two galaxies NGC 1313 and NGC 4449. These massive stars, not in obvious groups or clusters, are known to produce a significant amount of UV radiation, and to live for at most 25 Myr. We think that these stars are the main source of diffuse UV emission first observed by Meurer et al. (1995) in starburst galaxies. We also propose that the infant mortality of star clusters, an early evolutionary stage of star clusters which kills 90% of them within 10 Myr, is a physical process that can explain how these young stars could end up in the field so quickly. We will also present preliminary stellar 2-points correlation functions for the two galaxies.

  20. UV Spectroscopy of the Central Star of Planetary Nebulae A43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringat, E.; Friederich, F.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    About 25% of all post-AGB stars are hydrogen-deficient, e.g. the PG 1159 stars with a typical abundance pattern He:C:O = 33:50:17 (by mass). Only four of about 40 known PG 1159 stars exhibit H in their spectra. The exciting star of the planetary nebula A 43 is one of these so-called hybrid PG 1159 stars. We present preliminary results of an on-going spectral analysis by means of NLTE model-atmosphere techniques based on UV spectra obtained with FUSE, HST/GHRS, and IUE as well as on optical observations.

  1. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. I. BRIGHT UV STARS IN THE BULGE OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, Philip; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Girardi, Leo; Bressan, Alessandro; Lang, Dustin; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew; Kalirai, Jason; Larsen, Soren S.; Rix, Hans-Walter; and others

    2012-08-20

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' Multiplication-Sign 6.'5 area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of {approx}4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars, and AGB-manque stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manque (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the red giant branch is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UV excess. We calculate that only a few percent of main-sequence stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.

  2. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars through Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2015-06-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth-Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  3. Non-LTE modeling of the near UV band of late-type stars

    E-print Network

    C. Ian Short; P. H. Hauschildt

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the ability of both LTE and Non-LTE models to fit the near UV band absolute flux distribution and individual spectral line profiles of three standard stars for which high quality spectrophotometry and high resolution spectroscopy are available: The Sun (G2 V), Arcturus (K2 III), and Procyon (F5 IV-V). We investigate 1) the effect of the choice of atomic line list on the ability of NLTE models to fit the near UV band flux level, 2) the amount of a hypothesized continuous thermal absorption extinction source required to allow NLTE models to fit the observations, and 3) the semi-empirical temperature structure required to fit the observations with NLTE models and standard continuous near UV extinction. We find that all models that are computed with high quality atomic line lists predict too much flux in the near UV band for Arcturus, but fit the warmer stars well. The variance among independent measurements of the solar irradiance in the near UV is sufficiently large that we cannot definitely conclude that models predict too much near UV flux, in contrast to other recent results. We surmise that the inadequacy of current atmospheric models of K giants in the near UV band is best addressed by hypothesizing that there is still missing continuous thermal extinction, and that the missing near UV extinction becomes more important with decreasing effective temperature for spectral classes later than early G, suggesting a molecular origin.

  4. HAZMAT I: The Evolution of Far- and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Barman, T. S.; Peacock, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the recent discoveries of several super-earths orbiting M dwarfs well within their habitable zones (0.1 to 0.4 AU), and with many more such planets to come, it is critical to assess the evolution of the high-energy radiation environment of these systems. We have begun the HAZMAT (Habitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) program by first measuring the drop in near-UV and far-UV flux in early M stars from 10 Myr to several Gyr using photometry from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We focus this study on the confirmed low-mass members of nearby young moving groups, the Hyades cluster, and old field stars. We show a relatively slow decline in UV flux up until at least 650 Myr with a sharper drop in the old M dwarfs. Yet without confirmed M dwarfs in nearby star clusters with ages of 1-2 Gyr, mapping the precise evolution at these older ages is not currently possible. The UV data also provide much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which are insufficient for predicting UV emission from M dwarfs. Our analysis will produce empirically-motivated chromospheric profiles for the young and old M stars, which can then be used to predict the extreme-UV fluxes most critical to the evolution of a planetary atmosphere. The HAZMAT program is the first comprehensive study of the UV history of M stars, and will ultimately tell us if a planet in the canonical habitable zone can indeed be habitable.

  5. The Chemical Composition of ? Ceti and Possible Effects on Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Michael; Truitt, Amanda; Young, Patrick A.; Shim, Sang-Heon

    2015-04-01

    ? Ceti (HD10700), a G8 dwarf with mass 0.78 M ? , is a close (3.65 pc) Sun-like star where five possibly terrestrial planet candidates (minimum masses of 2, 3.1, 3.5, 4.3, and 6.7 M \\oplus ) have recently been discovered. We report abundances of 23 elements using spectra from the MIKE spectrograph on Magellan. We find [Fe/H] = -0.49 and {{T}eff}=5387 K. Using stellar models with the abundances determined here, we calculate the position of the classical habitable zone (HZ) with time. At the current best fit age, 7.63-1.5+0.87 Gy, up to two planets (e and f) may be in the HZ, depending on atmospheric properties. The Mg/Si ratio of the star is found to be 1.78, which is much greater than for Earth (˜1.2). With a system that has such an excess of Mg/Si ratio it is possible that the mineralogical make-up of planets around ? Ceti could be significantly different from that of Earth, with possible oversaturation of MgO, resulting in an increase in the content of olivine and ferropericlase compared with Earth. The increase in MgO would have a drastic impact on the rheology of the mantles of the planets around ? Ceti.

  6. Interpretation of the UV spectrum of some stars with little reddening

    E-print Network

    F. Zagury

    2000-04-06

    The spectrum of five stars is analysed and explained by the superimposition of two components. One is the extinction of the direct starlight, with an extinction coefficient A which varies as the inverse of the wavelength across all the UV. This linear dependence of extinction upon the inverse of wavelength prolongs to the UV the well known relation which exist in the optical between extinction and wavelength. The second component is an additional feature, superimposed on the extincted direct starlight. This feature is interpreted as starlight scattered by dust at close angular distance to the star, into the beam of the observation.

  7. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS): The HST View of Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Aloisi, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C. A.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Da Silva, R. L.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Herrero-Davo`, A.; Hilbert, B.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D. J.; Martin, C. D.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Walterbos, R. A.; Whitmore, B. C.; Wofford, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Treasury program LEGUS (HST/GO-13364) is the first HST UV Atlas of nearby galaxies, and is aimed at the thorough investigation of star formation and its relation with galaxy environment, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc clustered structures. The 154-orbits program is obtaining NUV,U,B,V,I images of 50 star-forming galaxies in the distance range 4-12 Mpc, covering the full range of morphology, star formation rate (SFR), mass, metallicity, internal structure, and interaction state found in the local Universe. The imaging survey will yield accurate recent (<50 Myr) star formation histories (SFHs) from resolved massive stars, and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. These extensive inventories of massive stars, clustered systems, and SFHs will be used to: (1) quantify how the clustering of star formation evolves both in space and in time; (2) discriminate among models of star cluster evolution; (3) investigate the effects of SFH on the UV SFR calibrations; (4) explore the impact of environment on star formation and cluster evolution across the full range of galactic and ISM properties. LEGUS observations will inform theories of star formation and galaxy evolution, and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of the clumpy star formation at high redshift. LEGUS will generate the most homogeneous high-resolution, wide-field UV dataset to date, building and expanding on the GALEX legacy. Data products that will be delivered to the community include: catalogs of massive stars and star clusters, catalogs of star cluster properties (ages, masses, extinction), and a one-stop shop for all the ancillary data available for this well-studied galaxy sample. LEGUS will provide the reference survey and the foundation for future observations with JWST and with ALMA. This abstract accompanies another one from the same project, and presents the status of the project, its structure, and the data products that will be delivered to the community; the other abstract presents the science goals of LEGUS and how these will be addressed by the HST observations.

  8. Constraining Models of Evolved UV-Bright Stars in the M31 Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, Philip

    2014-10-01

    We aim to use HST observations of M31 to generate the definitive data set for modeling the population of the UV-bright stars that contribute to the UV flux in old stellar populations (i.e., the "UV excess" seen in some elliptical galaxies and spiral bulges).We propose to place stringent observational constraints on the post-AGB (P-AGB) and post-early AGB (PE-AGB) phases of stellar evolution using a UV survey of M31's bulge. M31 is a critical laboratory for testing these models, as it hosts an old, metal-rich stellar population with high stellar densities such that even rare evolutionary phases are well-represented.We will (1) assemble a catalog of UV-bright stars in the center of M31 in F336W and F225W, extending out to ~0.7 kpc, to sample stellar populations with different metallicities; and (2) image a smaller 0.9 sqr-arcmin strip with ACS/SBC in F140LP, to image the regions with the highest density of rapidly-evolving P-AGB stars. The FUV imaging will allow us to separate the P-AGB from the PE-AGB. These observations will include thousands of UV-bright stars, increasing the size of existing samples by orders of magnitude.These new observations will drive revisions in models for post-HB evolution, which we will merge into new isochrone libraries and stellar population synthesis codes. The revisions will have important implications for AGB evolution, spectral evolution models of galaxies, and for mass loss on the RGB. The observations will also have a direct impact on interpreting (1) the UV flux from old stellar populations; (2) the emission line flux from M31's nuclear spiral; and (3) models of dust heating by old stellar populations.

  9. An atlas of ground UV spectra of selected stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, Valentina G.; Chentsov, Eugene L.; Kipper, Tonu; Panchuk, Vladimir E.; Tavolganskaya, Nonna S.; Yushkin, Maxim V.

    2011-09-01

    We present a spectral atlas of 4 B and A stars containing spectra in a poorly studied spectral range of 305-452 nm. The atlas is based on high resolution (R=60 000) spectra obtained with the 6 meter telescope (SAO, Russia) combined with the NES-spectrograph. The procedure of spectral lines identification and compilation of the atlas is discussed in detail. Using the spectral data we thoroughly investigated the velocity field in expanding atmospheres and envelopes of hot evolved stars ? Ori, ? Cyg and supergiant KS Per with the extreme hydrogen deficiency. The complete atlas and list of the identified spectral lines will be available via the astronomical database SIMBAD.

  10. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) - Hot Stars": The High Definition UV Spectrum of the Ap Star HR 465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Ayres, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. V.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Adelman, S. J.; Cowley, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Hot Stars" is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 21 Treasury Program (GO-13346: Ayres PI). It is designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution ( 30,000-100,000), high signal/noise (S/N>100), and full UV coverage 1200 - 3000 A) spectra of 21 early-type stars, utilizing the high-performance Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The targets span the range of spectral types between early-O and early-A, including both main sequence and evolved stars, fast and slow rotators, as well as chemically peculiar (CP) and magnetic objects. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra will be available from the HST archive and, in post-processed and merged form, at http://casa.colorado.edu ayres/ASTRAL/. The UV "atlases" produced by this program will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years to come. We offer a first look at one of the earliest datasets to come out of this observing program, a "high definition" UV spectrum of the Ap star HR 465, which was chosen as a prototypical example of an A-type magnetic CP star. HR 465 has a global magnetic field of ~2200 Gauss. Earlier analyses of IUE spectra show strong iron-peak element lines, along with heavy elements such as Ga and Pt, while being deficient in the abundance of some ions of low atomic number, such as carbon. We demonstrate the high quality of the ASTRAL data and present the identification of spectral lines for a number of elements. By comparison of the observed spectra with calculated spectra, we also provide estimates of element abundances, emphasizing heavy elements, and place these measurements in the context of earlier results for this and other Ap stars.

  11. Formation of Massive Primordial Stars: Intermittent UV Feedback with Episodic Mass Accretion

    E-print Network

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    We present coupled stellar evolution (SE) and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the evolution of primordial protostars, their immediate environment, and the dynamic accretion history under the influence of stellar ionizing and dissociating UV feedback. Our coupled SE-RHD calculations result in a wide diversity of final stellar masses covering $10~M_\\odot \\lesssim M_* \\lesssim 10^3~M_\\odot$. The formation of very massive ($\\gtrsim 250~M_\\odot$) stars is possible under weak UV feedback, whereas ordinary massive (a few $\\times 10~M_\\odot$) stars form when UV feedback can efficiently halt the accretion. Weak UV feedback occurs in cases of variable accretion, in particular when repeated short accretion bursts temporarily exceed $0.01~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, causing the protostar to inflate. In the bloated state, the protostar has low surface temperature and UV feedback is suppressed until the star eventually contracts, on a thermal adjustment timescale, to create an HII region. If the delay time betwe...

  12. A star-pointing UV-visible spectrometer for remote-sensing of the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Freshwater, Ray A.; Jones, Rod L.; Fish, Debbie J.; Harries, John E.; Wolfenden, Roger; Stone, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a novel instrument for ground-based remote sensing, by mounting a UV-visible spectrometer on a telescope and observing the absorption by atmospheric constituents of light from stars. Potentially, the instrument can observe stratospheric O3, NO3, NO2, and OClO.

  13. Heavy-elements in metal-poor stars: an UV perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Barbuy, B.

    2014-11-01

    The site(s) of the r-process(es) is(are) not completely defined, and several models have been proposed. Observed abundances are the best clues to bring some light to this field, especially the study of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) Galactic halo stars. Many elements can be measured using ground-based facilities already available, but the ultraviolet window also presents a rich opportunity in terms of chemical abundances of heavy elements. In fact, for some elements only the UV transitions are strong enough to be useful. Focusing on the project of the Cassegrain U-Band Brazilian Spectrograph (CUBES), we discuss the science case for heavy elements in metal-poor stars, describing the useful lines of trans-Fe elements present in the UV region. Lines in the far UV are also discussed.

  14. Simultaneous UV and optical study of O star winds and UV and optical covariability of O star winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy S.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous ultraviolet and optical observations of 10 bright O stars were organized in several observing campaigns lasting 3-6 days each. The observing campaigns included 12 observatories in the Northern hemisphere obtaining high resolution spectroscopy, photometry, and polarimetry, as well as 24-hour coverage with the IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observatory. Over 600 high dispersion SWP spectra were acquired with IUE at both NASA and VILSPA for the completion of this work. The massive amount of data from these observing campaigns, both from IUE and the ground-based instruments, has been reduced and analyzed. The accompanying paper describes the data acquisition, analysis, and conclusions of the study performed. The most important results of this study are the strong confirmation of the ubiquitous variability of winds of O stars, and the critical correlation between rotation of the star and the wind variability as seen in the ultraviolet and optical spectral lines.

  15. The Disk and Planets of Solar Analogue ?Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, S. M.; Francesco, J. Di; Kennedy, G.; Sibthorpe, B.; Booth, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Matthews, B.; Tuomi, M.

    2015-01-01

    ? Ceti is a nearby, mature star very similar to our Sun, with a massive Kuiper belt analogue tep{Greavesetal2004} and possible multiplanet system tep{Tuomietal2013} that has been compared to our Solar System. We present infrared and submillimeter observations of the debris disk from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We find the best model of the disk is a wide annulus ranging from 5-55 AU, inclined from face-on by 30°. tet{Tuomietal2013} report five possible super-Earths tightly nestled inside 1.4 AU, and we model this planetary system and place dynamical constraints on the inner edge of the disk. We find that due to the low masses and fairly circular orbits of the planets, the disk could reach as close to the star as 1.5 AU, with some stable orbits even possible between the two outermost planets. The photometric modelling cannot rule out a disk inner edge as close to the star as 1 AU, though 5-10 AU produces a better fit to the data. Dynamical modelling shows that the 5 planet system is stable with the addition of a Saturn-mass planet on an orbit outside 5 AU, where the Tuomi et al. analysis would not have detected a planet of this mass.

  16. Synthetic Mid-UV Spectroscopic Indices of Stars

    E-print Network

    M. Chavez; E. Bertone; A. Buzzoni; M. Franchini; M. L. Malagnini; C. Morossi; L. H. Rodriguez-Merino

    2006-11-22

    Using the UVBLUE library of synthetic stellar spectra we have computed a set of mid-UV line and continuum spectroscopic indices. We explore their behavior in terms of the leading stellar parameters [T_eff,log(g)]. The overall result is that synthetic indices follow the general trends depicted by those computed from empirical databases. Separately we also examine the index sensitivity to changes in chemical composition, an analysis only feasible under a theoretical approach. In this respect, lines indices FeI3000, BL3096 and MgI2852 and the continuum index 2828/2921 are the least sensitive features, an important characteristic to be taken into account for the analyses of integrated spectra of stellar systems. We also quantify the effects of instrumental resolution on the indices and find that indices display variations up to 0.1 mag in the resolution interval between 6-10 angstrom of FWHM. We discuss the extent to which synthetic indices are compatible with indices measured in spectra collected by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Five line and continuum indices (FeI3000, 2110/2570, 2828/2921, S2850, and S2850L) display a remarkable good correlation with observations. The rest of the indices are either underestimated or overestimated, however, two of them, MgWide and BL3096, display only marginal discrepancies. For 11 indices we give the coefficients to convert synthetic indices to the IUE system. This work represents the first attempt to synthesize mid-UV indices from high resolution theoretical spectra and foresees important applications for the study of the ultraviolet morphology of old stellar aggregates.

  17. A Be star atlas of far UV and optical high-resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doazan, V.; Sedmak, G.; Barylak, M.; Rusconi, L.

    1991-11-01

    The aim of the Atlas is to provide an overview of the spectral characteristics of Be stars in both the far UV and optical wavelength ranges and of their variable behaviour when data are available. Be stars have been frequently observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The IUE archives contain an enormous amount of information on these objects. After one decade, in 1988, more than 2000 high resolution spectra obtained in the short and long wavelength ranges for about 190 Be stars were stored in the IUE data bank. In part I, we illustrate the recent phase transition of Pleione (HD23862, 28 Tau) from Be-shell to Be star. In part II, selected spectral region containing lines of special interest for Be star modelling (NV, CIV, SiIV, AlIII, FeIII, and MgII for the far UV and H? and H? for the optical region) are presented for all the Be stars observed with IUE up to 1988, that is for 166 Be stars.

  18. Extreme horizontal branch stars - Puzzling objects dominating the UV-light in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    Extreme horizontal branch stars (also known as hot subdwarf stars, sdO/Bs) are located at the bluest extension of the horizontal branch in the HR-diagram. They burn helium in their cores and are the sources of the UV-excess in elliptical galaxies and other old stellar populations. However, the formation of those stars is still unclear. SdO/B stars in the field show a high binary fraction and are likely formed via binary interactions with low-mass stars, substellar objects or compact stellar remnants. Similar objects in globular clusters on the other hand have a significantly lower binary fraction and might therefore be formed in a different way. I will review the state-of-the-art and confront theories of sdO/B formation with most recent observational evidence.

  19. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars Through Geological Evolution

    E-print Network

    Rugheimer, S; Kaltenegger, L; Sasselov, D

    2015-01-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars at the 1AU equivalent distance for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago and modern Earth (Following Kaltenegger et al. 2007). In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ...

  20. Non-LTE modeling of the near UV band of late-type stars

    E-print Network

    Short, C Ian

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the ability of both LTE and Non-LTE models to fit the near UV band absolute flux distribution and individual spectral line profiles of three standard stars for which high quality spectrophotometry and high resolution spectroscopy are available: The Sun (G2 V), Arcturus (K2 III), and Procyon (F5 IV-V). We investigate 1) the effect of the choice of atomic line list on the ability of NLTE models to fit the near UV band flux level, 2) the amount of a hypothesized continuous thermal absorption extinction source required to allow NLTE models to fit the observations, and 3) the semi-empirical temperature structure required to fit the observations with NLTE models and standard continuous near UV extinction. We find that all models that are computed with high quality atomic line lists predict too much flux in the near UV band for Arcturus, but fit the warmer stars well. The variance among independent measurements of the solar irradiance in the near UV is sufficiently large that we cannot definitely conc...

  1. KIC 4552982: Outbursts and Asteroseismology from the Longest Pseudo-Continuous Light Curve of a ZZ Ceti

    E-print Network

    Bell, Keaton J; Bischoff-Kim, A; Moorhead, Sean; Montgomery, M H; Østensen, Roy; Castanheira, Barbara G; Winget, D E

    2015-01-01

    We present the Kepler light curve of KIC 4552982, the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf star) discovered in the Kepler field of view. Our data span more than 1.5 years with a 86% duty cycle, making it the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever recorded for a ZZ Ceti. This extensive data set provides the most complete coverage to-date of amplitude and frequency variations in a cool ZZ Ceti. We detect 20 independent frequencies of variability in the data that we compare with asteroseismic models to demonstrate that this star has a mass M$_*$ > 0.6 M$_{\\rm Sun}$. We identify a rotationally split pulsation mode and derive a probable rotation period for this star of 17.47 $\\pm$ 0.04 hr. In addition to pulsation signatures, the Kepler light curve exhibits sporadic, energetic outbursts that increase the star's relative flux by 2-17%, last 4-25 hours, and recur on an average timescale of 2.7 days. These are the first detections of a new dynamic white dwarf phenomenon that we believe may be ...

  2. Complex Effluent Toxicity Information System (CETIS) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Complex Effluent Toxicity Information System (CETIS), is a set of computerized functions that provide standardized entry, maintenance, storage, and retrieval of toxicity test data. CETIS is designed to upload into both the toxicity test component of the STORET/BIOS system and into the NCC CETIS national database. CETIS is also designed to function as a standalone toxicity test data storage and retrieval. CETIS should be used by permitting and compliance functions at all levels of government. CETIS is also an important tool which assists dischargers in complying with the Clean Water Act. The system provides National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitees with an efficient mechanism for the storage and retrieval of biomonitoring data. PC/CETIS is a completely menu-driven turnkey system with many unique features. Extensive data entry quality assurance processing improves data integrity and reduces turnaround time. A comprehensive, expandable set of system utilities expedites data entry and file maintenance. System security protects file integrity against unauthorized use. An on-line 'HELP' utility is available at all levels of system processing.

  3. Extreme Carbon Overabundance in the 49 Ceti Circumstellar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Grady, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    We present analysis of C and O absorption in high-resolution HST-STIS FUV spectra of the nearby A1V star 49 Ceti. This disk system is one of the few showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but harboring relatively abundant molecular gas more characteristic of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. Since the disk is nearly edge-on, the line-of-sight to the central star passes through the disk, permitting sensitive probes of the circumstellar gas with absorption spectroscopy.Our FUV spectra show many narrow circumstellar gas lines arising from several atomic species, including neutral carbon (a gas not seen in the local ISM) and neutral oxygen. We present an estimate of the total carbon column density in the line-of-sight gas and limits on the oxygen column density. Comparing the carbon abundance to a previous measurement of the line-of-sight iron abundance, we see that the carbon is extremely overabundant relative to the solar abundance. A similar overabundance is seen in the Beta Pic disk gas, where the carbon brakes other gases from being rapidly blown out by radiation pressure. The carbon in the 49 Cet gas may play a similar role.

  4. The Dearth of UV-bright Stars in M32: Implications for Stellar Evolution Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.; Kimble, Randy A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained deep far ultraviolet images of the compact elliptical galaxy M32. When combined with earlier near-ultraviolet images of the same field, these data enable the construction of an ultraviolet color-magnitude diagram of the hot horizontal branch (HB) population and other hot stars in late phases of stellar evolution. We find few post-asymptotic giant branch (PAGB) stars in the galaxy, implying that these stars either cross the HR diagram more rapidly than expected, and/or that they spend a significant fraction of their time enshrouded in circumstellar material. The predicted luminosity gap between the hot HB and its AGB-Manque (AGBM) progeny is less pronounced than expected, especially when compared to evolutionary tracks with enhanced helium abundances, implying that the presence of hot HB stars in this metal-rich population is not due to (Delta)Y/(Delta)Z greater than or approx. 4. Only a small fraction (approx. 2%) of the HB population is hot enough to produce significant UV emission, yet most of the W emission in this galaxy comes from the hot HB and AGBM stars, implying that PAGB stars are not a significant source of W emission even in those elliptical galaxies with a weak W excess. Subject headings: galaxies: evolution - galaxies: stellar content - galaxies: individual (M32) - stars: evolution - stars: horizontal branch

  5. KIC 4552982: outbursts and pulsations in the longest-ever pseudo-continuous light curve of a ZZ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. J.; Hermes, J. J.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Moorhead, S.; Castanheira, B. G.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-09-01

    KIC 4552982 was the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf) identified to lie in the Kepler field, resulting in the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever obtained for this type of variable star. In addition to the pulsations, this light curve exhibits stochastic episodes of brightness enhancement unlike any previously studied white dwarf phenomenon. We briefly highlight the basic outburst and pulsation properties in these proceedings.

  6. The temperatures, masses and pulsation modes of three ZZ Cetis in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Most stars in our Galaxy, including all known planet hosts, will end or have already ended their lives as white dwarfs, dense stellar remnants sustained by electron degeneracy. Here, we propose to obtain COS far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of three pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere {DA} white dwarfs {ZZ Ceti stars} that for which we are obtaining Kepler short-cadence data. Far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of white dwarfs, covering the H2/H2+ quasi-molecular satellites around 1400A and 1600A, is essential to determine accurate atmospheric parameters, and precision asteroseismology of white dwarfs has the potential to probe in detail the structure of their cores and envelopes that is not possible in any other way. A succesful asteroseismologial analysis requires, however, the correct identification of the pulsation modes. Because ZZ Ceti stars have typically only few large-amplitude modes, the mode identification based on their optical light curves is often ambiguous. Because the ratio of ultraviolet-to-optical pulsation amplitudes depends strongly on the pulsatoin mode, our COS data will also enable us to identify the pulsation modes in the Kepler light curves of these three stars. The unique combination of HST and Kepler observations will enable to investigate the atmospheric and internal structure of three white dwarfs with an unprecedented accuracy. The proposed research is part of the PI's doctoral thesis.

  7. UV Intense Stars as a Source of Ionizing Radiation in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, Dorottya; Langer, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    Stellar evolution is strongly infulenced by the chemical composition of their birth environment. Massive stars in low metallicity dwarf galaxies undergo evolutionary paths which are not predicted by simulations of solar metallicity stars. One of the most interesting evolutionary scenarios found from our stellar evolutionary calculations at low metallicity ([Fe/H=-1.7]) is the chemically homogeneous evolution of the moderately rotating models. We show that this scenario leads to helium stars with optically thin winds. These hot, luminous and compact objects are predicted to emit an intense mid- and far-UV radiation, but would not show the broad emission signatures that characterize WR stars with optically thick winds. Therefore, these UV Intense Stars could be responsible for the high number of HeII ionizing photons observed in many low metallicity dwarf galaxies. We present their detailed evolutionary models, discuss the initial conditions of their environments and speculate about their roles throughout the Universe as strong ionizing sources and possible long-duration GRB progenitors.

  8. The UV-brightest Stars of M33 and Its Nucleus: Discovery, Photometry, and Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Bianchi, Luciana; Hutchings, John B.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1996-10-01

    We investigate the UV-brightest sources in the nearby galaxy M33. Our catalog of 356 sources is constructed from far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1500 A) and near-ultraviolet (NUV; 2400 A) images obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) matched with ground-based UBV data. We find that our survey is limited by the FUV flux and is complete to Flambda1500_ = 2.5 x 10^-15^ ergs cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^, other than in the most crowded regions; this corresponds roughly to M_bol_ = -9.2 to -10.0 (or masses of 40-60 M_sun_), for T_eff_ = 50,000^deg^ to 10,000^deg^. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images of several M33 fields to conclude that at least one-half of our sample is uncontaminated by unresolved neighbors, at least at the 0.1" (0.4 pc) level, a resolution similar to that achieved in the LMC from the ground. Spectral types have been obtained for 131 of our objects. We discuss the spatial distribution of the UIT sources, finding that they provide an excellent tracer of the spiral arm pattern and confirm that star formation continues in the nuclear region to the present day. Our survey has found a large number of O and early B-type supergiants, including stars as early as O6, but the optical spectroscopic sample is dominated by later type B supergiants, as these are the visually brighter. Among the brightest stars (both at 1500A and at V) are the "superluminous" Wolf-Rayet stars first discovered by Conti & Massey in the largest H II regions of M33; these objects are now known to be small groups of stars in modest analog to R136 in 30 Dor. In general, our survey has failed to detect the known W-R stars, as they are too faint, but we did find several new late-type WN stars and composite systems, which are brighter. Two stars of high absolute visual magnitude (M_V_ ~-9.0) are found to be B I + WN binaries, similar to HDE 269546 in the LMC; one of these is multiple at HST resolution. Most interesting, perhaps, is our finding six Ofpe/WN9 "slash" stars, five of them newly discovered. These stars show properties intermediate between those of Of and WN stars and are believed to be a quiescent form of luminous blue variables (LBVs). Our spectroscopy found five additional stars that are spectroscopically similar to the known LBVs of M33. One of these stars has recently been shown to be spectroscopically variable, and we suggest that all of these stars deserve continued scrutiny. The nucleus of M33 is the visually brightest object in our survey, and its UV colors are indicative of a hotter component than its optical photometry or spectral type would suggest. We discuss the possibility that the pointlike nucleus may contain a few interesting hot stars that dominate the light in the UV, and we make the comparison to the cluster of He I emission-line stars found near the center of the Milky Way. We comment on which color- magnitude and color-color plots make the best diagnostic tools for studying the hot, massive star population of a galaxy like M33.

  9. Characterizing Extragalactic Star Formation with GALEX Legacy Photometric Analysis of UV-Bright Stellar Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, David

    At the close of nearly a decade of observing, GALEX has accumulated an unprecedented archive of ultraviolet (UV) images revealing both the scope and intricacy of star formation (SF) in many thousands of galaxies inhabiting the local universe. If the observed hierarchical SF morphology can be quantified systematically, and physically interpreted with multi-wavelength ancillary data and modeling, then the low redshift GALEX legacy will approach completion. However, the GALEX GR6 pipeline database contains a highly incomplete census of young stellar complexes even for very well-studied galaxies. We propose to apply a dedicated photometry algorithm that has been optimized for measuring the properties of irregularly shaped sources in crowded galaxy images containing spatially variant, diffuse intra-clump emission. Structures will be selected in the UV, but we will compile UV-visible-MIR SEDs for each detection utilizing Pan-STARRS1+SDSS and WISE data. These SEDs will then be fit using population-synthesis models to derive estimated stellar mass, age, and extinction. Processing will be completed for the entire diameter-limited GALEX Large Galaxy Atlas (GLGA) sample of 20,000+ galaxies, at a variety of standardized spatial resolutions. Although the precise categorization of the cataloged substructures will depend on galaxy distance, the outcome of our analysis will be a catalog similar to the stellar association surveys of past decades for very nearby galaxies based on resolved stars (e.g. van den Bergh 1964, Hodge 1986, Efremov et al. 1987), except that our investigation will probe a galaxy sample of dramatically larger size using the integrated UV light from such groupings of young stars. Our algorithm is multi-scale in nature and will thus preserve the hierarchical properties of the stellar distribution, by linking sub-clumps to their larger-scale parent feature(s). The resulting database will be a fundamental resource for follow-up multi-wavelength studies probing SF-driven galaxy evolution using both existing NASA databases and operating instruments, in addition to upcoming space telescopes. While a legacy of our project will be the hierarchical photometric database (disseminated via MAST and NED) which supports extragalactic community science, our own goals from the proposed comprehensive measurements address some vital issues: (i) Currently there is controversy regarding the power-law slope of the empirical star formation law (SFL). Is there constant star formation efficiency above the HI-to-H_2 transition gas surface density (implying ~unity slope, see papers by Bigiel et al. and Leroy et al.), or is the SFL relation a stronger function of gas density with a super-linear form (as observed by Kennicutt et al. 2007)? Liu et al. (2011) have shown that the answer may depend critically on whether or not diffuse emission underlying star-forming substructures is removed. Our analysis will allow firm resolution of this issue, as we will also apply our photometry algorithm to Spitzer imaging for a subset of our sample galaxies, thus providing background-subtracted L(UV) and L(IR) measurements for substructures which can then be compared to existing and forthcoming (ALMA) CO imaging. (ii) We will also verify/calibrate our SED-fit based determination of age, extinction, and mass for UV-bright structures via direct comparison to the ground-truth stemming from resolved stellar populations (e.g. in ANGST galaxies) and also high-resolution HST UV-optical star cluster surveys (further out in the Local Volume). (iii) Finally, we will measure the diffuse UV fraction in a few hundred of the nearest galaxies (accounting for variation tied only to spatial resolution), trying to ascertain the characteristic fraction in galaxies of different Hubble type and dust-to-gas ratio. Systematic local variations in diffuse fraction and color will also be quantified as a function of environment.

  10. Resolving the Dusty Debris Disk of 49 Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dispersal of primordial gas and dust from circumstellar disks is necessary for determining the timeline for giant planet formation. While the current assumption is that the gas and dust evolve simultaneously, there are a few systems that defy this paradigm. The nearby A star 49 Ceti, at a distance of 61 pc, hosts one of only a few known circumstellar disks that exhibits the dust qualities of an older debris disk but still displays a substantial mass of molecular gas, a characteristic normally associated with youth. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations at 850?m and a spatial resolution of 0.47x0.39 arcsec that resolve emission from the dust disk for the first time. To investigate the properties of the dust grains and the morphology of the disk, we simultaneously model the high-resolution ALMA data and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The detected emission reveals a disk that extends from 1.16±0.12AU to 286±7AU with an increase in surface density at 113±2AU that is viewed at an inclination of 79.6±.4°. The increase in surface density corresponds to the inner radius of the gas disk, hinting that similar mechanisms may be responsible for sculpting the gas and dust disks at this late stage of disk evolution.

  11. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Data have been reduced and partially analyzed and models have been fitted. ASCA data indicate a metal-poor corona, with metals down by a factor of 3 or more relative to the photospheric values. EUVE data show a FIP effect, which is expected if the metals are enhanced rather than depleted. An absolute measure of the metal abundance has not yet been performed for the EUVE data. Either the FIP effect is in operation in the presence of a global depletion of metals, or the ASCA analysis is giving the wrong answer. The latter could be the case if the plasma models applied are incomplete. Further investigation into this is warranted prior to publication.

  12. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analysed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the EUV. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in met- als in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere. While some progress has been made in this direction, not as much work has been accomplished as expected due to the increasing commitments of the PI to the CXO project as it nears launch. A no-cost extension has been granted in order to further the analysis and carry out the next stages of the investigation: to construct an emission measure distribution with which to compute a synthetic continuum to compare with the observed continuum.

  13. Does UV CETI Suffer from the Mad Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analyzed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the (EUV) Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in metals in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere.

  14. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  15. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  16. The Chemical Composition of {\\tau} Ceti and Possible Effects on Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Pagano, Michael; Young, Patrick A; Shim, Sang-Heon

    2015-01-01

    {\\tau} Ceti (HD10700), a G8 dwarf with solar mass of 0.78, is a close (3.65 pc) sun-like star where 5 possibly terrestrial planet candidates (minimum masses of 2, 3.1, 3.5, 4.3, and 6.7 Earth masses) have recently been discovered. We report abundances of 23 elements using spectra from the MIKE spectrograph on Magellan. Using stellar models with the abundances determined here, we calculate the position of the classical habitable zone with time. At the current best fit age, 7.63 Gy, up to two planets (e and f) may be in the habitable zone, depending on atmospheric properties. The Mg/Si ratio of the star is found to be 1.78, which is much greater than for Earth (about 1.2). With a system that has such an excess of Mg to Si ratio it is possible that the mineralogical make-up of planets around {\\tau} Ceti could be significantly different from that of Earth, with possible oversaturation of MgO, resulting in an increase in the content of olivine and ferropericlase compared with Earth. The increase in MgO would have ...

  17. Predicting dust extinction properties of star-forming galaxies from H?/UV ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hayashi, Masao; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Yamamura, Issei; Egusa, Fumi; Oi, Nagisa; Tanaka, Ichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Takita, Satoshi; Makiuti, Sin'itirou

    2015-10-01

    Using star-forming galaxies sample in the nearby Universe (0.02 < z < 0.10) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer all-sky survey (GR5), we present a new empirical calibration for predicting dust extinction of galaxies from the H?-to-FUV flux ratio. We find that the H? dust extinction (AH?) derived with H?/H? ratio (Balmer decrement) increases with increasing H?/UV ratio as expected, but there remains a considerable scatter around the relation, which is largely dependent on stellar mass and/or H? equivalent width (EWH?). At fixed H?/UV ratio, galaxies with higher stellar mass (or galaxies with lower EWH?) tend to be more highly obscured by dust. We quantify this trend and establish an empirical calibration for predicting AH? with a combination of H?/UV ratio, stellar mass, and EWH?, with which we can successfully reduce the systematic uncertainties accompanying the simple H?/UV approach by ˜15-30 per cent. The new recipes proposed in this study will provide a convenient tool for predicting dust extinction level of galaxies particularly when Balmer decrement is not available. By comparing AH? (derived with Balmer decrement) and AUV (derived with IR/UV luminosity ratio) for a subsample of galaxies for which AKARI far-infrared photometry is available, we demonstrate that more massive galaxies tend to have higher extra extinction towards the nebular regions compared to the stellar continuum light. Considering recent studies reporting smaller extra extinction towards nebular regions for high-redshift galaxies, we argue that the dust geometry within high-redshift galaxies resembles low-mass galaxies in the nearby Universe.

  18. HAZMAT II: Modeling the Evolution of Extreme-UV Radiation from M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S.; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-01-01

    M dwarf stars make up nearly 75% of the Milky Way's stellar population. Due to their low luminosities, the habitable zones around these stars are very close in (~0.1-0.4 AU), increasing the probability of finding terrestrial planets located in these regions. While there is evidence that stars emit their highest levels of far and near ultraviolet (FUV; NUV) radiation in the earliest stages of their evolution while planets are simultaneously forming and accumulating their atmospheres, we are currently unable to directly measure the extreme UV radiation (EUV). High levels of EUV radiation can alter the abundance of important molecules such as H2O, changing the chemistry in extrasolar planet atmospheres. Most previous stellar atmosphere models under-predict FUV and EUV emission from M dwarfs; here we present new models for M stars that include prescriptions for the hot, lowest density, atmospheric layers (chromosphere, transition region and corona), from which this radiation is emitted. By comparing our model spectra to GALEX near and far ultraviolet fluxes, we are able to predict the evolution of EUV radiation for M dwarfs from 10 Myr - 1 Gyr. This research is the next major step in the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) project to analyze how the habitable zone evolves with the evolving properties of stellar and planetary atmospheres.

  19. Chemical abundances of $?$ Cephei stars from low- and high-resolution UV spectra

    E-print Network

    Jadwiga Daszy{?}ska-Daszkiewicz; Ewa Niemczura

    2004-01-02

    In early type stars the ultraviolet spectral region is important for several reasons. Firstly, since the majority of the total flux is emitted here, it provides a rather sensitive indicator of a photospheric temperature and luminosity. Secondly, the UV spectra are dominated by lines of the iron-group elements, which cause the origin of the opacity bump at temperature $2 \\times 10^5$ K, where the classical $\\kappa$ mechanism drives pulsations of $\\beta$ Cep stars. Consequently, the position of the instability domain in the HR diagram strongly depends on the metal abundance (Pamyatnykh 1999). We derive stellar parameters (metallicity, [m/H], effective temperature, $T_{\\rm eff}$, stellar diameter, $\\theta$) and interstellar extinction, $E(B-V)$, for all $\\beta$ Cep stars observed by {\\it International Ultraviolet Explorer} satellite. The parameters are derived by means of an algorithmic procedure of fitting theoretical flux distributions to the low-resolution IUE spectra and optical spectrophotometric observations. The errors are estimated by using the bootstrap method (Press et al. 1992). We also show some examples of high-resolution HST/GHRS spectra for one $\\beta$ Cep star: $\\gamma$ Peg.

  20. The Evolution of the UV Luminosity Function of Star-Forming Galaxies at 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavalisco, M.; Lee, K.-S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Mobasher, B.; Ravindranath, S.; Casertano, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Somerville, R.; Moustakas, L.; Fall, S. M.; Dickinson, M.; Lotz, J.; Madau, P.; Renzini, A.; Spinrad, H.; Papovich, C.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Stern, D.; Yan, H.

    2004-12-01

    The history of the cosmic star-formation activity is a key observable to compare against theoretical predictions. The contribution by star-forming galaxies at high redshifts with moderate amount of dust obscuration (and reddening) is relatively easily estimated from optical and near-infrared data. Observations at longer wavelengths are necessary to identify those with more severe dust obscuration. Using multi-wavelength imaging data from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) we report on the evolution of the rest-frame UV luminosity function of relatively unobscured star-forming galaxies at redshifts 2.5UV luminosity density that they contribute. We also discuss the contribution to the cosmic star formation density from star-forming galaxies with more pronounced dust obscuration at similar redshifts.

  1. Detailed Far-UV to Optical Analysis of Four [WR] Stars

    E-print Network

    W. L. F. Marcolino; D. J. Hillier; F. X. de Araujo; C. B. Pereira

    2006-09-19

    We present far-UV to optical analyses of four hydrogen deficient central stars of planetary nebulae: BD+303639, NGC 40, NGC 5315 and NGC 6905. Using the radiative transfer code CMFGEN, we determined new physical parameters and chemical abundances for these stars. The results were analyzed in the context of the [WR] => PG 1159 evolution via the transformed radius(Rt)-temperature and HR diagrams. NGC 5315 showed itself as an odd object among the previously analyzed central stars. Its temperature (~76kK) is considerably lower than other early-type [WR] stars (~120-150kK). From our models for NGC 5315 and NGC 6905, it is unclear if early-type [WR] stars have smaller C/He mass ratios than other spectral classes, as claimed in the literature. A ratio of ~0.8 is found for NGC 6905. We analyzed FUSE spectra of these stars for the first time, and identified phosphorus in the spectra of BD+303639, NGC 40 and NGC 5315 through the transitions P V 1118,1128. The Fe, Si, P, S and Ne abundances were analyzed in the context of the nucleosynthesis occurring in previous evolutionary phases. We found evidence for Fe deficiency in BD +30 3639 and NGC 5315, and from fits to the Si IV lines we determined a solar Si abundance for BD+303639 and NGC 40. For phosphorus, an oversolar abundance in the NGC 5315 model was preferred, while in the other stars a solar phosphorus abundance cannot be discarded. Regarding sulfur, we estimated upper limits for its abundance, since no conspicuous lines can be seen in the observed spectra. We found that Ne is overabundant in BD +30 3639. In the other stars, Ne is weak or undetectable and upper limits for its abundance were estimated. Our results are in agreement with theoretical predictions and show the usefulness of [WR] stars as testbeds for nucleosynthesis calculations in the AGB and post-AGB phases.(abridged)

  2. Effect of UV Radiation on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Orbiting M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-01

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with Teff = 2300 K to Teff = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4-20 ?m) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. To observe signatures of life—O2/O3 in combination with reducing species like CH4—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O2 spectral feature at 0.76 ?m is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N2O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH3Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N2O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  3. GD 244: asteroseismology of a pulsator in the middle of the ZZ Ceti instability strip

    E-print Network

    Bognár, Zs

    2015-01-01

    We present our preliminary results on the asteroseismological investigations of the ZZ Ceti star GD 244. We used literature values of the effective temperature and surface gravity and utilized the White Dwarf Evolution Code of Bischoff-Kim, Montgomery and Winget (2008, ApJ, 675, 1512) to build our model grid for the seismological analysis. Five observed pulsational modes published up to now were used to find acceptable model solutions. We found that the best model fits have masses between 0.61 and 0.74 M_solar and constitute two groups with hydrogen layer masses of either ~10^{-5} or 10^{-6} M_solar. Based on a statistical analysis of a larger sample of possible model solutions, we assume that the mass of the star is below ~0.68 M_solar and the oxygen content in the centre is less than 60 percent.

  4. On the population of primordial star clusters in the presence of UV background radiation

    E-print Network

    Michael A. MacIntyre; Fernando Santoro; Peter A. Thomas

    2006-02-13

    We use the algorithm of Cole et al. (2000) to generate merger trees for the first star clusters in a Lambda CDM cosmology under an isotropic UV background radiation field, parametrized by J_21. We have investigated the problem in two ways: a global radiation background and local radiative feedback surrounding the first star clusters. Cooling in the first halos at high redshift is dominated by molecular hydrogen, H_2 - we call these Generation 1 objects. At lower redshift and higher virial temperature, T_vir > 10^4K, electron cooling dominates - we call these generation 2. Radiation fields act to photo-dissociate H_2, but also generate free electrons that can help to catalyse its production. At modest radiation levels, J_{21}/(1+z)^3 ~ 10^{-12}-10^{-7}, the nett effect is to enhance the formation of Generation 1 star-clusters. At higher fluxes the heating from photo-ionisation dominates and halts their production. With a realistic build-up of flux over time, the period of enhanced H_2 cooling is so fleeting as to be barely discernable and the nett effect is to move primordial star cluster formation towards Generation 2 objects at lower redshift. A similar effect is seen with local feedback. Provided that enough photons are produced to maintain ionization of their host halo, they will suppress the cooling in Generation 1 halos and boost the numbers of primordial star clusters in Generation 2 halos. Significant suppression of Generation~1 halos occurs for specific photon fluxes in excess of about 10^{43} ph s^{-1} Msun^{-1}.

  5. On the population of primordial star clusters in the presence of UV background radiation

    E-print Network

    MacIntyre, M A; Thomas, P A; Intyre, Michael A. Mac; Santoro, Fernando; Thomas, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    We use the algorithm of Cole et al. (2000) to generate merger trees for the first star clusters in a Lambda CDM cosmology under an isotropic UV background radiation field, parametrized by J_21. We have investigated the problem in two ways: a global radiation background and local radiative feedback surrounding the first star clusters. Cooling in the first halos at high redshift is dominated by molecular hydrogen, H_2 - we call these Generation 1 objects. At lower redshift and higher virial temperature, T_vir > 10^4K, electron cooling dominates - we call these generation 2. Radiation fields act to photo-dissociate H_2, but also generate free electrons that can help to catalyse its production. At modest radiation levels, J_{21}/(1+z)^3 ~ 10^{-12}-10^{-7}, the nett effect is to enhance the formation of Generation 1 star-clusters. At higher fluxes the heating from photo-ionisation dominates and halts their production. With a realistic build-up of flux over time, the period of enhanced H_2 cooling is so fleeting as...

  6. Gamma-Ray Bursts Trace UV Metrics of Star Formation over 3 < z < 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Fox, D. B.; Schady, P.; Krühler, T.; Trenti, M.; Cikota, A.; Bolmer, J.; Elliott, J.; Delvaux, C.; Perna, R.; Afonso, P.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Savaglio, S.; Schmidl, S.; Schweyer, T.; Tanga, M.; Varela, K.

    2015-08-01

    We present the first uniform treatment of long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy detections and upper limits over the redshift range 3star formation (SF). We contribute deep imaging observations of 13 GRB positions yielding the discovery of 8 new host galaxies. We use this data set in tandem with previously published observations of 31 further GRB positions to estimate or constrain the host galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet (UV; ? =1600 Å) absolute magnitudes MUV. We then use the combined set of 44 MUV estimates and limits to construct the MUV luminosity function (LF) for GRB host galaxies over 3-15.6 mag, and with extrapolations of the assumed Schechter-type LF well beyond this range. We review proposed astrophysical and observational biases for our sample, and find that they are for the most part minimal. We therefore conclude, as the simplest interpretation of our results, that GRBs successfully trace UV metrics of cosmic SF over the range 3star formation processes from z? 3 out to the highest redshifts. Partly based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under IDs 089.A-0120(A) and 091.A-0786(A).

  7. UV Habitability of Possible Exomoons in Observed F-star Planetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Sato, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explore the astrobiological significance of F-type stars of spectral type between F5 V and F9.5 V, which possess Jupiter-type planets within or close to their climatological habitable zones. These planets, or at least a subset of them, may also possess rocky exomoons, which potentially offer habitable environments. Our work considers eight selected systems. The Jupiter-type planets in these systems are in notably different orbits with eccentricities ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. Particularly, we consider the stellar UV environments provided by the photospheric stellar radiation in regard to the circumstellar habitability of the system. According to previous studies, DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology might be based on hydrocarbons. Thus, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar UV radiation. Atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. ...

  8. Ten years of the international review meetings on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence /CETI/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesek, R.; Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of ideas on CETI within the international community over the past five years is reviewed, and the outlook for future CETI activities is discussed. The growth of review sessions on CETI held annually by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is considered, with particular attention given to the issue of radio frequency allocation for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. CETI activities outside the IAA are then examined, including the Viking search for life on Mars, Project Orion for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems, SETI programs undertaken in the U.S. and Soviet Union, and the development of multispectral spectrum analyzers and signal processors. The expected future development of CETI strategies, techniques and instrumentation as well as popular and scientific interest in SETI are discussed, and it is noted that the IAA sessions remain the only regular international forum for the exchange of data on all aspects of CETI.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical spectra of 7 hot UV bright stars in GC (Moehler+, 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler S., Landsman W., Napiwotzki R.

    2015-11-01

    Optical low-resolution spectra of 7 UV bright stars in globular clusters are presented together with the atmospheric parameters derived from them. The following globular clusters have been observed: NGC2808, NGC6121, NGC6723, NGC6752. The continuum of the spectra has ben normalized and they were resampled to laboratory wavelengths. Effective temperatures, surface gravities, and helium abundances were derived from line profile fits. (2 data files).

  10. UV spectral variability in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. 11: The accretion interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    We report recent IUE high- and low-dispersion observations with the IUE long wavelength camera (LWP) and short wavelength camera (SWP) of the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. We have found a dramatic change in the structure of the Mg II h and k lines (2795.5, 2802.7 A) along with some continuum flux excesses especially at the short end of the SWP camera. LWP high dispersion observations of HR 5999 obtained between 1979 and 1990, at times of comparatively low UV continuum fluxes, exhibit P Cygni type m profiles in the Mg II resonance doublet. In contrast, observations made from September 1990 through March 16-18, 1992, with high W continuum fluxes, present Mg II lines with reverse P Cygni profiles indicative of some active episodic accretion. Accreting gas can also be detected in the additional red wings of the various Fe II and Mn II absorption lines, with velocities up to +300-350 km/s (September 1990). By September 10, 1992 the Mg II profile had returned to the type III P Cygni profile similar to those from earlier spectra. The correlation between the presence of large column densities of accreting gas and the continuum light variations supports suggestions by several authors that HR 5999 is surrounded by an optically thick, viscously heated accretion disk. Detection of accreting gas in the line of sight to HR 5999 permits us to place constraints on our viewing geometry for this system. A discussion is included comparing the spectral and physical similarities between HR 5999 and the more evolved proto-planetary candidate system, beta Pictoris.

  11. Comparing FIR, UV and SED star formation rates for IR-luminous galaxies at 1?z?2 in CANDELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pforr, Janine; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Inami, Hanae; Penner, Kyle

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy formation and evolution studies rely on the robust determination of galaxy properties such as stellar masses and star formation rates (SFR). One the one hand these are important to distinguish between star bursting galaxies, normally star forming galaxies and those in the process of quenching and reveal the underlying processes causing these phenomena. On the other hand, they are crucial to derive reliable estimates of global properties like the star formation rate density of the Universe and the stellar mass assembly. We exploit the excellent multi-wavelength data in the GOODS-S, GOODS-N, UDS and COSMOS CANDELS fields ranging from deep ground and space-based optical data, deep-NIR HST data from CANDELS to the deepest FIR PACS data available from CANDELS-Herschel and Pep/GOODS-Herschel to estimate SFRs of IR-luminous galaxies between redshift 1 and 2. We determine SFRs in three different ways:1) from SED-fitting to the optical/IR multi-wavelength data, 2) from far-IR luminosities using 24 micron and Herschel PACS fluxes and 3) from UV slope and UV luminosity measurements. While for the majority of objects the different estimates agree very well, we find a subsample of outliers that are classified as pseudo-quiescent by the SED-fit. We present possible reasons for these misclassifications as well as potential remedies.

  12. On the Discovery of Massive ZZ Ceti Variables and the Peculiar Light Curve of SDSS J1529

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curd, Brandon; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in three hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with masses greater than one solar mass. We identified these white dwarfs through SDSS Data Release 7 spectroscopy. All three objects show monoperiodic oscillations with periods ranging from 203 s to 11 min. With follow-up observations of the confirmed ZZ Ceti stars, it should be possible to detect lower amplitude pulsation modes in order to conduct an in depth asteroseismological analysis and estimate the fraction of their core mass that is crystallized. We also present and discuss the peculiar light curve of J1529, which shows eclipse-like events every 38 min. We compare the light curve of J1529 to that of GD 394 which has similar characteristics (despite being four times hotter) which are thought to be caused by a metal-rich dark spot on the star's surface.

  13. Sensitivity of Biosignatures on Earth-like Planets orbiting in the Habitable Zone of Cool M-Dwarf Stars to varying Stellar UV Radiation and Surface Biomass Emissions

    E-print Network

    Grenfell, John Lee; von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Rauer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    We find that variations in the UV emissions of cool M-dwarf stars have a potentially large impact upon atmospheric biosignatures in simulations of Earth-like exoplanets i.e. planets with Earths development, and biomass and a molecular nitrogen-oxygen dominated atmosphere. Starting with an assumed black-body stellar emission for an M7 class dwarf star, the stellar UV irradiation was increased stepwise and the resulting climate-photochemical response of the planetary atmosphere was calculated. Results suggest a Goldilocks effect with respect to the spectral detection of ozone. At weak UV levels, the ozone column was weak (due to weaker production from the Chapman mechanism) hence its spectral detection was challenging. At strong UV levels, ozone formation is stronger but its associated stratospheric heating leads to a weakening in temperature gradients between the stratosphere and troposphere, which results in weakened spectral bands. Also, increased UV levels can lead to enhanced abundances of hydrogen oxides ...

  14. Far-UV radiation from hot subdwarf stars in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhanwen; Chen, Xuefei

    2015-03-01

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV) excess is crucial to our understanding of early-type galaxies and it is widely believed that the FUV radiation originates mainly from hot subwarf stars. Hot subdwarf stars may form from binary interactions or from single star evolution. In the binary channel, a star near the tip of the first giant branch (FGB) may get its envelope removed by its companion via stable Roche lobe overflow or common envelope ejection, and then evolves to a hot subdwarf star (Han et al. 2002, 2003, 2007). Such a process does not depend much on metallicity.

  15. Probing the Peak Epoch of Cosmic Star Formation (1Star-forming Galaxies Behind the Lensing Clusters: UV Luminosity Function and the Dust Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian D.; Richard, Johan; Rafelski, Marc; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau; Stark, Daniel; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a complete census of cosmic star formation requires an understanding of faint star-forming galaxies that are far below the detection limits of current surveys. To search for the faint galaxies, we use the power of strong gravitational lensing from foreground galaxy clusters to boost the detection limits of HST to much fainter luminosities. Using the WFC3/UVIS on board the HST, we obtain deep UV images of 4 lensing clusters with existing deep optical and near-infrared data (three from Frontier Fields survey). Building multiband photometric catalogs and applying a photometric redshift selection, we uncover a large population of dwarf galaxies (-18.5star formation (1star-forming galaxies keeps increasing steeply toward very faint magnitudes (MUV=-12.5). As an important implication of a steep faint-end slope LF, we show that the faint galaxies (-18.5UV background (>50%) at these redshifts. We use this unique sample to investigate further the various properties of dwarf galaxies as it is claimed to deviate from the trends seen for the more massive galaxies. Recent hydro-dynamical simulations and observations of local dwarfs show that these galaxies have episodic bursts of star formation on short time scales (< 10 Myr). We find that the bursty star formation histories (SFHs) cause a large intrinsic scatter in UV colors (?) at MUV > -16, comparing a sample of low mass galaxies from simulations with bursty SFHs with our comprehensive measurements of the observed ? values. As this scatter can also be due to the dust extinction, we distinguish these two effects by measuring the dust attenuation using Balmer decrement (H?/H?) ratios from our MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy.

  16. UV-spectroscopy of stars with the 6-meter telescope BTA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V.; Panchuk, V.; Yushkin, M.

    2008-12-01

    The stages of development of stellar observations within the spectral range 3000-4000 Å are listed and current possiblities are considered. Some astrophysical tasks based on spec- troscopy within the groundbased UV range are presented.

  17. 3D-HST emission line galaxies at z ? 2: discrepancies in the optical/UV star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Feldmeier, John

    2014-08-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope near-IR grism spectroscopy to examine the H? line strengths of 260 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. We show that at these epochs, the H? star formation rate (SFR) is a factor of ?1.8 higher than what would be expected from the systems' rest-frame UV flux density, suggesting a shift in the standard conversion between these quantities and SFR. We demonstrate that at least part of this shift can be attributed to metallicity, as H? is more enhanced in systems with lower oxygen abundance. This offset must be considered when measuring the SFR history of the universe. We also show that the relation between stellar and nebular extinction in our z ? 2 sample is consistent with that observed in the local universe.

  18. Utilizing Synthetic Spectra to Refine Lambda Boo Stars' UV Classification Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik; Romo, Christopher; Steele, Patricia; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly-imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. This possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Bootis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. The Lambda Boo label has been applied to almost any peculiar A-type stars that do not fit elsewhere. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars' unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. Using observed and synthetic spectra, we explored the classification of Lambda Boo stars and developed quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. With model spectra, we demonstrated that the (C I 1657 Angstrom)/ (Al II 1671 Angstrom) line ratio is the best single criterion to distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and metal weak stars, and that one cannot use a single C I/Al II cut-off value as a Lambda Boo classification criterion. The C I/Al II cut-off value is a function of a star's effective temperature and metallicity. Using these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we concluded that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  19. Radiation-driven winds of hot luminous stars. 12: A first step towards detailed UV-line diagnostics of O-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Puls, J.; Butler, K.; Hunsinger, J.

    1994-03-01

    Improved radiation driven wind models are constructed to calculate detailed synthetic UV spectra of hot luminous stars. The model improvements comprise: a very detailed multilevel non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) treatment of 29 of the most important ionization stages, in particular C, N, O and Fe using accurate atomic data; the approximate inclusion of EUV radiation by shock heated matter in the ionization rates and a simple simulation of photospheric line blocking. The direct ionization by EUV shock radiation has important effects on the lines of the highest ionization stages, whereas line blocking is needed to reproduce the lowest stages of ionization that are observed. A detailed comparison between observed and calculated synthetic spectra of two O-stars, zeta Puppis in the Galaxy and Melnick 42 in the LMC, has been carried out.

  20. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Intrinsic Ly? Profile Reconstructions and UV, X-ray, and Optical Correlations of Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.

    2016-01-01

    UV stellar radiation can significantly impact planetary atmospheres through heating and photochemistry, even regulating production of potential biomarkers. Cool stars emit the majority of their UV radiation in the form of emission lines, and the incident UV radiation on close-in habitable-zone planets is significant. Ly? (1215.67 Å) dominates the 912 - 3200 Å spectrum of cool stars, but strong absorption from the interstellar medium (ISM) makes direct observations of the intrinsic Ly? emission of even nearby stars challenging. The MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems) has completed observations of 7 M and 4 K stars hosting exoplanets (d < 22 pc) with simultaneous X-ray and ground-based optical spectroscopy for many of the targets. We have reconstructed the intrinsic Ly? profiles using an MCMC technique and used the results to estimate the extreme ultraviolet (100 - 911 Å) spectrum. We also present empirical relations between chromospheric UV and optical lines, e.g., Ly?, Mg II, Ca II H & K, and H?, for use when direct UV observations of low-mass exoplanet host stars are not possible. The spectra presented here will be made publicly available through MAST to support exoplanet atmosphere modeling.

  1. MASTER: new UV-type variable star and 2 OH masers' optical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurpakov, S.; Balanutsa, P.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Antipin, S.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Shumkov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Budnev, N.; Yazev, S.; Poleshchuk, V.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Parkhomenko, A.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Gabovich, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.

    2015-02-01

    MASTER OT J110235.37+271333.0 - UV Cet type MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 11h 02m 35.37s +27d 13m 33.0s on 2015-02-23.73913 UT.

  2. Total ozone measured during EASOE by a UV-visible spectrometer which observes stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.J.; Jones, R.L.; Freshwater, R.A. ); Roscoe, H.K.; Oldham, D.J. ); Harries, J.E. )

    1994-06-22

    This paper presents the results of ground based measurement of column ozone from Abisko, Sweden (68.4[degrees]N), by means of a novel absorption spectroscopy technique. The instrument uses starlight, and moon glow as sources of UV and visible light for the absorption technique. These measurements were compared with ozonesonde measurements, and with space borne instruments.

  3. A New Analysis of the Two Classical ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs GD 165 and Ross 548. I. Photometry and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Pfeiffer, B.; Vauclair, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first of a two-part seismic analysis of the two bright hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this first part, we report the results of frequency extraction exercises based on time-series data sets of exceptional quality. We uncovered up to 13 independent pulsation modes in GD 165, regrouped into six main frequency multiplets. These include 9 secure (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 4) detections and 4 possible ones (4 ? S/N ? 3). Likewise, we isolated 11 independent modes in Ross 548 (9 secure and 2 possible detections), also regrouped into 6 multiplets. The multiplet structure is likely caused by rotational splitting. We also provide updated estimates of the time-averaged atmospheric properties of these two pulsators in the light of recent developments on the front of atmospheric modeling for DA white dwarfs.

  4. Search for extrasolar planets around radio-emitting stars by very long baseline interferometry astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestrade, Jean-François; Phillips, Robert B.; Jones, Dayton L.; Preston, Robert A.

    A planet orbiting a radio-emitting star can be indirectly detected by high-precision very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrometry through the reflex orbit of the star. We have observed the radio-emitting star ?2 CrB at 15 epochs over 7.5 years by VLBI and fitted its five astrometric parameters to the measured VLBI coordinates. The postfit coordinate residuals have an rms scatter of 0.33 milliarcsecond (mas) when all 15 epochs are used. However, when only the seven epochs at which the star was in its radio quiescent regime are used, the postfit rms drops to 0.20 mas, indicating that the radio centroid is more stable than during outbursts. The systematic errors in these VLBI astrometric observations are estimated to be 0.1 mas only. The larger rms scatter found (0.20 mas) might be caused by either a random jitter of the radio source or a planetary perturbation that is not sampled sufficiently to be recognized by visual inspection of the postfit position residuals. This will be tested by more frequent VLBI observations of this star in the future. Finally, the theoretical (signal-to-noise ratio-limited) astrometric precision of VLBI observations of radio-emitting stars is ~10 ?arcsec and corresponds to an interesting limit to search for giant planets around stars up to 200 pc and even for an Earth-like planet but around the nearest radio-emitting star UV Ceti.

  5. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED PULSATING LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS: AN EXTENSION OF THE ZZ CETI INSTABILITY STRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Van Grootel, V.; Dupret, M.-A.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the exciting discovery of g-mode pulsations in extremely low-mass, He-core DA white dwarfs, we report on the results of a detailed stability survey aimed at explaining the existence of these new pulsators as well as their location in the spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. To this aim, we calculated some 28 evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses and chemical layering. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/{alpha} = 1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We pulsated the models with the nonadiabatic code MAD, which incorporates a detailed treatment of time-dependent convection. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes, including MAD, to account properly for the red edge of the strip, we resurrect the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. We thus estimated the location of that edge by requiring that the thermal timescale in the driving region-located at the base of the H convection zone-be equal to the critical period beyond which l = 1 g-modes cease to exist. Using this approach, we find that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip, including the low-gravity, low-temperature regime where the three new pulsators are found. We also account for the relatively long periods observed in these stars, and thus conclude that they are true ZZ Ceti stars, but with low masses.

  6. Isolation of Brucella ceti from a Long-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas) and a Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mesoploden bidens).

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Whatmore, Adrian M; Dagleish, Mark P; Baily, Johanna L; Deaville, Rob; Davison, Nicholas J; Koylass, Mark S; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Reid, Robert J; Brownlow, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Brucella ceti is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been recovered from several species of cetaceans in the world's oceans over the past 20 yr. We report the recovery of B. ceti from a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoploden bidens) and a long-finned pilot whale (Globicehala melas). Recovery from the testis of a long-finned pilot whale provides further evidence of potential for B. ceti infection to impact the reproductive success of cetaceans, many of which are threatened species. The addition of another two cetacean species to the growing number from which B. ceti has been recovered also further emphasizes the concern for human infections with this organism. PMID:26285099

  7. MEASURING THE EVOLUTIONARY RATE OF COOLING OF ZZ Ceti

    SciTech Connect

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Fraser, Oliver; Riecken, T. S.; Kronberg, M. E.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Corsico, A. H.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, K. I.; Falcon, Ross E.; Reaves, D.; Kepler, S. O.; Romero, A. D.; Chandler, D. W.; Kuehne, J. W.; Sullivan, D. J.; Von Hippel, T.; Mullally, F.; Shipman, H.; and others

    2013-07-01

    We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} employing the O - C method and (5.45 {+-} 0.79) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt obtained from the nonlinear least squares program as our final determination, but augment the corresponding uncertainty to a more realistic value, ultimately arriving at the measurement of dP/dt = (5.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. After correcting for proper motion, the evolutionary rate of cooling of ZZ Ceti is computed to be (3.3 {+-} 1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. This value is consistent within uncertainties with the measurement of (4.19 {+-} 0.73) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} for another similar pulsating DA white dwarf, G 117-B15A. Measuring the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti helps us refine our stellar structure and evolutionary models, as cooling depends mainly on the core composition and stellar mass. Calibrating white dwarf cooling curves with this measurement will reduce the theoretical uncertainties involved in white dwarf cosmochronometry. Should the 213.13 s period be trapped in the hydrogen envelope, then our determination of its drift rate compared to the expected evolutionary rate suggests an additional source of stellar cooling. Attributing the excess cooling to the emission of axions imposes a constraint on the mass of the hypothetical axion particle.

  8. Curing the UV/IR mixing for field theories with translation-invariant $\\star$ products

    E-print Network

    Adrian Tanasa; Patrizia Vitale

    2010-02-15

    The ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) mixing of noncommutative field theories has been recently shown to be a generic feature of translation- invariant associative products. In this paper we propose to take into account the quantum corrections of the model to modify in this way the noncommutative action. This idea was already used to cure the UV/IR mixing for theories on Moyal space. We show that in the present framework also, this proposal proves successful for curing the mixing. We achieve this task by explicit calculations of one and higher loops Feynman amplitudes. For the sake of completeness, we compute the form of the new action in the matrix base for the Wick-Voros product.

  9. A Debris Disk Case Study: 49 Ceti with Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from one debris disk, Beta Pictoris. Here I discuss a well-known debris disk system in the GASPS survey, 49 Ceti. It serves as a case study for modeling low-density gas in optically thin disks. The dust disk appears to be spatially resolved at 70 um. Most interestingly, there appears to be a hint of ClI 158 urn emission at the roughly 2 sigma level. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission from this system with the weak or non-existent far-IR atomic lines may require an unusual chemical composition in the gas of this disk.

  10. Proprietes Adiabatiques des Naines Blanches Pulsantes de Type ZZ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Cette these a pour but d'etudier les proprietes des oscillation non-radiales des etoiles ZZ Ceti, appelees aussi etoiles DA variables, dans le contexte de la theorie adiabatique des petites oscillations. Ces oscillations sont observables, pour ce type d'etoiles, sous forme de variations periodiques de la luminosite. A partir d'une analyse de modeles stellaires, analyse qui consiste principalement a calculer et a interpreter les periodes d'oscillations des modeles, nous voulons mieux connai tre les proprietes physiques fondamentales des ZZ Ceti. Nous developpons tout d'abord divers outils pour entreprendre cette etude. Apres avoir presente le formalisme mathematique de base decrivant les oscillations non-radiales d'une etoile, nous discutons des difficultes pouvant etre rencontrees dans le calcul de la frequence de Brunt-Vaisala, une quantite fondamentale pour le calcul des periodes d'oscillations. Par la suite, nous developpons un modele theorique simple permettant d'analyser et d'interpreter la structure des periodes calculees (ou observees) en termes des proprietes de structure de l'etoile. Nous presentons aussi les outils numeriques tout a fait originaux utilises pour calculer nos periodes a partir de modeles stellaires. Finalement, nous presentons les resultats d'ensemble de l'analyse de nos modeles, et discutons de l'interpretation des observations de periodes et du taux de variation de ces periodes en termes de structure de l'etoile et de composition du noyau de l'etoile, respectivement. Ces resultats representent l'etude la plus complete a ce jour de la seismologie des naines blanches.

  11. Rest-UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator: the Metal Content of Star-Forming Galaxies at z~5

    E-print Network

    Faisst, A L; Davidzon, I; Salvato, M; Laigle, C; Ilbert, O; Onodera, M; Hasinger, G; Kakazu, Y; Masters, D; Mobasher, B; Sanders, D; Silverman, J D; Yan, L; Scoville, N Z

    2015-01-01

    We measure a relation between the depth of four prominent rest-UV absorption complexes and metallicity for local galaxies and verify it up to z~3. We then apply this relation to a sample of 224 galaxies at 3.5 = 4.8) in COSMOS, for which unique UV spectra from DEIMOS and accurate stellar masses from SPLASH are available. The average galaxy population at z~5 and log(M/Msun) > 9 is characterized by 0.3-0.4 dex (in units of 12+log(O/H)) lower metallicities than at z~2, but comparable to z~3.5. We find galaxies with weak/no Ly-alpha emission to have metallicities comparable to z~2 galaxies and therefore may represent an evolved sub-population of z~5 galaxies. We find a correlation between metallicity and dust in good agreement with local galaxies and an inverse trend between metallicity and star-formation rate (SFR) consistent with observations at z~2. The relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation) is similar to z~3.5, however, there are indications of it being slightly shallower, in particular ...

  12. HAZMAT II: Modeling the Evolution of Extreme--UV Radiation from M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, S.; Barman, T.; Shkolnik, E.

    2014-03-01

    M dwarf stars make up nearly 75% of the Milky Way's stellar population. Due to their low luminosities, the habitable zones around these stars are very close in (~0.1--0.4 AU), which makes it easier to find terrestrial planets located in these regions. Stars emit their highest levels of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the earliest stages of their evolution while planets are simultaneously forming and accumulating their atmospheres. High levels of EUV radiation can alter the abundance of important molecules such as H2O, changing the chemistry in extrasolar planet atmospheres. This research is the next major step in the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) project to analyze how the habitable zone evolves with the evolving properties of stellar and planetary atmospheres. Most previous stellar atmosphere models under--predict far ultraviolet (FUV) emission from M dwarfs; here we present new models for M stars that include prescriptions for the hot, lowest density, atmospheric layers (chromosphere, transition region and corona). By comparing our model spectra to GALEX near and far ultraviolet fluxes (see HAZMAT 1 abstract by Shkolnik et al.), we are able to predict the evolution of EUV radiation for M dwarfs from 10 Myr -- 1 Gyr. The results of the HAZMAT project will tell if a planet in the canonical habitable zone is truly habitable by understanding the evolution of planetary atmospheres as they are subject to large amounts of high--energy radiation.

  13. UV Spectroscopy of the Central Star of the Planetary Nebula Abell 43

    E-print Network

    Barnstedt, Jürgen

    by means of NLTE model-atmosphere techniques. Keywords: ISM: physical properties ­ planetary nebulae OWENS, we are able to model ISM lines (Fig. 3). As input parameters, OWENS uses the ionization stage. The program HOTBLAST (Hot Blanketed Atmospheres for Stars, NLTE model code for expanding atmospheres, [8]) can

  14. UV-CONTINUUM SLOPES AT z {approx} 4-7 FROM THE HUDF09+ERS+CANDELS OBSERVATIONS: DISCOVERY OF A WELL-DEFINED UV COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATIONSHIP FOR z {>=} 4 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Labbe, I.; Smit, R.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P.A.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D.; Van Dokkum, P.; Carollo, C. M.

    2012-08-01

    Ultra-deep Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and WFC3/IR HUDF+HUDF09 data, along with the wide-area GOODS+ERS+CANDELS data over the CDF-S GOODS field, are used to measure UV colors, expressed as the UV-continuum slope {beta}, of star-forming galaxies over a wide range of luminosity (0.1L*{sub z=3} to 2L*{sub z=3}) at high redshift (z {approx} 7 to z {approx} 4). {beta} is measured using all ACS and WFC3/IR passbands uncontaminated by Ly{alpha} and spectral breaks. Extensive tests show that our {beta} measurements are only subject to minimal biases. Using a different selection procedure, Dunlop et al. recently found large biases in their {beta} measurements. To reconcile these different results, we simulated both approaches and found that {beta} measurements for faint sources are subject to large biases if the same passbands are used both to select the sources and to measure {beta}. High-redshift galaxies show a well-defined rest-frame UV color-magnitude (CM) relationship that becomes systematically bluer toward fainter UV luminosities. No evolution is seen in the slope of the UV CM relationship in the first 1.5 Gyr, though there is a small evolution in the zero point to redder colors from z {approx} 7 to z {approx} 4. This suggests that galaxies are evolving along a well-defined sequence in the L{sub UV}-color ({beta}) plane (a 'star-forming sequence'?). Dust appears to be the principal factor driving changes in the UV color {beta} with luminosity. These new larger {beta} samples lead to improved dust extinction estimates at z {approx} 4-7 and confirm that the extinction is essentially zero at low luminosities and high redshifts. Inclusion of the new dust extinction results leads to (1) excellent agreement between the star formation rate (SFR) density at z {approx} 4-8 and that inferred from the stellar mass density; and (2) to higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs) at z {approx}> 4, suggesting that the SSFR may evolve modestly (by factors of {approx}2) from z {approx} 4-7 to z {approx} 2.

  15. UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator and the Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z=5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, Andreas; Capak, Peter L.; Davidson, Iary; Kakazu, Yuko; Salvato, Mara; Laigle, Clotilde; Onodera, Masato; Masters, Daniel; COSMOS Team

    2016-01-01

    Probing the metal content of high redshift galaxies is essential to study their formation and evolution in the early universe. However, the spectral features used to measure the metallicity are shifted out of the wavelength range of current spectrographs at high-z and therefore alternative methods must be used.We measure the relation between four prominent UV absorption complexes and metallicity for more than 50 local galaxies and, by using a sample of more than 20 galaxies at z ~ 2 - 3, verify that this relation holds up to z ˜ 3. We then apply this method to a sample of ˜ 220 galaxies at 3.5 < z < 6.0 in COSMOS, for which unique UV spectra from DEIMOS and accurate stellar mass estimates from SPLASH are available. The z ~ 5 galaxies at 9 < log(m/M?) < 11 are characterized by 0.3 - 0.4 dex (in units of 12 + log(O/H)) lower metallicities than galaxies at z ˜ 2 but comparable to z ˜ 3 - 3.5 galaxies. In the same stellar mass range, we do not find a significant relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation), suggesting that the MZ relation at z ~ 5 is very shallow or breaking down. Since we verify a correlation between dust obscuration (measured by ?) and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), we argue that the process of dust production and metal enrichment in the first billion years of galaxy formation is more stochastic than at later times. Using a "bathtub" model approach, we find that an exponential build up of stellar mass within a short time of several 100 Myr can explain a shallow MZ relation at z ˜ 5. Furthermore, we find a weak anti-correlation between star-formation rates and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), indicative of these galaxies being fueled by the inflow of pristine (metal-poor) gas. The galaxy sample presented in this work is unique to further test these scenarios using ALMA and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. FUV, UV, and Optical Observations of the He-sdO Star BD+39 3226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, Pierre; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-01-01

    Based on observations carried out with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, the MMT Observatory, and the Keck telescope HIRES spectrograph, we present a spectral analysis of the He-sdO star BD+39 3226. By fitting the MMT spectrum we obtain a gravity that is 0.7 dex higher than the one reported in the literature. The new atmospheric parameters will have an impact on the measurement of the HI column density toward BD+39 3226, and by this very fact on the deuterium abundance. The high-resolution spectra show stellar absorption lines coming from C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. The spectra also show lines from heavy elements such as Ge, As, and Sn. On the other hand, neither Zr nor Pb absorption lines are detected. The non-detection of lead in BD+39 3226 indicates that the star does not belong to the newly discovered group of lead-rich He-sdO stars. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a Public Works and Government Services of Canada contract.

  17. THE UV CONTINUUM OF z > 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRAVIOLET ULTRADEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry I.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian D.

    2014-09-20

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, ?, for 923 galaxies in the range 1 < z < 8 in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at 1 < z < 2 down to an absolute magnitude M{sub UV}=?14(?0.006 L{sub z=1}{sup ?};0.02 L{sub z=0}{sup ?}), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range 1 < z < 2 are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies. We find their mean (median) values = – 1.382(– 1.830) ± 0.002 (random) ± 0.1 (systematic). We find comparable scatter in ? (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than z > 2 galaxies. We study the trends of ? with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, d?/dM = –0.11 ± 0.01, and no evolution in d?/dM with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, ?E(B – V) ? 0.1, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at z < 2, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At z > 2, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range 1 < z < 8, we find a color evolution with redshift, d?/dz = –0.09 ± 0.01 for low luminosity (0.05 L{sub z=3}{sup ?}), and d?/dz = –0.06 ± 0.01 for medium luminosity (0.25 L{sub z=3}{sup ?}) galaxies.

  18. Sensitivity of biosignatures on Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of cool M-dwarf Stars to varying stellar UV radiation and surface biomass emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, J. L.; Gebauer, S.; v. Paris, P.; Godolt, M.; Rauer, H.

    2014-08-01

    We find that variations in the UV emissions of cool M-dwarf stars have a potentially large impact upon atmospheric biosignatures in simulations of Earth-like exoplanets i.e. planets with Earth's development, and biomass and a molecular nitrogen-oxygen dominated atmosphere. Starting with an assumed black-body stellar emission for an M7 class dwarf star, the stellar UV irradiation was increased stepwise and the resulting climate-photochemical response of the planetary atmosphere was calculated. Results suggest a "Goldilocks" effect with respect to the spectral detection of ozone. At weak UV levels, the ozone column was weak (due to weaker production from the Chapman mechanism) hence its spectral detection was challenging. At strong UV levels, ozone formation is stronger but its associated stratospheric heating leads to a weakening in temperature gradients between the stratosphere and troposphere, which results in weakened spectral bands. Also, increased UV levels can lead to enhanced abundances of hydrogen oxides which oppose the ozone formation effect. At intermediate UV (i.e. with ×10 the stellar UV radiative flux of black body Planck curves corresponding to spectral class M7) the conditions are "just right" for spectral detection. Results suggest that the planetary ozone profile is sensitive to the UV output of the star from ~200-350 nm.We also investigated the effect of increasing the top-of-atmosphere incoming Lyman-? radiation but this had only a minimal effect on the biosignatures since it was efficiently absorbed in the uppermost planetary atmospheric layer, mainly by abundant methane. Earlier studies have suggested that the planetary methane is an important stratospheric heater which critically affects the vertical temperature gradient, hence the strength of spectral emission bands. We therefore varied methane and nitrous oxide biomass emissions, finding e.g. that a lowering in methane emissions by ×100 compared with the Earth can influence temperature hence have a significant effect on biosignature spectral bands such as those of nitrous oxide. Our work emphasises the need for future missions to characterise the UV of cool M-dwarf stars in order to understand potential biosignature signals.

  19. Star Formation History of CALIFA galaxies in the optical and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Fernández, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Pérez, E.; García Benito, R.

    2014-10-01

    CALIFA is a spectroscopic survey of 600 nearby galaxies (0.005 < z < 0.03). CALIFA provides a unique and very useful set of data for galaxies covering the color-magnitude diagram from Mr = -23 mag to Mr = -18 mag, a large range of masses (109-12 M_{odot}) and morphological types (from E to Sc), and allow us to obtain the spatially resolved properties of galaxies. The spectral range of the CALIFA sample is ideal for studying stellar populations because it contains the Balmer series and the 4000 Å break, among other useful tracers. However, there are age-metallicity-extinction degeneracies, which produce uncertainties in estimation of the physical properties of the stellar population. So we combine CALIFA spectroscopic data with photometric data in the ultraviolet range obtained with the GALEX mission in order to break these degeneracies, including data that provide additional information about the young stellar populations, which contribute to a lesser extent in the optical range. We perform a full spectral synthesis at the optical range plus the two UV GALEX filters with a new version of the fitting code STARLIGHT.

  20. The outer disks of Herbig stars from the UV to NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; McElwain, M.; Muto, T.; Kotani, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Feldt, M.; Sitko, M.; Follette, K.; Bonnefoy, M.; Henning, T.; Takami, M.; Karr, J.; Kwon, J.; Kudo, T.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Brandt, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Goto, M.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Hodapp, K.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G.; Kuzuhara, M.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martín, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suenaga, T.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E. L.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2015-02-01

    Spatially-resolved imaging of Herbig stars and related objects began with HST, but intensified with commissioning of high-contrast imagers on 8-m class telescopes. The bulk of the data taken from the ground have been polarized intensity imagery at H-band, with the majority of the sources observed as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey. Sufficiently many systems have been imaged that we discuss disk properties in scattered, polarized light in terms of groups defined by the IR spectral energy distribution. We find novel phenomena in many of the disks, including spiral density waves, and discuss the disks in terms of clearing mechanisms. Some of the disks have sufficient data to map the dust and gas components, including water ice dissociation products.

  1. GalevNB: a conversion from N-BODY simulations to observations—its application on the study of UV-excess in star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaoying; Olczak, Christoph; Guo, Difeng; Spurzem, Rainer

    2015-08-01

    We present GalevNB (Galev for N-body simulations), an utility that converts fundamental stellar properties of N-body simulations into observational properties using the GALEV (GAlaxy EVolutionary synthesis models) package, and thus allowing direct comparisons between observations and N-body simulations. It works by converting fundamental stellar properties, such as stellar mass, temperature, luminosity and metallicity into observational magnitudes for a variety of filters of mainstream instruments/telescopes, such as HST, ESO, SDSS, 2MASS, etc., and into spectra that spans from far-UV (90 Å) to near-IR (160 ?m). As an application, we use GalevNB to investigate the secular evolution of spectral energy distribution (SED) and color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a simulated star cluster over a few hundred million years. The model cluster in this work is evolved using the most recent version of NBODY6++ utilizing many GPU cores in parallel to accelerate multi-node multi-core simulations (Wang et al. 2015), which is the MPI parallel version based on the state-of-the-art direct N-body integrator NBODY6GPU. With the results given by GalevNB, we discover an UV-excess in the integrated SED of the cluster over the whole simulation time. We also identify four candidates that contribute to the FUV peak, core helium burning stars, thermal pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TPAGB) stars, white dwarfs and naked helium stars. Among them, TAGB is a favorable candidate from theoretical point of view (O’connell 1999). On the contrary, white dwarf’s candidate position is controversial (Magris & Bruzual 1993, Landsman et al. 1998) because of low luminosity. The life time of massive star descendants: core helium burning stars and naked helium stars, is very short. Though both of they are very bright at the UV at the early age, their short-term emission makes them become insignificant candidates.

  2. Evolution over Time of Magentic Dynamo Driven UV & X-ray Emissions of dG-M Stars and Effects on Hosted Planets

    E-print Network

    Edward F. Guinan; Scott G. Engle

    2007-11-09

    The evolution over time of the magnetic activity and the resulting X-ray and UV coronal and chromospheric emissions of main-sequence dG, dK, and dM stars with widely different ages are discussed. Young cool stars spin rapidly and have correspondingly very robust magnetic dynamos and strong coronal and chromospheric X-ray - UV (XUV) emissions. However, these stars spin-down with time as they lose angular momentum via magnetized winds and their magnetic generated activity and emissions significantly decrease. Studies of dK-dM stars over a wide range of ages and rotations show similar (but not identical) behavior. Particular emphasis is given to discussing the effects that XUV emissions have on the atmospheres and evolution of solar system planets as well as the increasing number of extrasolar planets found hosted by dG-dM stars. The results from modeling the early atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars using recently determined XUV irradiances and inferred winds of the young Sun are also briefly discussed. For example, the loss of water from juvenile Venus and Mars can be explained by action of the strong XUV emissions and robust winds of the young Sun. We also examine the effects of strong X-ray and UV coronal and chromospheric emissions (and frequent flares) that dM stars have on possible planets orbiting within their shrunken habitable zones (HZs) - located close to the low luminosity host stars (HZ 5 Gyr), which present intriguing possibilities for the development of highly advanced modes of intelligent life on planets that may orbit them.

  3. Herschel Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, A.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Dent, W. R. F.; Meeus, G.; Donaldson, J. K.; Olofsson, J.; Moor, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Howard, C.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Ardila, D. R.; Sandell, G.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the “Gas in Protoplanetary Systems” (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 micron image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [O i] 63 micron and [C ii] 158 micron. The C ii line was detected at the 5 sigma level—the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the Oi line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra. We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the C ii emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.

  4. High Speed Optical Observations of Cataclysmic Variables: FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Gomez, S.; Robinson, E. L.; Andronov, I. L.; Gonzalez, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric data on three cataclysmic variables. Broad-band CCD observations of FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her were obtained with 1-3s integrations at the Otto Struve, 2.1m, Telescope of McDonald Observatory. High speed optical photometry reveals details in these cataclysmic variables not possible using longer time integrations. In FL Ceti, the shortest period eclipsing polar known, the eclipse of two separate well localized accretion regions is resolved. In BY Cam and DQ Her, the spin period of the white dwarf is revealed. We discuss model constrains provided by these observations.

  5. The changing UV and X-ray properties of the Of?p star CPD -28°2561

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Fullerton, Alex W.; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.; Rauw, Gregor; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2015-09-01

    The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ˜55 per cent with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73 d rotational period of CPD -28°2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the C IV and N V lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the presence of strong asymmetries about the magnetic equator, mostly in the free-flowing wind (rather than in the confined dynamical magnetosphere).

  6. The Debris Disk of Solar Analogue $\\tau$ Ceti: Herschel Observations and Dynamical Simulations of the Proposed Multiplanet System

    E-print Network

    Lawler, S M; Kennedy, G M; Sibthorpe, B; Booth, M; Vandenbussche, B; Matthews, B C; Holland, W S; Greaves, J; Wilner, D J; Tuomi, M; Blommaert, J A D L; de Vries, B L; Dominik, C; Fridlund, M; Gear, W; Heras, A M; Ivison, R; Olofsson, G

    2014-01-01

    $\\tau$ Ceti is a nearby, mature G-type star very similar to our Sun, with a massive Kuiper Belt analogue (Greaves et al. 2004) and possible multiplanet system (Tuomi et al. 2013) that has been compared to our Solar System. We present Herschel Space Observatory images of the debris disk, finding the disk is resolved at 70 and 160 microns, and marginally resolved at 250 microns. The Herschel images and infrared photometry from the literature are best modelled using a wide dust annulus with an inner edge between 1-10 AU and an outer edge at ~55 AU, inclined from face-on by 35$\\pm$10 degrees, and with no significant azimuthal structure. We model the proposed tightly-packed planetary system of five super-Earths and find that the innermost dynamically stable disk orbits are consistent with the inner edge found by the observations. The photometric modelling, however, cannot rule out a disk inner edge as close to the star as 1 AU, though larger distances produce a better fit to the data. Dynamical modelling shows tha...

  7. Determining Fe I Energy Levels with STIS 230H Near-UV Spectra of Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth

    2013-10-01

    With rapid technological and computational advances in astrophysics, a multitude of ever fainter objects near and far are being observed with greater and greater precision. Seriously lacking are reliable, comprehensive atomic data needed to interpret the present and future wealth of information. The Fe I atom is a notable example: measurements of the energies of its high-lying levels are woefully incomplete.Here we propose to determine upper energies of Fe I using STIS E230H archival spectra of metal-poor stars spanning 1850A - 3150A. Our spectral calculations match these well, except for lines of unknown identification. The vast majority are due to Fe I lines whose predicted wavelengths are in error because the upper energy level is not measured. We can derive the energy for a particular upper level by adopting a trial value providing a wavelength for one of its strong predicted near-UV lines that matches the wavelength of a strong unidentified spectral line, then checking the new wavelengths of other strong predicted transitions that share the same upper level for coincidence with other strong unidentified lines.To date we have matched three or more transitions for eight levels, deriving energies up to 63183 cm^-1 {7.8 eV}, and identifying 1228 individual lines. Our goal is to do this for 100 new levels, and to understand how best to extend this to levels with weaker transitions only. The newly-identified energy levels and resulting line parameters will be placed on the Kurucz website, to enable better use of Hubble archive products by the community, for research ranging from nucleosynthesis at early epochs to deriving age and metallicity for old, distant galaxies.

  8. Far-UV spectroscopy of the planet-hosting star WASP-13: high-energy irradiance, distance, age, planetary mass-loss rate, and circumstellar environment

    E-print Network

    Fossati, L; Koskinen, T; Juvan, I G; Haswell, C A; Lendl, M

    2015-01-01

    Several transiting hot Jupiters orbit relatively inactive main-sequence stars. For some of those, the logR'HK activity parameter lies below the basal level (-5.1). Two explanations have been proposed so far: (i) the planet affects the stellar dynamo, (ii) the logR'HK measurements are biased by extrinsic absorption, either by the interstellar medium (ISM) or by material local to the system. We present here Hubble Space Telescope/COS far-UV spectra of WASP-13, which hosts an inflated hot Jupiter and has a measured logR'HK value (-5.26), well below the basal level. From the star's spectral energy distribution we obtain an extinction E(B-V) = 0.045+/-0.025 mag and a distance d = 232+/-8 pc. We detect at >4 sigma lines belonging to three different ionization states of carbon (C1, C2, and C4) and the Si4 doublet at ~3 sigma. Using far-UV spectra of nearby early G-type stars of known age, we derive a C4/C1 flux ratio-age relation, from which we estimate WASP-13's age to be 5.1+/-2.0 Gyr. We rescale the solar irradia...

  9. Far-UV Spectroscopy of the Planet-hosting Star WASP-13: High-energy Irradiance, Distance, Age, Planetary Mass-loss Rate, and Circumstellar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; France, K.; Koskinen, T.; Juvan, I. G.; Haswell, C. A.; Lendl, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several transiting hot Jupiters orbit relatively inactive main-sequence stars. For some of those, the {log}{R}{HK}\\prime activity parameter lies below the basal level (-5.1). Two explanations have been proposed so far: (i) the planet affects the stellar dynamo, (ii) the {log}{R}{HK}\\prime measurements are biased by extrinsic absorption, either by the interstellar medium (ISM) or by material local to the system. We present here Hubble Space Telescope/COS far-UV spectra of WASP-13, which hosts an inflated hot Jupiter and has a measured {log}{R}{HK}\\prime value (-5.26), well below the basal level. From the star's spectral energy distribution we obtain an extinction E(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.025 mag and a distance d = 232 ± 8 pc. We detect at ?4? lines belonging to three different ionization states of carbon (C i, C ii, and C iv) and the Si iv doublet at ˜3?. Using far-UV spectra of nearby early G-type stars of known age, we derive a C iv/C i flux ratio-age relation, from which we estimate WASP-13's age to be 5.1 ± 2.0 Gyr. We rescale the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the C iv 1548 doublet. By integrating the rescaled solar spectrum, we obtain an XUV flux at 1 AU of 5.4 erg s-1 cm-2. We use a detailed model of the planet's upper atmosphere, deriving a mass-loss rate of 1.5 × 1011 g s-1. Despite the low {log}{R}{HK}\\prime value, the star shows a far-UV spectrum typical of middle-aged solar-type stars, pointing toward the presence of significant extrinsic absorption. The analysis of a high-resolution spectrum of the Ca ii H&K lines indicates that the ISM absorption could be the origin of the low {log}{R}{HK}\\prime value. Nevertheless, the large uncertainty in the Ca ii ISM abundance does not allow us to firmly exclude the presence of circumstellar gas. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859.

  10. FUSE, STIS, and Keck spectroscopic analysis of the UV-bright star vZ 1128 in M3 (NGC 5272)

    E-print Network

    Chayer, Pierre; Fullerton, Alexander W; Ooghe-Tabanou, Benjamin; Reid, I Neill

    2015-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the UV-bright star vZ 1128 in M3 based on observations with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), and the Keck HIRES echelle spectrograph. By fitting the H I, He I, and He II lines in the Keck spectrum with non-LTE H-He models, we obtain Teff = 36,600 K, log g = 3.95, and log N(He)/N(H) = -0.84. The star's FUSE and STIS spectra show photospheric absorption from C, N, O, Al, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. No stellar features from elements beyond the iron peak are observed. Both components of the N V 1240 doublet exhibit P~Cygni profiles, indicating a weak stellar wind, but no other wind features are seen. The star's photospheric abundances appear to have changed little since it left the red giant branch (RGB). Its C, N, O, Al, Si, Fe, and Ni abundances are consistent with published values for the red-giant stars in M3, and the relative abundances of C, N, and O follow the trends seen on the cluster RGB. In particular, its lo...

  11. How temperature influences the stoichiometry of CeTi2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Lana T.; Eger, Shaylin B.; Walker, James D. S.; Hayes, John R.; Gaultois, Michael W.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2012-06-01

    Of the many materials examined for the sequestration of nuclear waste, Ti oxides have received considerable attention. Brannerite (UTi2O6), in particular, has been studied extensively for this application. The Ce analogue of this material (CeTi2O6) has been widely investigated instead of the actinide versions owing to the reduced safety hazards and because Ce has similar crystal chemistry to U and Pu. In this study, examination of Ti K-, Ce L3-, and Ce M4,5-edge XANES spectra lead to the conclusion that CeTi2O6 was O-deficient when synthesized at high temperature and then quench cooled, and that the degree of O-deficiency was reduced upon post-annealing at lower temperatures. These observations can be ascribed to a temperature-dependant Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple. This investigation suggests that Ce-containing materials may not properly simulate the actinide-bearing analogues; however, CeTi2O6 could be useful for other applications, such as catalysis.

  12. HST/COS Observations of the UV-Bright Star Y453 in the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyke Dixon, William; Chayer, Pierre; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-AGB stars represent a short-lived phase of stellar evolution during which stars cross the optical color-magnitude diagram from the cool, red tip of the assymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the hot, blue tip of the white-dwarf cooling curve. Their surface chemistry reflects the nuclear-shell burning, mixing, and mass-loss processes characteristic of AGB stars, and their high effective temperatures allow the detection of elements that are unobservable in cool giants. Post-AGB stars in globular clusters offer the additional advantages of known distance, age, and initial chemistry. To better understand the AGB evolution of low-mass stars, we have observed the post-AGB star Y453 in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The star, which has an effective temperature of at least 60,000 K, shows absorption from He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Ga. While the star's C and O abundances are consistent with those measured in a sample of nitrogen-poor RGB stars in M4, its N abundance is considerably enhanced. The star's low C abundance suggests that it left the AGB before the onset of third dredge-up.This work was supported by NASA grant HST-GO-13721.001-A to the University of Wisconsin, Whitewater. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a contract with NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  13. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  14. Galactic Astronomy in UV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastorguev, A.; Zabolotskikh, M.; Sachkov, M.

    2008-12-01

    We propose a number of perspective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, that seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. They include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters; the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of ex- tinction curves in UV, optics and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between UV-colors and the effective temperature. High angular resolution make it possible accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematical analysis.

  15. First report of Brucella ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas.

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicholas J; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Dagleish, Mark P; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dale, Emma-Jane; Koylass, Mark; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-10-27

    Fatal Brucella ceti infection with histological lesions specific to the central nervous system has been described in only 3 species of cetaceans: striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, Atlantic white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus acutus and short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis. This paper describes the first report of a B. ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, showing the increasing range of species susceptibility. Brucella was recovered in larger numbers from cerebrospinal fluid than from brain tissue and is the sample of choice for isolation. PMID:26503778

  16. THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES VIA DROPOUT SELECTION AT REDSHIFTS z {approx} 7 AND 8 FROM THE 2012 ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Stark, Daniel P.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Koekemoer, Anton; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-05-10

    We present a catalog of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected to lie within the redshift range z {approx_equal} 7-8 using the Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12), the deepest near-infrared (near-IR) exposures yet taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a result of the increased near-IR exposure time compared to previous HST imaging in this field, we probe {approx}0.65 (0.25) mag fainter in absolute UV magnitude, at z {approx} 7 (8), which increases confidence in a measurement of the faint end slope of the galaxy luminosity function. Through a 0.7 mag deeper limit in the key F105W filter that encompasses or lies just longward of the Lyman break, we also achieve a much-refined color-color selection that balances high redshift completeness and a low expected contamination fraction. We improve the number of dropout-selected UDF sources to 47 at z {approx} 7 and 27 at z {approx} 8. Incorporating brighter archival and ground-based samples, we measure the z {approx_equal} 7 UV luminosity function to an absolute magnitude limit of M{sub UV} = -17 and find a faint end Schechter slope of {alpha}=-1.87{sup +0.18}{sub -0.17}. Using a similar color-color selection at z {approx_equal} 8 that takes our newly added imaging in the F140W filter into account, and incorporating archival data from the HIPPIES and BoRG campaigns, we provide a robust estimate of the faint end slope at z {approx_equal} 8, {alpha}=-1.94{sup +0.21}{sub -0.24}. We briefly discuss our results in the context of earlier work and that derived using the same UDF12 data but with an independent photometric redshift technique.

  17. The UV Luminosity Function of Star-forming Galaxies via Dropout Selection at Redshifts z ~ 7 and 8 from the 2012 Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Ono, Yoshiaki; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Ouchi, Masami; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B.; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected to lie within the redshift range z ~= 7-8 using the Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12), the deepest near-infrared (near-IR) exposures yet taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a result of the increased near-IR exposure time compared to previous HST imaging in this field, we probe ~0.65 (0.25) mag fainter in absolute UV magnitude, at z ~ 7 (8), which increases confidence in a measurement of the faint end slope of the galaxy luminosity function. Through a 0.7 mag deeper limit in the key F105W filter that encompasses or lies just longward of the Lyman break, we also achieve a much-refined color-color selection that balances high redshift completeness and a low expected contamination fraction. We improve the number of dropout-selected UDF sources to 47 at z ~ 7 and 27 at z ~ 8. Incorporating brighter archival and ground-based samples, we measure the z ~= 7 UV luminosity function to an absolute magnitude limit of M UV = -17 and find a faint end Schechter slope of \\alpha =-1.87^{+0.18}_{-0.17}. Using a similar color-color selection at z ~= 8 that takes our newly added imaging in the F140W filter into account, and incorporating archival data from the HIPPIES and BoRG campaigns, we provide a robust estimate of the faint end slope at z ~= 8, \\alpha =-1.94^{+0.21}_{-0.24}. We briefly discuss our results in the context of earlier work and that derived using the same UDF12 data but with an independent photometric redshift technique.

  18. Very Blue UV-Continuum Slopes of Star-Forming Galaxies at z~7 and the Evolution to z~2-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.

    2010-11-01

    The new WFC3/IR instrument on HST enables us to survey the sky in the near-IR 40× more efficiently than ever before, permitting enormous strides in the identification and characterization of galaxies at z>=7. Already, deep wide-area observations exist over some ~52 arcmin2 in the HUDF09+ERS fields. With these data, we have been able to identify more than 60 z~7 galaxy candidates, more than 40 z~8 galaxy candidates, and even some possible z~9 galaxies over a 3 magnitude range in luminosity, adding significantly to the 20-30 z~7 candidates known prior to WFC3/IR. One of the most interesting observables to examine in these high redshift galaxies are the UV-continuum slopes, since it provides us with constraints on the dust content, metallicities, ages, and possibly escape fractions of low-mass star-forming galaxies at very early times. Here, I provide a brief summary of our findings on the UV-continuum slopes ? of z~7 galaxies from the early ultra-deep WFC3/IR data over the HUDF.

  19. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  20. A search variability in the UV spectrum of Pi Aquarii and Fe 3 shell lines of Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Several short U1 and U2 observations of Be stars are obtained with the Copernicus satellite. Pi Aquarii (B1 IV-Ve) is observed with the U1 and U2 spectrometers. These scans are compared with earlier observations. Variations in the strengths and profiles of selected shell and photospheric features are examined. In order to study possible changes in the temperature of the circumstellar envelope, features covering a wide range in ionization are observed. Included in the observing program are lines of O VI, N V, Si IV, Si III, S III, Fe III, and N I.

  1. Quantitative UV spectroscopy of early O stars on the Magellanic Clouds: The determination of the stellar metallicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haser, Stefan M.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W. A.; Lennon, Danny J.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lennon, Maguerite; Puls, Joachim; Voels, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of four O stars in the Magellanic Clouds obtained with the faint object spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope are analyzed with respect to their metallicity. The metal abundances are derived from the stellar parameters and the mass loss rate with a two step procedure: hydrodynamic radiation-driven wind models with metallicity as a free parameter are constructed to fit the observed wind momentum rate and thus yield a dynamical metallicity, and synthetic spectra are computed for different metal abundances and compared to the observed spectra in order to obtain a spectroscopic metallicity.

  2. Ly-alpha and UV emission from high-redshift GRB hosts: To what extent do GRBs trace star formation?

    E-print Network

    P. Jakobsson; G. Bjornsson; J. P. U. Fynbo; G. Johannesson; J. Hjorth; B. Thomsen; P. Moller; D. Watson; B. L. Jensen; G. Ostlin; J. Gorosabel; E. H. Gudmundsson

    2005-05-26

    We report the result of a search for Ly-alpha emission from the host galaxies of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 030226 (z = 1.986), 021004 (z = 2.335) and 020124 (z = 3.198). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 021004 is an extended (around 8 kpc) strong Ly-alpha emitter with a restframe equivalent width (EW) of 68^{+12}_{-11} AA, and a star-formation rate of 10.6 +/- 2.0 M_sun/yr. We do not detect the hosts of GRB 030226 and GRB 020124, but the upper limits on their Ly-alpha fluxes do not rule out large restframe EWs. In the fields of GRB 021004 and GRB 030226 we find seven and five other galaxies, respectively, with excess emission in the narrow-band filter. These galaxies are candidate Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in the environment of the host galaxies. We have also compiled a list of all z > 2 GRB hosts, and demonstrate that a scenario where they trace star formation in an unbiased way is compatible with current observational constraints. Fitting the z=3 luminosity function (LF) under this assumption, results in a characteristic luminosity of R* = 24.6 and a faint end slope of alpha = -1.55, consistent with the LF measured for Lyman-break galaxies.

  3. The UV Continuum of z Greater Than 1 Star-Forming Galaxies in the Hubble Ultraviolet Ultradeep Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry I.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; de Mello, Duilia F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, beta, for 923 galaxies in the range 1 less than z less than 8 in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at 1 less than z less than 2 down to an absolute magnitude M(sub UV) = -14(approx. 0.006 stellar luminosity (sub z=1); 0.02 stellar luminosity (sub z=0), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range 1 less than z less than 2 are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies.We find their mean (median) values = -1.382(-1.830) plus or minus 0.002 (random) plus or minus 0.1 (systematic).We find comparable scatter in beta (standard deviation= 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than z greater than 2 galaxies.We study the trends of beta with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, ((delta beta)/(delta M)) = -0.11 plus or minus 0.01, and no evolution in ((delta beta)/(delta M)) with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, delta E(B -V ) approx. 0.1, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at z less than 2, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At z greater than 2, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range 1 less than z less than 8, we find a color evolution with redshift, ((delta beta)/(delta z)) = -0.09 plus or minus 0.01 for low luminosity (0.05 stellar luminosity (sub z=3), and ((delta beta)/(delta z)) = -0.06 plus or minus 0.01 for medium luminosity (0.25 stellar luminosity (sub z=3) galaxies.

  4. Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the SW Sex Star DW UMa: Confirmation of a Hidden White Dwarf and the UV Counterpart to Phase 0.5 Absorption Events

    E-print Network

    Christian Knigge; Sofia Araujo-Betancor; Boris T. Gaensicke; Knox S. Long; Paula Szkody; D. W. Hoard; R. I. Hynes; V. S. Dhillon

    2004-10-12

    We present time-resolved, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy of the SW Sex star DW UMa in the high state. We confirm that, shortward of 1500 \\AA, the high-state, UV continuum level is lower than the white dwarf (WD)-dominated low-state level. We also do not see the WD contact phases in the high state eclipse light curves. These results confirm our earlier finding that the WD in this system is hidden from view in the high state. Based on this, we caution that eclipse mapping of high-inclination SW Sex stars in the high state may yield incorrect or misleading results. In the context of DW UMa, we demonstrate explicitly that distance estimates obtained by recent eclipse mapping studies cannot be reconciled with the WD-dominated low-state spectrum. We also show that the fluxes of the UV emission lines in the high state drop near orbital phase 0.5. This is the first detection of a UV counterpart to the class-defining phase 0.5 absorption seen in the optical emission lines of SW Sex stars.

  5. EFFECTS OF CLOUDS AND TROPOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY ON SURFACE UV AT 6 UV RESEARCH SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a summary of results of the EPA STAR funded proposal “Effects of Clouds and Tropospheric Pollution on Surface UV at six EPA UV Research Sites”. This project worked to provide high quality UV spectral solar irradiance, erythema (UV Index), oz...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PHAT X. UV-IR photometry of M31 stars (Williams+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B. F.; Lang, D.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Dolphin, A. E.; Weisz, D. R.; Bell, E. F.; Bianchi, L.; Byler, N.; Gilbert, K. M.; Girardi, L.; Gordon, K.; Gregersen, D.; Johnson, L. C.; Kalirai, J.; Lauer, T. R.; Monachesi, A.; Rosenfield, P.; Seth, A.; Skillman, E.

    2015-01-01

    The data for the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey were obtained from 2010 July 12 to 2013 October 12 using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC), the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) IR (infrared) channel, and the WFC3 UVIS (ultraviolet-optical) channel. The observing strategy is described in detail in Dalcanton et al. (2012ApJS..200...18D). A list of the target names, observing dates, coordinates, orientations, instruments, exposure times, and filters is given in Table 1. Using the ACS and WFC3 cameras aboard HST, we have photometered 414 contiguous WFC3/IR footprints covering 0.5deg2 of the M31 star-forming disk. (4 data files).

  7. A Unique Gas-Rich Debris Disk: Herschel Imaging and Spectroscopy of 49 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from only one or two debris disks, Beta Pictoris being one of them. Here we present Herschel GASPS observations of a well-known debris disk system, 49 Ceti. The dust disk is spatially resolved in thermal emission at 70 _m. Most interestingly, weak far-IR gas emission is detected. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission seen from this system with the far-IR gas detection and upper limits requires a low gas-to-dust ratio and possibly an unusual gas composition.

  8. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  9. White Dwarf Stars (With 37 figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    Introduction White Dwarfs as Useful Stars Origins: the Clue of White Dwarf Masses The Main Channel Why Such a Narrow Mass Distribution? Observed Properties of White Dwarfs Discovery of White Dwarfs Finding White Dwarfs White Dwarf Colors and the White Dwarf Luminosity Function White Dwarf Optical Spectra Distribution of Spectral Types with Effective Temperatures Magnetic White Dwarfs Pulsating White Dwarfs Physics of White Dwarf Interiors Equation of State Heat Transport in Degenerate Matter Nonideal Effects Specific Heat White Dwarf Formation and Early Cooling Thermal Pulses on the AGB Departure from the AGB The PNN Phase Nuclear Shutdown and Neutrino Cooling Chemical Evolution of White Dwarfs Diffusive Processes Accretion of "Fresh" ISM vs. Mass Loss Convection Chemical Evolution Scenarios White Dwarf Cooling and the White Dwarf Luminosity Function A Simplified Cooling Model Complications: Neutrinos and Crystallization Realistic Cooling Calculations Construction of Theoretical Luminosity Functions The Age of the Galactic Disk Nonradial Oscillations of White Dwarfs: Theory Review of Observations Hydrodynamic Equations Local Analysis and the Dispersion Relation g-mode Period Spacings Mode Trapping Rotational and Magnetic Splitting The Seismological Toolbox Pulsating White Dwarfs The Whole Earth Telescope PG 1159 Stars and Pulsating PNNs GD 358: A Pulsating DB White Dwarf The ZZ Ceti Stars Astrophysical Applications of White Dwarfs Stellar Evolution as a Spectator Sport The White Dwarf Luminosity Function and Our Galaxy White Dwarfs and Cluster Ages The Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function and Galaxy Distances Driving and Damping of Pulsations and Convective Efficiency in - White Dwarfs Ceti Stars Final Thoughts References

  10. The UV spectrum of nebulae

    E-print Network

    F. Zagury

    2001-06-18

    This paper presents an analysis of the UV spectrum of some nebulae with clearly identified illuminating stars, all observed by the IUE satellite. The data show remarkable properties of the UV spectrum of the nebulae. Each spectrum is the product of the star spectrum and a linear function of 1/lambda. There is no peculiar behaviour in the spectrums at 2200A: no bump created in the spectrum of a nebula and no excess of scattering. When moving away from the star, the surface brightness of a nebula decreases as the inverse of the square of the angular distance to the star. These results can logically be interpreted in terms of scattering of starlight. They imply constant properties of the interstellar grains in the UV and in the directions of space sampled by the nebulae, and probably a strong forward scattering phase function. There is no evidence for any particular type of grain which would specifically extinguish starlight at 2200A. Concerning the UV spectrum of a star, this may imply a revisal of the traditional interpretation of the 2200A bump.

  11. Exploring high temperature magnetic order in CeTi1-xScxGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereni, J. G.; Pedrazzini, P.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Chacoma, A.; Encina, S.; Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2015-03-01

    We studied the magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of the alloy CeTi1-xScxGe in order to shed some light into the origin of the exceptionally large antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering temperature TN = 47 K in pure CeScGe. We observed a complex magnetic phase diagram, which present an interesting dichotomy: Despite strong changes in the nature of the ordered state, from ferromagnetic (FM) for x <= 0.55 to AFM for x > 0.55, the ordering temperature increases smoothly and continuously from TC = 7 K at x = 0.25 to TN = 47 K at x = 1. Within the AFM regime we observe a metamagnetic transition at a critical field increasing from H = 0 at x ? 0.55 to ?0 * H ? 6 Tesla at x = 1. Furthermore a second transition appears at TL <= TN for x >= 0.65. In contrast to observations in CeRh2Si2 or CeRh3B2, we found no evidence for a strong hybridization of the 4f electrons at large Sc contents. Therefore the exceptionally large TN of CeScGe could be attributed to the unusually strong RKKY interaction in this type of compounds.

  12. UV Spectral Diagnostics of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2003-01-01

    New instrumentation now enable deep spectral surveys of galaxies at younger ages. At a redshift, z=1, all galaxies are less than 6 Gyr old and hence, have not yet formed horizontal-branch stars. Also, at z=1, the restframe-UV comes into view, and with it, a new set of spectral diagnostics. UV spectral features are especially important because most of the UV flux comes from stars at the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO). Hence, UV spectral diagnostics enable the most recent star formation episode of high-redshift galaxies to be estimated directly from MSTO stars. In preparation for these high-redshift spectral surveys, we are developing UV spectral templates for stellar populations younger than 6 Gyr using UV-optical spectra of stars observed by HST/STIS. We are also starting to supplement these observations with theoretical spectral grids of stars of various metallicities. In this paper, we present a progress report on UV spectral templates and spectral diagnostics.

  13. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  14. Chromospherically active stars. 6: Giants with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromospherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (K0 III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (K0 III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white-dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white-dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  15. From Cosmic Dawn to Our Solar System: A Next-Generation UV--Optical Space Facility for the Study of Star Formation

    E-print Network

    Jansen, Rolf Arthur

    and spectrograph on a 4 m-class planet finding and characterization mission (presently under study as part of NASA for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to in- vestigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star

  16. Activity of young stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamzin, S.

    2008-12-01

    The possibility to clarify the nature of activity of different types of young stars by means of ob- servations from orbital observatory WSO-UV is considered. These types include Herbig Ae/Be stars, T Tauri stars, brown dwarfs and FUORs. The problem of interstellar extinction law toward star formation regions is also discussed.

  17. Amphritea ceti sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, Sooyeon; Kim, Doo Nam; Nam, Bo-Hye; Won, Sung-Min; An, Du Hae; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, designated RA1(T), was isolated from faeces collected from Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in Yeosu aquarium, South Korea. Strain RA1(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0?% (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain RA1(T) joins the cluster comprising the type strains of three species of the genus Amphritea, with which it exhibited 95.8-96.0?% sequence similarity. Sequence similarities to the type strains of other recognized species were less than 94.3?%. Strain RA1(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c), C18?:?1?7c and C16?:?0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain RA1(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of strain RA1(T) was 47.4 mol%. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain RA1(T) is separated from other species of the genus Amphritea. On the basis of the data presented, strain RA1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Amphritea, for which the name Amphritea ceti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA1(T) (?=?KCTC 42154(T)?=?NBRC 110551(T)). PMID:25237149

  18. The presence of Brucella ceti ST26 in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) with meningoencephalitis from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Terracciano, Giuliana; Franco, Alessia; Lorenzetti, Serena; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Fichi, Gianluca; Eleni, Claudia; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Battisti, Antonio

    2013-05-31

    Brucella spp. was isolated from brain, lung and intestinal lymph nodes of a dead adult male striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded on the Tyrrhenian coast (Tuscany, Italy) of the Mediterranean Sea in February 2012. Brucella spp. was associated with moderate to severe lesions of meningoencephalitis. A co-infection by Toxoplasma gondii was also demonstrated at brain level by means of molecular and histopathologic methods. The Brucella isolate was further characterized based on a fragment-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, consisting of a set of five specific PCRs, targeting specific chromosomal IS711 locations for marine mammal Brucellae, as described previously. The isolate was thus classified as Brucella ceti I; V fragment-positive (or B. ceti dolphin type), according to previous studies. Multi Locus Sequence Analysis demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Sequence Type 26, while omp2 (omp2a and omp2b genes) sequence analysis further confirmed the isolate belonged to this group of strains. This is the first report of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea, and represents a further observation that this strain group is associated with hosts of the Family Delphinidae, and particularly with the striped dolphins, also in the Mediterranean area, thus constituting a further biological hazard of concern for this vulnerable subpopulation. PMID:23419820

  19. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  20. Local Interstellar Medium Properties and Deuterium Abundances for the Lines of Sight Toward HR 1099, 31 Comae, beta Ceti, and beta Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Dempsey, Robert C.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data to infer the properties of local interstellar gas and the Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) ratio for lines of sight toward four nearby late-type stars-HR 1099, 31 Comae, beta Ceti, and beta Cassiopeiae. The data consist of spectra of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman-(alpha) lines, and echelle spectra of the Mg IIh and k lines toward all stars except beta Cas. Spectra of the RS CVn-type spectroscopic binary system HR 1099 were obtained near opposite quadratures to determine the intrinsic stellar emission line profile and the interstellar absorption separately. Multiple-velocity components were found toward HR 1099 and beta Cet. The spectra of 31 Com and beta Cet are particularly interesting because they sample lines of sight toward the north and south Galactic poles, respectively, for which H I and D I column densities were not previously available. The north Galactic pole appears to be a region of low hydrogen density like the 'interstellar tunnel' toward epsilon CMa. The temperature and turbulent velocities of the Local InterStellar Medium (LISM) that we measure for the lines of sight toward HR 1099, 31 Com, beta Cet, and beta Cas are similar to previously measured values (T approx.7000 K and xi = 1.0-1.6 km/s). The deuterium/hydrogen ratios found for these lines of sight are also consistent with previous measurements of other short lines of sight, which suggest D/H approx. 1.6 x 10(sup -5). In contrast, the Mg abundance measured for the beta Cet line of sight (implying a logarithmic depletion of D(Mg) = +0.30 +/- 0.15) is about 5 times larger than the Mg abundance previously observed toward alpha Cen, and about 20 times larger than all other previous measurements for the LISM. These results demonstrate that metal abundances in the LISM vary greatly over distances of only a few parsecs.

  1. Detection of Variable Gaseous Absorption Features in the Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    2012-10-01

    We present medium resolution (R=60,000) absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K line observed towards five nearby A-type stars (49 Ceti, 5 Vul, ? Cyg, 2 And, and HD 223884) suspected of possessing circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were observed on a nightly basis during a six night observing run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas. We have detected nightly changes in the absorption strength of the Ca II K line observed near the stellar radial velocity in three of the stars (49 Ceti, i Cyg and HD 223884). Such changes in absorption suggest the presence of a circumstellar (atomic) gas disk around these stars. In addition to the absorption changes in the main Ca II K line profile, we have also observed weak transient absorption features that randomly appear at redshifted velocities in the spectra of 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And. These absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of falling evaporated bodies (exo-comets) that liberate evaporating gas on their approach to the central star. This now brings the total number of systems in which exocomet activity has been observed at Ca II or Na I wavelengths on a nightly basis to seven (? Pic, HR 10, HD 85905, ? Car, 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And), with 2 And exhibiting weaker and less frequent changes. All of the disk systems presently known to exhibit either type of short-term variability in Ca II K line absorption are rapidly rotating A-type stars (V sin i>120 km s-1). Most exhibit mid-IR excesses, and many of them are very young (<20 Myr), thus supporting the argument that many of them are transitional objects between Herbig Ae and ""Vega-like"" A-type stars with more tenuous circumstellar disks. No mid-IR excess (due to the presence of a dust disk) has yet been detected around either 2 And or HD 223884, both of which have been classified as ? Bötis-type stars. This may indicate that the observed changes in gas absorption for these two stars may not be due to circumstellar activity, but may instead be associated with the stars'' episodic mass loss and passage though low-density interstellar clouds.

  2. FUSE, STIS and Keck spectroscopic analysis of the UV-bright star vZ 1128 in M3 (NGC 5272)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, P.; Dixon, W. V.; Fullerton, A. W.; Ooghe-Tabanou, B.; Reid, I. N.

    2015-09-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the ultraviolet-bright star vZ 1128 in M3 based on observations with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), and the Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES). By fitting the H I, He I, and He II lines in the Keck spectrum with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium H-He models, we obtain Teff = 36 600 K, log g = 3.95, and log N(He)/N(H) = -0.84. The star's FUSE and STIS spectra show photospheric absorption from C, N, O, Al, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. No stellar features from elements beyond the iron peak are observed. Both components of the N V ?1240 doublet exhibit P Cygni profiles, indicating a weak stellar wind, but no other wind features are seen. The star's photospheric abundances appear to have changed little since it left the red giant branch (RGB). Its C, N, O, Al, Si, Fe, and Ni abundances are consistent with published values for the red giant stars in M3, and the relative abundances of C, N, and O follow the trends seen on the cluster RGB. In particular, its low C abundance suggests that the star left the asymptotic giant branch before the onset of third dredge-up.

  3. Pulsating or not? A search for hidden pulsations below the red edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotak, R.; van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Clemens, J. C.; Bida, T. A.

    2002-09-01

    The location of the red edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip is defined observationally as being the lowest temperature for which a white dwarf with a H-rich atmosphere (DA) is known to exhibit periodic brightness variations. Whether this cut-off in flux variations is actually due to a cessation of pulsation or merely due to the attenuation of any variations by the convection zone, rendering them invisible, is not clear. The latter is a theoretical possibility because with decreasing effective temperature, the emergent flux variations become an ever smaller fraction of the amplitude of the flux variations in the interior. In contrast to the flux variations, the visibility of the velocity variations associated with the pulsations is not thought to be similarly affected. Thus, models imply that were it still pulsating, a white dwarf just below the observed red edge should show velocity variations. In order to test this possibility, we used time-resolved spectra of three DA white dwarfs that do not show photometric variability, but which have derived temperatures only slightly lower than the coolest ZZ Ceti variables. We find that none of our three targets show significant periodic velocity variations, and set 95% confidence limits on amplitudes of 3.0, 5.2, and 8.8 km s-1. Thus, for two out of our three objects, we can rule out velocity variations as large as 5.4 km s-1 observed for the strongest mode in the cool white dwarf pulsator ZZ Psc. In order to verify our procedures, we also examined similar data of a known ZZ Ceti, HL Tau 76. Applying external information from the light curve, we detect significant velocity variations for this object with amplitudes of up to 4 km s-1. Our results suggest that substantial numbers of pulsators having large velocity amplitudes do not exist below the observed photometric red edge and that the latter probably reflects a real termination of pulsations. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  4. UV SPECTRAL SYNTHESIS OF VEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.

    2010-12-20

    We show that the UV spectrum (1280-3200 A) of the 'superficially normal' A-star Vega, as observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite at a resolution comparable to the star's rotational broadening width, can be fit remarkably well by a single-temperature synthetic spectrum based on LTE atmosphere models and a newly constructed UV line list. If Vega were a normal, equator-on, slow-rotating star, then its spectrum and our analysis would indicate a temperature of T{sub eff} {approx_equal}9550 K, surface gravity of log g {approx_equal}3.7, general surface metallicity of [m/H] {approx_equal}-0.5, and a microturbulence velocity of v{sub turb} {approx_equal}2.0 km s{sup -1}. Given its rapid rotation and nearly pole-on orientation, however, these parameters must be regarded as representing averages across the observed hemisphere. Modeling the complex UV line spectrum has allowed us to determine the specific surface abundances for 17 different chemical elements, including CNO, the light metals, and the iron group elements. The resultant abundance pattern agrees in general with previous results, although there is considerable scatter in the literature. Despite its peculiarities, Vega has turned out to provide a powerful test of the extent of our abilities to model the atmospheric properties of the early A-stars, particularly the detailed UV line spectrum. The value of the measurements from this pilot study will increase as this analysis is extended to more objects in the rich high-dispersion IUE data archive, including both normal and peculiar objects.

  5. The UV Side of BOSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cras, C.; Maraston, C.; Thomas, D.

    2014-09-01

    We exploit stellar population models of absorption line indices in the ultraviolet to assess their power in determining physical properties of the stellar populations of galaxies. We use a system of 8 indices between 2200-3200 A, tracing several chemical elements including Mg and Fe. We apply these models to a large sample of z ˜ 0.6 massive galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey using both individual spectra and stacks. We find qualitative agreement between stellar ages derived from UV absorption indices and those from full broadband Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting. We also find evidence for old stars contributing to the UV, rather than new star formation.

  6. Merging Galaxies as Probes of the Main-Sequence and the Evolution of Star Formation Rates: UV-FIR Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard; Martinez, R.; Hung, C.; Hayward, Christopher; Zezas, A.; Lanz, L.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Rosenthal, L.; Weiner, A.

    2015-08-01

    The study of merging galaxies sheds light not only the processes that drive U/LIRGs, both local and at high-z, but also on the parameters that lead to a galaxy having a “main-sequence” or starburst character, on the role of its AGN, on the diagnostic kinematic signatures, on the development of galactic winds, and on evolutionary trends. We have reduced and analyzed multi-wavelength (GALEX to Herschel) datasets on a large sample of merging galaxies in many stages of interaction, and used a variety of SED modeling routines (MAGPHYS, CHIBURST, CIGALE) to derive the key physical parameters. To compare and contrast these observations, we prepared and analyzed a large set of merger simulations with hydrodynamic codes, and used the SUNRISE radiative transfer to calculate the radiative output at every step and viewing angle of each merging pair; we include variations on the character of the ISM and the strength of the AGN. We will discuss our results, the evolutionary development of star formation and the "main-sequence,” and comment on constraints associated with using photometric measures to infer the physical conditions.

  7. Age derivation from UV absorption indices and the effect of the UV upturn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cras, Claire; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We exploit stellar population models of absorption line indices in the ultraviolet to assess their power in determining the age of the stellar populations in galaxies. We focus in particular on features that can differentiate between an old UV bright population, contributing to the UV upturn, and a young population due to recent star formation. We use a system of 8 indices between 2200 - 3200A Å, tracing several chemical elements including Mg and Fe. We apply these models to a large sample of z ~ 0.6 massive galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) - III / Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) to derive the ages of the UV bright populations. We find a subset of our indices to be non-degenerate between old and young UV ages allowing us to find evidence for old stars contributing to the UV, rather than new star formation. We find up to 47% of our working sample to contain a contribution from old UV bright stars, with those found to have higher contributing mass fractions being on average more massive and redder than those with lower mass fractions.

  8. Birds, berries and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Dietrich

    1982-04-01

    The problem of UV vision in vertebrates is briefly discussed in its historical context. For example, UV vision has been demonstrated in some birds by several authors. Hence the reflectances of plumage, petals of bird-pollinated flowers and of berries in the near UV may play an important rôle within the visual environment of birds. Some data obtained by means of UV photography are presented, and it is shown, that the waxlayer of glaucous fruits is highly reflective in the UV.

  9. Statistical error analysis in CCD time-resolved photometry with applications to variable stars and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Warnock, Archibald, III; Mitchell, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Differential photometric time series obtained from CCD frames are tested for intrinsic variability using a newly developed analysis of variance technique. In general, the objects used for differential photometry will not all be of equal magnitude, so the techniques derived here explicitly correct for differences in the measured variances due to photon statistics. Other random-noise terms are also considered. The technique tests for the presence of intrinsic variability without regard to its random or periodic nature. It is then applied to observations of the variable stars ZZ Ceti and US 943 and the active extragalactic objects OQ 530, US 211, US 844, LB 9743, and OJ 287.

  10. Ultraviolet (UV) Stellar Astronomy - Skylab Experiment S019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows Skylab's Ultraviolet (UV) Stellar Astronomy experiment, a scientific airlock-based facility/experiment that would study UV spectra of early-type stars and galaxies. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  11. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  12. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  13. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  14. Hot evolved stars in massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cras, Claire; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    It is believed that HB stars and their progeny are responsible for the increase in UV flux found in elliptical galaxies, a phenomenon known as the UV upturn. These stars undergo different evolutionary paths depending on their temperature, with the redder stars evolving as bright P-AGB stars, possibly forming planetary nebulae, before eventually descending the white dwarf cooling curve. We exploit a theoretical model of stellar populations incorporating a hot P-AGB component with a fuel calibrated UV upturn and a system of UV absorption line indices to investigate the redshift at the onset of the UV upturn in massive galaxies. We analyse a large sample of massive galaxy spectra taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) -III / Baryon Oscillator Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We find up to 47% of our working sample to contain a contribution from old UV bright stars with the majority of old populations contributing up to 30% of the galaxy's stellar mass.

  15. UV Observations of Collisional Ring Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, Philip

    We propose to image 12 of the largest known collisional ring galaxies with GALEX to directly measure the escaping UV radiation from bright blue outer rings and fainter interior regions. The observations will allow us to 1) compare the direct UV measures of the ring star formation rates (SFR) with SFR derived from our extensive multi-wavelength (optical, IR, radio) data on many of the same systems, 2) explore secondary star formation interior to the brighter outer rings predicted by models to occur in spokes, filaments and inner rings and c) search for UV counterparts to non-stellar (i.e. accretion-driven) sources in the outer rings, by analogy with the recently discovery of a dozen extremely luminous X-rays sources found in the Cartwheel ring, and numerous sources in Arp 284. UV observations should be capable of separating intermediate-mass black-hole candidates from more traditional O/B associations by virtue of their expected high UV luminosities. Although relatively rare locally, ring galaxies are more common at high redshift, and their study may represent one of the few ways of probing the physical condition in the outer regions of high-z disks.

  16. UV Lightbulbs behind Young Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox S.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2009-08-01

    Much of the ejecta in young SNRs is normally invisible because it has not been shocked, and is therefore cold, producing no optical or X- ray emission. For a complete inventory of the SN ejecta, one needs to somehow probe this cold material, and we seek to do so through UV absorption spectroscopy. The COS spectrograph, soon to be installed on HST, will be an ideal instrument for this purpose, provided suitable UV sources, ``lightbulbs," can be identified behind SNRs. Here we propose to identify UV lightbulbs behind the Tycho (SN 1572) and 3C58 (SN 1181) remnants by obtaining accurate spectral types, and therefore distances, for stars bright enough to observe in the UV with HST/COS. Distance is all that we need to find, because the UV brightness of candidate stars (or other objects) has already been measured by the optical monitor on XMM. Through spectroscopy from the 2.1m we will obtain spectra to identify the best candidate lightbulbs from 60 objects (selected from several hundred) that appear within the (projected) area of Tycho and 3C58. If we are successful, this study will not only lead to a better understanding of two important SNRs, but also to an efficient method for probing ejecta in other Galactic SNRs.

  17. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  18. UV LED Space Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Saps; Sun, K.; Leindecker, N.; Higuchi, S.; Byer, R.; Goebel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Electric charges induced by cosmic rays tend to accumulate on the free floating proof mass at the core of a drag-free satellite. The Lorentz force will affect stationarity of the proof mass. Generation of photoelectrons via ultraviolet (UV) light is an effective method of charge management. Previous missions have relied on mercury lamps as a UV light source. We have proposed the use of UV LEDs as a source for UV light generation, because they have significantly lower mass and power requirements. Since 2005, we have conducted systematic UV LED power and spectral lifetime tests. The UV LED has now been operated more than 16,668 hours (as of submission of this abstract) without significant power decay. At the 10,000 hour mark, the UV LED spectral shift was measured to be approximately 1 nm towards shorter wavelengths. To fully simulate the space environment, we have initiated another UV LED lifetime test in 1E-7 torr vacuum chamber starting in January 2008. Thus far the UV LED output has been stable without noticeable degradation. We have conducted a large dose radiation test using an accelerator source for 59.0 64.8 MeV proton generation. For proton flux from 10E10 to 2E12 protons per square centimeter, there was no significant power drop and spectral shift for UV LED light output, This level of radiation test exceeded 100 years of radiation dose at deep space LISA orbits. The combination of the successful tests in power lifetime, spectral stability, and radiation hardness have proven that UV LED should be the primary choice for the charge management system for LISA and other high precision space flights.

  19. The wings of the calcium infrared triplet lines in solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Drake, J. J.

    1987-07-01

    Profiles of the IR triplet lines of ionized Ca (8494, 8542, and 8662 A) have been calculated in the LTE approximation using model atmospheres representative of solar-type stars. The depth of absorption in the line wings is found to be particularly insensitive to surface gravity. Provided that the relative abundance (RA) of Ca is consistent with the metallicity of the model atmosphere, the depth of absorption becomes more sensitive to metallicity with increasing effective temperature. These conclusions have been tested against accurate measurements of IR triplet line profiles in Tau Ceti (G8 V) and Eta Cas A (G0 V). Using spectra recorded at a dispersion of 1 A/mm and with S/N of about 100, the T(eff), log g, Fe/H, and Ca/H were derived. Line profiles in Tau Ceti were found to be extremely narrow, indicating low rotational and turbulent broadening. The difference in RA between Ca and Fe in this star is consistent with other recent analyses of metal-deficient dwarfs in the Galactic disk. If the RAs of the alpha-particle elements are assumed to follow the Ca abundance rather than the Fe abundance, there is good agreement between observed and calculated profiles. In the case of Eta Cas A, where there appears to be no difference in RA between Ca and Fe, a small discrepancy between observed and calculated line wings is found.

  20. New Pulsating DB White Dwarf Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    E-print Network

    A. Nitta; S. J. Kleinman; J. Krzesinski; S. O. Kepler; T. S. Metcalfe; Anjum S. Mukadam; Fergal Mullally; R. E. Nather; Denis J. Sullivan; Susan E. Thompson; D. E. Winget

    2008-09-04

    We are searching for new He atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DBVs) based on the newly found white dwarf stars from the spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. DBVs pulsate at hotter temperature ranges than their better known cousins, the H atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars). Since the evolution of white dwarf stars is characterized by cooling, asteroseismological studies of DBVs give us opportunities to study white dwarf structure at a different evolutionary stage than the DAVs. The hottest DBVs are thought to have neutrino luminosities exceeding their photon luminosities (Winget et al. 2004), a quantity measurable through asteroseismology. Therefore, they can also be used to study neutrino physics in the stellar interior. So far we have discovered nine new DBVs, doubling the number of previously known DBVs. Here we report the new pulsators' lightcurves and power spectra.

  1. Precise radial velocities of giant stars. VI. A possible 2:1 resonant planet pair around the K giant star ? Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Trifon; Reffert, Sabine; Tan, Xianyu; Lee, Man Hoi; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new planetary system around the K giant ? Cet (HIP 5364, HD 6805, HR 334) based on 118 high-precision optical radial velocities taken at Lick Observatory since July 2000. Since October 2011 an additional nine near-infrared Doppler measurements have been taken using the ESO CRIRES spectrograph (VLT, UT1). The visible data set shows two clear periodicities. Although we cannot completely rule out that the shorter period is due to rotational modulation of stellar features, the infrared data show the same variations as in the optical, which strongly supports that the variations are caused by two planets. Assuming the mass of ? Cet to be 1.7 M?, the best edge-on coplanar dynamical fit to the data is consistent with two massive planets (mb sini = 2.6 ± 0.2 MJup, mc sini = 3.3 ± 0.2 MJup), with periods of Pb = 407 ± 3 days and Pc = 740 ± 5 days and eccentricities of eb = 0.12 ± 0.05 and ec = 0.08 ± 0.04. These mass and period ratios suggest possible strong interactions between the planets, and a dynamical test is mandatory. We tested a wide variety of edge-on coplanar and inclined planetary configurations for stability, which agree with the derived radial velocities. We find that for a coplanar configuration there are several isolated stable solutions and two well defined stability regions. In certain orbital configurations with moderate eb eccentricity, the planets can be effectively trapped in an anti-aligned 2:1 mean motion resonance that stabilizes the system. A much larger non-resonant stable region exists in low-eccentricity parameter space, although it appears to be much farther from the best fit than the 2:1 resonant region. In all other cases, the system is categorized as unstable or chaotic. Another conclusion from the coplanar inclined dynamical test is that the planets can be at most a factor of ~1.4 more massive than their suggested minimum masses. Assuming yet higher inclinations, and thus larger planetary masses, leads to instability in all cases. This stability constraint on the inclination excludes the possibility of two brown dwarfs, and strongly favors a planetary system. Based on observations collected at Lick Observatory, University of California.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under program IDs 088.D-0132, 089.D-0186, 090.D-0155 and 091.D-0365.

  2. GALEX Catalog of UV Point Sources in M33

    E-print Network

    Mudd, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The hottest stars ($>$10,000 K), and by extension typically the most massive ones, are those that will be prevalent in the ultraviolet (UV) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and we expect numerous B, O, and Wolf-Rayet stars to be bright in UV data. In this paper, we update the previous UV catalog of M33, created using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), using data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We utilize PSF photometry to better handle the crowded regions in the galaxy, and benefit from GALEX's increased sensitivity compared to UIT. We match our detections with data from the Local Group Galaxies Survey (LGGS) to create a catalog with photometry spanning from the far-UV through the optical for a final list of 24738 sources. All of these sources have far-UV (FUV; 1516A), near-UV (NUV; 2267A), and V data, and a significant fraction also have U, B, R, and I data as well. We compare these sources to a catalog of known Wolf-Rayet stars in M33 and find that we recover 114 of 206 stars with ...

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR ACTIVITY OVER TIME AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. II. {kappa}{sup 1} Ceti, AN ANALOG OF THE SUN WHEN LIFE AROSE ON EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ribas, I.; Garces, A.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Ferreira, L. D.; Hebrard, E.; Selsis, F.; Catalan, S.; Do Nascimento, J. D.; De Medeiros, J. R. E-mail: garces@ice.csic.e E-mail: leticia@astro.ufrj.b E-mail: eric.hebrard@obs.u-bordeaux1.f E-mail: dias@dfte.ufrn.b

    2010-05-01

    The early evolution of Earth's atmosphere and the origin of life took place at a time when physical conditions at the Earth were radically different from its present state. The radiative input from the Sun was much enhanced in the high-energy spectral domain, and in order to model early planetary atmospheres in detail, a knowledge of the solar radiative input is needed. We present an investigation of the atmospheric parameters, state of evolution, and high-energy fluxes of the nearby star {kappa}{sup 1} Cet, previously thought to have properties resembling those of the early Sun. Atmospheric parameters were derived from the excitation/ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II, profile fitting of H{alpha}, and the spectral energy distribution. The UV irradiance was derived from Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope data, and the absolute chromospheric flux from the H{alpha} line core. From careful spectral analysis and the comparison of different methods, we propose for {kappa}{sup 1} Cet the following atmospheric parameters: T{sub eff} = 5665 {+-} 30 K (H{alpha} profile and energy distribution), log g = 4.49 {+-} 0.05 dex (evolutionary and spectroscopic), and [Fe/H] = +0.10 {+-} 0.05 (Fe II lines). The UV radiative properties of {kappa}{sup 1} Cet indicate that its flux is some 35% lower than the current Sun's between 210 and 300 nm, it matches the Sun's at 170 nm, and increases to at least 2-7 times higher than the Sun's between 110 and 140 nm. The use of several indicators ascribes an age to {kappa}{sup 1} Cet in the interval {approx}0.4-0.8 Gyr and the analysis of the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R) suggests a mass {approx}1.04 M{sub sun}. This star is thus a very close analog of the Sun when life arose on Earth and Mars is thought to have lost its surface bodies of liquid water. Photochemical models indicate that the enhanced UV emission leads to a significant increase in photodissociation rates compared with those commonly assumed of the early Earth. Our results show that reliable calculations of the chemical composition of early planetary atmospheres need to account for the stronger solar photodissociating UV irradiation.

  4. Massive stars: Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Delgado, Rosa María

    2007-07-01

    Starbursts are the preferred place where massive stars form; the main source of thermal and mechanical heating in the interstellar medium, and the factory where the heavy elements form. Thus, starbursts play an important role in the origin and evolution of galaxies. Starbursts are bright at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, and after the pioneering IUE program, high spatial and spectral resolution UV observations of local starburst galaxies, mainly taken with HST and FUSE, have made relevant contributions to the following issues: a) The determination of the initial mass function (IMF) in violent star forming systems in low and high metallicity environments, and in dense (e.g. in stellar clusters) and diffuse environments: A Salpeter IMF with high-mass stars constrains well the UV properties. b) Stellar clusters are an important mode of star formation in starbursts. c) The role of starbursts in AGN: Nuclear starbursts can dominate the UV light in Seyfert 2 galaxies, having bolometric luminosities similar to the estimated bolometric luminosities of the obscured AGN. d) The interaction between massive stars and the interstellar medium: Outflows in cold, warm and coronal phases leave their imprints on the UV interstellar lines. Outflows of a few hundred km s%u22121 are ubiquitous phenomena in starbursts. Despite the very significant progress obtained over the past two decades of UV observations of starbursts, there are important problems that still need to be solved. High-spatial resolution UV observations of nearby starbursts are crucial to further progress in understanding the violent star formation processes in galaxies, the interaction between the stellar clusters and the interstellar medium, and the variation of the IMF. High-spatial resolution spectra are also needed to isolate the light from the center to the disk in UV luminous galaxies found by GALEX. Thus, a new UV mission furnished with an intermediate spectral resolution spectrograph with high spatial resolution and high UV sensitivity is required to further progress in the study of starburst galaxies and their impact on the evolution of galaxies.

  5. Child universes UV regularization?

    E-print Network

    E. I. Guendelman

    2007-03-26

    It is argued that high energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space time. This decoupling prevents these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which takes into account gravitational effects. Also child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of tranplanckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis and in particular connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed.

  6. NGC 4656UV: A UV-selected Tidal Dwarf Galaxy Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Hess, Kelley M.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of a UV-bright tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidate in the NGC 4631/4656 galaxy group, which we designate NGC 4656UV. Using survey and archival data spanning from 1.4 GHz to the ultraviolet, we investigate the gas kinematics and stellar properties of this system. The H I morphologies of NGC 4656UV and its parent galaxy NGC 4656 are extremely disturbed, with significant amounts of counterrotating and extraplanar gas. From UV-FIR photometry, computed using a new method to correct for surface gradients on faint objects, we find that NGC 4656UV has no significant dust opacity and a blue spectral energy distribution. We compute a star formation rate of 0.027 M ? yr-1 from the far-ultraviolet flux and measure a total H I mass of 3.8 × 108 M ? for the object. Evolutionary synthesis modeling indicates that NGC 4656UV is a low-metallicity system whose only major burst of star formation occurred within the last ~260-290 Myr. The age of the stellar population is consistent with a rough timescale for a recent tidal interaction between NGC 4656 and NGC 4631, although we discuss the true nature of the object—whether it is tidal or pre-existing in origin—in the context of its metallicity being a factor of 10 lower than its parent galaxy. We estimate that NGC 4656UV is either marginally bound or unbound. If bound, it contains relatively low amounts of dark matter. The abundance of archival data allows for a deeper investigation into this dynamic system than is currently possible for most TDG candidates. Based in part on observations made with the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. GALEX is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  7. UV Completion of Axion

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kang-Sin

    2008-11-23

    A multiple number of global U(1)s, arising from accidental symmetries up to a certain order of the potential, enjoy lowering the axion decay constant from UV-scale and evading supersymmetric Fayet-Illiopoulos term constraints.

  8. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Waxman, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Topaz, J.; Aharonson, O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Phinney, E. S.; Nakar, E.; Maoz, D.; Beichman, C.; Murthy, J.; Worden, S. P.

    2014-04-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our predictions using a fiducial set of observational parameters which are similar to those envisaged for the proposed ULTRASAT mission. We show that such a mission would be able to revolutionize our knowledge about massive star explosions by measuring the early UV emission from hundreds of events, revealing key physical parameters of the exploding progenitor stars. Such a mission would also detect the UV emission from many tens of tidal-disruption events of stars by supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei and enable a measurement of the rate of such events. The overlap of such a wide-field UV mission with existing and planned gravitational-wave and high-energy neutrino telescopes makes it especially timely.

  9. The Hubble Deep UV Legacy Survey (HDUV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Mireia; Oesch, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Deep HST imaging has shown that the overall star formation density and UV light density at z>3 is dominated by faint, blue galaxies. Remarkably, very little is known about the equivalent galaxy population at lower redshifts. Understanding how these galaxies evolve across the epoch of peak cosmic star-formation is key to a complete picture of galaxy evolution. Here, we present a new HST WFC3/UVIS program, the Hubble Deep UV (HDUV) legacy survey. The HDUV is a 132 orbit program to obtain deep imaging in two filters (F275W and F336W) over the two CANDELS Deep fields. We will cover ~100 arcmin2 sampling the rest-frame far-UV at z>~0.5, this will provide a unique legacy dataset with exquisite HST multi-wavelength imaging as well as ancillary HST grism NIR spectroscopy for a detailed study of faint, star-forming galaxies at z~0.5-2. The HDUV will enable a wealth of research by the community, which includes tracing the evolution of the FUV luminosity function over the peak of the star formation rate density from z~3 down to z~0.5, measuring the physical properties of sub-L* galaxies, and characterizing resolved stellar populations to decipher the build-up of the Hubble sequence from sub-galactic clumps. This poster provides an overview of the HDUV survey and presents the reduced data products and catalogs which will be released to the community, reaching down to 27.5-28.0 mag at 5 sigma. By directly sampling the rest-frame far-UV at z>~0.5, this will provide a unique legacy dataset with exquisite HST multi-wavelength imaging as well as ancillary HST grism NIR spectroscopy for a detailed study of faint, star-forming galaxies at z~0.5-2. The HDUV will enable a wealth of research by the community, which includes tracing the evolution of the FUV luminosity function over the peak of the star formation rate density from z~3 down to z~0.5, measuring the physical properties of sub-L* galaxies, and characterizing resolved stellar populations to decipher the build-up of the Hubble sequence from sub-galactic clumps. This poster provides an overview of the HDUV survey and presents reduced data products and catalogs which will be released to the community.

  10. The origin of the UV radiation in elliptical galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silchenko, O.

    2008-12-01

    Elliptical galaxies known to be dominated by old stellar population have unexpectedly rising radiation flux below 2000 A. Various expla- nations of this phenomenon had been proposed: old metal-poor or old metal-rich low-mass stars in late evolutionary stages, or small fraction of young, rather mas- sive stars. Observational data acquired by various UV experiments for elliptical galaxies are surveyed in this contribution, and their significance for unveiling the nature of UV radiation excess in spectra of elliptical galaxies is estimated.

  11. Winds of Binary AGB Stars as Observed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Me?ina, M.; Paladini, C.; Cox, N. L. J.; Nowotny, W.; Aringer, B.; Pourbaix, D.; Mohamed, S.; Siopis, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of the large-scale environments of binary AGB stars as part of the Mass-loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) sample. From the literature we found 18 of the objects to be members of physically bound multiple systems. Several show a large-scale far-IR emission which differs significantly from spherical symmetry. A probable cause is the gravitational force of the companion on the stellar AGB wind and the mass-losing star itself. A spiral pattern is thereby imprinted in the dusty stellar wind. The most remarkable structures are found around o Ceti, W Aquilæ, R Aquarii, and ?1 Gruis. The environments of o Cet and W Aql show a spiral pattern while the symbiotic nature of R Aqr is revealed as two opposing arms which reflect a nova outburst. The emission around ?1 Gru is dominated by two structures, a disk and an arc, which are presumably not caused by the same companion. We found evidence that ?1 Gru is a hierarchical triple system in which a close companion attracts the AGB wind onto the orbital plane and the outer companion forms a spiral arm. These far-IR observations underline the role of a companion as a major external influence in creating asymmetric winds in the AGB phase, even before the star becomes a planetary nebula (PN).

  12. Observing the First Stars in Luminous, Red Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2010-01-01

    Modern cosmological simulations predict that the first stars are to be found today in luminous, red galaxies. Although observing such stars individually against a background of younger, metal-rich stars is impossible, the first stars should make their presence known by their strong, line-free ultraviolet flux. We have found evidence for a UV-bright stellar population in Sloan spectra of LRG's at z=0.4-0.5. We present arguments for interpreting this UV-bright stellar population as the oldest stars, rather than other types of stellar populations (e.g. young stars or blue straggler stars in the dominant, metal-rich stellar population

  13. A Marvelous Star in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polomski, Elisha; Gehrz, R. D.; McQuinn, K.; Paffel, F.; Woodward, C. E.

    2012-05-01

    The end stages of stellar evolution release heavy element enriched dust into the interstellar medium where it is eventually incorporated into star formation regions and later generations of stars. As low mass stars go through this process they bloat in size, pulsate, and expel dust and gas before ultimately transforming into planetary nebulae (PNe). A classic example of this stage of evolution is the well studied class of pulsating stars, the Mira variables. Prior to expelling a PNe, these objects go through a short (tens of thousands of years) stage of evolution where they undergo episodic mass loss and become enshrouded in dust. We report the discovery of an unusual Mira star within the M33 galaxy; IRAC 0134+3029. The source is heavily obscured in the visible, indicating large amounts of enshrouding dust. In addition, Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy and imaging show strong thermal emission as well as absorption features from silicates. Examination of the properties of IRAC 0134 suggests that it is the extragalactic analog of the well known "extreme" Mira OH26.5+0.6. We compare spectra and photometry of IRAC 0134 to observations of OH26.5+.6 as well as to the prototype of the Mira class, Omicron Ceti. We also discuss some contradictory archival observations of these objects and suggest possible explanations. This work is based upon observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. The authors were supported in part through contracts 1256406 and 1215746 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.

  14. Are You UV Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda; Thiel, Elizabeth Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? The authors of this article found the perfect opportunity to help students find out the science behind this important health precaution, when they developed a series of practical strategies…

  15. New UV Detector Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochedez, J.-F.; Schuhle, U.; Lemaire, P.

    BOLD (Blind to the Optical Light Detectors) is an international initiative dedicated to the development of novel imaging detectors for UV solar observations. It relies on the properties of wide-bandgap semiconductor materials (in particular diamond and Al-Ganitrides). This investigation is proposed in view of the Solar Orbiter UV instruments, for which the expected benefits of the new sensors, visible blindness and radiation hardness, will be highly valuable. Despite various advances in the technology of imaging detectors over the last few decades, the present UV imagers based on silicon CCDs or microchannel plates exhibit limitations which are inherent to their actual material and technology. Yet the utmost spatial resolution, fast temporal cadence, sensitivity, and photometric accuracy will all be decisive for forthcoming solar space missions. The advent of imagers made of large wide-bandgap semiconductors would surmount many present weaknesses. This would open up new scientific prospects and, by simplifying their design, would even make the instruments cheaper. As for the Solar Orbiter, the aspiration for wide-bandgap semiconductor-based UV detectors is still more desirable because the spacecraft will approach the Sun where heat and radiation fluxes are high. We describe the motivations leading to such new developments, and present a programme to achieve revolutionary flight cameras within the Solar Orbiter schedule.

  16. The relation between far-UV and visible extinctions

    E-print Network

    Frederic Zagury

    2002-02-05

    For directions of sufficcient reddening (E(B-V) >~ 0.25), there is a simple relation between the slope of the extinction curve in the far-UV and E(B-V). Regardless of direction, the far-UV extinction curve is proportional to 1/lambda^n exp(-2e(B-V)/lambda) (lambda in micron, n = 4), in accordance with the idea that reddened stars spectra are contaminated by scattered light (Zagury, 2001b). This relation is not compatible with the standard theory of extinction which states that far-UV and visible extinctions are due to different classes of grains. In the standard theory model the two (far-UV and visible) extinctions vary thus independently according to the proportion of each type of grains. In preceding papers I have shown that the standard theory cannot explain UV observations of nebulae, and is contradicted by the UV spectra of stars with very low reddening: for how long shall the standard theory be considered as the interpretation of the extinction curve?

  17. UV Lightbulbs to Probe Supernova Remnants in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Long, Knox S.; Smith, R. Chris

    1999-08-01

    We propose to use broad-band imaging from the CTIO 0.9-m and spectroscopy from the 1.5-m to identify stars which can serve as UV ``lightbulbs'' to probe the ``unshocked'' material in supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These observations will provide the basis for future UV observations of these stars with HST. UV absorption studies are important because they represent one of the very few ways to see undecelerated ejecta in the inner regions of young SNRs, as has been shown in the case of SN 1006. More generally, absorption studies provide information about the dynamics and ionization state of a significant constituent of the SNR, namely that portion which is not currently ``shocked''.

  18. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Health Effects of UV Radiation Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure ... natural protection from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This Web page provides an overview of the ...

  19. Characterising exoplanets and their environment with UV transmission spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fossati, L; Ehrenreich, D; Haswell, C A; Kislyakova, K G; Lammer, H; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Alibert, Y; Ayres, T R; Ballester, G E; Barnes, J; Bisikalo, D V; Collier, A; Cameron,; Czesla, S; Desert, J -M; France, K; Guedel, M; Guenther, E; Helling, Ch; Heng, K; Homstrom, M; Kaltenegger, L; Koskinen, T; Lanza, A F; Linsky, J L; Mordasini, C; Pagano, I; Pollacco, D; Rauer, H; Reiners, A; Salz, M; Schneider, P C; Shematovich, V I; Staab, D; Vidotto, A A; Wheatley, P J; Wood, B E; Yelle, R V

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet science is now in its full expansion, particularly after the CoRoT and Kepler space missions that led us to the discovery of thousands of extra-solar planets. The last decade has taught us that UV observations play a major role in advancing our understanding of planets and of their host stars, but the necessary UV observations can be carried out only by HST, and this is going to be the case for many years to come. It is therefore crucial to build a treasury data archive of UV exoplanet observations formed by a dozen "golden systems" for which observations will be available from the UV to the infrared. Only in this way we will be able to fully exploit JWST observations for exoplanet science, one of the key JWST science case.

  20. Chemical and UV Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to create mutations is an important step towards understanding bacterial physiology and virulence. While targeted approaches are invaluable, the ability to produce genome-wide random mutations can lead to crucial discoveries. Transposon mutagenesis is a useful approach, but many interesting mutations can be missed by these insertions that interrupt coding and noncoding sequences due to the integration of an entire transposon. Chemical mutagenesis and UV-based random mutagenesis are alternate approaches to isolate mutations of interest with the potential of only single nucleotide changes. Once a standard method, difficulty in identifying mutation sites had decreased the popularity of this technique. However, thanks to the recent emergence of economical whole-genome sequencing, this approach to making mutations can once again become a viable option. Therefore, this chapter provides an overview protocol for random mutagenesis using UV light or DNA-damaging chemicals. PMID:25646611

  1. UV curable materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  2. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Its legacy of UV surveys, and science highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2014-11-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) imaged the sky in the Ultraviolet (UV) for almost a decade, delivering the first sky surveys at these wavelengths. Its database contains far-UV (FUV, ? eff˜1528 Å) and near-UV (NUV, ? eff˜2310 Å) images of most of the sky, including deep UV-mapping of extended galaxies, over 200 million source measurements, and more than 100,000 low-resolution UV spectra. The GALEX archive will remain a long-lasting resource for statistical studies of hot stellar objects, QSOs, star-forming galaxies, nebulae and the interstellar medium. It provides an unprecedented road-map for planning future UV instrumentation and follow-up observing programs in the UV and at other wavelengths. We review the characteristics of the GALEX data, and describe final catalogs and available tools, that facilitate future exploitation of this database. We also recall highlights from the science results uniquely enabled by GALEX data so far.

  3. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  4. Deep Galex Imaging of the Isolated Extended-Uv Disks of CIG96 and CIG812

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil de Paz, Armando

    We propose to obtain deep GALEX images of the isolated galaxies CIG96 and CIG812. These galaxies are part of the AMIGA project (Analysis of the Interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies) and constitute the first two well-defined isolated galaxies where extended-UV emission has been identified. The images here requested will allow us (1) to confirm the nature of these objects are extended-UV-disk galaxies, (2) to study the star formation threshold and law in combination with already-obtained VLA HI maps, and (3) to investigate the role of internal processes in the triggering of the star formation in extended-UV disks.

  5. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin UV photography shows hidden sun damage UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  6. Co-spatial Long-slit UV/Optical Spectra of Ten Galactic Planetary Nebulae with HST/STIS. II. Nebular Models, Central Star Properties, and He+CNO Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. B. C.; Balick, B.; Dufour, R. J.; Kwitter, K. B.; Shaw, R. A.; Miller, T. R.; Buell, J. F.; Corradi, R. L. M.

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the present study is twofold. First, we employ new HST/STIS spectra and photoionization modeling techniques to determine the progenitor masses of eight planetary nebulae (IC 2165, IC 3568, NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 5315, NGC 5882, NGC 7662, and PB 6). Second, for the first time we are able to compare each object’s observed nebular abundances of helium, carbon, and nitrogen with abundance predictions of these same elements by a stellar model that is consistent with each object’s progenitor mass. Important results include the following: (1) the mass range of our objects’ central stars matches well with the mass distribution of other central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs; (2) He/H is above solar in all of our objects, in most cases likely due to the predicted effects of first dredge-up; (3) most of our objects show negligible C enrichment, probably because their low masses preclude third dredge-up; (4) C/O versus O/H for our objects appears to be inversely correlated, which is perhaps consistent with the conclusion of theorists that the extent of atmospheric carbon enrichment from first dredge-up is sensitive to a parameter whose value increases as metallicity declines; (5) stellar model predictions of nebular C and N enrichment are consistent with observed abundances for progenitor star masses ?1.5 M?. Finally, we present the first published photoionization models of NGC 5315 and NGC 5882. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. Observations of Circumstellar Material Around Evolved Stars With the ISI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P. G.; Weiner, J.; Townes, C. H.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The U.C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) is a stellar interferometer operating in the 9-12 micron region and has been in operation from 1988 until the present. It utilizes heterodyne detection using CO2 laser local oscillators and currently includes two 1.65 m movable telescopes mounted in semi-trailers and baselines up to about 65 m in length. A third telescope is being integrated with the other two and within the next year will operate as an imaging interferometer providing data with three simultaneous baselines and a closure phase, and baselines up to about 75 m. During the past twelve years the ISI has been used extensively for studies of circumstellar material around evolved stars. Multi-epoch observations of a sample of prototypical sources have elucidated the location and time scales for dust formation around these stars. These time scales can be as short as approx.10 years for Mira stars and as long as approx. 100 years for supergiants. For stars like Mira itself there is evidence for departure from spherical symmetry and episodes of dust formation and destruction. For some stars motion of dust has been observed -- IK Tau is one example, and NML Cyg is another. The molecules Silane and Ammonia were observed for the extreme carbon star IRC +10216 and the supergiant VY CMa pinpointing their location relative to the inner radius of the dust shell. Somewhat surprisingly, these molecules were found to form many stellar radii away from the inner radius of the dust shell, implying that they form by interactions with the surfaces of dust grains. Last year observations with the longest baselines lead to new precision diameters of $o$ Ceti and $\\alpha$ Orionis, and are continuing on a somewhat larger set of Mira variable and supergiant stars.

  8. Discrete Scale Relativity And SX Phoenicis Variable Stars

    E-print Network

    R. L. Oldershaw

    2009-06-18

    Discrete Scale Relativity proposes a new symmetry principle called discrete cosmological self-similarity which relates each class of systems and phenomena on a given Scale of nature's discrete cosmological hierarchy to the equivalent class of analogue systems and phenomena on any other Scale. The new symmetry principle can be understood in terms of discrete scale invariance involving the spatial, temporal and dynamic parameters of all systems and phenomena. This new paradigm predicts a rigorous discrete self-similarity between Stellar Scale variable stars and Atomic Scale excited atoms undergoing energy-level transitions and sub-threshold oscillations. Previously, methods for demonstrating and testing the proposed symmetry principle have been applied to RR Lyrae, Delta Scuti and ZZ Ceti variable stars. In the present paper we apply the same analytical methods and diagnostic tests to a new class of variable stars: SX Phoenicis variables. Double-mode pulsators are shown to provide an especially useful means of testing the uniqueness and rigor of the conceptual principles and discrete self-similar scaling of Discrete Scale Relativity.

  9. Co-spatial Long-slit UV/Optical Spectra of Ten Galactic Planetary Nebulae with HST/STIS II. Nebular Models, Central Star Properties and He+CNO Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Henry, R B C; Dufour, R J; Kwitter, K B; Shaw, R A; Miller, T R; Buell, J F; Corradi, R L M

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study is twofold. First, we employ new HST/STIS spectra and photoionization modeling techniques to determine the progenitor masses of eight planetary nebulae (IC 2165, IC 3568, NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 5315, NGC 5882, NGC 7662 and PB6). Second, for the first time we are able to compare each object's observed nebular abundances of helium, carbon and nitrogen with abundance predictions of these same elements by a stellar model that is consistent with each object's progenitor mass. Important results include the following: 1) the mass range of our objects' central stars matches well with the mass distribution of other PN central stars and white dwarfs; 2) He/H is above solar in all of our objects, in most cases likely due to the predicted effects of first dredge up; 3) most of our objects show negligible C enrichment, probably because their low masses preclude 3rd dredge-up; 4) C/O versus O/H for our objects appears to be inversely correlated, perhaps consistent with the conclusion of theor...

  10. UV Observations of the Galaxy Cluster Abell 1795 with the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittaz, J. P. D.; Kaastra, J. S.; Tamura, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotzky, F.; Peterson, J. R.; Ikebe, Y.; Lumb, D. H.; Paerels, F.; Stewart, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of broad band UV observations of the central regions of Abell 1795 observed with the optical monitor on XMM-Newton. As have been found with other UV observations of the central regions of clusters of galaxies, we find evidence for star formation. However, we also find evidence for absorption in the cD galaxy on a more extended scale than has been seen with optical imaging. We also report the first UV observation of part of the filamentary structure seen in H-alpha, X-rays and very deep U band imaging. The part of the filament we see is very blue with UV colours consistent with a very early (O/B) stellar population. This is the first direct evidence of a dominant population of early type stars at the centre of Abell 1795 and implies very recent star formation. The relationship of this emission to emission at other wavebands is discussed.

  11. Uvs Nuur, Mongolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia and the Russian Federation is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, very important for migrating birds. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the site is made up of twelve protected areas representing major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep, and the Asiatic ibex.

    The image covers an area of 46 x 47.8 km, was acquired on September 4, 2001, and is located near 50.3 degrees north latitude, 90.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Statistical Properties of Galactic ? Scuti Stars: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.

    2013-05-01

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 ? Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodríguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of ? Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodríguez's work. All the ? Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing ? Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  13. Phantom without UV pathology

    E-print Network

    V. A. Rubakov

    2006-05-17

    We present a simple model in which the weak energy condition is violated for spatially homogeneous, slowly evolving fields. The excitations about Lorentz-violating background in Minkowski space do not contain ghosts, tachyons or superluminal modes at spatial momenta ranging from some low scale epsilon to the UV cutoff scale, while tachyons and possibly ghosts do exist at p^2 < epsilon^2. We show that in the absence of other matter, slow roll cosmological regime is possible; in this regime p+rho<0, and yet homogeneity and isotropy are not completely spoiled (at the expence of fine-tuning), since for given conformal momentum, the tachyon mode grows for short enough period of time.

  14. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    E-print Network

    L. G. Althaus; A. H. Corsico; A. Gautschy; Z. Han; A. M. Serenelli; J. A. Panei

    2003-09-09

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33 Msun white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. The evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation are also fully accounted for by computing the conservative binary evolution of an initially 2.5-Msun Pop. I star with a 1.25 Msun companion, and period P_i= 3 days. Evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. We find that chemical diffusion induces the occurrence of an additional hydrogen thermonuclear flash which leads to stellar models with thin hydrogen envelopes. As a result, a fast cooling is encountered at advanced stages of evolution. In addition, we explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarf models. As compared with their helium-core counterparts, low-mass oxygen-core white dwarfs are characterized by a pulsational spectrum much more featured, an aspect which could eventually be used for distinguishing both types of stars if low-mass white dwarfs were in fact found to pulsate as ZZ Ceti-type variables. Finally, we perform a non-adiabatic pulsational analysis on the resulting carbon/oxygen low-mass white dwarf models.

  15. Micro UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-09-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  16. Micro-UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-12-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  17. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the article by Jiang et al on using BN for UV devices; potentially as a p-type wide band gap semiconductor contact. Finally, an in-depth discussion of one DUV application in defense, the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication, is given by Drost and Sadler. Overall, we believe that this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides a useful overview of the state-of-art in the field on DUV materials and devices. In view of the rapidly growing interest in this field, the demonstrated enhanced device performance, and the wide range of applications, this special issue can be considered a very timely contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Alice Malhador, for their support and also like to thank all contributors for their efforts to make this special issue possible.

  18. Impact of UV-A radiation on erythemal UV and UV-index estimation over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Lee, Yun Gon; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Because total UV (TUV) in the UV-A region is 100 times higher than in the UV-B region, UV-A is a considerable component when calculating erythemal UV (EUV) and UV-index. The ratio of EUV to TUV in the UV-A value [EUV(A)/TUV(A)] is investigated to convert the EUV(A) from TUV(A) for broadband observation. The representative value of EUV(A)/TUV(A), from the simulation study, is 6.9×10-4, changing from 6.1×10-4 to 7.0×10-4 as aerosol optical depth, total ozone and solar zenith angle change. By adopting the observational data of EUV(B) and TUV(A) from UV-biometer measurements at Yonsei University [(37.57°N, 126.95°E), 84 m above sea level], the EUV irradiance increases to 15% of EUV(B) due to the consideration of EUV(A) from the data of TUV(A) observation. Compared to the total EUV observed from the Brewer spectrophotometer at the same site, the EUV(B) from the UV-biometer observes only 95% of total EUV, and its underestimation is caused by neglecting the effect of UV-A. However, the sum of EUV(B) and EUV(A) [EUV(A+B)] from two UV-biometers is 10% larger than the EUV from the Brewer spectrophotometer because of the spectral overlap effect in the range 320-340 nm. The correction factor for the overlap effect adjusts 8% of total EUV.

  19. An Atlas of GALEX UV Images of Interacting Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Giroux, Mark L; Struck, Curtis; Hancock, Mark; Hurlock, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    We present GALEX ultraviolet images from a survey of strongly interacting galaxy pairs, and compare with images at other wavelengths. The tidal features are particularly striking in the UV images. Numerous knots of star formation are visible throughout the disks and the tails and bridges. We also identify a possible `Taffy' galaxy in our sample, which may have been produced by a head-on collision between two disk galaxies.

  20. An Atlas of GALEX UV Images of Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, M. L.; Smith, B. J.; Struck, C.; Hancock, M.; Hurlock, S.

    2010-06-01

    We present GALEX ultraviolet images from a survey of strongly interacting galaxy pairs, and compare with images at other wavelengths. The tidal features are particularly striking in the UV images. Numerous knots of star formation are visible throughout the disks and the tails and bridges. We also identify a possible `Taffy' galaxy in our sample, which may have been produced by a head-on collision between two disk galaxies.

  1. UV-spektra från Hubble-teleskopet avslöjar en stjärna i Vargen som lagrar tunga isotoper av mycket tunga grundämnen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, S. E.; Leckrone, D. S.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    1994-09-01

    UV spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope reveal a star that stores heavy isotopes of very heavy elements. Atomic and plasma physics arguments for UV spectroscopy from space borne observatories are given. As an example, the authors discuss the analysis of high resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar star ? Lupi, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, in terms of identification of spectral lines of very heavy elements.

  2. [Ozone decline and UV increase].

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Trepte, S

    2004-02-01

    The following results have been obtained from long-term observations on the ozone layer and UV at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeigenberg:The seasonally varying decline of the ozone layer determines the maximum exposure to UV. Since ozone decline shows the highest rates in the spring months the UV exposure has most strongly increased in this time of the year. This is especially important because in spring the human skin is not adapted to UV exposure. Weather changes from day to day can induce rapid ozone reductions in spring about -30% which in turn is followed by an increase in UV of about 40%. Clouds, especially the transparent cirrus clouds (high clouds consisting of ice particles) have increased in frequency during spring and fall while a decrease is observed in summer. This change in cloudiness reduces the daily UV dose in spring and fall while it is enhanced in summer. With increasing height above sea level UV rises by roughly 10% per 1000 m (rule of thumb). Snow reflects the UV-radiation by up to 80% enhancing the UV-doses at relevant conditions. Strong volcano eruptions destroy ozone in the stratosphere additionally during 1-2 years after the eruption. Therafter the ozone layer recovers. In April 1993, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991), the UV burden was still 40% higher than average. Miniholes and streamers can appear unexpected on a short-time scale and cross over Central Europe within 1-2 days, thus enhancing UV irradiation. The human skin reacts to UV exposure depending on the type of skin. The campaign "Sonne(n) mit Verstand" of the Bavarian Ministries for Environment, for Health and for Education informs about the danger of UV radiation (see www.sonne-mit-ver-stand.de). The German Weather Service informs the public on present developments of the ozone layer and relevant topics byits ozone bulletin, which is also available via internet under (www.dwd.de/deFundE/Observator/MOHp/hp2/ozon/bulletin.htm). PMID:14770335

  3. The FIREBall fiber-fed UV spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Schiminovich, David; Milliard, Bruno; Grange, Robert; Martin, D. Christopher; Rahman, Shahinur; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; McLean, Ryan; Tajiri, Gordon; Matuszewski, M.

    2008-07-01

    FIREBall (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon) had a successful first engineering flight in July of 2007 from Palestine, Texas. Here we detail the design and construction of the spectrograph. FIREBall consists of a 1m telescope coupled to a fiber-fed ultraviolet spectrograph flown on a short duration balloon. The spectrograph is designed to map hydrogen and metal line emission from the intergalactic medium at several redshifts below z=1, exploiting a small window in atmospheric oxygen absorption at balloon altitudes. The instrument is a wide-field IFU fed by almost 400 fibers. The Offner mount spectrograph is designed to be sensitive in the 195-215nm window accessible at our altitudes of 35-40km. We are able to observe Ly?, as well as OVI and CIV doublets, from 0.3 < z < 0.9. Observations of UV bright B stars and background measurements allow characterization of throughput for the entire system and will inform future flights.

  4. Largescale Self-Regulation in Star-Forming Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammerer, M.; Shchekinov, Y.

    1994-03-01

    A model with stimulation and inhibition of star formation (SF) by interstellar UV-radiation (A> 912 A) and X-rays is considered. Both UV and X-rays have large free path in the intercloud medium (lUV = (?n0)-1 ? 300 pc) and are able to synchronize star formation on large scales. The main suggestion is that UV radiation generated by newly born massive stars induces a contraction of optically thick interstellar clouds and it results in formation of stars of the next generation. This positive feedback ensures the growth of star formation rate on spatial scales of the order of lUV in a time scale close to the time of pre-mainsequence evolution of massive stars (? 3 Myr) so that star formation process propagates through the system with a velocity of ˜100 km s-1. Such a process will be observed as a global quasy-synchronous starburst. On the other hand X-ray photons, for which interstellar clouds are optically thin, can depress star formation by heating the cloud gas. Thus, there is a negative feedback with long-range action - X-ray emission produced by massive stars of previous generation exploding as SNe. The competition between positive and negative feedbacks produces the onset of an oscillatory global SF regime.

  5. Lyman-Werner UV escape fractions from primordial haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2015-12-01

    Population III (Pop III) stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby haloes, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own haloes, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H2 in other haloes, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic haloes by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9-120 M? Pop III stars in 105-107 M? haloes with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H2 in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0 to 85 per cent. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18-13.6 eV energy range, which can be redshifted into the LW lines at cosmological distances, are generally much higher, being above 60 per cent for all but the least massive stars in the most massive haloes. We find that shielding of H2 by neutral hydrogen, which has been neglected in most studies to date, produces escape fractions that are up to a factor of 3 smaller than those predicted by H2 self-shielding alone.

  6. MEASURING GALAXY STAR FORMATION RATES FROM INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY: INSIGHTS FROM COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF RESOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Benjamin D.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Johnson, L. C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dale, Daniel A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Lee, Janice C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Boquien, Mederic

    2013-07-20

    We use empirical star formation histories (SFHs), measured from Hubble-Space-Telescope-based resolved star color-magnitude diagrams, as input into population synthesis codes to model the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies (6.5 < log M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} < 8.5, with metallicities {approx}10% solar). In the presence of realistic SFHs, we compare the modeled and observed SEDs from the ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared and assess the reliability of widely used UV-based star formation rate (SFR) indicators. In the FUV through i bands, we find that the observed and modeled SEDs are in excellent agreement. In the Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, we find that modeled SEDs systematically overpredict observed luminosities by up to {approx}0.2 dex, depending on treatment of the TP-AGB stars in the synthesis models. We assess the reliability of UV luminosity as a SFR indicator, in light of independently constrained SFHs. We find that fluctuations in the SFHs alone can cause factor of {approx}2 variations in the UV luminosities relative to the assumption of a constant SFH over the past 100 Myr. These variations are not strongly correlated with UV-optical colors, implying that correcting UV-based SFRs for the effects of realistic SFHs is difficult using only the broadband SED. Additionally, for this diverse sample of galaxies, we find that stars older than 100 Myr can contribute from <5%-100% of the present day UV luminosity, highlighting the challenges in defining a characteristic star formation timescale associated with UV emission. We do find a relationship between UV emission timescale and broadband UV-optical color, though it is different than predictions based on exponentially declining SFH models. Our findings have significant implications for the comparison of UV-based SFRs across low-metallicity populations with diverse SFHs.

  7. A predicted new population of UV-faint galaxies at z ? 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Loeb, Abraham; Oesch, Pascal A.

    2014-04-01

    We show that a bursty model of star formation explains several puzzling observations of high-redshift galaxies. We begin by showing that because the observed star formation rate integrated over a Hubble time exceeds the observed stellar mass by an order of magnitude, the specific star formation rate requires a duty-cycle of ˜10 per cent. We use the specific star formation rate to calibrate a merger-driven model of star formation regulated by supernova feedback, and reproduce the star formation rate density and stellar mass functions of galaxies at 4 ? z ? 7. The specific star formation rate is predicted not to evolve rapidly with either mass or redshift at z ? 4, consistent with observation. This is in contrast to expectations from hydrodynamical simulations where star formation closely follows accretion rate, and increases strongly towards high redshift. Bursty star formation explains the observation that there is not enough stellar mass at z ˜ 2-4 to account for all star formation observed. A duty-cycle of ˜10 per cent implies that there could be 10 times the number of known high-redshift galaxies at fixed stellar mass that have not yet been detected through UV selection. We therefore predict the possible existence of an undetected population of UV-faint galaxies that accounts for most of the stellar mass density at z ˜ 4-8.

  8. UV Lightbulbs to Probe Supernova Remnants in the LMC and the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Long, Knox S.; Smith, R. Chris

    2000-08-01

    We propose to use spectroscopy from the 1.5-m to identify background stars or QSOs which can serve as UV ``lightbulbs'' to probe the unshocked material in Galactic and LMC supernova remnants. Through previous imaging from the 0.9m, we have identified numerous candidate blue objects; we now need spectra to distinguish between likely background objects (O-B stars, QSOs, ...) and foreground ``contaminants'' such as white dwarfs. These observations will provide the basis for future UV spectra of these objects from HST. UV absorption studies can give us ``core samples'' through SNRs, as has been done for SN 1006 using the Schweizer-Middleditch star. For young SNRs this is one of very few ways to probe undecelerated ejecta. More generally, absorption studies provide information about the dynamics and ionization state of a significant constituent of the SNR: that portion which is not currently shocked.

  9. Hot Stars in Globular Cluster - A Spectroscopist's View

    E-print Network

    S. Moehler

    2001-05-09

    Globular clusters are ideal laboratories to study the evolution of low-mass stars. In this work we concentrate on three types of hot stars observed in globular clusters: horizontal branch stars, UV bright stars, and white dwarfs. After providing some historical background and information on gaps and blue tails we discuss extensively hot horizontal branch stars in metal-poor globular clusters, esp. their abundance anomalies and the consequences for the determination of their atmospheric parameters and evolutionary status. Hot horizontal branch stars in metal-rich globular clusters are found to form a small, but rather inhomogeneous group that cannot be explained by one evolutionary scenario. Hot UV bright stars show a lack of classic post-AGB stars that may explain the lack of planetary nebulae in globular clusters. Finally we discuss first results of spectroscopic observations of white dwarfs in globular clusters.

  10. The Moon in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    While the Moon has been observed in the UV for decades, the real utility of this spectral region for unlocking some of the Moon’s secrets has only recently been understood. Previously the domain of atmospheric studies, the UV has now emerged as an important spectral region for studying surfaces. The ultraviolet regime is very sensitive to both space weathering effects and composition, including hydration. This presentation will cover a review of early UV lunar observations (e.g., Apollo 17, International Ultraviolet Explorer), as well as early laboratory studies that first shone a light on the importance of this spectral region. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument, currently in orbit on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, is providing critical mapping capabilities of UV signatures, including signals from the permanently shadowed regions of the poles. I will discuss some of these exciting results, and extend these to implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  11. UV extinction and IR emission in diffuse H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, Per A.

    1994-01-01

    HII regions occupy a unique position in our understanding of the physical relationships between stars, the interstellar medium, and galactic structure. Observations show a complex interaction between a newly formed hot star and its surroundings. In particular, the ultraviolet radiation from the stars modifies the pre-existing dust, which again affects both the amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by the gas, and the infrared spectrum emitted by the heated dust. The aim of this project was to use UV and far-UV observations to gain information on the nebular dust, and to use this dust to model the far-IR emission, for a consistent picture of a few selected diffuse HII regions. Using archival data from the IUE and Voyager data banks and computed model atmospheres, we have deduced extinction curves for early-types stars. The requisite spectral resolution turned out to be a major task. We have successfully modelled these curves in terms of a multi-component, multi-size distribution of dust grains, and interpret the differences in the curves as primarily due to the presence or non-presence of intermediate size grains (0.01 to 0.04 micron). Much smaller (0.005 micron) grains must also be present. Finally, we have made calculations of the temperature fluctuations and the corresponding infra-red emission in such small grains.

  12. A simple model of phase-changing variation between Be stars and shell stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    1990-01-01

    Phase changing variations between Be and shell stars are considered from the viewpoint of the formation of shell absorption lines in the envelopes of these stars. A simple model of transformation from a disk envelope of shell star to a spherical envelope of Be star is considered to show the relative volume and volume emission measures of the envelopes in both phases. The phase change variations observed in Pleione and in other Be and shell stars are discussed based on this simple consideration. Some implications of the model in the linear polarization, IR-excess, UV spectra, and the radiation field of the envelope are discussed.

  13. Exocomets and variable circumstellar gas absorption in the debris disks of nearby A-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Welsh, Barry; Bukoski, Benjamin; Strausbaugh, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, more than a dozen new star systems have been discovered that are similar to the famous and well-described Beta Pictoris system. Like Beta Pictoris, these systems include a young A-type star, a circumstellar gas-poor debris disk, and infalling exocomets. The presence of comets has been inferred from night-to-night changes in the absorption-line characteristics of the circumstellar disk CaII K-line at 3933Å towards these stars. As described by the Falling Evaporated Bodies model of Beust et al (1990, 1998), comet-like planetesimals residing in the outer regions of the dust disk are perturbed into eccentric star-grazing orbits by the action of either mutual collisions or by the gravitational influence of an accompanying massive exoplanet. The plume of gas is liberated at the comet's close approach to the star.We present new high resolution absorption spectra of the CaII K line recorded over several nights towards the nearby and young (< 50 Myr) A-type stars HD 80007 and HD 109573. Both stars exhibit circumstellar absorption variability that is similar to that frequently observed in other `exocomet-systems', such as Beta Pictoris and 49 Ceti. We also present a list of the physical characteristics of ~40 A-type stars with associated debris disks that possess circumstellar absorption spectra of the CaII K-line observed by us over several nights. Using all of these data we comment on which stellar parameter(s) seem to be the most important in determining whether or not exocomets will be detected in a given system.

  14. UV integration of extrachromosomal arrays Reagents needed

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    . Wait for the UV light to go off and for the machine to beep (takes ~10 seconds) 9. Pick ~50 L4. After 24 hours, check the original plate. If the UV mutagenesis was successful, there should be manyUV integration of extrachromosomal arrays Reagents needed · UV Cross linker (Stratalinker

  15. Extreme Be stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmany, C. D.; Humphreys, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of a spectroscopic investigation of the O-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds, a population of luminous Be stars was serendipitously encountered. They are here referred to as extreme Be stars, following the terminology used by Schild (1966) for a population of Be stars in the region of h and Chi Persei which lie significantly above the main sequence. As members of the Clouds, their luminosities and intrinsic colors can be determined directly. A comparison of these new high-luminosity Be stars with known H-beta-emission-line supergiants in the Clouds is made in both the optical and UV spectral regions. The Galactic counterparts of these Be stars are also discussed. Although these Be stars are an average of several magnitudes brighter than those in the Galaxy, this may in part be a selection effect.

  16. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  17. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika Kawata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340?nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  18. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  19. Influence of UV activity on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2014-03-01

    A wide range of potentially rocky transiting planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been detected by Kepler as well as ground-based searches. The spectral type of the host star will influence our ability to detect atmospheric features with future space and ground based missions like JWST, GMT and E-ELT. Particularly the active and inactive M stars are a stellar class that covers a wide range of UV luminosity that influence the detectability of habitable conditions. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by Hubble as well as IUE, we Earth-like planets over a wide range of M-stars host stars from M0 to M9 for both active and inactive stars. These planets are the first ones that should become available to observations with JWST and E-ELT. A wide range of such targets will soon be identified in our Solar Neighborhood by the TESS mission that will launch in 2017.

  20. Red Leak Characterization for the WFPC2 UV Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, P. L.; Chiaberge, M.; Biretta, J.; di Nino, D.

    2009-12-01

    We characterize the red leaks for all eight WFPC2 UV filters (F122M, F160BW, F170W, F185W, F218W, F250W, F300W, and F336W). We crossed each UV filter with three broad band optical filters (F450W, F606W, and F814W) in order to isolate different spectral regions in the red leak. We observed 15 Mon, an O7Ve-type star, using five different pointings to position the star at different locations on three WFPC2 chips (PC1, WF2, and WF3) to study possible filter inhomogeneities. We also observed g Gem, a K4III-type star, with WF3 as a follow-up to further study selected filters. Our results for F160BW, F170W, F300W, and F336W show good agreement (within 20%) between the observed off-band count rates and those predicted by SYNPHOT. Filters F185W, F218W, and F255W showed significant discrepancies between the observed and predicted values (20% to 250%); we derived new throughput curves for these filters, and delivered them to CDBS. The F122M filter shows evidence for a long-term throughput decline and will require additional studies beyond the scope of this report.

  1. The Galaxy UV Luminosity Function before the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Charlotte A.; Trenti, Michele; Treu, Tommaso

    2015-11-01

    We present a model for the evolution of the galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function (LF) across cosmic time where star formation is linked to the assembly of dark matter halos under the assumption of a mass-dependent, but redshift-independent, efficiency. We introduce a new self-consistent treatment of the halo star formation history, which allows us to make predictions at z > 10 (lookback time ?500 Myr), when growth is rapid. With a calibration at a single redshift to set the stellar-to-halo mass ratio, and no further degrees of freedom, our model captures the evolution of the UV LF over all available observations (0 ? z ? 10). The significant drop in luminosity density of currently detectable galaxies beyond z ? 8 is explained by a shift of star formation toward less massive, fainter galaxies. Assuming that star formation proceeds down to atomic cooling halos, we derive a reionization optical depth ? ={0.056}-0.010+0.007, fully consistent with the latest Planck measurement, implying that the universe is fully reionized at z={7.84}-0.98+0.65. In addition, our model naturally produces smoothly rising star formation histories for galaxies with L ? L* in agreement with observations and hydrodynamical simulations. Before the epoch of reionization at z > 10 we predict the LF to remain well-described by a Schechter function, but with an increasingly steep faint-end slope (? ? ?3.5 at z ? 16). Finally, we construct forecasts for surveys with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and predict that galaxies out to z ? 14 will be observed. Galaxies at z > 15 will likely be accessible to JWST and WFIRST only through the assistance of strong lensing magnification.

  2. Constraining Galaxy Evolution Using Observed UV-Optical Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of galaxy evolution depends on model spectra of stellar populations, and the models are only as good as the observed spectra and stellar parameters that go into them. We are therefore evaluating modem UV-optical model spectra using Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) as the reference standard. The NGSL comprises intermediate-resolution (R is approximately 1000) STIS spectra of 378 stars having a wide range in metallicity and age. Unique features of the NGSL include its broad wavelength coverage (1,800-10,100 A) and high-S/N, absolute spectrophotometry. We will report on a systematic comparison of model and observed UV-blue spectra, describe where on the HR diagram significant differences occur, and comment on current approaches to correct the models for these differences.

  3. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    2011-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars in the halo; 32. Baade-Wesselink analyses of field vs. cluster RR lyrae variables; 33. The rotation of population II A stars; 34. Horizontal branch stars and possibly related objects; 35. A new group of post-AGB objects - the hot carbon-poor stars; 36. MK classifications of hot stars in the halo 37. Photometry of XX Virginis and V716 Ophiuchi and the period luminosity relations of type II cepheids; 38. Rotation and oxygen line strengths in blue horizontal branch stars; Part V. Miscellaneous: 39. UBV CCd photometry of the halo of M31; 40. Can stars still form in the galactic halo?; 41. The ultraviolet imaging telescope on the Astro -1 and Astro -2 missions; 42. Are analogues of hot subdwarf stars responsible for the UVX phenomenon in galaxy nucleli; 43. A survey for field BHB stars outside the solar circle; 44. Post-AGB A and F supergiants as standard candles; 45. The extended horizontal-branch: a challenge for stellar evolution theory; 46. Astronomical patterns in fractals: the work of A. G. Davis Philip on the Mandelbrot Set; Part VI. Summary: 47. Final remarks; Author index; Subject index.

  4. Limits of detection in debris disks around young stars with NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.

    2014-09-01

    To understand the formation and evolution of solar systems and planets formations in the stars neighbourhood, we need to obtain information of their state at different time of their evolution. Here, we focus on debris disks around young stars aged of ten to few tens of Myr, we analyze NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations in the L' band (3.8 ?m) of eight objects (beta Pictoris, AU Mic, 49 Ceti, eta Tel, Fomalhaut, G Lupi, HD182327 and HR8799). The aim is to get limits of detection about the mass of the debris orbiting around their stars. The SAM technique consists in transforming a single telescope into a Fizeau interferometer using a non redundant mask inserted in a pupil plane of the instrument. The analysis of the observations was completed with the sparse aperture mode pipeline. Interference fringes are fitted to obtain complex visibilities of the object, then the closure phases are calibrated and evaluated. Finally, a map of the detection limits is obtained as it is related to the closure phases previously estimated. In order to obtain an estimation of the mass corresponding to the luminosity measured with the reduction pipeline we are using theoretical isochrones interpolated into synthetic color tables. The results are maps of detection limits in unit of Jupiter Mass in a range of up to 450 mas around the stars.

  5. UV Treatment for Small Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA) at InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico (IAUPR) has organized the 10th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico. This presentation on UV Treatment for Small Systems will be ...

  6. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  7. Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Cool stars edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.

    2013-02-01

    ASTRAL is a project to create high-resolution, high-S/N UV (1150-3200 Å) atlases of bright stars utilizing {HST}/STIS. During Cycle 18 (2010-2011), eight cool star targets were observed, including key objects like Procyon and Betelgeuse, churning through 146 orbits in the process. The new spectral atlases are publically available through the project website. Data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  8. The bolometric and UV attenuation in normal spiral galaxies of the Herschel Reference Survey

    E-print Network

    Viaene, S; Bendo, G; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Cortese, L; De Looze, I; Eales, S; Fritz, J; Karczewski, O ?; Madden, S; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L

    2015-01-01

    The dust in nearby galaxies absorbs a fraction of the UV-optical-near-infrared radiation produced by stars. This energy is consequently re-emitted in the infrared. We investigate the fraction of the stellar radiation absorbed by spiral galaxies from the HRS by modelling their UV-to-submillimetre spectral energy distributions. Our models provide an attenuated and intrinsic SED from which we find that on average 32 % of all starlight is absorbed by dust. We define the UV heating fraction as the fraction of dust luminosity that comes from absorbed UV photons and find that this is 56 %, on average. This percentage varies with morphological type, with later types having significantly higher UV heating fractions. We find a strong correlation between the UV heating fraction and specific star formation rate and provide a power-law fit. Our models allow us to revisit the IRX-AFUV relations, and derive these quantities directly within a self-consistent framework. We calibrate this relation for different bins of NUV-r c...

  9. The Birth of the Universe and the Fate of the Earth: UV Photons Meet Stan

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    The Birth of the Universe and the Fate of the Earth: 1012 UV Photons Meet Stan 1. Introduction, including surprising last flares from stars falling into supermassive black holes. In this era of exoplanet such as the Sun will eventually reach this stage: What will happen to the Earth and other planets when the Sun

  10. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  11. Deep X-ray and UV Surveys of Galaxies with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and GALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Only with the deepest Chandra surveys has X-ray emission from normal and star forming galaxies (as opposed to AGN, which dominate the X-ray sky) been accessible at cosmologically interesting distances. The X-ray emission from accreting binaries provide a critical glimpse into the binary phase of stellar evolution and studies of the hot gas reservoir constrain past star formation. UV studies provide important, sensitive diagnostics of the young star forming populations and provide the most mature means for studying galaxies at 2 < zeta < 4. This talk will review current progress on studying X-ray emission in concert with UV emission from normal/star-forming galaxies at higher redshift. We will also report on our new, deep surveys with GALEX and XMM-Newton in the nearby Coma cluster. These studies are relevant to DEEP06 as Coma is the nearest rich cluster of galaxies and provides an important benchmark for high-redshift studies in the X-ray and UV wavebands. The 30 ks GALEX (note: similar depth to the GALEX Deep Imaging Survey) and the 110 ks XMM observations provide extremely deep coverage of a Coma outskirts field, allowing the construction of the UV and X-ray luminosity function of galaxies and important constraints on star formation scaling relations such as the X-ray-Star Formation Rate correlation and the X-ray/Stellar Mass correlation. We will discuss what we learn from these deep observations of Coma, including the recently established suppression of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the Coma outskirts that is likely associated with lower levels of past star formation and/or the results of tidal gas stripping.

  12. Exoplanet Host Star Radiation and Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Güdel, Manuel

    Radiation from host stars controls the planetary energy budget, photochemistry in planetary atmospheres, and mass loss from the outer layers of these atmospheres. Stellar optical and infrared radiation, the major source of energy for the lower atmosphere and planetary surfaces, increases slowly as stars evolve from the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence. Ultraviolet radiation, including the Lyman-? emission line that dominates the UV spectrum of M dwarf stars, controls photochemical reactions of important molecules, including H2O, CO2, and CH4. Extreme ultraviolet and X-radiation from host stars ionizes and heats the outer layers of planetary atmospheres driving mass loss that is rapid for close-in Jupiter-like planets. The strength of the stellar UV, EUV, and X-radiation depends on stellar activity, which decays with time as stellar rotation decreases. As a result, the evolution of an exoplanet's atmosphere depends on the evolution of its host star. We summarize the available techniques for measuring or estimating the X-ray, EUV, and UV radiation of host stars with different spectral types and ages.

  13. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.; Protopapas, P. E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  14. PULSED UV: REALITIES OF ENHANCED DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative measurements of the light output from low pressure (LP), medium pressure (MP) and the pulsed UV lamps were made using calibrated spectrometry, chemical actinometry and biodosimetry approaches to compare their relative efficiency in producing germicidal UV energy. Fur...

  15. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Tweet Keep an Eye on ... painful damage called snow blindness . The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Summer Sun Eye Safety Winter ...

  16. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  17. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  18. Deep GALEX UV Survey of the Kepler Field I: Point Source Catalog

    E-print Network

    Olmedo, Manuel; Mamajek, Eric E; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; Martin, D Christopher; Neill, James D

    2015-01-01

    We report observations of a deep near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of the Kepler field made in 2012 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Complete All-Sky UV Survey Extension (CAUSE). The GALEX-CAUSE Kepler survey (GCK) covers 104 square degrees of the Kepler field and reaches limiting magnitude NUV=22.6 at 3{\\sigma}. Analysis of the GCK survey has yielded a catalog of 669,928 NUV sources, of which 475,164 are cross-matched with stars in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). Approximately 327 of 451 confirmed exoplanet host stars and 2614 of 4696 candidate exoplanet host stars identified by Kepler have NUV photometry in the GCK survey. The GCK catalog should enable the identification and characterization of UV-excess stars in the Kepler field (young solar-type and low-mass stars, chromospherically active binaries, white dwarfs, horizontal branch stars, etc.), and elucidation of various astrophysics problems related to the stars and planetary systems in the Kepler field.

  19. Deep GALEX UV Survey of the Kepler Field. I. Point Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Manuel; Lloyd, James; Mamajek, Eric E.; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.

    2015-11-01

    We report observations of a deep near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of the Kepler field made in 2012 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Complete All-Sky UV Survey Extension (CAUSE). The GALEX-CAUSE Kepler survey (GCK) covers 104 square degrees of the Kepler field and reaches a limiting magnitude of NUV ? 22.6 at 3?. Analysis of the GCK survey has yielded a catalog of 669,928 NUV sources, of which 475,164 are cross-matched with stars in the Kepler Input Catalog. Approximately 327 of 451 confirmed exoplanet host stars and 2614 of 4696 candidate exoplanet host stars identified by Kepler have NUV photometry in the GCK survey. The GCK catalog should enable the identification and characterization of UV-excess stars in the Kepler field (young solar-type and low-mass stars, chromospherically active binaries, white dwarfs, horizontal branch stars, etc.), and elucidation of various astrophysics problems related to the stars and planetary systems in the Kepler field.

  20. Gallium abundances in mercury-manganese stars

    E-print Network

    M. M. Dworetsky; C. M. Jomaron; C. A. Smith

    1998-05-14

    There is a widespread assertion in the literature that the optical Ga lines give much higher abundances than the UV lines. We have determined Ga abundances in HgMn stars taking the observed hyperfine structure of the optical Ga II lines into account. This reduces these abundances to within 0.2 dex of the values from the resonance lines.

  1. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  2. UV Spectroscopy of Newly Discovered Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    When a star passes within the sphere of disruption of a massive black hole, tidal forces will overcome self-gravity and unbind the star. While approximately half of the stellar debris is ejected at high velocities, the remaining material remains bound to the black hole and accretes, resulting in a luminous, long-lived transient known as a tidal disruption flare (TDF). Aside from serving as a unique laboratory for accretion physics, TDFs offer the hope of measuring black hole masses in galaxies much too distant for resolved kinematic studies. In the simplest analytic models, the black hole mass should scale as dt^2, where dt is the time delay between the disruption and the start of the flare. Two primary factors have so far limited precise black hole mass estimates from current TDF searches: 1) The difficulty of distinguishing a bona fide TDF from the many other transients that can occur in galactic nuclei; 2) Determing the nature of the disrupted star from the observed electromagnetic signal (in particular the presence or absence of H in optical spectra). Here we request non-disruptive ToO spectra of two nearby TDF candidates in the UV with STIS. Our objectives are to search for unique "smoking gun" signatures of the tidal disruption process, and to constrain the geometry and composition of the newly formed accretion disk (and hence the disrupted star). Much like type Ia supernovae, these observations will furthermore serve as a cornerstone for future high-redshift TDF discoveries by LSST, where the rest-frame UV emission is redshifted into the optical bandpass.

  3. A multi-wavelength study of ultra compact dwarf galaxies from the UV to IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sungsoon; Peng, Eric; Liu, Chengze; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs) are regarded as one of the transition objects between star clusters and galaxies. Their possible origins are massive star clusters, stripped galactic nuclei, or primordial compact galaxies. Recent studies reveal that luminous UCDs may originate from tidally-stripped nucleated galaxies, but there is still a possibility of the star cluster origin scenario for less luminous UCDs. We present a multi-wavelength study of about one hundred spectroscopically confirmed UCDs from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS). We obtain UV and IR data for the UCDs from GALEX archive and WISE surveys, respectively. We compare UV-optical and optical-IR colors of the UCDs with those of globular clusters. Ages, metallicities, and masses of UCDs are estimated by comparing their SEDs with theoretical simple stellar population models. This multi-wavelength study provides the largest sample of information for the stellar populations of UCDs. Possible scenarios for UCD formation will be discussed.

  4. Mapping the Dark Matter From UV Light at High Redshift: An Empirical Approach to Understand Galaxy Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Urry, Claudia M.; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.

    2009-08-03

    We present a simple formalism to interpret the observations of two galaxy statistics, the UV luminosity function (LF) and two-point correlation functions for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4, 5 and 6 in the context of {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Both statistics are the result of how star formation takes place in dark matter halos, and thus are used to constrain how UV light depends on halo properties, in particular halo mass. The two physical quantities we explore are the star formation duty cycle, and the range of UV luminosity that a halo of mass M can have (mean and variance). The former directly addresses the typical duration of star formation activity in halos while the latter addresses the averaged star formation history and regularity of gas inflow into these systems. In the context of this formalism, we explore various physical models consistent with all the available observational data, and find the following: (1) the typical duration of star formation observed in the data is {approx}< 0.4 Gyr (1{sigma}), (2) the inferred scaling law between the observed L{sub UV} and halo mass M from the observed faint-end slope of the luminosity functions is roughly linear out to M {approx} 10{sup 11.5} - 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} at all redshifts probed in this work, and (3) the observed L{sub UV} for a fixed halo mass M decreases with time, implying that the star formation efficiency (after dust extinction) is higher at earlier times. We explore several different physical scenarios relating star formation to halo mass, but find that these scenarios are indistinguishable due to the limited range of halo mass probed by our data. In order to discriminate between different scenarios, we discuss the possibility of using the bright-faint galaxy cross-correlation functions and more robust determination of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias for future surveys.

  5. The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds: Determined Directly from High-Resolution X; no corona #12;Radiation-driven O star winds Pup (O4 supergiant): M ~ few 10-6 Msun/yr UV spectrum: C IV with the stellar wind #12;Radiation-driven O star winds kinetic power in the wind = 1/2 Mv 2 (~10-3 Lbol) typically

  6. Ultraviolet and X-ray Activity and Flaring on Low-Mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Brown, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to NUV) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential “biomarker” gases. We present results from the MUSCLES Treasury Survey, an ongoing study of time-resolved UV and X-ray spectroscopy of nearby M and K dwarf exoplanet host stars. This program uses contemporaneous Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra (or XMM) observations to characterize the time variability of the energetic radiation field incident on the habitable zones planetary systems at d < 15 pc. We find that all exoplanet host stars observed to date exhibit significant levels of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. M dwarf exoplanet host stars display 30 - 2000% UV emission line amplitude variations on timescales of minutes-to-hours. The relative flare/quiescent UV flux amplitudes on old (age > 1 Gyr) planet-hosting M dwarfs are comparable to active flare stars (e.g., AD Leo), despite their lack of flare activity at visible wavelengths. We also detect similar UV flare behavior on a subset of our K dwarf exoplanet host stars. We conclude that strong flares and stochastic variability are common, even on “optically inactive” M dwarfs hosting planetary systems. These results argue that the traditional assumption of weak UV fields and low flare rates on older low-mass stars needs to be revised.

  7. Testing White Dwarf Crystallization Theory with Asteroseismology of the Massive Pulsating DA Star BPM 37093

    E-print Network

    T. S. Metcalfe; M. H. Montgomery; A. Kanaan

    2004-03-09

    It was predicted more than 40 years ago that the cores of the coolest white dwarf stars should eventually crystallize. This effect is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in white dwarf cooling models, which are now routinely used to estimate the ages of stellar populations in both the Galactic disk and the halo. We are attempting to minimize this source of uncertainty by calibrating the models, using observations of pulsating white dwarfs. In a typical mass white dwarf model, crystallization does not begin until the surface temperature reaches 6000-8000 K. In more massive white dwarf models the effect begins at higher surface temperatures, where pulsations are observed in the ZZ Ceti (DAV) stars. We use the observed pulsation periods of BPM 37093, the most massive DAV white dwarf presently known, to probe the interior and determine the size of the crystallized core empirically. Our initial exploration of the models strongly suggests the presence of a solid core containing about 90% of the stellar mass, which is consistent with our theoretical expectations.

  8. UV blocking filters for polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayl, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of incorporating UV screening agents in silicone resins as a means of protecting underlying solar cell covers and adhesives from UV degradation is presented. A silicone hard-coat resin incorporating a UV screening agent was selected as a suitable coating material for PFA Teflon solar cell covers. Consideration is given to fabrication procedures and techniques for introduction of the UV screening agents into silicone resins and application of these UV-inhibited coatings to the Teflons. Some preliminary environmental tests, such as thermal shock and temperature humidity, were conducted.

  9. The DQ Herculis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We review the properties of the DQ Herculis stars: cataclysmic variables containing an accreting, magnetic, rapidly rotating white dwarf. These stars are characterized by strong X-ray emission, high-excitation spectra, and very stable optical and X-ray pulsations in their light curves. There is considerable resemblance to their more famous cousins, the AM Herculis stars, but the latter class is additionally characterized by spin-orbit synchronism and the presence of strong circular polarization. We list eighteen stars passing muster as certain or very likely DQ Her stars. The rotational periods range from 33 s to 2.0 hr. Additional periods can result when the rotating searchlight illuminates other structures in the binary. A single hypothesis explains most of the observed properties: magnetically channeled accretion within a truncated disk. Some accretion flow still seems to proceed directly to the magnetosphere, however. The white dwarfs' magnetic moments are in the range 10(sup 32) - 10(sup 34) G cc, slightly weaker than in AM Her stars but with some probable overlap. The more important reason why DQ Hers have broken synchronism is probably their greater accretion rate and orbital separation. The observed L(sub x)/L(sub V) values are surprisingly low for a radially accreting white dwarf, suggesting that most of the accretion energy is not radiated in a strong shock above the magnetic pole. The fluxes can be more satisfactorily explained if most of the radial infall energy manages to bypass the shock and deposit itse lf directly in the white dwarf photosphere, where it should emerge as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. This also provides an adequate source of ionizing photons to power the high-excitation optical and UV emission lines. This is probably the DQ Her analog to the famous 'soft X-ray excess' in AM Her stars. However, unlike the AM Her case, this radiation has not been directly observed, so the analogy must not (yet) be embraced too firmly. There is some conventional wisdom today which segregates the short-period from the long-period DQ Her stars. But the observational grounds for this distinction are slim, except in one respect: X-ray emission from short-period systems appears to be weaker and softer. This must be due to the shallower depth of the potential well, and/or the greater difficulty the fast rotators have in enforcing radial accretion flow.

  10. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear. PMID:18346077

  11. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  12. UV irradiation responses in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, Elin; Svärd, Staffan G; Troell, Karin

    2015-07-01

    The response to ultraviolet light (UV) radiation, a natural stressor to the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, was studied to deepen the understanding of how the surrounding environment affects the parasite during transmission. UV radiation at 10 mJ/cm(2) kills Giardia cysts effectively whereas trophozoites and encysting parasites can recover from UV treatment at 100 mJ/cm(2) and 50 mJ/cm(2) respectively. Staining for phosphorylated histone H2A showed that UV treatment induces double-stranded DNA breaks and flow cytometry analyses revealed that UV treatment of trophozoites induces DNA replication arrest. Active DNA replication coupled to DNA repair could be an explanation to why UV light does not kill trophozoites and encysting cells as efficiently as the non-replicating cysts. We also examined UV-induced gene expression responses in both trophozoites and cysts using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). UV radiation induces small overall changes in gene expression in Giardia but cysts show a stronger response than trophozoites. Heat shock proteins, kinesins and Nek kinases are up-regulated, whereas alpha-giardins and histones are down-regulated in UV treated trophozoites. Expression of variable surface proteins (VSPs) is changed in both trophozoites and cysts. Our data show that Giardia cysts have limited ability to repair UV-induced damage and this may have implications for drinking- and waste-water treatment when setting criteria for the use of UV disinfection to ensure safe water. PMID:25825252

  13. A 'Rosetta Stone' to Interpret the UV-HST Photometry of Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzini, Alvio

    2011-10-01

    In this proposal we intend to firmly identify the chemical species responsible for the UV and UV-optical color differences exhibited by the multiple stellar populations harboured by two Galactic globular clusters: omega Centauri and 47 Tucanae, one with highly helium enriched sub-populations {omega Centauri}, the other not.We plan to collect ultraviolet STIS spectra for stars in the crowded cores of the clusters, where HST photometry is already available for thousands of stars in more than 10 filters, from F225W to F850LP. This WFC3+ACS photometric database has allowed us to show that UV colors are remarkably effective in separating the different cluster sub-populations, and with the proposed STIS spectroscopy we can quantify the chemical abundance differences among such sub-populations, most notably in Nitrogen and Oxygen. The resulting calibration of the UV colors in terms of CNO abundances will provide a new effective tool for the chemical characterization of large numbers of globular cluster stars belonging to the various sub-populations in each cluster, and to better isolate the specific role of the helium abundance.The plan is to observe at least one star for each of the main principal stellar sub-populations in each of the two clusters. These objects are selected on the basis of their accurate photometry and astrometry already in hand, based on existing UV-HST images.

  14. Novel Radiation Sources in Vacuum UV and Near UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sheng; Ametepe, Joseph; Manos, Dennis

    2004-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light induced or enhanced chemical reactions have many advanced applications. This causes excimer lamps which deliver high power, large area UV radiations in demand. There have been extensive studies on rare gas or mixtures of rare gas halogen in different excimer lamps. But experimental data for high pressure KrI (iodine in krypton) spectra are scarce partially because the transitions B->X (191nm) and B->A (225nm) are usually very weak. We designed a new prototype of rf lamp for this study. This lamp has its electrodes outside the plasma for longer lamp lifetime. It is capable of studying most rf excited gas discharge and efficient enough for weak emissions like KrI. Detailed features of KrI spectrum from 160nm to 360nm were obtained. The wavelength and intensity variation of with pressure was modeled using a set of coupled kinetic equations. Molecular orbits of KrI were calculated in Gaussian 03. A semi-classical approach was used to study the line shape of the broad band emission and an explicit expression was obtain for KrI.

  15. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  16. Small observatories for the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah; Balabanov, Vladimir; Behar, Ehud

    2014-11-01

    We describe concepts for small space telescopes that are able to provide significant UV science and can be realized with small (but realistic) budgets. The concepts are based on nano-satellites carrying small optics, with no redundancy, without producing intermediate models prior to flight model, and using COTS (custom off-the-shelf) components. We describe a few concepts of deployable optics that could provide large collecting areas and high angular resolution while packaged in the small volume of a nano-satellite. We point out areas where technological development is still required.

  17. HIRES Dust Imaging of the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.

    1997-01-01

    We present here our final report for the NASA grant "HIRES Dust Imaging of the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex." This project was designed to study the photodissociation regions surrounding several OB stars in this cloud complex. NGC 6334 is unique in having at least seven distinct massive star forming regions in the same molecular cloud complex. The obvious advantage of studying young stars in the same molecular complex is that the stars all formed in the same global environment. Consequently, global factors like density waves, abundances, global magnetic field strength, and age of the parental molecular cloud cannot contribute to the differences among the star forming regions. Instead, the differences must arise only from local effects such as the mass, age, and UV fields of the individual stars. A study of NGC 6334 will greatly simplify the general problem of comparing different star formation regions by eliminating global effects.

  18. Fluorine in extremely hot post-AGB stars

    E-print Network

    K. Werner; T. Rauch; J. W. Kruk

    2004-12-10

    We have discovered lines of highly ionized fluorine (Fv and Fvi) in the far-UV spectra of extremely hot (Teff=85,000--150,000 K) post-AGB stars. Our sample comprises H-rich central stars of planetary nebulae as well as H-deficient PG1159 stars. We performed non-LTE calculations and find strong F overabundances (up to 10**-4 by mass, i.e., 250 times solar) in a number of PG1159 stars, while F is essentially solar in the H-rich stars. Since PG1159 stars are believed to exhibit intershell matter of the preceding AGB phase on their surface, their chemical analyses allow for a direct insight into nucleosynthesis processes during the AGB phase. The high F abundances in PG1159 stars confirm the conclusion from abundance determinations in giants, that F is synthesized in AGB stars and that the F enrichment in the intershell must be very high.

  19. TP-AGB Stars in M31: Results from PHAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, L.; Beerman, L. C.; Boyer, M. L.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Dolphin, A.; Fouesnaeu, M.; Hamren, K.; Johnson, L. C.; Lang, D.; Lewis, A.; Marigo, P.; Rosenfield, P.; Senchyna, P.; Seth, A. C.; Veyette, M.; Weisz, D. R.; Williams, B. F.

    2015-08-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is an HST multi-cycle treasury program that mapped one-third of M31 from the UV through the near-IR. It provides photometry in up to 6 filters for about 117 million stars distributed across ˜20 kpc of the M31 disk, with a spatial resolution comparable to that routinely attained for the Magellanic Clouds from the ground. These data are revolutionising our view of the spatial distribution of stars and dust across M31. Here we present an overview of PHAT data and results, with a focus on the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars. We comment on (1) the overall spatial distribution of TP-AGB stars as compared to stars of the red giant branch (RGB); (2) the detection of a dramatic drop in the C/M ratio toward the inner M31 disk; (3) the large population of TP-AGB stars in star clusters; (4) an improved view of the planetary nebula population; and (5) the unusual populations of UV-bright stars in the M31 bulge, which correspond to either post-AGB or "failed-AGB” stars. These rich datasets allow us to test the evolution of TP-AGB stars in a metal-rich and star-forming environment, avoiding the incompleteness and distance uncertainties that severely limit similar studies in the Milky Way.

  20. Can star cluster environment affect dust input from massive AGB stars?

    E-print Network

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We examine the fraction of massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars remaining bound in their parent star clusters and the effect of irradiation of these stars by intracluster ultraviolet (UV) field. We employ a set of N-body models of dynamical evolution of star clusters rotating in a galactic potential at the solar galactocentric radius. The cluster models are combined with stellar evolution formulae, a library of stellar spectra, and simple models for SiO photodissociation in circumstellar environment (CSE). The initial stellar masses of clusters are varied from $50\\rm M_\\odot$ to $10^{5}\\rm M_\\odot$. Results derived for individual clusters are combined using a mass distribution function for young star clusters. We find that about 30% of massive AGB stars initially born in clusters become members of the field population, while the rest evolves in star clusters. They are irradiated by strong intracluster UV radiation resulting in the decrease of the photodissociation radius of SiO molecules, in many stars...

  1. Energy Star 

    E-print Network

    Reihl, K.; Tullos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 Next Step: Energy Star Label ? Application Process ? Use of portfolio manager (EPA?s energy tracking tool) ? Utility Bills, Normalize climate conditions ? Professional Engineer performance verification... ? Use portfolio manager tool to achieve minimum rating of 69 ? EAc1.0 ? Optimize Energy Performance ? Use portfolio manager tool to achieve points, as listed below: Energy Star Rating LEED Points Energy Star Rating LEED Points 71 1 81 10 73 2...

  2. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Gaidos, Eric; Kasting, James; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have started a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study of the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the atmosphere of of the early Earth. We plan to model the chemistry of the Earth atmosphere during its evolution, using observed UV flux distributions of early solar analogs as boundary conditions in photochemical models of the Earth's atmosphere. The study has four distinct but interlinked parts: (1) Establishing the radiation of the early Sun; (2) Determining the photochemistry of the early Earth's atmosphere; (3) Estimating the rates of H2 loss from the atmosphere; and (4) Ascertaining how sensitive is the photochemistry to the metallicity of the Sun. We are currently using STIS and EUVE to obtain high-quality far-UV and extreme-UV observations of three early-solar analogs. We will perform a detailed non-LTE study of each stars, and construct theoretical model photosphere, and an empirical model chromospheres, which can be used to extrapolate the continuum to the Lyman continuum region. Given a realistic flux distribution of the early Sun, we will perform photochemical modeling of weakly reducing primitive atmospheres to determine the lifetime and photochemistry of CH4. In particular, we will make estimates of the amount of CH4 present in the prebiotic atmosphere, and estimate the atmospheric CH4 concentration during the Late Archean (2.5-3.0 b.y. ago) and determine whether it would have been sufficiently abundant to help offset reduced solar luminosity at that time. Having obtained a photochemical model, we will solve for the concentrations of greenhouse gasses and important pre-biotic molecules, and perform a detailed radiative transfer calculations to compute the UV flux reaching the surface.

  3. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    PubMed

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer. PMID:8994803

  4. X-ray and UV Views of Hot Gas in Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    You-Hua Chu; Martin A. Guerrero; Robert A. Gruendl

    2002-02-27

    The interior of a planetary nebula (PN) is expected to be filled with shocked fast wind from the central star. This hot gas plays the most important role in the dynamical evolution of the PN; however, its physical conditions are not well-known because useful X-ray and far-UV observations were not available until the advent of Chandra, XMM-Newton, and FUSE. This paper reviews X-ray observations of the hot gas in PN interiors and far-UV observations of the interfaces between the hot gas and the dense nebular shells.

  5. Influence of UV activity on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Segura, Antigona; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2014-06-01

    A wide range of potentially rocky transiting planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been detected by Kepler as well as ground-based searches. The spectral type of the host star will influence our ability to detect atmospheric features with future space and ground based missions like JWST, GMT and E-ELT. Particularly the active and inactive M stars are a stellar class, covering a wide range of UV luminosity, that will influence the detectability of habitable conditions. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by Hubble as well as IUE, we model Earth-like planets orbiting a wide range of M-dwarfs from M0 to M9 for both active and inactive stars. These planets are the first ones that should become available to observations with JWST and E-ELT. A wide range of such targets will soon be identified in our Solar Neighborhood by the 2017 TESS mission.

  6. Subdwarf B and O Stars: Which Evolutionary Pathways?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napiwotzki, R.

    2009-03-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (spectral types subdwarf B and O) are long lived stars producing a large amount of UV radiation. This makes them excellent candidates to explain the UV radiation observed in old populations. However, the origin of both classes of hot subdwarfs is unclear. I review possible single star and binary channels. High resolution observations of hot subdwarfs taken in the course of the Supernova type Ia Progenitor surveY (SPY) are presented. The SPY observations are used for a systematic assessment of the frequency of close binaries among hot subdwarfs. Results are a high binary fraction among the subdwarf B stars - albeit not as high as in a previous investigation, but a very low binary frequency in helium-rich hot subdwarf O stars. Implications for the evolutionary status of hot subdwarfs are discussed.

  7. Potential fingerprints detection using UV spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Zhichao; Xu, Xiaojing; Guo, Jingjing

    2012-11-01

    Spectral imaging technology research is becoming more extensive in the field of examination of material evidence. UV spectral imaging technology is an important part of the full spectrum of imaging technology. This paper summarizes the application of the results of UV imaging technology in the field of evidence examination, explores the common object of potential fingerprints of UV spectra characteristic for the research objectives, which shows the potential traces of criminal using the ultraviolet spectrum imaging method.

  8. UV filters for lighting of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-01-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  9. Population studies I. The Bidelman-MacConnell ''weak-metal'' stars

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.; Bessell, M.S.; Pickles, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    We present BVRI and DDO photometry for 309 of the Bidelman-MacConnell ''weak-metal'' stars, together with radial velocities for most of the stars that have (Fe/H)< or =-0.8. Photometric taxonomy is used to classify the sample as giants, dwarfs, red horizontal-branch stars, UV-bright stars, etc., and various calibrations have been adopted to determine (Fe/H), M/sub V/, space motions, and orbital eccentricity e.

  10. Comparisons of UV synthetic spectra retrieved from the USDA UV multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer with collocated USDA reference UV spectroradiometer and NIWA UV spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Slusser, James R.; Harrison, Lee; Disterhoft, Patrick; Min, Qilong; Olson, Becky; Lantz, Kathleen O.; Davis, Bill

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) UVB Radiation Monitoring and Research Program began installing the UV Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer for long-term measurements of UV radiation in 1995, and the program now has 28 sites across the U.S., as well as 2 sites in Canada. The UV-MFRSR uses 7 independent interference filter photodiode detector combinations to make total horizontal solar irradiance measurements at 300, 305.5, 311.4, 317.6, 325.4, 332.4 and 368 nm (nominal 2 nm FWHM bandwidth) through a single Lambertian detector. UV effects researchers want to apply their particular action spectrum to the measured spectra to estimate damage due to UV. The UV synthetic spectra retrieval model is used to estimate the continuous spectral distribution based on the seven UV radiometer channel measurements. In this study, we made comparisons of these synthetic spectra with the spectra measured from co-located USDA Reference UV and NIWA UV spectroradiometers at Table Mountain near Boulder, Colorado, U.S. A preliminary comparison of modeled erythemal-weighted dose with measurements performed by the two spectroradiometers is presented.

  11. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  12. A Spectral Atlas of lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of lambda Bootes stars, a permanent confusion about their classification can be found in literature. This group of non-magnetic, Population I, metal-poor A to F-type stars, has often been used as some sort of trash can for "exotic" and spectroscopically dubious objects. Some attempts have been made to establish a homogeneous group of stars which share the same common properties. Unfortunately, the flood of "new" information (e.g. UV and IR data) led again to a whole zoo of objects classified as lambda Bootes stars, which, however, are apparent non-members. To overcome this unsatisfying situation, a spectral atlas of well established lambda Bootes stars for the classical optical domain was compiled. It includes intermediate dispersion (40 and 120 Å mm^{-1}) spectra of three lambda Bootes, as well as appropriate MK standard stars. Furthermore, "suspicious" objects, such as shell and Field Horizontal Branch stars, have been considered in order to provide to classifiers a homogeneous reference. As a further step, a high resolution (8 Å mm^{-1}) spectrum of one "classical" lambda Bootes star in the same wavelength region (3800-4600 Å) is presented. In total, 55 lines can be used for this particular star to derive detailed abundances for nine heavy elements (Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr and Ba).

  13. The ultraviolet-bright stars of Omega Centauri, M3, and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Whitney, Jonathan H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hill, Robert S.; Maran, Stephen P.; Parise, Ronald A.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew A.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new UV-bright stars detected within 2 arcmin of the center of Omega Cen are spectroscopically investigated with the short-wavelength spectrograph of the IUE. The IUE spectra of the UV-bright stars UIT-1 and UIT-2 in the core of Omega Cen superficially resemble those of Population I mid-B stars. The absorption lines of the core UV-bright stars are significantly weaker than in Population I stars, consistent with their membership in the cluster. Synthetic spectra calculated from low-metallicity Kurucz model stellar atmospheres are compared with the spectra. These objects are insufficiently luminous to be classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars. They may be evolved hot horizontal branch stars which have been brightened by more than 3 mag since leaving the zero-age horizontal branch. It is inferred from the spectra and luminosity of the core UV-bright stars that similar objects could provide the source of the UV light in elliptical galaxies.

  14. UV-extending ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch

    2014-05-01

    We present a setup that provides a partial UV-completion of the ghost inflation model up to a scale which can be almost as high as the Planck mass. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton to the Lorentz-violating sector described by the Einstein-aether theory or its khronometric version. Compared to previous works on ghost inflation our setup allows to go beyond the study of small perturbations and include the background dynamics in a unified framework. In the specific regime when the expansion of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton we find that the model predicts rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio r ? 0.02÷0.2 and non-Gaussianity of equilateral type with f{sub NL} in the range from -50 to -5.

  15. Photo differential scanning calorimetry, UV thermal mechanical analysis and UV dynamic

    E-print Network

    North Texas, University of

    Photo differential scanning calorimetry, UV thermal mechanical analysis and UV dynamic mechanical. Ultraviolet differential scanning calorimetry and ultraviolet dynamic mechanical analysis were performed curing, Curing shrinkage, Differential scanning calorimetry, Dynamic mechanical analysis, Time

  16. IUE observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.

    1982-01-01

    The main photometric and spectroscopic characteristics in the ultraviolet and visual range of the most extensively studied symbiotic stars are reviewed. The main data obtained with IUE concern: (1) the determination of the shape of the UV continuum, which, in some cases, proves without doubt the presence of a hot companion; and the determination of the interstellar extinction by means of the lambda 2200 feature; (2) the measurement of emission lines, which enables us to derive the electron temperature and density of the circumstellar envelope, and, taken together with those lines observed in the visual, give more complete information on which spectroscopic mechanisms operate in the envelope; (3) the observation of absorption lines in the UV, which are present in just a few cases.

  17. Fiber optic systems in the UV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Michael; Meyer, H.; Klein, Karl-Friedrich; Hillrichs, G.; Ruetting, Martin; Veidemanis, M.; Spangenberg, Bernd; Clarkin, James P.; Nelson, Gary W.

    2000-05-01

    Mainly due to the unexpected progress in manufacturing of solarization-reduced all-silica fibers, new fiber-optic applications in the UV-region are feasible. However, the other components like the UV-sources and the detector- systems have to be improved, too. Especially, the miniaturization is very important fitting to the small-sized fiber-optic assemblies leading to compact and mobile UV- analytical systems. Based on independent improvements in the preform and fiber processing, UV-improved fibers with different properties have been developed. The best UV-fiber for the prosed applications is selectable by its short and long-term spectral behavior, especially in the region from 190 to 350 nm. The spectrum of the UV-source and the power density in the fiber have an influence on the nonlinear transmission and the damaging level; however, hydrogen can reduce the UV-defect concentration. After determining the diffusion processes in the fiber, the UV-lifetime in commercially available all-silica fibers can be predicted. Newest results with light from deuterium-lamps, excimer- lasers and 5th harmonics of Nd:YAG laser will be shown. Many activities are in the field of UV-sources. In addition to new UV-lasers like the Nd:YAG laser at 213 nm, a new low- power deuterium-lamp with smaller dimensions has been introduced last year. Properties of this lamp will be discussed, taking into account some of the application requirements. Finally, some new applications with UV-fiber optics will be shown; especially the TLC-method can be improved significantly, combining a 2-row fiber-array with a diode-array spectrometer optimized for fiber-optics.

  18. THE EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURES OF HOT STARS. II. THE EARLY-O TYPES1 Miriam Garcia2

    E-print Network

    Bianchi, Luciana

    early-O type stars by analyzing their UV and far-UV spectra from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (905­1187 8), the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the Hubble Space Telescope STIS, and the Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (1200­2000 8). The data have been modeled

  19. Characterizing Pale Blue Dots Around FGKM Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar; Segura, Antigona

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet characterization of small rocky worlds will be a main focus in the coming decades. For future telescopes like JWST and UVOIR/HDST, an exoplanet’s host star will influence our ability to detect and interpret spectral features, including biosignatures. We present a complete suit of stellar models and a grid of model atmospheres for Earth-like planets at equivalent stages of geological evolution in their HZ for stellar effective temperature from Teff = 2300K to 7000K, sampling the entire FGKM stellar type range. Since M dwarfs are simultaneously the most numerous in the universe, the most active, and the most likely stars to host terrestrial exoplanets, we focus in particular on the range of UV emission possible in each sub M spectral class. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features of the planet. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by HST and IUE we model the effect of stellar activity on Earth-like planets. We also model the amount of UV flux reaching the surface for Earth-like planets at various geological epochs ranging from a pre-biotic world through the rise of oxygen and for Earth-like planets orbiting FGKM stars at equivalent stages of evolution. When modeling the remotely detectable spectra of these planets we focus on the primary detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O and CH3Cl. We model spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting our grid of FGKM stars in the VIS/NIR (0.4 – 4 ?m) and the IR (5 – 20 ?m) range as input for future missions and concepts like UVOIR/HDST and JWST.

  20. Photoconduction studies on GaN nanowire transistors under UV and polarized UV illumination

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Photoconduction studies on GaN nanowire transistors under UV and polarized UV illumination Song Han carried out with single crystal GaN nanowires. The nanowire transistors exhibited a sub- stantial increase was demonstrated and studied for GaN nanowires working as polarized UV detectors. The nanowire conductance varied

  1. Star Formation and Feedback in Dwarf Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Shawfeng Dong; D. N. C. Lin; S. D. Murray

    2003-12-08

    We examine the star formation history and stellar feedback effects of dwarf galaxies under the influence of extragalactic ultraviolet radiation. We consider the dynamical evolution of gas in dwarf galaxies using a one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian numerical scheme to compute the effects of radiative transfer and photoionization. We include a physically-motivated star formation recipe and consider the effects of feedback. Our results indicate that star formation in the severe environment of dwarf galaxies is a difficult and inefficient process. For intermediate mass systems, such as the dSphs around the Galaxy, star formation can proceed with in early cosmic epochs despite the intense background UV flux. Triggering processes such as merger events, collisions, and tidal disturbance can lead to density enhancements, reducing the recombination timescale, allowing gas to cool and star formation to proceed. However, the star formation and gas retention efficiency may vary widely in galaxies with similar dark matter potentials, because they depend on many factors, such as the baryonic fraction, external perturbation, IMF, and background UV intensity. We suggest that the presence of very old stars in these dwarf galaxies indicates that their initial baryonic to dark matter content was comparable to the cosmic value. This constraint suggests that the initial density fluctuation of baryonic matter may be correlated with that of the dark matter. For the more massive dwarf elliptical galaxies, the star formation efficiency and gas retention rate is much higher. Their mass to light ratio is regulated by star formation feedback, and is expected to be nearly independent of their absolute luminosity. The results of our theoretical models reproduce the observed $M/L-M_v$ correlation.

  2. The Ultraviolet Sky: final catalogs of unique UV sources from GALEX, and characterization of the UV-emitting sources across the sky, and of the Milky Way extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Conti, A.; Shiao, B.; Keller, G. R.; Thilker, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which imaged the sky at Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for about 9 years, is its unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects. GALEX's data, the first substantial sky surveys at UV wavelengths, offer an unprecedented view of the sky and a unique opportunity for an unbiased characterization of several classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, QSOs at red-shift about 1, UV-peculiar QSOs, star-forming galaxies, among others. Bianchi et al. (2013, J. Adv. Space Res. (2013), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.045) have constructed final catalogs of UV sources, with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source ('unique' source catalogs), and excluding rim artifacts and bad photometry. The catalogs are constructed improving on the recipe of Bianchi et al. 2011 (MNRAS, 411, 2770, which presented the earlier version of these catalogs) and include all data for the major surveys, AIS and MIS. Considering the fields where both FUV and NUV detectors were exposed, the catalogs contain about 71 and 16.6 million unique sources respectively. We show several maps illustrating the content of UV sources across the sky, globally, and separately for bright/faint, hot, stellar/extragalactic objects. We matched the UV-source catalogs with optical-IR data from the SDSS, GSC2, 2MASS surveys. We are also in the process of matching the catalogs with preliminary PanSTARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey photometry which already provides twice the sky coverage of SDSS, at slightly fainter magnitude limits. The sources' SED from FUV to optical wavelengths enables classification, derivation of the object physical parameters, and ultimately also a map of the Milky Way extinction. The catalogs will be available on MAST, Vizier (where the previous version already is), and in reduced form (for agile downloading), with related tools, from the author web site " http://dolomiti.pha.jhu.edu/uvsky "

  3. Massive star-formation regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, J.B.; Thompson, I.B.

    1988-08-01

    Optical and UV spectroscopy of stars from six compact, luminous groups or clusters in the SMC and LMC is presented. The groups are characterized by high concentrations of nebulosity or starlight confined to areas smaller than 30 arcsec on a side, in which some stars can be resolved. The spectra and fluxes are used to derive luminosities and effective temperatures for the stars. Spectroscopic and stellar wind properties are also noted. It is found that the stars are all of O and B-type, with low extinction. The stars generally have little or no sign of stellar winds, and often have spectral peculiarities, such as weak lines or mixed spectral indicators. Most spectra have strong, broad Ly-alpha absorption, and some have broad Ca II absorption. The stars are placed on the H-R diagram, and it is argued that some of them are massive stars in pre-main-sequence stages of their evolution. 8 references.

  4. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  5. UV RADIATION MEASUREMENTS/ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an ecosystem stressor and poses a human health risk, the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has undertaken a research program to measure the intensity of UV-B radiation at various locations throughout the U.S. In Septem...

  6. UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dpeletion of stratospheric O3 layer should result in enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation at the earth's surface compared to present, with potentially damaging effects on biological systems. his paper briefly summarizes some key findings for UV-B effects on terrestri...

  7. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  8. USGS Tunison Lab's New UV Treatment Facility

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows an interior view of the USGS Tunison Lab's new UV water treament facility. The UV treatment system is on the bottom left of the photo. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strength...

  9. UV Reconstruction Algorithm And Diurnal Cycle Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curylo, Aleksander; Litynska, Zenobia; Krzyscin, Janusz; Bogdanska, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    UV reconstruction is a method of estimation of surface UV with the use of available actinometrical and aerological measurements. UV reconstruction is necessary for the study of long-term UV change. A typical series of UV measurements is not longer than 15 years, which is too short for trend estimation. The essential problem in the reconstruction algorithm is the good parameterization of clouds. In our previous algorithm we used an empirical relation between Cloud Modification Factor (CMF) in global radiation and CMF in UV. The CMF is defined as the ratio between measured and modelled irradiances. Clear sky irradiance was calculated with a solar radiative transfer model. In the proposed algorithm, the time variability of global radiation during the diurnal cycle is used as an additional source of information. For elaborating an improved reconstruction algorithm relevant data from Legionowo [52.4 N, 21.0 E, 96 m a.s.l], Poland were collected with the following instruments: NILU-UV multi channel radiometer, Kipp&Zonen pyranometer, radiosonde profiles of ozone, humidity and temperature. The proposed algorithm has been used for reconstruction of UV at four Polish sites: Mikolajki, Kolobrzeg, Warszawa-Bielany and Zakopane since the early 1960s. Krzyscin's reconstruction of total ozone has been used in the calculations.

  10. Can Star Cluster Environment Affect Dust Input From Massive AGB Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Petrov, Mykola; Henning, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We examine the fraction of massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars remaining bound in their parent star clusters (SCs) and the effect of irradiation of these stars by an intracluster ultraviolet (UV) field. We employ a set of N-body models of dynamical evolution of SCs rotating in a galactic potential at the solar galactocentric radius. The cluster models are combined with stellar evolution formulae, a library of stellar spectra, and simple models for SiO photodissociation in the circumstellar environment (CSE). The initial stellar masses of clusters are varied from 50{M}? to {10}5{M}? . Results derived for individual clusters are combined using a mass distribution function for young SCs. We find that about 30% of massive AGB stars initially born in clusters become members of the field population, while the rest evolve in SCs. They are irradiated by strong intracluster UV radiation, resulting in the decrease of the photodissociation radius of SiO molecules, in many stars down to the dust formation zone. In the absence of dust shielding, the UV photons penetrate in the CSE deeper than 10{R}* in 64% and deeper than 2{R}* in 42% of all massive AGB stars. If this suppresses subsequent dust formation, the current injection rate of silicate dust from AGB stars in the local Galaxy decreases from 2.2× {10}-4{M}? {{pc}}-2 {{Gyr}}-1 to 1.8× {10}-4{M}? {{pc}}-2 {{Gyr}}-1 at most. A lower revised value of 40% for the expected fraction of presolar silicate grains from massive AGB stars is still too high to explain the non-detection of these grains in meteorites.

  11. The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of PAHs: A Semi-Empirical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted PAH emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) PAH ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for PAH ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates PAH ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of PAH ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR PAH features.

  12. What the UV SED Tells us About Stellar Populations and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    The UV SED parameter b as in f(sub 1) 1(sup b), is commonly used to estimate fundamental properties of high-redshift galaxies including age and metallicity. However, sources and processes other than age and metallicity can influence the value of b. We use the local starforming dwarf galaxy, I Zw 18, in a case study to investigate uncertainties in age and metallicity inferred from b due errors or uncertainties in: mode of star formation (instantaneous starburst vs. continuous SF), dust extinction, nebular continuous emission (2-photon emission, Balmer continuum flux), and presence of older stars.

  13. How Does Abundance Affect the Strength of UV Emission in Elliptical Galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Brown, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This program used the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) to observe elliptical galaxies with the intention of measuring the chemical abundances in their hot stellar populations. It was designed to complement an earlier FUSE program that observed elliptical galaxies with strong UV emission. The current program originally planned observations of two ellipticals with weak UV emission (M32 and M49). Once FUSE encountered pointing control problems in certain regions of the sky (particularly Virgo, which is very unfortunate for the study of ellipticals in general), M49 was replaced with the bulge of M31, which has a similar UV-to-optical flux ratio as the center of M49. As the closest elliptical galaxy and the one with the weakest UV-to-optical flux ratio, M32 was an obvious choice of target, but M49 was the ideal complementary target, because it has a very low reddening (unlike M32). With the inability of FUSE to point at Virgo, nearly all of the best elliptical galaxies (bright galaxies with low foreground extinction) were also lost, and this severely hampered three FUSE programs of the PI, all focused on the hot stellar populations of ellipticals. M31 was the best replacement for M49, but like M32, it suffers from significant foreground reddening. Strong Galactic ISM lines heavily contaminate the FUSE spectra of M31 and M32. These ISM lines are coincident with the photospheric lines from the stellar populations (whereas M49, with little foreground ISM and significant redshift, would not have suffered from this problem). We have reduced the faint (and thus difficult) data for M31 and M32, producing final co-added spectra representing all of the exposures, but we have not yet finished our analysis, due to the complication of the contaminating ISM. The silver lining here is the set of CHI lines at 1175 Angstroms, which are not significantly contaminated by the ISM. A comparison of the M31 spectrum with other galaxies observed by FEE showed a surprising result: the hot stars in M31 seem to have a similar carbon abundance to those stars in galaxies with much brighter UV emission. The fraction of these hot stars in a population should be a strong function of chemical abundances, so this finding warrants further exploration, and we are proceeding with our analysis. Because the UV emission in these galaxies comes from a population of extreme horizontal branch stars, the PI (Brown) presented this result at a June 2003 conference on such stars.

  14. UV and optical spectrum variability of T Tau and RY Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Quliyev, N. Kh.; Khalilov, O. V.; Adigezalzade, H. N.

    2013-03-01

    In this report we have presented results of spectral observations of classical T Tauri type stars T Tau and RY Tau. Observational dates were obtained from following sources: spectrograms of the UV range from the IUE archive data, and spectrograms of the visual range obtained in the 2 m telescope of ShAO of the NAS of Azerbaijan (Ismailov et al. 2010). For both of stars on the Scargle method we have searched a periodicity of variations in equivalent widths of emission lines in the optical and UV ranges. In the RY Tau firstly was detected the periodic variability in MgII ?2800 Å emission doublet intensities with a period of 23 days. The observed period had also revealed with the equivalent widths and displacements of components of H? and H+H? and K CaII emission.

  15. Far-UV and deep surveys bursting dwarfs versus normal galaxies

    E-print Network

    Fioc, M; Fioc, Michel; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    1999-01-01

    Galaxy counts from bright ultraviolet (UV) and deep optical spectroscopic surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large number of very blue galaxies. The colors and luminosities of these objects indicate that they are dwarf galaxies undergoing bursts of star formation. We use a galaxy evolution model (PEGASE, Fioc & Rocca-Volmerange 1997) to describe this population as galaxies undergoing cyclical bursts of star formation, thereby determining the luminosity function of these galaxies. When these bursting galaxies are added to normally evolving populations, the combination reproduces the UV number counts, color distributions and deep optical redshift distributions fairly well. Optical (including the Hubble Deep Field) and near-infrared number counts are fitted assuming an open or a flat, Lambda-dominated, Universe. The high amplitude of the angular correlation function of very blue galaxies discovered by Landy et al. (1996) is also recovered in this modelling. The number of bursting galaxies is only a small ...

  16. The impact of stellar activity on X-ray and UV transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-12-01

    X-ray and UV observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. However, at these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the star appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as bright features on the stellar disk. These will impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulate exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  17. Instrumentation of the WSO-UV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés.

    2014-07-01

    Dedicated to spectroscopic and imaging observations of the ultraviolet sky, the World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission is a Russian-Spanish collaboration. The project consists of a 1.7m telescope with instrumentation able to perform: a) high resolution (R ?50 000) spectroscopy by means of two echellé spectrographs covering the 115-310 nm spectral range; b) long slit (1x75 arcsec) low resolution (R ˜ 1000) spectroscopy with a near-UV channel and a far-UV channel to cover the 115-305 nm spectral range; c) near-UV and a far-UV imaging channels covering the 115-320 nm wavelength range; d) slitless spectroscopy with spectral resolution of about 500 in the full 115-320 nm spectral range. Here we present the WSO-UV focal plane instruments, their status of implementation, and the expected performances.

  18. UV sensors based on liquid crystals mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanishvili, Andro; Petriashvili, Gia; Chilaya, Guram; Barberi, Riccardo; De Santo, Maria P.; Matranga, Mario A.; Ciuchi, F.

    2006-04-01

    The Erythemal Response Spectrum is a scientific expression that describes the sensitivity of the skin to the ultraviolet radiation. The skin sensitivity strongly depends on the UV wavelength: a long exposition to UV radiation causes erythema once a threshold dose has been exceeded. In the past years several devices have been developed in order to monitor the UV exposure, most of them are based on inorganic materials that are able to mimic the human skin behaviour under UV radiation. We present a new device based on liquid crystals technology. The sensor is based on a liquid crystalline mixture that absorbs photons at UV wavelength and emits them at a longer one. This system presents several innovative features: the absorption range of the mixture can be varied to be sensitive to different wavelengths, the luminescence intensity can be tuned, the system can be implemented on flexible devices.

  19. [Skin and occupational artificial UV-radiation].

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Wittlich, M; Broding, H C; Gellert, B; Blome, H; Brüning, T

    2012-10-01

    In various areas of professional activity, exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation coming from artificial sources may occur. These UV rays differ from the solar UV radiation due to their intensity and spectrum. We review current developments with the introduction of statutory exposure limit values for jobs with UV radiation from artificial sources, a selection of relevant activities with artificial UV exposure and an overview of the occurrence of skin disorders and dermatologically relevant skin diseases caused by these specific occupational exposures. The latter is relevant for medical advice in occupational dermatology and occupational medicine. On the basis of existing studies on welders and studies regarding occupations with "open flames" (using the example of the glassblower) it is evident that so far no reliable data exist regarding the chronic photodamage or the occurrence of UV-typical skin cancers, but instead clear evidence exists regarding the regular occurrence of acute light damage in these occupations. PMID:23008004

  20. WFPC2 Cycle 7 UV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casertano, Stefano

    1997-07-01

    UV flat fields will be obtained with the cal-channel's ultraviolet lamp {UVFLAT} using the UV filter set {F122M, F170W, F160BW, F185W, and F336W}. The UV flats will be used to monitor UV flat field stability and the stability of the Woods filter {F160BW} by using F170W as the control. The F336W ratio of VISFLAT {Cycle 6 proposal 6908}/UVFLAT ratio will provide a diagnostic of the UV flat field degradation and tie the UVFLAT and VISFLAT flat field patterns together. Two supplemental darkframes must be obtained immediately after each use of the lamp, in order to check for possible afterimages.

  1. WFPC2 Cycle 4 Cal: UV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Christopher

    1995-07-01

    UV flat fields will be obtained with the cal-channel's ultraviolet lamp {UVFLAT} using the UV filter set {F122M, F170W, F160BW, F185W, and F336W}. The UV flats will be used to monitor UV flat field stability and the stability of the Woods filter {F160BW} by using F170W as the control. The F336W ratio of VISFLAT {Cycle 5 proposal 6189}/UVFLAT ratio will provide a diagnostic of the UV flat field degradation and tie the UVFLAT and VISFLAT flat field patterns together. Two supplemental darkframes must be obtained immediately after each use of the lamp, in order to check for possible afterimages.

  2. WFPC2 Cycle 6 Cal: UV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casertano, Stefano

    1996-07-01

    UV flat fields will be obtained with the cal-channel's ultraviolet lamp {UVFLAT} using the UV filter set {F122M, F170W, F160BW, F185W, and F336W}. The UV flats will be used to monitor UV flat field stability and the stability of the Woods filter {F160BW} by using F170W as the control. The F336W ratio of VISFLAT {Cycle 6 proposal 0005}/UVFLAT ratio will provide a diagnostic of the UV flat field degradation and tie the UVFLAT and VISFLAT flat field patterns together. Two supplemental darkframes must be obtained immediately after each use of the lamp, in order to check for possible afterimages.

  3. UV Microspot Irradiator at Columbia University

    PubMed Central

    Bigelow, Alan W.; Ponnaiya, Brian; Targoff, Kimara L.; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) at Columbia University has recently added a UV microspot irradiator to a microbeam irradiation platform. This UV microspot irradiator applies multiphoton excitation at the focal point of an incident laser as the source for cell damage, and with this approach, a single cell within a 3D sample can be targeted and exposed to damaging UV. The UV microspot’s ability to impart cellular damage within 3D is an advantage over all other microbeam techniques, which instead impart damage to numerous cells along microbeam tracks. This short communication is an overview and a description of the UV microspot including the following applications and demonstrations of selective damage to live single cell targets: DNA damage foci formation, patterned irradiation, photoactivation, targeting of mitochondria, and targeting of individual cardiomyocytes in the live zebrafish embryo. PMID:23708525

  4. 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified CityU 15 10 35 48 7 0

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Yiu-ming

    1 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified CityU 15 10 35 48 7 0 HKBU 15 3 35 49 11 2 LU clinical dentistry #12;2 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified Panel Cost Centre Institution Number sciences #12;3 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified Panel Cost Centre Institution Numb

  5. Scattered starlight contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars

    E-print Network

    Frederic Zagury

    2001-07-10

    The comparison, undertaken in preceding papers, of the UV observations of nebulae and of reddened stars reveals contradictory aspects of interstellar extinction. The aim of this paper is to understand the implications hidden behind the apparent contradictions. The questions treated will be: how can small grains with an isotropic phase function make an appreciable contribution in the UV spectrum of a star? Why are small grains not observed in the spectrum of a nebula? How much of starlight can be scattered by large grains in the forward direction?

  6. Validation of GOMOS vertical profiles using the stratospheric balloon-borne AMON and SALOMON UV-visible spetrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Chartier, M.; Berthet, G.; Robert, C.; Lemaire, T.; Pepe, F.; George, M.; Pirre, M.

    2003-08-01

    The stratospheric balloon-borne UV-visible spectrometers AMON and SALOMON, which use stars and Moon as light source, respectively, are involved in the validation of the UV-visible spectrometer GOMOS onboard ENVISAT, which uses also stars as light source. A low spectral resolution UV-visible spectrometer, AMON-RA, is also implanted in the AMON gondola, for the analysis of the chromatic scintillation effect. A flight of SALOMON occurred in September 19, 2002, at mid latitude from Aire sur l'Adour, France. An AMON (and AMON-RA) flight occurred at high latitude from Kiruna (northern Sweden) on March 1, 2003. The vertical profiles are compared to those obtained by GOMOS. Taking into account the effect of the chromatic scintillation on the transmission spectra, recommendations will be proposed in order to improve the GOMOS retrievals.

  7. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Capak, P.; Conley, A.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 ?m in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (?) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ? IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ? 50 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-? relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ? 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ? 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  8. Are Dusty Galaxies Blue? Insights on UV Attenuation from Dust-selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, C. M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N.; Cooray, A.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Capak, P.; Conley, A.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 ?m in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (?) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L IR/L UV ? IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR >~ 50 M ? yr-1 deviate from the nominal IRX-? relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of Lt1% at z <~ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M ? yr-1, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ~ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  9. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation IV: UV luminosity functions of high-redshift galaxies

    E-print Network

    Liu, Chuanwu; Angel, P W; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Poole, Gregory B; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present calculations of the UV luminosity function predictions from the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) project, which combines N-body, semi-analytic and semi-numerical modeling designed to study galaxy formation during the Epoch of Reionization. Using galaxy formation physics including supernova feedback, the model naturally reproduces the UV LFs for high-redshift star-forming galaxies from $z{\\sim}5$ through to $z{\\sim}10$. We investigate the predicted luminosity-star formation rate (SFR) relation, finding that variable SFR histories of galaxies result in a scatter around the mean relation of $0.1$-$0.3$ dex depending on UV luminosity. We find close agreement between the model and observationally derived SFR functions. We use our predicted luminosities to investigate the luminosity function below current detection limits, and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. We predict that the slope of the UV LF remains steep below cu...

  10. The Massive Star Population in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    Evolved massive stars including luminous blue variables and hypergiants are the likely progenitor class of giant eruptions or supernova impostors (SN impostors). Motivated by the small number of progenitors positively associated with SN impostors, we present a survey of the massive star population in M101. Regions of massive star formation, ranging from 0.05 kpc2 to 50 kpc2, were identified using GALEX FUV and NUV imaging across the face of M101. The resolved stellar populations within each region were extracted from sixteen archival multicolor HST ACS WFC observations and color-magnitude-diagrams (CMD) were created. We have identified red supergiant (RSG) and blue supergiant (BSG) candidates using color and luminosity criteria. The RSG and BSG candidates identified represents the population of stars in M101 likely to be the SN impostor progenitor class. Furthermore we have determined the star formation histories (SFH) for the massive star populations within each region using two methods: CMD modeling, and spectral-energy-distribution fitting. We find that there has been a continuous buildup of massive stars over the last 100 Myr with a sharp increase in star formation rate within the last 20 Myr. Evidence for a decrease in mean stellar ages for regions with increasing radii has also been observed and is consistent with previously observed color gradients in optical and UV.

  11. Décontamination nucléaire par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

    2003-06-01

    Le développement et l'utilisation de procédés propres pour le nettoyage ou la préparation de surfaces est l'une des priorités du milieu industriel. Cet intérêt est d'autant plus grand dans le domaine du nucléaire pour lequel la réduction des déchets est un axe de recherche important. Un dispositif de décontamination nucléaire par laser UV impulsionnel a été développé et testé. Il est composé. d'un laser à excimères de 1kW, d'un faisceau de fibres optiques et d'un dispositif de récupération des particules. Les essais réalisés en milieu actif ont démontré sa capacité à nettoyer des surfaces métalliques polluées par différents radioéléments avec des facteurs de décontamination généralement supérieurs à 10. Ce dispositif permet de décontaminer de grandes surfaces de géométrie simple en réduisant fortement la génération de déchets secondaires. Il est, à ce jour et dans ces conditions d'utilisations, le procédé de décontamination par voie sèche le plus efficace.

  12. Electron stars for holographic metallic criticality

    E-print Network

    Sean A. Hartnoll; Alireza Tavanfar

    2011-01-06

    We refer to the ground state of a gravitating, charged ideal fluid of fermions held at a finite chemical potential as an `electron star'. In a holographic setting, electron stars are candidate gravity duals for strongly interacting finite fermion density systems. We show how electron stars develop an emergent Lifshitz scaling at low energies. This IR scaling region is a consequence of the two way interaction between emergent quantum critical bosonic modes and the finite density of fermions. By integrating from the IR region to an asymptotically AdS_4 spacetime, we compute basic properties of the electron stars, including their electrical conductivity. We emphasize the challenge of connecting UV and IR physics in strongly interacting finite density systems.

  13. The High-Energy Radiation Environment of Planets around Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Miles, Brittany; Barman, Travis; Peacock, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass stars are the dominant planet hosts averaging about one planet per star. Many of these planets orbit in the canonical habitable zone (HZ) of the star where, if other conditions allowed, liquid water may exist on the surface.A planet’s habitability, including atmospheric retention, is strongly dependent on the star’s ultraviolet (UV) emission, which chemically modifies, ionizes, and even erodes the atmosphere over time including the photodissociation of important diagnostic molecules, e.g. H2O, CH4, and CO2. The UV spectral slope of a low-mass star can enhance atmospheric lifetimes, and increase the detectability of biologically generated gases. But, a different slope may lead to the formation of abiotic oxygen and ozone producing a false-positive biosignature for oxygenic photosynthesis. Realistic constraints on the incident UV flux over a planet’s lifetime are necessary to explore the cumulative effects on the evolution, composition, and fate of a HZ planetary atmosphere.NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides a unique data set with which to study the broadband UV emission from many hundreds of M dwarfs. The GALEX satellite has imaged nearly 3/4 of the sky simultaneously in two UV bands: near-UV (NUV; 175–275 nm) and far-UV (FUV; 135–175 nm). With these data these, we are able to calculate the mean UV emission and its level of variability at these wavelengths over critical planet formation and evolution time scales to better understand the probable conditions in HZ planetary atmospheres.In the near future, dedicated CubeSats (miniaturized satellites for space research) to monitor M dwarf hosts of transiting exoplanets will provide the best opportunity to measure their UV variability, constrain the probabilities of detecting habitable (and inhabited) planets, and provide the correct context within which to interpret IR transmission and emission spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets.

  14. Star formation in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, J. M. Rodriguez; Rudy, Richard J.; Jones, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the IRAS data for a sample of classical (optically selected) Seyfert galaxies is presented. The IRAS fluxes at 25 micron, 60 micron, and 100 micron are found to be uncorrelated or only very weakly correlated with the UV/Optical continuum flux and the near and mid IR flux at 3.5 and 10 microns. To investigate the possibility that star formation accounts for the far IR flux, the IRAS measurements for the Seyfert galaxies are compared to IRAS observations of a sample of normal spiral galaxies, and a sample of Starburst galaxies. It is shown that the far IR luminosities and far IR colors of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable from those of the Starburst galaxies. Besides, normal galaxies are an order of magnitude less luminous than both the Seyfert and the Starburst galaxies. This indicates that star formation produces the bulk of the far infrared emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  15. Modelling the uv/x-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    E-print Network

    Francesco Haardt; Piero Madau

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  16. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life On Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.; Gaidos, E.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We have obtained ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun We are making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. Once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to other metallicities and to unobserved spectral regions.

  17. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Gaidos, E.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T. M.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield, and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program: to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We are presently obtaining ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun. We are currently making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to unobserved spectral regions, and to proceed to the next step: to develop photochemical models of the pre-biotic and Archean atmosphere of the Earth.

  18. Tomographic separation of composite spectra. The components of Plaskett's Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of Plaskett's Star (HD 47129), a 14.4 day period, double lined O-type spectroscopic binary were analyzed. Archival data from IUE (17 spectra well distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with several techniques. A cross correlation analysis, which showed that the secondary produces significant lines in the UV, indicates that the mass ratio is q = 1.18 + or - 0.12 (secondary slightly more massive). A tomography algorithm was used to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The interpolated spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, 07.3 I and 06.2 I, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. The intensity ratio of the stars in the UV is 0.53 + or - 0.05 (primary brighter). The secondary lines appear rotationally broadened, and the projected rotational velocity V sin i for this star is estimated to be 310 + or - 20 km/s. The possible evolutionary history of this system is discussed through a comparison of the positions of the components and evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

  19. STARS no star on Kauai

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem.

  20. GALEX UV observations of the interacting galaxy NGC 4438 in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; De Paz, A G; Buat, V; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Madore, B F; Barlow, T A; Bianchi, L; Byun, Y I; Donas, J; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Heckman, T M; Jelinsky, P N; Lee, Y W; Malina, R; Martin, D C; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S; Rich, R M; Schiminovich, D; Seibert, M; Siegmund, O; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B; Wyder, T K

    2005-01-01

    We present GALEX NUV (2310 A) and FUV (1530 A) images of the interacting galaxy NGC 4438 (Arp 120) in the center of the Virgo cluster. These images show an extended (20 kpc) tidal tail at the north-west edge of the galaxy previously undetected at other wavelengths, at 15-25 kpc from its nucleus. Except in the nucleus, the UV morphology of NGC 4438 is totally different from the Halpha+[NII] one, more similar to the X-ray emission, confirming its gas cooling origin. We study the star formation history of NGC 4438 combining spectro-photometric data in the UV-visible-near-IR wavelength range with population synthesis and galaxy evolution models. The data are consistent with a recent (~ 10 Myr), instantaneous burst of star formation in the newly discovered UV north-western tail which is significantly younger than the age of the tidal interaction with NGC 4435, dated by dynamical models at ~ 100 Myr ago. Recent star formation events are also present at the edge of the northern arm and in the southern tail, while to...

  1. THE FAR-INFRARED, UV, AND MOLECULAR GAS RELATION IN GALAXIES UP TO z = 2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Magnelli, B.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2013-01-10

    We use the infrared excess (IRX) FIR/UV luminosity ratio to study the relation between the effective UV attenuation (A {sub IRX}) and the UV spectral slope ({beta}) in a sample of 450 1 < z < 2.5 galaxies. The FIR data are from very deep Herschel observations in the GOODS fields that allow us to detect galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) typical of galaxies with log(M {sub *}) > 9.3. Thus, we are able to study galaxies on and even below the main SFR-stellar mass relation (main sequence). We find that main-sequence galaxies form a tight sequence in the IRX-{beta} plane, which has a flatter slope than commonly used relations. This slope favors a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-like UV extinction curve, though the interpretation is model dependent. The scatter in the A {sub IRX}-{beta} plane correlates with the position of the galaxies in the SFR-M {sub *} plane. Using a smaller sample of galaxies with CO gas masses, we study the relation between the UV attenuation and the molecular gas content. We find a very tight relation between the scatter in the IRX-{beta} plane and the specific attenuation S{sub A} , a quantity that represents the attenuation contributed by the molecular gas mass per young star. S{sub A} is sensitive to both the geometrical arrangement of stars and dust and to the compactness of the star-forming regions. We use this empirical relation to derive a method for estimating molecular gas masses using only widely available integrated rest-frame UV and FIR photometry. The method produces gas masses with an accuracy between 0.12 and 0.16 dex in samples of normal galaxies between z {approx} 0 and z {approx} 1.5. Major mergers and submillimeter galaxies follow a different S{sub A} relation.

  2. YOUNG, ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STARS DOMINATE DUST HEATING IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A. E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu

    2011-09-10

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region-the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  3. Skin ?-endorphin mediates addiction to UV light.

    PubMed

    Fell, Gillian L; Robinson, Kathleen C; Mao, Jianren; Woolf, Clifford J; Fisher, David E

    2014-06-19

    UV light is an established carcinogen, yet evidence suggests that UV-seeking behavior has addictive features. Following UV exposure, epidermal keratinocytes synthesize proopiomelanocortin (POMC) that is processed to melanocyte-stimulating hormone, inducing tanning. We show that, in rodents, another POMC-derived peptide, ?-endorphin, is coordinately synthesized in skin, elevating plasma levels after low-dose UV. Increases in pain-related thresholds are observed and reversed by pharmacologic opioid antagonism. Opioid blockade also elicits withdrawal signs after chronic UV exposure. This effect was sufficient to guide operant behavioral choices to avoidance of opioid withdrawal (conditioned place aversion). These UV-induced nociceptive and behavioral effects were absent in ?-endorphin knockout mice and in mice lacking p53-mediated POMC induction in epidermal keratinocytes. Although primordial UV addiction, mediated by the hedonic action of ?-endorphin and anhedonic effects of withdrawal, may theoretically have enhanced evolutionary vitamin D biosynthesis, it now may contribute to the relentless rise in skin cancer incidence in humans. PMID:24949966

  4. Flight Performance of UV Filters on the ALEXIS Satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Starin, S.

    1999-07-08

    The ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors) mission, serving as the first dedicated all-sky monitor in the extreme UV, has been collecting data since its launch in 1993. ALEXIS operates in a 70{degree} inclination orbit at an altitude of 800 km. The ALEXIS science mission is to observe the cosmic UV background and to study variability of EUV sources. The ALEXIS experiment is composed of six telescopes. Although the telescopes were only designed for a one-year technology verification mission, they are still functioning with much the same effectiveness as at the beginning of the mission. The telescopes comprise: (1) layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) spherical mirrors, (2) thin foil filters, and (3) microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, all enshrouded within the telescope body. The LSM mirrors select the bandpass for each telescope, while rejecting some of the HeII 304{angstrom} geocoronal radiation. The filters, constructed either from aluminum/carbon or Lexan/titanium/boron, serve to strongly reject the geocoronal radiation, as well as longer wavelength emission from bright OB stars. Each telescope detector consists of two plates, the outermost of which is curved to accurately match the spherical focal surface of the mirror. By reviewing the ground and flight histories, this paper analyzes the flight performance of the filters, including the effects of long term exposure and the formation of pinholes.

  5. Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Petra Y; Fent, Karl

    2006-11-15

    UV-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used for protection against UV radiation in sunscreens and in a variety of cosmetic products and materials. Depending on the breadth and factor of UV protection, they are added as single compounds or as a combination thereof. Some UV filters have estrogenic activity, but their activity and interactions in mixtures are largely unknown. In this work, we analyzed 8 commonly used UV filters, which are pure or partial hERalpha agonists, for their estrogenic activity in equieffective mixtures in a recombinant yeast assay carrying the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERalpha). Mixtures of two, four and eight UV filters alone, or in combination with 17 beta estradiol (E2), were assessed at different effect levels and no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC). Predictions of the joint effects of these mixtures were calculated by employing the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. Most binary mixtures comprising of pure hERalpha agonists showed a synergistic activity at all mixture combinations. Only in combination with benzophenone-1, antagonistic activity was observed at some effect levels. All mixtures of four or eight, pure or pure and partial hERalpha agonists, alone or including E2, showed synergistic activity at concentrations giving an increase of 10% of basal activity (BC10). This occurred even at concentrations that were at the NOEC level of each single compound. Hence, there were substantial mixture effects even though each UV filter was present at its NOEC level. These results show that significant interactions occur in UV filter mixtures, which is important for the hazard and risk assessments of these personal care products. PMID:17027055

  6. Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Petra Y. . E-mail: petra.kunz@fhnw.ch; Fent, Karl . E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch

    2006-11-15

    UV-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used for protection against UV radiation in sunscreens and in a variety of cosmetic products and materials. Depending on the breadth and factor of UV protection, they are added as single compounds or as a combination thereof. Some UV filters have estrogenic activity, but their activity and interactions in mixtures are largely unknown. In this work, we analyzed 8 commonly used UV filters, which are pure or partial hER{alpha} agonists, for their estrogenic activity in equieffective mixtures in a recombinant yeast assay carrying the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER{alpha}). Mixtures of two, four and eight UV filters alone, or in combination with 17 {beta} estradiol (E2), were assessed at different effect levels and no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC). Predictions of the joint effects of these mixtures were calculated by employing the concentration addition (Canada) and independent action (IA) model. Most binary mixtures comprising of pure hER{alpha} agonists showed a synergistic activity at all mixture combinations. Only in combination with benzophenone-1, antagonistic activity was observed at some effect levels. All mixtures of four or eight, pure or pure and partial hER{alpha} agonists, alone or including E2, showed synergistic activity at concentrations giving an increase of 10% of basal activity (BC10). This occurred even at concentrations that were at the NOEC level of each single compound. Hence, there were substantial mixture effects even though each UV filter was present at its NOEC level. These results show that significant interactions occur in UV filter mixtures, which is important for the hazard and risk assessments of these personal care products.

  7. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radiation M ost Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less aware of the connection between UV radiation and eye damage. With increased levels of UV ...

  8. Are Dusty Galaxies Blue? Insights on UV Attenuation from Dust-Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Caitlin; Scoville, Nicholas; Sanders, David B.; Lee, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha R.; Capak, Peter L.; Conley, Alexander J.; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Farrah, Duncan; Fu, Hai; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Ivison, Rob; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates. While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far- infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 ?m in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich dataset on local galaxies, we find a empirical variation in the relationship between rest-frame UV slope (?) and ratio of infrared-to- ultraviolet emission (LIR/LUV?IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total star formation rate, SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ˜> 50 M? yr-1 deviate from the nominal IRX-? relation towards bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z= 4 - 10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in LBG searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g. galaxies with > 50 M? yr-1, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ~ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  9. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  10. Far-UV to mid-IR properties of nearby radio galaxies

    E-print Network

    de Ruiter, Hans R; Fanti, Roberto; Fanti, Carla

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether the far-UV continuum of nearby radio galaxies reveals evidence for the presence of star forming or non-stellar components. If a UV excess due to an extra radiation component exists we compare this with other properties such as radio power, optical spectral type and the strength of the emission lines. We also discuss the possible correlation between the ultra-violet flux, IR properties and central black hole mass. We use two sampes of low luminosity radio galaxies with comparable redshifts ($z < 0.2$). Spectral Energy Distributions are constructed using a number of on-line databases: GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE. The parameter $XUV$ is introduced, which measures the excess slope of the UV continuum between 4500 and 2000 \\AA, with respect to the UV radiation produced by the underlying old galaxy component. We find that the UV excess is usually small or absent in low luminosity sources, but sets in abruptly at the transition radio power above which we find mostly FRII sources. $XUV$ beh...

  11. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  12. BRIGHT HOT IMPACTS BY ERUPTED FRAGMENTS FALLING BACK ON THE SUN: UV REDSHIFTS IN STELLAR ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Testa, P.; Landi, E.; Schrijver, C. J.

    2014-12-10

    A solar eruption after a flare on 2011 June 7 produced EUV-bright impacts of fallbacks far from the eruption site, observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These impacts can be taken as a template for the impact of stellar accretion flows. Broad redshifted UV lines have been commonly observed in young accreting stars. Here we study the emission from the impacts in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's UV channels and compare the inferred velocity distribution to stellar observations. We model the impacts with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the localized UV 1600 Å emission and its timing with respect to the EUV emission can be explained by the impact of a cloud of fragments. The first impacts produce strong initial upflows. The following fragments are hit and shocked by these upflows. The UV emission comes mostly from the shocked front shell of the fragments while they are still falling, and is therefore redshifted when observed from above. The EUV emission instead continues from the hot surface layer that is fed by the impacts. Fragmented accretion can therefore explain broad redshifted UV lines (e.g., C IV 1550 Å) to speeds around 400 km s{sup –1} observed in accreting young stellar objects.

  13. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a "variable star". The percentage is much higher among large, cool stars ("red giants") - in fact, almost all luminous stars of that type are variable. Such stars are known as Mira-variables ; the name comes from the most prominent member of this class, Omicron Ceti in the constellation Cetus (The Whale), also known as "Stella Mira" (The Wonderful Star). Its brightness changes with a period of 332 days and it is about 1500 times brighter at maximum (visible magnitude 2 and one of the fifty brightest stars in the sky) than at minimum (magnitude 10 and only visible in small telescopes) [2]. Stars like Omicron Ceti are nearing the end of their life. They are very large and have sizes from a few hundred to about a thousand times that of the Sun. The brightness variation is due to pulsations during which the star's temperature and size change dramatically. In the following evolutionary phase, Mira-variables will shed their outer layers into surrounding space and become visible as planetary nebulae with a hot and compact star (a "white dwarf") at the middle of a nebula of gas and dust (cf. the "Dumbbell Nebula" - ESO PR Photo 38a-b/98 ). Several thousand Mira-type stars are currently known in the Milky Way galaxy and a few hundred have been found in other nearby galaxies, including the Magellanic Clouds. The peculiar galaxy Centaurus A ESO PR Photo 14a/03 ESO PR Photo 14a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 53k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 528k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3612 x 4075 pix - 8.4M] ESO PR Photo 14b/03 ESO PR Photo 14b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 570 x 400 pix - 52k [Normal - JPEG: 1140 x 800 pix - 392k] ESO PR Photo 14c/03 ESO PR Photo 14c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 61k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 768k] ESO PR Photo 14d/03 ESO PR Photo 14d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 56k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 760k] Captions : PR Photo 14a/03 is a colour composite photo of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) , obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) cam

  14. Very Massive Stars in the Primitive Galaxy, IZw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara

    2012-01-01

    IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9) Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties and evolutionary status of very massive stars in IZw 18, based on UV photometry of individual stars in I Zw 18 and analysis of unresolved ultraviolet spectra of IZw 18-NW obtained with HST.

  15. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  16. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  17. Corneal changes associated with chronic UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H R; West, S K; Rosenthal, F S; Munoz, B; Newland, H S; Emmett, E A

    1989-10-01

    The association between exposure to UV radiation and corneal disease was investigated in 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Individual ocular exposure was calculated by combining a detailed occupational history with laboratory and field measurements. Pterygium was found in 140, climatic droplet keratopathy in 162, and pinguecula in 642. Logistic regression analysis showed that pterygium and climatic droplet keratopathy were significantly associated with a broad band of UV radiation exposure (UV-B, 290 to 320 nm; A1, 320 to 340 nm; and A2, 340 to 400 nm), but the association with pinguecula was weaker. Simple measures such as wearing a hat or spectacles protect the eye and could potentially reduce the amount of pterygium and climatic droplet keratopathy attributable to UV radiation exposure. PMID:2803097

  18. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  19. Interference filters for UV photometric instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atrasheuski, Yu. I.; Liudchik, A. M.; Stelmakh, G. F.; Turishev, L. N.; Yurkevich, I. I.

    2012-11-01

    The use of interference filters in UV photometric instrumentation is discussed with the features of the spectral distribution of solar radiation taken into account. In particular, special attention is paid to the problem of reducing the transmission in the long-wavelength wings of UV filters to a level of 0.002-0.001%. Technical means for measuring the parameters of the filters are described. The characteristics of some experimentally produced samples are discussed.

  20. First UV Spectra of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    To date, no UV spectrum of any Uranian satellite has ever been obtained, even by Voyager's UV Spectrometer which is not capable of operating redward of 1700 A. We propose to use IUE to obtain the first UV spectrum of a Uranian satellite by observing Oberon. Oberon is the most distant and slowest moving of the five major Uranian satellites (Burns 1986; Lane, at al. 1986). It is UV bright, the operationally easiest to observe, and therefore the first Uranian satellite which IUE should study. IUE has successfully observed equally dim planetary objects (e.g., Pluto). Members of this proposal team have made IUE observations of Triton and Pluto (Stern), as well as several faint comets (Festou), and the Galilean satellites (Nelson and Buratti); the proposed IUE observations of the Uranian satellites are entirely feasible. The proposed observations will compliment existing Voyager measurements and groundbased observations of Oberon, and will relate to the general study of the Uranian satellite system. Our general scientific objective is to obtain an LWP low-dispersion exposure to document the mid-UV spectrum of Oberon. We will analyze these data: (i) to determine the shape and slope of Oberon's albedo curve in the region 2600-3100 A, (ii) to search for potential UV absorption features indicative of the darkening agent common to the major Uranian satellites, (iii) to extend measurements of Oberon's UV solar-phase angle scattering behavior to below 4 degrees, and (iv) to make comparisons of the UV reflectance properties of Oberon to other planetary satellites already observed by IUE.

  1. Implications of Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations for star formation histories in NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric P.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Hill, Robert S.; Hintzen, Paul; Landsman, Wayne B.; Neff, Susan G.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss UV imagery of NGC 1275 obtained using the Goddard Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. We are able to study the UV morphology down to mu 249 of about 25 mag/sq arcsec. There are significant nonaxisymmetric structures in the UV continuum associated with the low-velocity filament system. Continuum from the high-velocity system may also be present. The large aperture UV colors indicate that although the mass function extends to about 5 solar masses, more massive objects are not present. This implies either a cessation of star formation during the last 50-100 Myr or a truncated initial mass function.

  2. H2 in the UV-rich Environment of Orion's Veil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Nicholas; Ferland, Gary J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Troland, Thomas H.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the physics of molecular gas, almost by definition, requires understanding the physics of molecular hydrogen. H2 is the most abundant molecule in molecular clouds, the formation of H2 initiates the transition from warmer atomic to cooler molecular gas, and H2 serves as a catalyst in the formation of other molecules like CO that are widely used to study star-forming regions. It is no exaggeration to say that a fundamental understanding of the earliest phases of star formation is impossible without a fundamental understanding of the physics of H2. In this presentation, we will present high-resolution UV absorption spectroscopy towards the Trapezium stars in the Orion Nebula. Using the STIS E140H setting of HST, we now have an S/N = 50 - 150 spectral dataset between 1133 - 1335 Angstroms, with a spectral resolution of 2.5 km/s. This dataset will allow us to determine the H2 column density in a PDR which has a very low H2 column density (H2/H(tot) < 10^-5). By observing the column density of high rotational/vibrational levels of H2, and combining the observations a detailed model of ISM physics using Cloudy, we hope to better understand the physics of H2 in high-UV flux environments, which has applications to star-forming environments at the galactic and extra-galactic level.

  3. Study of Star Formation in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, L.; Makarov, D.

    2008-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of re- solved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal en- richment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group have to be mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with the new WSO-UV observatory.

  4. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman ? line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 ?m) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman ? line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  5. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  6. Chameleon stars

    E-print Network

    V. Dzhunushaliev; V. Folomeev; D. Singleton

    2011-08-22

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field non-minimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and non-relativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the non-minimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  7. Neutrino Signatures from the First Stars

    E-print Network

    Frederic Daigne; Keith A. Olive; Pearl Sandick; Elisabesth Vangioni

    2005-09-14

    Evidence from the WMAP polarization data indicates that the Universe may have been reionized at very high redshift. It is often suggested that the ionizing UV flux originates from an early population of massive or very massive stars. Depending on their mass, such stars can explode either as type II supernovae or pair-instability supernovae, or may entirely collapse into a black hole. The resulting neutrino emission can be quite different in each case. We consider here the relic neutrino background produced by an early burst of Population III stars coupled with a normal mode of star formation at lower redshift. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation and is based on cosmic star formation histories constrained to reproduce the observed star formation rate at redshift z \\la 6, the observed chemical abundances in damped Lyman alpha absorbers and in the intergalactic medium, and to allow for an early reionization of the Universe at z \\sim 10-20. We find that although the high redshift burst of Population III stars does lead to an appreciable flux of neutrinos at relatively low energy (E_\

  8. Effects of UV radiation on phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond C.; Cullen, John J.

    1995-07-01

    It is now widely documented that reduced ozone will result in increased levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially UV-B (280-320nm), incident at the surface of the earth [Watson, 1988; Anderson et al., 1991; Schoeberl and Hartmann, 1991; Frederick and Alberts, 1991; WMO, 1991; Madronich, 1993; Kerr and McElroy, 1993], and there is considerable and increasing evidence that these higher levels of UV-B radiation may be detrimental to various forms of marine life in the upper layers of the ocean. With respect to aquatic ecosystems, we also know that this biologically- damaging mid-ultraviolet radiation can penetrate to ecologically- significant depths in marine and freshwater systems [Jerlov, 1950; Lenoble, 1956; Smith and Baker, 1979; Smith and Baker, 1980; Smith and Baker, 1981; Kirk et al., 1994]. This knowledge, plus the dramatic decline in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent each spring, now known to be caused by anthropogenically released chemicals [Solomon, 1990; Booth et al., 1994], has resulted in increased UV-environmental research and a number of summary reports. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) has provided recent updates with respect to the effects of ozone depletion on aquatic ecosystems (Hader, Worrest, Kumar in UNEP 1989, 1991, Hader, Worrest, Kumar and Smith UNEP 1994) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has provided [SCOPE, 1992] a summary of the effects of increased UV radiation on biological systems. SCOPE has also reported [SCOPE, 1993] on the effects of increased UV on the biosphere. In addition, several books have recently been published reviewing various aspects of environmental UV photobiology [Young et al., 1993], UV effects on humans, animals and plants [Tevini, 1993], the biological effects of UV radiation in Antarctica [Weiler and Penhale, 1994], and UV research in freshwater ecosystems [Williamson and Zagarese, 1994]. Several other reviews are relevant [NAS, 1984; Caldwell et al., 1986; Worrest, 1986; NOAA, 1987; Smith, 1989; Smith and Baker, 1989; Voytek, 1990; Häder, 1993; Acevedo and Nolan, 1993; Holm-Hansen et al., 1993; Vincent and Roy, 1993; Biggs and Joyner, 1994; Williamson and Zagarese, 1994; Karentz, 1994; Cullen and Neale, 1993; Cullen and Neale, 1994]. As Hader et al. have summarized [UNEP, 1989; UNEP, 1991], "UV-B radiation in aquatic systems: 1) affects adaptive strategies (e.g., motility, orientation); 2) impairs important physiological functions (e.g., photosynthesis and enzymatic reactions); and 3) threatens marine organisms during their developmental stages (e.g., the young of finfish, shrimp larvae, crab larvae)". Possible consequences to aquatic systems include: reduced biomass production; changes in species composition and biodiversity; and alterations of aquatic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles associated with the above changes. Within the past four years, our knowledge with respect to the environmental effects of ozone-related increased levels of UV-B has increased significantly, and numerous efforts have been directed toward process-oriented studies of UV responses in plants and animals. Consensus is building toward the view that current levels of UV play a major role as an ecological determinant, influencing both survival and distribution, and are thus deserving of increased study independent of ozone-related UV-B increases. This review outlines U.S. research subsequent to 1991 and emphasizes studies concerned with phytoplankton.

  9. UV spectral radiometer on filter-model basis (UV-SPRAFIMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaifel, Anton K.; Kaptur, Jasmine; Reutter, Oliver; Wohlfart, Michael; Schwander, Harry; Koepke, Peter; Dehne, K.; Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf-Dieter; Koehl, Michael; Brucker, Franz

    2003-11-01

    UV-SPRAFIMO is a completely new developed UV instrument for very fast measurements of solar spectral irradiance with high spectral resolution and arbitrary step width. It combines sophisticated filter radiometer technique with a new model based on neural networks. UV-SPRAFIMO has the following specifications: (1) Spectral region 280 - 400 nm. (2) Arbitrary spectral resolution and step width of the UV spectra (>= 0.05 nm). (3) Simultaneous measurement of all spectral channels. (4) Up to 5 measurements per second with arbitrary averaging interval of 5 to 30 seconds. (5) Weatherproofed, air conditioned housing and fully automatic measurement system. (6) No moving parts. (7) Data logger up to 64 Mbytes memory for long-term measurements at remote sites. (8) GPS to automatically set up time and geographical position data. (9) PC based, graphical user interface for measurement set up and monitoring and processing of data. (10) Online calculation and visualization of integrated irradiances like UV-A, UV-B and UV-Index as well as erythemal or user defined weighted irradiance. (11) Simultaneous total ozone column retrieval from spectral measurements. UV-SPRAFIMO is a standalone and easy to use UV spectral radiometer; it was tested in different climate regions during field measurement campaigns in order to compare measurement performance and accuracy to high quality scanning spectral radiometers. Details of functional principles and results of the measurement campaigns are presented.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN THE OUTER DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES: ULTRAVIOLET AND H{alpha} PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese; Skillman, Evan D. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu

    2011-12-20

    We present an analysis of ultradeep UV and H{alpha} imaging of five nearby spiral galaxies to study the recent star formation in the outer disk. Using azimuthally averaged ellipse photometry as well as aperture photometry of individual young stellar complexes, we measure how star formation rates (SFRs) and UV and H{alpha} colors vary with radius. We detect azimuthally averaged UV flux to {approx}1.2-1.4 R{sub 25} in most galaxies; at the edge of the detected UV disk, the surface brightnesses are 28-29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, corresponding to SFR surface densities of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Additionally, we detect between 120 and 410 young stellar complexes per galaxy, with a significant number of detections out to {approx}1.5 R{sub 25}. We measure radial FUV-NUV profiles, and find that the dispersion in the UV colors of individual young stellar complexes increases with radius. We investigate how radial variations in the frequency of star formation episodes can create color gradients and increasing dispersion in the UV colors of star-forming regions, like those observed in our study. Specifically, we use recently published, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of {Sigma}{sub SFR} throughout the disk of M33 to estimate the frequency of star formation episodes throughout the disk of a typical spiral galaxy. We use stellar synthesis models of these star formation histories (SFHs) to measure the variations in UV colors and find that we can replicate large dispersions in UV colors based on episodic SFHs.

  11. Spectroscopic Observations of Low-Mass Stars in the GALNYSS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vican, Laura; Zuckerman, Ben M.; Rodriguez, David

    2016-01-01

    Young, low-mass stars are known to be bright in X-ray and UV due to their high levels of magnetic activity. By cross-correlating the GALEX Catalog with the 2MASS Point Source Catalog, we have identified a list of over 2,000 stars whose UV excesses suggest that they are in the 10-100 Myr age range. We used several medium and high-resolution spectrometers in the Northern and Southern hemisphere to obtain optical spectra of ~500 of these stars. By measuring their lithium equivalent widths and H? emission, we have been able to confirm the youth of many stars in our catalog. Furthermore, we were able to measure radial velocities and UVW galactic space velocities for stars with high-resolution spectra, and were able to place some of these stars in nearby young moving groups.

  12. Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

  13. Brittle Star

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tiny brittle star (the central disc is smaller than a dime) clings to the branches of a soft coral in a sample bucket brought into the shipboard laboratory from a submersible dive. This creature makes its home on the deep, dark ocean floor. ...

  14. STAR Highlights

    E-print Network

    Hiroshi Masui; for the STAR Collaboration

    2011-06-29

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  15. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  16. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  17. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L. J.; Andrews, J. E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Ryon, J. E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ˜kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(?2704 Å), F336W(?3355 Å), F438W(?4325 Å), F555W(?5308 Å), and F814W(?8024 Å) the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(?4328 Å), F606W(?5921 Å), and F814W(?8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (?50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L. J.; Chandar, R.; Clayton, G. C.; Silva, R. da; Mink, S. E. de; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ?kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(?2704 ?), F336W(?3355 ?), F438W(?4325 ?), F555W(?5308 ?), and F814W(?8024 ?); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(?4328 ?), F606W(?5921 ?), and F814W(?8057 ?). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (?50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  19. Influence of uvA on the erythematogenic and therapeutic effects of uvB irradiation in psoriasis; photoaugmentation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Suurmond, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to an additive dose of long ultraviolet (uvA) radiation on the erythemogenic and therapeutic effects of middle ultraviolet (uvB) irradiation was investigated in 8 patients with psoriasis. The surface of the backs of these patients was divided into 2 parts, 1 of which received only uvB irradiation 4 times a week and the other uvA + uvB. uvB was provided by Philips TL-12 lamps and uvA by glass-filtered Philips TL-09 lamps. uvA was held constantly at 10 J/cm2, whereas uvB alone were evaluated by 4 tests during the treatment to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). Test I (at the start of the therapy) showed a photoaugmentative effect which was no longer apparent in Test III (third week). Test III showed a reversal of the ratios of the MEDs of the sites irradiated with the uvA + uvB and uvB (MED A + B/MED B). This is ascribed to the marked pigmentation which appeared after repeated irradiation with the uvA + uvB combination. Comparison showed for the improvement of the psoriasis no distinct differences between uvA + uvB irradiation and uvB alone, but the former had the cosmetic advantage of giving pleasing tan.

  20. Modelling of variability of the chemically peculiar star ? Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prvák, M.; Liška, J.; Krti?ka, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Lüftinger, T.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The presence of heavier chemical elements in stellar atmospheres influences the spectral energy distribution of stars. An uneven surface distribution of these elements, together with flux redistribution and stellar rotation, are commonly believed to be the primary causes of the variability of chemically peculiar (CP) stars. Aims: We aim to model the photometric variability of the CP star ? Dra based on the assumption of inhomogeneous surface distribution of heavier elements and compare it to the observed variability of the star. We also intend to identify the processes that contribute most significantly to its photometric variability. Methods: We use a grid of TLUSTY model atmospheres and the SYNSPEC code to model the radiative flux emerging from the individual surface elements of ? Dra with different chemical compositions. We integrate the emerging flux over the visible surface of the star at different phases throughout the entire rotational period to synthesise theoretical light curves of the star in several spectral bands. Results: The synthetic light curves in the visible and in the near-UV regions are in very good agreement with the observed variability of the star. The lack of usable far-UV measurements of the star precludes making any conclusions about the correctness of our model in this spectral region. We also obtained 194 new BVRI observations of ? Dra and improved its rotational period to P = 1 ? 716500(2). Conclusions: We show that the inhomogeneous distribution of elements, flux redistribution, and rotation of the star are fully capable of explaining the stellar variability in the visible and the near-UV regions. The flux redistribution is mainly caused by bound-free transitions of silicon and bound-bound transitions of iron. BVRI photometry of Phi Dra is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A17

  1. Signatures of recent star formation in ring S0 galaxies

    E-print Network

    Marino, A; Rampazzo, R; Thilker, D; Annibali, F; Bressan, A; Buson, L M; 10.1007/s10509-010-0588-3

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the stellar populations of ring and/or arm-like structures in a sample of S0 galaxies using GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet imaging and SDSS optical data. Such structures are prominent in the UV and reveal recent star formation. We quantitatively characterize these rejuvenation events, estimating the average age and stellar mass of the ring structures, as well as of the entire galaxy. The mass fraction of the UV-bright rings is a few percent of the total galaxy mass, although the UV ring luminosity reaches 70% of the galaxy luminosity. The integrated colors of these S0s locates them in the red sequence (NGC 2962) and in the so-called green valley. We suggest that the star formation episodes may be induced by different triggering mechanisms, such as the inner secular evolution driven by bars, and interaction episodes.

  2. THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF UV-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 2-3

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Shapley, Alice E.; Greene, Jenny E.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2011-05-20

    We present new results for a sample of 33 narrow-lined UV-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified in the course of a spectroscopic survey for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2-3. The rest-frame UV composite spectrum for our AGN sample shows several emission lines characteristic of AGNs, as well as interstellar absorption features detected in star-forming Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). We report a detection of N IV] {lambda}1486, which has been observed in high-redshift radio galaxies, as well as in rare optically selected quasars. The UV continuum slope of the composite spectrum is significantly redder than that of a sample of non-AGN UV-selected star-forming galaxies. Blueshifted Si IV absorption provides evidence for outflowing highly ionized gas in these objects at speeds of {approx}10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}, quantitatively different from what is seen in the outflows of non-AGN LBGs. Grouping the individual AGNs by parameters such as the Ly{alpha} equivalent width, redshift, and UV continuum magnitude allows for an analysis of the major spectroscopic trends within the sample. Stronger Ly{alpha} emission is coupled with weaker low-ionization absorption, which is similar to what is seen in the non-AGN LBGs, and highlights the role that cool interstellar gas plays in the escape of Ly{alpha} photons. However, the AGN composite does not show the same trends between Ly{alpha} strength and extinction seen in the non-AGN LBGs. These results represent the first such comparison at high redshift between star-forming galaxies and similar galaxies that host AGN activity.

  3. IUE observations of new A star candidate proto-planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the detection of accreting gas in the A5e PMS Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, most of the observations for this IUE program were devoted to Herbig Ae stars rather than to main sequence A stars. Mid-UV emission at optical minimum light was detected for UX Ori (A1e), BF Ori (A5e), and CQ Tau (F2e). The presence of accreting gas in HD 45677 and HD 50138 prompted reclassification of these stars as Herbig Be stars rather than as protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed results are discussed.

  4. Triboelectrification induced UV emission from plasmon Chang Bao Han1,

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    sterilization effect was fabricated. This work provides a novel design to fabricate a self- powered UV light, plasma discharge, UV light, sterilization ABSTRACT UV is a high-energy electromagnetic radiation that has white light emission. A UV sterilization experiment shows that ~98% of Escherichia coli can be killed

  5. The Stellar Composition of the Star Formation Region CMa R1. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Observations of 9 Young Stars

    E-print Network

    H. R. E. Tjin A Djie; M. E. van den Ancker; P. F. C. Blondel; V. S. Shevchenko; O. V. Ezhkova; D. de Winter; K. N. Grankin

    2001-03-21

    We present new high and low resolution spectroscopic and photometric data of nine members of the young association CMa R1. All the stars have circumstellar dust at some distance as could be expected from their association with reflection nebulosity. Four stars (HD 52721, HD 53367, LkHalpha 220 and LkHalpha 218) show Halpha emission and we argue that they are Herbig Be stars with discs. Our photometric and spectroscopic observations on these stars reveal new characteristics of their variability. We present first interpretations of the variability of HD 52721, HD 53367 and the two LkHalpha stars in terms of a partially eclipsing binary, a magnetic activity cycle and circumstellar dust variations, respectively. The remaining five stars show no clear indications of Halpha emission in their spectra, although their spectral types and ages are comparable with those of HD 52721 and HD 53367. This indicates that the presence of a disc around a star in CMa R1 may depend on the environment of the star. In particular we find that all Halpha emission stars are located at or outside the arc-shaped border of the H II region, which suggests that the stars inside the arc have lost their discs through evaporation by UV photons from nearby O stars, or from the nearby (< 25 pc) supernova, about 1 Myr ago.

  6. The Hubble Deep UV Legacy Survey (HDUV): Survey Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, Pascal; Montes, Mireia; HDUV Survey Team

    2015-08-01

    Deep HST imaging has shown that the overall star formation density and UV light density at z>3 is dominated by faint, blue galaxies. Remarkably, very little is known about the equivalent galaxy population at lower redshifts. Understanding how these galaxies evolve across the epoch of peak cosmic star-formation is key to a complete picture of galaxy evolution. Here, we present a new HST WFC3/UVIS program, the Hubble Deep UV (HDUV) legacy survey. The HDUV is a 132 orbit program to obtain deep imaging in two filters (F275W and F336W) over the two CANDELS Deep fields. We will cover ~100 arcmin2, reaching down to 27.5-28.0 mag at 5 sigma. By directly sampling the rest-frame far-UV at z>~0.5, this will provide a unique legacy dataset with exquisite HST multi-wavelength imaging as well as ancillary HST grism NIR spectroscopy for a detailed study of faint, star-forming galaxies at z~0.5-2. The HDUV will enable a wealth of research by the community, which includes tracing the evolution of the FUV luminosity function over the peak of the star formation rate density from z~3 down to z~0.5, measuring the physical properties of sub-L* galaxies, and characterizing resolved stellar populations to decipher the build-up of the Hubble sequence from sub-galactic clumps. This poster provides an overview of the HDUV survey and presents the reduced data products and catalogs which will be released to the community.

  7. Bolometric and UV light curves of core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, T. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Brown, Peter J.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Frey, Lucille H.

    2014-06-01

    The Swift UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) has been observing core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) of all subtypes in the UV and optical since 2005. Here we present 50 CCSNe observed with the Swift UVOT, analyzing their UV properties and behavior. Where we have multiple UV detections in all three UV filters (? {sub c} = 1928-2600 Å), we generate early time bolometric light curves, analyze the properties of these light curves and the UV contribution to them, and derive empirical corrections for the UV-flux contribution to optical-IR based bolometric light curves.

  8. Radiation driven winds of hot stars: Theory of O-star atmospheres as a spectroscopic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Feldmeier, A.; Puls, J.; Kudritzki, R. P.

    1993-03-01

    The status of the continuing effort to construct radiation driven wind models for O-Stars atmospheres is reviewed. Emphasis is given to several problems relating to the fomation of UV line spectra the use of accurate atomic data, the inclusion of EUV radiation by shock heated matter, the simulation of photospheric line blocking. A new tool for O-star diagnostics is presented. This is based on the use of wind models to calculate synthetic high resolution spectra covering the observable UV region. A comparison with observed spectra then gives physical constraints on the properties of stellar winds and stellar parameters, additionally abundances can be determined. The astrophysical potential of this method is demonstrated by an application to two Of-stars, the galactic O4f-star ?-Puppis and the LMC O3f-star Melnick 42. With regard to effective temperatures and gravities, the results from the application of classical methods to the analysis of photospheric lines are only partially verified. Explanations for the shortcomings of classical NLTE methods are discussed.

  9. Radiation driven winds of hot stars: theory of O-Star atmospheres as a spectroscopic tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Feldmeier, A.; Puls, J.; Kudritzki, R. P.

    The status of the continuing effort to construct radiation driven wind models for O-Stars atmospheres is reviewed. Emphasis is given to several problems relating to the fomation of UV line spectra the use of accurate atomic data, the inclusion of EUV radiation by shock heated matter, the simulation of photospheric line blocking. A new tool for O-star diagnostics is presented. This is based on the use of wind models to calculate synthetic high resolution spectra covering the observable UV region. A comparison with observed spectra then gives physical constraints on the properties of stellar winds and stellar parameters, additionally abundances can be determined. The astrophysical potential of this method is demonstrated by an application to two Of-stars, the galactic O4f-star ? Puppis and the LMC O3f-star Melnick 42. With regard to effective temperatures and gravities, the results from the application of classical methods to the analysis of photospheric lines are only partially verified. Explanations for the shortcomings of classical NLTE methods are discussed.

  10. Variable Stars Pulsating Stars: periodic

    E-print Network

    Basu, Shantanu

    's Laws (Kepler's 3rd Law ) imply . 14 2 3 2 G P GMR P = Note: free-fall time and pulsation time to novae in binary systems. Type II: End stage of massive star life. A rebound occurs after the collapse

  11. UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring.

    PubMed

    Chavas, Leonard M G; Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a low-cost solution for crystal centring with high specificity. PMID:21169682

  12. TAUVEX - Tel Aviv University UV Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.

    1995-06-01

    TAUVEX - Tel Aviv University UV Explorer is a space telescope that is currently being built in Israel, to be flown on board the Russian international sattelite SRG - Spectrum Roentgen Gamma, in late 1995 or early 1996. TAUVEX is an imager in the near UV spectral window. Its major goal is to make a survey of about 10% of the UV sky, in the range ? = 1350 - 3500Å. A successful operation of TAUVEX will partially fill an important gap in our recognition of the sky, namely the distribution and the nature of the celestial UV sources, which are still mostly unknown. TAUVEX will also operate as a fast multicolor photometer in its UV range of operation. TAUVEX is aligned in parallel to the common optical axix of all the other instruments on board SRG, most of which are telescopes and monitors for high energy radiation. SRG will be thus able to perform for the first time in history simultaneous astronomical observations in one and the same celestial body, that cover together 7 order of magnitude of the recorded radiation. The observations of TAUVEX can be greatly enhanced by ground base observations.

  13. UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring

    PubMed Central

    Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a low-cost solution for crystal centring with high specificity. PMID:21169682

  14. New UV detectors for solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochedez, Jean-Francois E.; Schuehle, Udo H.; Pau, Jose L.; Alvarez, Jose; Hainaut, Olivier; Appourchaux, Thierry P.; Auret, F. D.; Belsky, Andrei; Bergonzo, Philippe; Castex, M. C.; Deneuville, A.; Dhez, Pierre; Fleck, Bernhard; Haenen, Ken; Idir, Mourad; Kleider, Jean Paul; Lefeuvre, Elie; Lemaire, Philippe; Monroy, E.; Muret, P.; Munoz, Elias; Nesladek, Milos; Omnes, Franck; Pace, Emanuele; Peacock, Anthony J.; Van Hoof, Chris A.

    2003-02-01

    BOLD (Blind to the Optical Light Detectors) is an international initiative dedicated to the development of novel imaging detectors for UV solar observations. It relies on the properties of wide bandgap materials (in particular diamond and Al-Ga-nitrides). The investigation is proposed in view of the Solar Orbiter (S.O.) UV instruments, for which the expected benefits of the new sensors -primarily visible blindness and radiation hardness- will be highly valuable. Despite various advances in the technology of imaging detectors over the last decades, the present UV imagers based on silicon CCDs or microchannel plates exhibit limitations inherent to their actual material and technology. Yet, the utmost spatial resolution, fast temporal cadence, sensitivity, and photometric accuracy will be decisive for the forthcoming solar space missions. The advent of imagers based on wide-bandgap materials will permit new observations and, by simplifying their design, cheaper instruments. As for the Solar Orbiter, the aspiration for wide-bandgap material (WBGM) based UV detectors is still more sensible because the spacecraft will approach the Sun where the heat and the radiation fluxes are high. We describe the motivations, and present the program to achieve revolutionary flight cameras within the Solar Orbiter schedule as well as relevant UV measurements.

  15. UV Damage in DNA Promotes Nucleosome Unwrapping*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ming-Rui; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The association of DNA with histones in chromatin impedes DNA repair enzymes from accessing DNA lesions. Nucleosomes exist in a dynamic equilibrium in which portions of the DNA molecule spontaneously unwrap, transiently exposing buried DNA sites. Thus, nucleosome dynamics in certain regions of chromatin may provide the exposure time and space needed for efficient repair of buried DNA lesions. We have used FRET and restriction enzyme accessibility to study nucleosome dynamics following DNA damage by UV radiation. We find that FRET efficiency is reduced in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the presence of UV photoproducts enhances spontaneous unwrapping of DNA from histones. Furthermore, this UV-induced shift in unwrapping dynamics is associated with increased restriction enzyme accessibility of histone-bound DNA after UV treatment. Surprisingly, the increased unwrapping dynamics is even observed in nucleosome core particles containing a single UV lesion at a specific site. These results highlight the potential for increased “intrinsic exposure” of nucleosome-associated DNA lesions in chromatin to repair proteins. PMID:20562439

  16. UV/ozone cleaning of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, J. R.

    1986-05-01

    The UV/ozone methods, which is reviewed in this report, is an effective method of removing a variety of contaminants from surfaces. It is a simple-to-use dry process which is inexpensive to set up and operate. It can rapidly produce clean surfaces, in air or in a vacuum system, at ambient temperatures. Placing properly precleaned surface within a few millimeters of an ozone-producing UV source can produce clean surfaces in less than one minute. The technique can produce clean surfaces in less than one minute. The technique can produce near-atomically clean surfaces, as evidenced by Auger electron spectrosocpy (AES), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and ion scattering spectroscopy/secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ISS/SIMS) studies. Topics discussed include the variables of the process, the types for surfaces which have been cleaned successfully, the contaminants that can be removed, the construction of a UV ozone cleaning facility, the mechanism of the process, UV/ozone cleaning in vacuum systems, rate-enhancement techniques, safety consideration, effects of UV/ozone other than cleaning, and applications.

  17. Detection of H2 Emission from Mira B in UV Spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope

    E-print Network

    Brian E. Wood; Margarita Karovska; Warren Hack

    2001-07-02

    We present ultraviolet spectra of Mira's companion star from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The companion is generally assumed to be a white dwarf surrounded by an accretion disk fed by Mira's wind, which dominates the UV emission from the system. The STIS UV spectrum is dominated by numerous, narrow H2 lines fluoresced by H I Ly-alpha, which were not detected in any of the numerous observations of Mira B by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The high temperature lines detected by IUE (e.g., C IV 1550) still exist in the STIS spectrum but with dramatically lower fluxes. The continuum fluxes in the STIS spectra are also much lower, being more than an order of magnitude lower than ever observed by IUE, and also an order of magnitude lower than fluxes observed in more recent HST Faint Object Camera objective prism spectra from 1995. Thus, the accretion rate onto Mira B was apparently much lower when STIS observed the star, and this change altered the character of Mira B's UV spectrum.

  18. Near-UV and optical observations of the transiting exoplanet TrES-3b

    E-print Network

    Turner, Jake D; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K; Carleton, Timothy M; Walker-LaFollette, Amanda M; Crawford, Benjamin E; Smith, Carter-Thaxton W; McGraw, Allison M; Small, Lindsay C; Rocchetto, Marco; Cunningham, Kathryn I; Towner, Allison P M; Zellem, Robert; Robertson, Amy N; Guvenen, Blythe C; Schwarz, Kamber R; Hardegree-Ullman, Emily E; Collura, Daniel; Henz, Triana N; Lejoly, Cassandra; Richardson, Logan L; Weinand, Michael A; Taylor, Joanna M; Daugherty, Michael J; Wilson, Ashley A; Austin, Carmen L

    2012-01-01

    We observed nine primary transits of the hot Jupiter TrES-3b in several optical and near-UV photometric bands from 2009 June to 2012 April in an attempt to detect its magnetic field. Vidotto, Jardine and Helling suggest that the magnetic field of TrES-3b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unaffected. Predicted magnetic field strengths of Jupiter-like planets should range between 8 G and 30 G. Using these magnetic field values and an assumed B_star of 100 G, the Vidotto et al. method predicts a timing difference of 5-11 min. We did not detect an early ingress in our three nights of near-UV observations, despite an average cadence of 68 s and an average photometric precision of 3.7 mmag. However, we determined an upper limit of TrES-3b's magnetic field strength to range between 0.013 and 1.3 G (for a 1-100 G magnetic field strength range for the host star, TrES-3) using a timing difference of 138 s derived from the N...

  19. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  20. Classical symbiotic stars at active stages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpio, E.; Bisikalo, D.

    2008-12-01

    The results of gasdynamic modeling allowed us to propose a possible mechanism of transition to active state in classical symbiotic stars as well as to explain the step-by-step rise to the light maximum during the out- burst. Good agreement with available observational data for Z And supports our model. Existing observations of symbiotic stars indicate the presence of winds from both components at active stages of these systems. We have carried out the gasdynamic modeling of the outburst development process in the classic symbi- otic star Z And in the framework of the colliding winds model. It is shown that contribution from the system of shocks that forms in the area of wind collision is rather significant especially at short wavelengths. Detailed investigation of flare activity of symbiotics requires additional observations and most of all in the UV range.

  1. Recombination Lines of Embedded Star Clusters

    E-print Network

    S. C. Beck

    2008-08-13

    Aims. We are trying to probe conditions in the youngest super star clusters, those still embedded in dense obscuring clouds. Methods. The hydrogen recombination lines in the radio and infrared can be observed through the obscuration, as the optical and UV lines cannot, and give us the kinematics of the ionized gas. Results. The line profiles of the clusters resemble superpositions of the lines of many very young ultra-compact or hyper-compact HII regions. This can be explained if each OB star is individually embedded in dense material which it is accreting, even as it ionizes. Conclusions. We speculate on what this implies for the status and evolutionary state of cluster stars.

  2. First View of the Accretion Disks in Normal Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloski, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    Accretion disks in symbiotic stars are often hidden by the optical emission from the red-giant companion, UV from the ionized nebula, and soft X-rays from colliding winds. A survey of symbiotic with Swift, however, has revealed that the accretion disk dominates above 2 keV and in the rapidly variable portion of the UV. To determine the basic properties of the large, wind- fed accretion disks around the white dwarfs in symbiotic, we propose X-ray and UV observations with XMM-Newton of the two most promising targets from our Swift survey. Only XMM can provide the sensitive, contiguous, multi-wavelength observations to determine the accretion rates, characterize the properties of the UV flickering and test our conclusion that hard X-rays originate in the innermost accretion disk.

  3. Insulator Surface Flashover Due to UV Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Javedani, J B; Houck, T L; Lahowe, D A; Vogtlin, G E; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    The surface of an insulator under vacuum and under electrical charge will flashover when illuminated by a critical dose of ultra-violet (UV) radiation - depending on the insulator size and material, insulator cone angle, the applied voltage and insulator shot-history. A testbed comprised of an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm, {approx}16 MW, 30 ns FWHM,), a vacuum chamber, and a negative polarity dc high voltage power supply ({le} -60 kV) were assembled to test 1.0 cm thick angled insulators for surface-flashover. Several candidate insulator materials, e.g. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex, of varying cone angles were tested against UV illumination. Commercial energy meters were used to measure the UV fluence of the pulsed laser beam. In-house designed and fabricated capacitive probes (D-dots, >12 GHz bandwidth) were embedded in the anode electrode underneath the insulator to determine the time of UV arrival and time of flashover. Of the tested insulators, the +45 degree Rexolite insulator showed more resistance to UV for surface flashover; at UV fluence level of less than 13 mJ/cm{sup 2}, it was not possible to induce a flashover for up to -60 kV of DC potential across the insulator's surface. The probes also permitted the electrical charge on the insulator before and after flashover to be inferred. Photon to electron conversion efficiency for the surface of Rexolite insulator was determined from charge-balance equation. In order to understand the physical mechanism leading to flashover, we further experimented with the +45 degree Rexolite insulator by masking portions of the UV beam to illuminate only a section of the insulator surface; (1) the half nearest the cathode and subsequently, (2) the half nearest the anode. The critical UV fluence and time to flashover were measured and the results in each case were then compared with the base case of full-beam illumination. It was discovered that the time for the insulator to flash was earlier in time for the cathode-half beam illumination case than the anode-half illumination case which led us to believe that the flashover mechanism for the UV illumination is initiated from the cathode side of the insulator. Qualitatively stated, the testing revealed that the shielding of the cathode triple point against UV is more important than the anode triple junction in the design of vacuum insulators and electrodes. The goal of this work was to acquire empirical data on critical UV fluence (energy per unit area) required to induce surface flashover of vacuum insulators for some candid insulator materials: High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex. This work was a clarification and extension of studies performed by C.L. Enloe, et. al. in the 80's [1-3]. Additionally, to gain an understanding of the physical mechanism of flashover, we experimented with UV illumination of a portion of the insulator's surface near the cathode and subsequently near the anode. The results of these experiments are covered in detail.

  4. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  5. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  6. Direct-to-diffuse UV Solar Irradiance Ratio for a UV rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer and a UV Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, K.; Kiedron, P.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Michalsky, J.; Slusser, J.

    2008-12-01

    . Two spectroradiometers reside that measure direct and diffuse UV solar irradiance are located at the Table Mountain Test Facility, 8 km north of Boulder, CO. The UV- Rotating Shadowband Spectrograph (UV-RSS) measures diffuse and direct solar irradiance from 290 - 400 nm. The UV Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) measures diffuse and direct solar irradiance in seven 2-nm wide bands, i.e. 300, 305, 311, 317, 325, and 368 nm. The purpose of the work is to compare radiative transfer model calculations (TUV) with the results from the UV-Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (UV-RSS) and the UV-MFRSR to estimate direct-to-diffuse solar irradiance ratios (DDR) that are used to evaluate the possibility of retrieving aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) under a variety of atmospheric conditions: large and small aerosol loading, large and small surface albedo. For the radiative transfer calculations, total ozone measurements are obtained from a collocated Brewer spectrophotometer.

  7. Star Formation Histories in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John; Connor, Thomas; Clash Science Team

    2015-01-01

    The CLASH sample of 25 lensing galaxy clusters contains 11 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) that exhibit significant unobscured (>5 Msol yr-1) star formation activity. The star formation is inferred from UV emission and from evidence for H-alpha filaments as detected in the ACS and WFC3 observations. We use photometry from the 16-band CLASH imaging along with spectra from the SOAR and SDSS telescopes to examine the star formation histories of these galaxies. Using SED fits to synthetic stellar population and nebular emission models, we constrain the burst histories of the two most UV and H-alpha luminous BCGs in our sample, RXJ1532.9+3021 and MACS1931.8-2635. The BCG in both of these clusters have reddening-corrected UV estimates of star formation rates in excess of 100 solar masses per year. We model the timescales and sizes of the starbursts that can account for the photometric and spectroscopic properties in these BCGs and create maps of their stellar properties on scales of ~350 pc. These maps reveal recent bursts occurring in elongated filaments on relatively long (~0.5-1.0 Gyr) timescales. In addition, we constrain the star formation properties of all of the remaining BCGs in the CLASH sample. These results and their implications for BCG formation and evolution will be presented.

  8. Planck stars

    E-print Network

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  9. Planck stars

    E-print Network

    Carlo Rovelli; Francesca Vidotto

    2014-02-08

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density ---not by size--- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. We consider arguments for $n=1/3$ and for $n=1$. There is no causality violation or faster-than-light propagation. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  10. UV protection for sunglasses: revisiting the standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masili, Mauro; Schiabel, Homero; Ventura, Liliane

    2014-02-01

    In a continuing work of establishing safe limits for UV protection on sunglasses, we have estimated the incident UV radiation for the 280 nm - 400 nm range for 5500 locations in Brazil. Current literature establishes safe limits regarding ultraviolet radiation exposure in the spectral region 180nm-400nm for weighted and unweighted UV radiant exposure. British Standard BSEN1836(2005) and American Standard ANZI Z80.3(2009) require the UV protection in the spectral range 280nm-380nm, and The Brazilian Standard for sunglasses protection, NBR15111(20013), currently requires protection for the 280nm - 400nm range as established by literature. However, none of them take into account the total (unweighted) UVA radiant exposure.Calculations of these limits have been made for 5500 Brazilian locations which included the geographic position of the city; altitude, inclination angle of the Earth; typical atmospheric data (ozone column; water vapor and others) as well as scattering from concrete, grass, sand, water, etc.. Furthermore, regarding UV safety for the ocular media, the resistance to irradiance test required on this standard of irradiating the lenses for 25 continuous hours with a 450W sunlight simulator leads to a correspondence of 26 hours and 10 minutes of continuous exposure to the Sun. Moreover, since the sun irradiance in Brazil is quite large, integrations made for the 280-400 nm range shows an average of 45% of greater ultraviolet radiant exposure than for the 280-380 nm range. Suggestions on the parameters of these tests are made in order to establish safe limits according to the UV irradiance in Brazil.

  11. STRONG VARIABLE ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM Y GEM: ACCRETION ACTIVITY IN AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR WITH A BINARY COMPANION?

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Neill, James D.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

    2011-10-20

    Binarity is believed to dramatically affect the history and geometry of mass loss in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars, but observational evidence of binarity is sorely lacking. As part of a project to look for hot binary companions to cool AGB stars using the Galaxy Evolution Explorer archive, we have discovered a late-M star, Y Gem, to be a source of strong and variable UV emission. Y Gem is a prime example of the success of our technique of UV imaging of AGB stars in order to search for binary companions. Y Gem's large and variable UV flux makes it one of the most prominent examples of a late-AGB star with a mass accreting binary companion. The UV emission is most likely due to emission associated with accretion activity and a disk around a main-sequence companion star. The physical mechanism generating the UV emission is extremely energetic, with an integrated luminosity of a few x L{sub sun} at its peak. We also find weak CO J = 2-1 emission from Y Gem with a very narrow line profile (FWHM of 3.4 km s{sup -1}). Such a narrow line is unlikely to arise in an outflow and is consistent with emission from an orbiting, molecular reservoir of radius 300 AU. Y Gem may be the progenitor of the class of post-AGB stars which are binaries and possess disks but no outflows.

  12. Overview of the observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viotti, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    The term Symbiotic stars commonly denotes variable stars whose optical spectra simultaneously present a cool absorption spectrum (typically TiO absorption bands) and emission lines of high ionization energy. This term is now used for the category of variable stars with composite spectrum. The main spectral features of these objects are: (1) the presence of the red continuum typical of a cool star, (2) the rich emission line spectrum, and (3) the UV excess, frequently with the Balmer continuum in emission. In addition to the peculiar spectrum, the very irregular photometric and spectroscopic variability is the major feature of the symbiotic stars. Moreover, the light curve is basic to identify the different phases of activity in a symbiotic star. The physical mechanisms that cause the symbiotic phenomenon and its variety are the focus of this paper. An astronomical phenomenon characterized by a composite stellar spectrum with two apparently conflicting features, and large variability has been observed. Our research set out to find the origin of this behavior and, in particular, to identify and measure the physical mechanism(s) responsible for the observed phenomena.

  13. Applying Machine Learning to Star Cluster Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, Kristina; Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela; Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Catalogs describing populations of star clusters are essential in investigating a range of important issues, from star formation to galaxy evolution. Star cluster catalogs are typically created in a two-step process: in the first step, a catalog of sources is automatically produced; in the second step, each of the extracted sources is visually inspected by 3-to-5 human classifiers and assigned a category. Classification by humans is labor-intensive and time consuming, thus it creates a bottleneck, and substantially slows down progress in star cluster research.We seek to automate the process of labeling star clusters (the second step) through applying supervised machine learning techniques. This will provide a fast, objective, and reproducible classification. Our data is HST (WFC3 and ACS) images of galaxies in the distance range of 3.5-12 Mpc, with a few thousand star clusters already classified by humans as a part of the LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey) project. The classification is based on 4 labels (Class 1 - symmetric, compact cluster; Class 2 - concentrated object with some degree of asymmetry; Class 3 - multiple peak system, diffuse; and Class 4 - spurious detection). We start by looking at basic machine learning methods such as decision trees. We then proceed to evaluate performance of more advanced techniques, focusing on convolutional neural networks and other Deep Learning methods. We analyze the results, and suggest several directions for further improvement.

  14. Disk Evaporation in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Young stars produce sufficient ultraviolet photon luminosity and mechanical luminosity in their winds to significantly affect the structure and evolution of the accretion disks surrounding them. The Lyman continuum photons create a nearly static, ionized, isothermal 10(exp 4) K atmosphere forms above the neutral disk at small distances from the star. Further out, they create a photoevaporative flow which relatively rapidly destroys the disk. The resulting slow (10-50 km/s) ionized outflow, which persists for approx. greater than 10(exp 5) years for disk masses M(sub d) approx. 0.3M(sub *), may explain the observational characteristics of many ultracompact HII regions. We compare model results to the observed radio free-free spectra and luminosities of ultracompact HII regions and to the interesting source MWC349, which is observed to produce hydrogen masers. We apply the results to Ae and Be stars in order to determine the lifetimes of disks around such stars. We also apply the results to the early solar nebula to explain the the dispersal of the solar nebula and the differences in hydrogen content in the giant planets. Finally, we model the small bright objects ("proplyds") observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV photons from the nearby massive star Theta(sup 1) C.

  15. Star Formation in Massive Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    E-print Network

    K. O'Neil

    2007-07-26

    Massive low surface brightness galaxies have disk central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, but total magnitudes and masses that show they are among the largest galaxies known. Like all low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, massive LSB galaxies are often in the midst of star formation yet their stellar light has remained diffuse, raising the question of how star formation is proceeding within these galaxies. We have undertaken a multi-wavelength study to clarify the structural parameters and stellar and gas content of these enigmatic systems. The results of these studies, which include HI, CO, optical, near UV, and far UV images of the galaxies will provide the most in depth study done to date of how, when, and where star formation proceeds within this unique subset of the galaxy population.

  16. Olefin metathesis over UV-irradiated silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Matsuo, Shigehiro; Maeda, Takashi; Yoshida, Hisao; Funabiki, Takuzo; Yoshida, Satohiro

    1997-11-01

    Photoirradiated silica evacuated at temperatures higher than 800 K was found to be active for olefin metathesis reactions. The analysis of products shows that the metalacyclobutane intermediate is likely. The instantaneous response of the reaction to the irradiation and the activity change with various UV filter showed that the reaction is induced by UV-excitation of silica. The correlation between the evacuation temperature and the activity showed that the surface free from water molecules plays a role in the reaction and the removal of isolated OH groups strongly relates to the generation of active sites.

  17. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause. The relationship between the most fatal skin cancer, i.e. malignant melanoma and solar UV exposure is, however, still unclear and needs to be clarified to optimise preventive measures and minimise mortality from skin cancers. PMID:10711242

  18. Star clusters in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheepmaker, R. A.

    2009-06-01

    This thesis presents the results of observational studies of the star cluster population in the interacting spiral galaxy M51, also known as the Whirlpool galaxy. Observations taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical and the near-UV are used to determine fundamental properties of the star clusters, such as their ages, masses, radii and their spatial distribution. We study how these properties are related and how they depend on different environmental conditions in the galaxy, such as galactocentric radius and the distance from the spiral arms. By comparing the properties of the young star clusters to the properties of the giant molecular clouds from which they form, we study the process of star formation indirectly. We determine the radius distribution of 1284 young star clusters, which is different compared to the radius distribution of the giant molecular clouds. This suggests that during the formation of star clusters their radii change in a non-uniform way. The majority of the youngest star clusters are found in the spiral arms and these clusters are slightly more compact compared to older star clusters in the interarm regions. We discover a peculiar, fuzzy object with a projected position close to the nucleus of M51. After considering different scenarios for this object, we conclude that this object is most likely a fuzzy star cluster in front of the disc, with an age of 1.4 Gyr. The spatial distribution of the young star clusters is analysed using two-point autocorrelation functions. From this we find that the positions of the star clusters show a hierarchy with a fractal dimension similar to that of the turbulent interstellar medium in other galaxies, suggesting that star formation is hierarchical with a universal fractal dimension. Exploiting different multi-wavelength datasets we compare the positions of current star formation sites and recently formed star clusters younger than 10 Myr. A quantitative comparison between star and cluster formation is used to study the rapid dispersion, also called infant mortality, of young star clusters. Both star and cluster formation peak in the spiral arms and in the centre of the galaxy, but also at a galactocentric radius of 2.5 and 5 kpc, which is likely caused by the presence of the 4:1 resonance and the corotation radius, respectively. We derive the star cluster formation efficiency, which is the fraction of star formation that takes place in the star clusters we observe. We correct this fraction for selection effects by use of the cluster initial mass function, which we derive from our new data. We conclude that 20% of the star formation takes place in the form of star clusters. The remaining 80% takes place in a dispersed way, suggesting that the infant mortality can be as high as 80% and occuring on timescales of less than 10 Myr.

  19. The absolute magnitudes of the Bp-Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megessier, C.

    1988-11-01

    The influence of the specific flux distribution of the CP2 stars on their M(v) determination is shown. The CP2 stars have less UV flux and a larger visible flux compared to normal stars with the same T(eff). They have smaller Balmer jump than normal ones. It is emphasized that M(bol) is the only relevant parameter for comparing the brightnesses of CP2 stars with those of normal ones. The relationships between the T(eff) and M(bol) and M(v) are determined for the CP2 stars, and it is concluded that the peculiar stars have brighter M(V) than normal stars with the same T(eff). On the other hand, if a CP2 star and a normal one have the same visible photometric indices, they do not have the same T(eff); moreover, M(v) is fainter for the CP2 stars. These findings are used to explain the discrepancies between M(v) obtained for the CP2 stars in open clusters and those derived directly by North (1984) and by Grenier et al. (1981, 1985).

  20. Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft X-rays in circumstellar environment

    E-print Network

    H. M. Boechat-Roberty; R. Neves; S. Pilling; A. F. Lago; G. G. B. de Souza

    2008-11-30

    Benzene molecules, present in the proto-planetary nebula CRL 618, are ionized and dissociated by UV and X-ray photons originated from the hot central star and by its fast wind. Ionic species and free radicals produced by these processes can lead to the formation of new organic molecules. The aim of this work is to study the photoionization and photodissociation processes of the benzene molecule, using synchrotron radiation and time of flight mass spectrometry. Mass spectra were recorded at different energies corresponding to the vacuum ultraviolet (21.21 eV) and soft X-ray (282-310 eV) spectral regions. The production of ions from the benzene dissociative photoionization is here quantified, indicating that C6H6 is more efficiently fragmented by soft X-ray than UV radiation, where 50% of the ionized benzene molecules survive to UV dissociation while only about 4% resist to X-rays. Partial ion yields of H+ and small hydrocarbons such as C2H2+, C3H3+ and C4H2+ are determined as a function of photon energy. Absolute photoionization and dissociative photoionization cross sections have also been determined. From these values, half-life of benzene molecule due to UV and X-ray photon fluxes in CRL 618 were obtained.

  1. Variable Uv-source Catalog From The Galex Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Nitish; Conti, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first part of a comprehensive program to look for variability in the UV GALEX archive (Conti et al. 2011, ApSS, 335,:329); GALEX provided photometric measurements for over 200 million objects in FUV and NUV, from sky surveys with different depth and coverage (Bianchi 2009, ApSS, 320:11, Bianchi et al. 2011, MNRAS, 411:2770, Bianchi 2011 ApSS 335:51). In this work, out of 410,408 unique sources showing conspicuous variability in both NUV and FUV from a total of 2,106,816 measurements, we restrict our analysis to 7264 sources that have at least 30 measurements, sampled with serendipitous time coverage. This first sample selection includes both extragalactic sources and Milky Way stellar objects, displaying both periodic and non-periodic variability, of various types including RR Lyrae, flare stars, transients, and eclipsing binaries. Amplitudes of magnitude variations are found from our minimum selection threshold up to > 0.6 AB mag. We describe the selection criteria and procedures, we characterize the main classes of variables within the sample, and present the layout of the resulting catalog which will be also available as on-line resource. Beyond our immediate goals of discovering and characterizing UV-selected variables, this work provides synergy with existing and planned surveys at other wavelengths (e.g. SDSS, PanSTARRS, LSST, GAIA) and the methods will be applicable to larger databases. Acknowledgements: This work was part of NC 2011 summer internship at STScI; LB was partly supported by the GALEX project.

  2. Habitable Niches In Single and Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Joni; Mason, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate habitable niches, defined as locations with optimum conditions for complex life to exist. The recent discovery of planets in several binaries motivates this study to examine favorable habitability circumstances in both single and binary star systems. Stellar evolution calculations are used to model time dependent stellar luminosity, UV flux, photo-synthetic flux and atmospheric water photolysis. Tidal interactions such as synchronization timescales, heat generation, and forcing frequency are also investigated. An Earth-analogue planet in the habitable zone of a 0.8 solar mass star is well suited for complex life. Several high quality niches are available to planets in habitable zones of binaries. For example, orbiting a pair of twin stars each 0.75 solar masses with a binary period of ten days will provide ample photo-synthetic radiation without an overdose of UV radiation, and tidal effects mimicking the Earth-Moon. A solar like star with a close red dwarf companion, like the recently discovered Kepler 47, provides a high quality niche because both stars are relatively long lived and the habitable zone has abundant photo-synthetic light while avoiding harmful UV light. A similar niche exists with a sun like star, which in turn is orbited by a distant red dwarf, providing a roughly annual enhanced red photo-synthetic flux. Also, moons orbiting Jupiter mass planets may exist within habitable zones of both single and binary stars. Such moons might be synchronized to the planet rather than the star. Due to the abundance of binary systems and the presence of high quality niches; binaries may harbor a significant fraction of inhabited planets within the universe. The present study allows for selection of the best habitability follow up targets for large telescopes.

  3. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  4. UV Line Emission from Million Degree Gas in a Galaxy Cluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Progress in understanding the nature of galaxy formation and feedback in massive halos depends critically on knowing whether the source of the star-forming gas in Brightest Cluster Galaxies is cooling and condensation out of the hot ambient medium or whether it enters the central galaxy already in cold form. We will study UV and optical line emission from the knots of a powerful star-forming brightest cluster galaxy from the CLASH MCT cluster sample in order to place definitive limits on the presence of intermediate temperature (10^5-6 K) gas in the center of a massive galaxy that is forming stars at ~100 solar masses per year. We have chosen a galaxy cluster at z~0.35 to enable the first ever simultaneous measurement of O VI, N V, and C IV from a cluster core. We will compare the observed UV line ratios to those predicted by competing model for steady nonequilibrium cooling, thermal conduction, and cooling mediated by turbulent mixing.

  5. A Review in Mixed Chemistry of Low Mass Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Ramirez, L.

    2015-12-01

    During the late stages of their evolution, Sun-like stars bring the products of nuclear burning to the surface. Although there is a chemical dichotomy between oxygen-rich and carbon-rich evolved stars, the dredge-up itself has never been directly observed. In the last three decades, however, a few stars have been shown to display both carbon- and oxygen-rich material in their circumstellar envelopes. These phenomena is seen in both Galactic Disk and Bulge planetary nebulae. For the Galactic Disk objects the mixed chemistry phenomenon is best explained through a recent dredge-up of carbon produced by nucleosynthesis inside the star during the Asymptotic Giant Branch that changed the surface chemistry of the star. On the contrary, we conclude that the mixed chemistry phenomenon occurring in the Galactic Bulge planetary nebulae is best explained through hydrocarbon chemistry in an ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated, dense torus.

  6. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF VARIABLE FIELD HORIZONTAL-BRANCH STARS: RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    For Biqing; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance study of 11 RR Lyrae ab-type variables: AS Vir, BS Aps, CD Vel, DT Hya, RV Oct, TY Gru, UV Oct, V1645 Sgr, WY Ant, XZ Aps, and Z Mic. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of these variables were obtained with the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. We obtained more than 2300 spectra, roughly 200 spectra per star, distributed more or less uniformly throughout the pulsational cycles. A new method has been developed to obtain the initial effective temperatures of our sample stars at a specific pulsational phase. We find that the abundance ratios are generally consistent with those of similar metallicity field stars in different evolutionary states and throughout the pulsational cycles for RR Lyrae stars. TY Gru remains the only n-capture enriched star among the RRab in our sample. A new relation is found between microturbulence and effective temperature among stars of the horizontal-branch population. In addition, the variation of microturbulence as a function of phase is empirically shown to be similar to the theoretical variation. Finally, we conclude that the derived T{sub eff} and log g values of our sample stars follow the general trend of a single mass evolutionary track.

  7. When Stars Collide

    E-print Network

    E. Glebbeek; O. R. Pols

    2007-10-09

    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a starcluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have performed detailed evolution calculations of merger remnants from collisions between main sequence stars, both for lower mass stars and higher mass stars. These stars can be significantly brighter than ordinary stars of the same mass due to their increased helium abundance. Simplified treatments ignoring this effect give incorrect predictions for the collision product lifetime and evolution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  8. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Chung, Young-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:23208372

  9. Sensing and responding to UV-A in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Chung, Young-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:23208372

  10. Are Main-Sequence K-type Stars the "Goldilocks" Stars for Hosting Long-term Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Aaron; Guinan, E. F.; Datin, K. M.; DeWarf, L. E.; Engle, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Main-sequence K-type (dwarf K = dK) stars have masses and luminosities ranging from ˜0.6-0.85 M? and ˜0.1-0.45 L?. In addition, dK stars have significantly longer main-sequence lifetimes than our Sun -- lasting ˜20-50 billion yrs. Moreover, these cool, low luminosity orange dwarfs are much more numerous (˜6-10×) than solar-type stars and also have been found to host an increasing number of planets. Their liquid-water habitable zones (HZs) extend from ˜0.4-1.2 AU. Because dK-stars evolve more slowly than G-stars, their HZs are essentially fixed for billions of years. As an extension of the Villanova "Sun in Time" program, we have been studying the suitability of dK stars as hosts to habitable planets. To this end we have measured the coronal X-ray and chromospheric emissions of dK0-8 stars with wide ranges of age, rotation, and magnetic-dynamo generated coronal and chromospheric X-UV activity. We have established well defined age-rotation-activity relations for this sample. We have used archival X-ray (mostly ROSAT) and UV data (from FUSE and IUE). The rotation periods were determined using photometry from starspot modulations. Although their optical luminosities remain essentially fixed up to ˜10+ Gyrs, the magnetic dynamo X-UV radiances decay rapidly with age. Young dK stars rotate rapidly and have correspondingly strong magnetic dynamos and strong coronal X-ray and chromospheric UV emissions (as well as frequent flaring). Here we discuss the suitability of dK stars as hosts for life-supporting planets where long-term life is sustainable and compare them with properties of planets hosted by G and M-type stars. From this study we conclude that these orange dwarf stars may be the best choices for hosting planets with evolved, complex life. This research is supported by grants from NSF/RUI (AST5-07542) and NASA/FUSE (NNG04G0386) which we gratefully acknowledge.

  11. Atomic Data for Stellar Astrophysics: from the UV to the IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of stars and stellar evolution relies heavily on the analysis of stellar spectra. The need for atomic line data from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (lR) regions is greater now than ever. In the past twenty years, the time since the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, great progress has been made in acquiring atomic data for UV transitions. The optical wavelength region, now expanded by progress in detector technology, continues to provide motivation for new atomic data. In addition, investments in new instrumentation for ground-based and space observatories has lead to the availability of high-quality spectra at IR wavelengths, where the need for atomic data is most critical. In this review, examples are provided of the progress made in generating atomic data for stellar studies, with a look to the future for addressing the accuracy and completeness of atomic data for anticipated needs.

  12. The vanishing shell phase of PLEIONE in the far UV in 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doazan, V.; Bourdonneau, B.; Thomas, R. N.

    1988-10-01

    Far UV observations made with the IUE in 1988, when the shell spectrum of Pleione was vanishing in the visible region, are compared with previous IUE observations made when the shell was strong (1979) and when it began to weaken (1985). Between the epochs of strong shell and vanishing shell: (1) the apparent continuum level increases in all the observed far UV spectral range, the largest increase occurring at shortest wavelengths; (2) the CIV and SiIV resonance lines, which were not detectable during the epoch of strong shell, are identified without ambiguity in this B8Ve star when the shell spectrum vanishes; and (3) when the shell spectrum is strong, the MgII resonance lines exhibit a strong, broad absorption. When the shell spectrum vanishes, this absorption is much weaker and the MgII doublet shows double emission peaks with deep absorption cores, as is often observed in Be/shell spectra.

  13. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with hard X-ray emission from the innermost accretion region. Since we have identified the elusive accretion component in the emission from a sample of symbiotic stars, our results have implications for the understanding of wind-fed mass transfer in wide binaries, and the accretion rate in one class of candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae.

  14. Triggered Star Formation by Massive Stars

    E-print Network

    Hsu-Tai Lee; W. P. Chen

    2009-02-03

    We present our diagnosis of the role that massive stars play in the formation of low- and intermediate-mass stars in OB associations (the Lambda Ori region, Ori OB1, and Lac OB1 associations). We find that the classical T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars tend to line up between luminous O stars and bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds; the closer to a cloud the progressively younger they are. Our positional and chronological study lends support to the validity of the radiation-driven implosion mechanism, where the Lyman continuum photons from a luminous O star create expanding ionization fronts to evaporate and compress nearby clouds into bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds. Implosive pressure then causes dense clumps to collapse, prompting the formation of low-mass stars on the cloud surface (i.e., the bright rim) and intermediate-mass stars somewhat deeper in the cloud. These stars are a signpost of current star formation; no young stars are seen leading the ionization fronts further into the cloud. Young stars in bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds are likely to have been formed by triggering, which would result in an age spread of several megayears between the member stars or star groups formed in the sequence.

  15. SOLAR UV RADIATION AND AQUATIC BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade significant interest has developed in the influence of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in surface waters of lakes and the sea. A major portion of this research has focused on photoreactions of the colored component of dissolved organic matter, ...

  16. MEAN ANNUAL UV-B IRRADIANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is the most energetic part of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface (wavelength region is 280 to 315 nm), and it has been shown to have important effects on ecosystem health. Chemical depletion of stratospheric ozone, which can be caused by r...

  17. DATA FROM EPA'S UV MONITORING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the National Park Service, has deployed 21 Brewer spectrophotometers in a national network for monitoring UV radiation from the sun. Seven of the Brewers are in urban areas, and fourteen are in National Parks (Figur...

  18. UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impacts of an increase in solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion have been investigated by several research groups during the last 15 years. uch of this research has centered on the effects of plant growth and physiolo...

  19. Design and investigation of UV image detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, V. A.; Glazov, V. M.; Il'ichev, E. A.; Klimov, Yu. A.; Kuklev, S. V.; Kuleshov, A. E.; Nabiev, R. M.; Petrukhin, G. N.; Potapov, B. G.; Rychkov, G. S.; Sokolov, D. S.; Fandeev, V. V.; Fetisov, E. A.; Yakushov, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    The results of investigation of optical image detectors designed for the largest problem, near-VUV, range of the spectrum are presented. The possibility of using a dual-stage image detection system to appreciably lower the sensitivity threshold and make computer data processing feasible is considered. The integration of a UV module into a wideband image detector is studied.

  20. UV Treatment Enhances Flavonoid Content in Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...

  1. Contamination and UV lasers: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, John G.

    2015-09-01

    Laser induced damage to optical elements has been a subject of significant research, development, and improvement, since the first lasers were built over the last 50 years. Better materials, with less absorption, impurities, and defects are available, as well as surface coatings with higher laser damage resistance. However, the presence of contamination (particles, surface deposition films, or airborne) can reduce the threshold for damage by several orders of magnitude. A brief review of the anticipated laser energy levels for damage free operation is presented as a lead into the problems associated with contamination for ultraviolet (UV) laser systems. As UV lasers become more common in applications especially in areas such as lithography, these problems have limited reliability and added to costs. This has been characterized as Airborne Molecular Contamination (AMC) in many published reports. Normal engineering guidelines such as screening materials within the optical compartment for low outgassing levels is the first step. The use of the NASA outgassing database (or similar test methods) with low Total Mass Loss (TML) and Condensed Collected Volatiles Collected Mass (CVCM) is a good baseline. Energetic UV photons are capable of chemical bond scission and interaction with surface contaminant or airborne materials results in deposition of obscuring film laser footprints that continue to degrade laser system performance. Laser systems with average powers less than 5 mW have been shown to exhibit aggressive degradation. Lessons learned over the past 15 years with UV laser contamination and steps to reduce risk will be presented.

  2. NASA Ames UV-LED Poster Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2015-01-01

    UV-LED is a small satellite technology demonstration payload being flown on the Saudisat-4 spacecraft that is demonstrating non-contacting charge control of an isolated or floating mass using new solid-state ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). Integrated to the rest of the spacecraft and launched on a Dnepr in June 19, 2014, the project is a collaboration between the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Stanford University, and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Beginning with its commissioning in December, 2015, the data collected by UV-LED have validated a novel method of charge control that will improve the performance of drag-free spacecraft allowing for concurrent science collection during charge management operations as well as reduce the mass, power and volume required while increasing lifetime and reliability of a charge management subsystem. UV-LED continues to operate, exploring new concepts in non-contacting charge control and collecting data crucial to understanding the lifetime of ultra-violet light emitting diodes in space. These improvements are crucial to the success of ground breaking missions such as LISA and BBO, and demonstrates the ability of low cost small satellite missions to provide technological advances that far exceed mission costs.

  3. UV-T-RH combined environmental testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    A combined environmental aging chamber was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The chamber has an ultraviolet (UV) light source that can be varied between 1 to 2 suns, temperature control from -40 to +175 C, and adjustable humidity. Results from two initial aging experiments (Tedlar and amorphous silicon colar cells) were presented.

  4. STAR-FORMING GALAXY EVOLUTION IN NEARBY RICH CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Bai, L.

    2013-08-20

    Dense environments are known to quench star formation in galaxies, but it is still unknown what mechanism(s) are directly responsible. In this paper, we study the star formation of galaxies in A2029 and compare it to that of Coma, combining indicators at 24 {mu}m, H{alpha}, and UV down to rates of 0.03 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show that A2029's star-forming galaxies follow the same mass-SFR relation as the field. The Coma cluster, on the other hand, has a population of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) significantly lower than the field mass-SFR relation, indicative of galaxies in the process of being quenched. Over half of these galaxies also host active galactic nuclei. Ram-pressure stripping and starvation/strangulation are the most likely mechanisms for suppressing the star formation in these galaxies, but we are unable to disentangle which is dominating. The differences we see between the two clusters' populations of star-forming galaxies may be related to their accretion histories, with A2029 having accreted its star-forming galaxies more recently than Coma. Additionally, many early-type galaxies in A2029 are detected at 24 {mu}m and/or in the far-UV, but this emission is not directly related to star formation. Similar galaxies have probably been classified as star forming in previous studies of dense clusters, possibly obscuring some of the effects of the cluster environment on true star-forming galaxies.

  5. First detection of nonflare microwave emissions from the coronae of single late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, D. E.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for nonflare microwave radiation from the coronae of nearby late-type dwarf stars comparable to the sun: single stars without evidence for either a large wind or circumstellar envelope. The observing program consisted of flux measurements of six stars over a 24-h period with the VLA in the C configuration at a wavelength of 6 cm with 50 MHz bandwidth. Positive detections at 6 cm were made for Chi 1 Ori (0.6 mJy) and the flare star UV Cet (1.55 mJy), and upper limits were obtained for the stars Pi 1 UMa, Xi Boo A, 70 Oph A and Epsilon Eri. It is suggested that Chi 1 Ori, and possibly UV Cet, represent the first detected members of a new class of radio sources which are driven by gyroresonance emission, i.e. cyclotron emission from nonrelativistic Maxwellian electrons.

  6. KSwAGS: A Swift X-Ray and UV Survey of the Kepler Field. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Boyd, Patricia T.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Gehrels, Neil; Edelson, Rick; Howell, Steve B.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Brown, Alexander; Young, Steve

    2015-10-01

    We introduce the first phase of the Kepler–Swift Active Galaxies and Stars survey (KSwAGS), a simultaneous X-ray and UV survey of ?6 square degrees of the Kepler field using the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope. We detect 93 unique X-ray sources with signal-to-noise ratio ?slant 3 with the XRT, of which 60 have UV counterparts. We use the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) to obtain the optical counterparts of these sources, and construct the fX/fV ratio as a first approximation of the classification of the source. The survey produces a mixture of stellar sources, extragalactic sources, and sources which we are not able to classify with certainty. We have obtained optical spectra for thirty of these targets, and are conducting an ongoing observing campaign to fully identify the sample. For sources classified as stellar or active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with certainty, we construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using the 2MASS, UBV, and GALEX data supplied for their optical counterparts by the KIC, and show that the SEDs differ qualitatively between the source types, and so can offer a method of classification in absence of a spectrum. Future papers in this series will analyze the timing properties of the stars and AGN in our sample separately. Our survey provides the first X-ray and UV data for a number of known variable stellar sources, as well as a large number of new X-ray detections in this well-studied portion of the sky. The KSwAGS survey is currently ongoing in the K2 ecliptic plane fields.

  7. Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas: the UV emission from GALEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.; Bianchi, L.; Annibali, F.; Bressan, A.; Buson, L. M.; Clemens, M. S.; Panuzzo, P.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-02-01

    We present GALEX far-ultraviolet (FUV, ?eff= 1538Å) and near-ultraviolet (NUV, ?eff= 2316Å) surface photometry of 40 early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from a wider sample of 65 nearby ETGs showing emission lines in their optical spectra. We derive FUV and NUV surface brightness profiles, (FUV-NUV) colour profiles and D25 integrated magnitudes. We extend the photometric study to the optical r band from SDSS imaging for 14 of these ETGs. In general, the (FUV-NUV) radial colour profiles become redder with galactocentric distance in both rejuvenated (?4 Gyr) and old ETGs. Colour profiles of NGC 1533, NGC 2962, NGC 2974, NGC 3489 and IC 5063 show rings and/or arm-like structures, bluer than the body of the galaxy, suggesting the presence of recent star formation. Although seven of our ETGs show shell systems in their optical image, only NGC 7135 displays shells in the UV bands. We characterize the UV and optical surface brightness profiles, along the major axis, using a Sersic law. The Sersic law exponent, n, varies from 1 to 16 in the UV bands. S0 galaxies tend to have lower values of n (?5). The Sersic law exponent n= 4 seems to be a watershed: ETGs with n > 4 tend to have [?/Fe] greater than 0.15, implying a short star-formation time-scale. We find a significant correlation between the FUV-NUV colour and central velocity dispersions ?, with the UV colours getting bluer at larger ?. This trend is likely driven by a combined effect of ‘downsizing' and of the mass-metallicity relation. Based on GALEX observations: GI3-0087 PI R. Rampazzo.

  8. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars. PMID:17749544

  9. Radiative energy flux changes of PLEIONE in the far-UV through the Be-shell - Be transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doazan, V.; de La Fuente, A.; Barylak, M.; Cramer, N.; Mauron, N.

    1993-03-01

    We present far UV observations of Pleione made with the IUE satellite in the time-interval 1979-1991 which show, for the first time in the wavelength range 1250-3000 A, the dramatic changes of the FUV radiative energy flux between the Be-shell and the Be phases of a Be star. Between 1979, when Pleione exhibited a strong shell spectrum, and 1991, when it showed a Be-type spectrum, the observed far UV radiative energy flux increased by more than a factor two and the absorption bump at 2200 A showed large changes, clearly indicating that it cannot be used confidently for measuring the interstellar component of extinction in Be stars. Inspection of high resolution IUE spectra shows that at least part of these variations of the 2200 A bump is due to the variable contribution of a multitude of shell absorption lines which crowd the FUV spectrum.

  10. UV-Filter combinations under UV-A exposure: concomitant quantification of over-all spectral stability and molecular integrity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Elisabetta; Baschong, Werner; Greci, Lucedio

    2007-05-25

    Efficient UV-absorbing molecules are designed to protect against UV-light over-exposure. However, upon UV exposure they may change spectral performance or act as photooxidants via generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species alone or in combination with others. Therefore, information about their photointegrity which comprises (i) stable absorbance and (ii) absence of UV-induced molecular breakdown, is fundamental. In this study, seven commonly used UV-A, UV-B and broad spectrum UV-AB filters and their combinations, were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based liposomes and exposed to UV-A (275 kJ/m(2)). Spectral integrity, evaluated by recording UV-absorbance spectra of the extracted filter molecules and molecular integrity, assessed indirectly via quantification of UV-A induced PC peroxidation, revealed that spectral stability of filter molecules alone or in combination (e.g. trianilino p-carboxyethylhexyl triazine, EHT plus ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate, OMC) does not necessarily imply absence of radical generation and that spectral lability does not necessarily have to lead to radical generation and molecular decay (e.g. OMC). This simple system capable of discriminating between essentially photostable and photounstable UV-absorbing molecules alone and in mixtures, might be useful for determining the influence of UV-protection as well as of photostability of UV-absorbers with regard to UV-induced genotoxic/phototoxic and photoageing-related, radical-based processes. PMID:17428672

  11. Ultraviolet Extinction Curves For Nearby T Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present empirically-derived fits to the ultraviolet (UV) extinction curves along the line of sight towards young stars with circumstellar disks. Stellar UV radiation plays a strong role in heating the disk gas and driving chemical reactions. Thus, it is important to measure the UV extinction curve in order to reconstruct the intrinsic UV flux irradiating the disk, thereby enabling accurate photochemical modeling of the planet-forming environment. To measure the extinction, we first compare modeled H2 fluorescence spectra to observed H2 lines. Lyman-alpha radiation from the stars pumps electronic transitions of H2 in the disk, and we model the flux that is re-emitted through the subsequent fluorescent cascade. We then extract an initial extinction curve over the 1100-1700 Angstrom wavelength region from the difference between the modeled H2 fluorescence and the HST data. To account for self-absorption in the disk by the optically thick H2, we divide this initial extinction curve by the transmission in each fluorescence line. We then fit the resulting interstellar extinction curve with an interstellar reddening model characterized by an Av and Rv value. The shape of the extinction curve allows us to characterize the dust grain distribution in the intervening material as well as to recover the intrinsic spectral energy distribution of the stars over a wide wavelength range.

  12. Neutrino signatures from the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Daigne, Frederic; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Olive, Keith A.; Sandick, Pearl

    2005-11-15

    Evidence from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization data indicates that the Universe may have been reionized at very high redshift. It is often suggested that the ionizing UV flux originates from an early population of massive or very massive stars. Depending on their mass, such stars can explode either as type II supernovae or pair-instability supernovae, or may entirely collapse into a black hole. The resulting neutrino emission can be quite different in each case. We consider here the relic neutrino background produced by an early burst of Population III stars coupled with a normal mode of star formation at lower redshift. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation and is based on cosmic star formation histories constrained to reproduce the observed star formation rate at redshift z < or approx. 6, the observed chemical abundances in damped Lyman alpha absorbers and in the intergalactic medium, and to allow for an early reionization of the Universe at z{approx}10-20. We find that although the high redshift burst of Population III stars does lead to an appreciable flux of neutrinos at relatively low energy (E{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}1 MeV), the observable neutrino flux is dominated by the normal mode of star formation. We also find that predicted fluxes are at the present level of the SuperK limit. As a consequence, the supernova relic neutrino background has a direct impact on models of chemical evolution and/or supernova dynamics.

  13. Virus Sensitivity Index of UV disinfection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Walter Z; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    A new concept of Virus Sensitivity Index (VSI) is defined as the ratio between the first-order inactivation rate constant of a virus, ki, and that of MS2-phage during UV disinfection, kr. MS2-phage is chosen as the reference virus because it is recommended as a virus indicator during UV reactor design and validation by the US Environmental Protection Agency. VSI has wide applications in research, design, and validation of UV disinfection systems. For example, it can be used to rank the UV disinfection sensitivity of viruses in reference to MS2-phage. There are four major steps in deriving the equation between Hi/Hr and 1/VSI. First, the first-order inactivation rate constants are determined by regression analysis between Log?I and fluence required. Second, the inactivation rate constants of MS2-phage are statistically analysed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 Log?I levels. Third, different VSI values are obtained from the ki of different viruses dividing by the kr of MS2-phage. Fourth, correlation between Hi/Hr and 1/VSI is analysed by using linear, quadratic, and cubic models. As expected from the theoretical analysis, a linear relationship adequately correlates Hi/Hr and 1/VSI without an intercept. VSI is used to quantitatively predict the UV fluence required for any virus at any log inactivation (Log?I). Four equations were developed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 Log?I. These equations have been validated using external data which are not used for the virus development. At Log?I less than 3, the equation tends to under-predict the required fluence at both low Log?I such as 1 and 2 Log?I. At Log?I greater than 3 Log?I, the equation tends to over-predict the fluence required. The reasons for these may very likely be due to the shoulder at the beginning and the tailing at the end of the collimated beam test experiments. At 3 Log?I, the error percentage is less than 6%. The VSI is also used to predict inactivation rate constants under two different UV disinfection scenarios such as under sunlight and different virus aggregates. The correlation analysis shows that viruses will be about 40% more sensitive to sunlight than to UV254. On the other hand, virus size of 500?nm will reduce their VSI by 10%. This is the first attempt to use VSI to predict the required fluence at any given Log?I. The equation can be used to quantitatively evaluate other parameters influencing UV disinfection. These factors include environmental species, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or genes, photo and dark repair, water quality such as suspended solids, and UV transmittance. PMID:25495554

  14. New possibilities of Doppler tomography -- perspective for researches by means of WSO-UV observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonof, M.; Sharova, O.

    2008-12-01

    The method of reconstruction of three-dimensional Doppler tomo- grams is suggested to research of close binary stars on the basis of an expected from WSO-UV observed data about the spectral lines profiles. The method is based on the radioastronomical approach. For the first time the distributions of the brightness are received in a line Hα in three-dimensional velocity space for Algol-type binaries U CrB and RS Vul . The presence of intensive movements of gas flows is found outside of an orbital plane.

  15. Star Formation in Massive LSB Galaxies

    E-print Network

    K. O'Neil

    2008-03-31

    Massive low surface brightness galaxies have disk central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, but total magnitudes and masses that show they are among the largest galaxies known. Like all low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, massive LSB galaxies are often in the midst of star formation yet their stellar light has remained diffuse, raising the question of how star formation is proceeding within these systems. HI observations have played a crucial role in studying LSB galaxies as they are typically extremely gas rich. In the past few years we have more than quadrupled the total number of massive LSB galaxies,primarily through HI surveys. To clarify their structural parameters and stellar and gas content, we have undertaken a multi-wavelength study of these enigmatic systems. The results of this study, which includes HI, CO, optical, near UV, and far UV images of the galaxies, will provide the most in depth study done to date of how, when, and where star formation proceeds within this unique subset of the galaxy population.

  16. Habitability around F-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Cuntz, M.; Guerra Olvera, C. M.; Jack, D.; Schröder, K.-P.

    2014-07-01

    We explore the general astrobiological significance of F-type main-sequence stars with masses between 1.2 and 1.5 M ?. Special consideration is given to stellar evolutionary aspects due to nuclear main-sequence evolution. DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology may be most likely based on hydrocarbons. Consequently, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Planetary atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. We found that the damage inflicted on DNA for planets at Earth-equivalent positions is between a factor of 2.5 and 7.1 higher than for solar-like stars, and there are intricate relations for the time-dependence of damage during stellar main-sequence evolution. If attenuation is considered, smaller factors of damage are obtained in alignment to the attenuation parameters. This work is motivated by earlier studies indicating that the UV environment of solar-type stars is one of the most decisive factors in determining the suitability of exosolar planets and exomoons for biological evolution and sustainability.

  17. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Temporally- and Spectrally-Resolved Irradiance from Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Youngblood, Allison; Linsky, Jeffrey; MUSCLES Treasury Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to near-UV; 5 - 3200 Ang) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential "biomarker" gases. It has been shown that the atmospheric signatures of potentially habitable planets around low-mass stars may be significantly different from planets orbiting Sun-like stars owing to the different UV spectral energy distribution. I will present results from a panchromatic survey (Hubble/Chandra/XMM/optical) of M and K dwarf exoplanet hosts, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems). We reconstruct the Lyman-alpha and extreme-UV (100-900 Ang) radiation lost to interstellar attenuation and create 5 Angstrom to 5 micron stellar irradiance spectra; these data will be publically available as a High-Level Science Product on MAST. We find that all low-mass exoplanet host stars exhibit significant chromospheric/transition region/coronal emission -- no "UV inactive" M dwarfs are observed. The F(far-UV)/F(near-UV) flux ratio, a driver for possible abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, increases by ~3 orders of magnitude as the habitable zone moves inward from 1 to 0.1 AU, while the incident far-UV (912 - 1700 Ang) and XUV (5 - 900 Ang) radiation field strengths decrease by factors of a few across this range. Far-UV flare activity is common in 'optically inactive' M dwarfs; statistics from the entire sample indicate that large UV flares (E(300 - 1700 Ang) >= 10^31 erg) occur several times per day on typical M dwarf exoplanet hosts.

  18. Properties of Hot, Massive Stars: The Impact of FUSE

    E-print Network

    Paul A. Crowther

    2004-10-01

    The impact of FUSE upon the fundamental parameters of OB stars and Wolf-Rayet stars is reviewed. The stellar wind signatures available in the far-UV provide us with important additional diagnostics of effective temperature. Together with improved non-LTE stellar atmosphere models allowing for line blanketing and stellar winds, this has led to a downward revision in the spectral type-temperature calibration for O stars versus Vacca et al. (1996) In addition, the Lyman continuum ionizing fluxes from O dwarfs are compared with previous calibrations of Panagia (1973) and Vacca et al. We also discuss mass-loss rates in OB stars, such that agreement between recent theoretical predictions (Vink et al. 2000, 2001) and observations of O supergiants is possible, solely if winds are clumped in the far-UV and H-alpha line forming regions, as favoured by line profile comparisons for PV 1118-28 (early to mid O) or SIV 1062-1073 (late O to early B) in FUSE datasets. In contrast, B supergiant wind strengths are predicted to be much higher than observations indicates, especially if their winds are also clumped. Finally, significant upward revisions in wind velocities of very late WN stars are indicated by NII 1085 resonance line observations, plus elemental abundances in OB and WR stars are briefly discussed.

  19. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. The UV, Lyman ?, and dark matter halo properties of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, T.; Blaizot, J.; Guiderdoni, B.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Hayes, M.; Verhamme, A.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the properties of high-redshift Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs), and their link with the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation that takes into account resonant scattering of Ly? photons in gas outflows. We can reasonably reproduce the abundances of LAEs and LBGs from z ? 3 to 7, as well as most UV luminosity functions (LFs) of LAEs. The stronger dust attenuation for (resonant) Ly? photons compared to UV continuum photons in bright LBGs provides a natural interpretation to the increase of the LAE fraction in LBG samples, XLAE, towards fainter magnitudes. The redshift evolution of XLAE seems however very sensitive to UV magnitudes limits and equivalent width (EW) cuts. In spite of the apparent good match between the statistical properties predicted by the model and the observations, we find that the tail of the Ly? EW distribution (EW ? 100 Å) cannot be explained by our model, and we need to invoke additional mechanisms. We find that LAEs and LBGs span a very similar dynamical range, but bright LAEs are ˜4 times rarer than LBGs in massive haloes. Moreover, massive haloes mainly contain weak LAEs in our model, which might introduce a bias towards low-mass haloes in surveys which select sources with high-EW cuts. Overall, our results are consistent with the idea that LAEs and LBGs make a very similar galaxy population. Their apparent differences seem mainly due to EW selections, UV detection limits, and a decreasing Ly? to UV escape fraction ratio in high star formation rate galaxies.

  1. UV Filters and Toursim: Their Impact on the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, and plastics to block UV radiation from the sun. Studies show that some sunscreens demonstrate estrogenicity and multiple hormonal activities in vitro. Because of the high consumption volume and high lipophilicity...

  2. On stars and Steiner stars Adrian Dumitrescu

    E-print Network

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    On stars and Steiner stars Adrian Dumitrescu Csaba D. T´oth Guangwu Xu§ March 9, 2009 Abstract A Steiner star for a set P of n points in Rd connects an arbitrary point in Rd to all points of P, while a star connects one of the points in P to the remaining n - 1 points of P. All connections are realized

  3. Protective effect of UV-A radiation during acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to UV-B treatment.

    PubMed

    Štroch, Michal; Materová, Zuzana; Vrábl, Daniel; Karlický, Václav; Šigut, Ladislav; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír

    2015-11-01

    We examined the acclimation response of the photosynthetic apparatus of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to a combination of UV-A and UV-B radiation (UVAB) and to UV-B radiation alone. Our aim was to evaluate whether UV-A radiation prevents UV-B-induced damage to the photosynthetic apparatus and whether UV-A pre-acclimation is required to mitigate the negative influence of UV-B radiation. Barley plants were grown from seeds under low photosynthetically active radiation (50 ?mol m(-2) s(-1)) either in the absence or presence of UV-A radiation (UVA- and UVA+ plants, respectively). After 8 days of development, plants were exposed simultaneously to UV-A and UV-B radiation for the next 6 days. Additionally, UVA- plants were exposed to UV-B radiation alone. The UVA+ plants had a higher CO2 assimilation rate near the light-saturation region (AN) and a higher content of both total chlorophylls (Chls) and total carotenoids than the UVA- plants. Chls content, AN, the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (FV/FM), the capacity of light-induced thermal energy dissipation and the efficiency of excitation energy transfer within PSII remained the same or even increased in both UVA+ and UVA- plants after UVAB treatment. On the contrary, exposure of UVA- plants to UV-B radiation itself led to a reduction in all these characteristics. We revealed that the presence of UV-A radiation during UVAB treatment not only mitigated but completely eliminated the negative effect of UV-B radiation on the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and that UV-A pre-acclimation was not crucial for development of this UV-A-induced resistance against UV-B irradiation. PMID:26233710

  4. Mg II h+k Flux - Rotational Period Correlation for G-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, J. M.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; De la Luz, V.

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the correlation between the mid-UV Mg II h and k emission lines and measured rotational periods of G-type stars. Based on IUE and HST high resolution spectra of a sample of 36 stars, we derive an exponential function that best represents the correlation. We find that the variation of the Mg II h + k fluxes is about a factor of 2.5 larger than that of Ca II H+K, indicating that the UV features are more sensitive to the decline of Prot. The comparison of UV-predicted rotational periods with those derived from empirical Prot - Ca II H+K flux calibrations are consistent, with some scatter at large periods, where the emission are less intense. We present newly derived rotational periods for 15 G-type stars (see Olmedo et al. 2013).

  5. Mg II h + k Flux - Rotational Period Correlation for G-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Manuel; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; De la Luz, Víctor

    2013-12-01

    We present an analysis of the correlation between the mid-UV Mg II h and k emission lines and measured rotational periods of G-type stars. Based on IUE and HST high resolution spectra of a sample of 36 stars, we derive an exponential function that best represents the correlation. We find that the variation of the Mg II h + k fluxes is about a factor of 2.5 larger than that of Ca II H + K, indicating that the UV features are more sensitive to the decline of Prot. The comparison of UV-predicted rotational periods with those derived from empirical Prot - Ca II H + K flux calibrations are consistent, with some scatter at large periods, where the emissions are less intense. We present newly derived rotational periods for 15 G-type stars.

  6. IUE and Einstein survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars and the dividing line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bennett, Jeffrey O.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on an IUE UV survey of 255 late-type G, K, and M stars, complementing the Maggio et al. (1990) Einstein X-ray survey of 380 late-type stars. The large data sample of X-ray and UV detections make it possible to examine the activity relationship between the X-ray and the UV emissions. The results confirm previous finding of a trend involving a steeply-dropping upper envelope of the transition region line fluxes, f(line)/f(V), as the dividing line is approached. This suggests that a sharp decrease in maximum activity accompanies the advancing spectral type, with the dividing line corresponding to this steep gradient region. The results confirm the rotation-activity connection for stars in this region of the H-R diagram.

  7. Prediction of UV spectra and UV-radiation damage in actual plasma etching processes using on-wafer monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Fukuda, Seiichi; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-02-15

    UV radiation during plasma processing affects the surface of materials. Nevertheless, the interaction of UV photons with surface is not clearly understood because of the difficulty in monitoring photons during plasma processing. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an on-wafer monitoring technique for UV photons. For this study, using the combination of this on-wafer monitoring technique and a neural network, we established a relationship between the data obtained from the on-wafer monitoring technique and UV spectra. Also, we obtained absolute intensities of UV radiation by calibrating arbitrary units of UV intensity with a 126 nm excimer lamp. As a result, UV spectra and their absolute intensities could be predicted with the on-wafer monitoring. Furthermore, we developed a prediction system with the on-wafer monitoring technique to simulate UV-radiation damage in dielectric films during plasma etching. UV-induced damage in SiOC films was predicted in this study. Our prediction results of damage in SiOC films shows that UV spectra and their absolute intensities are the key cause of damage in SiOC films. In addition, UV-radiation damage in SiOC films strongly depends on the geometry of the etching structure. The on-wafer monitoring technique should be useful in understanding the interaction of UV radiation with surface and in optimizing plasma processing by controlling UV radiation.

  8. Star Clusters in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetens, Sidney David; Crocker, Alison Faye

    2016-01-01

    Star formation rates in early-type galaxies are notoriously hard to determine because of their very low specific star formation rates. For this project, we use Hubble Space Telescope photometric data in 4-5 visible and near-UV filters to measure the young stellar clusters in nine early-type galaxies. Aperture photometry colors were compared to colors from synthetic photometry produced by the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code (Conroy et. al, ApJ 699, 486-506 (2009)), using a chi-squared likelihood method to estimate the age, metallicity and extinction for each cluster. Masses were determined using the best-fit model, the distance to each galaxy and the measured fluxes. Young clusters were selected below a cutoff age of 100 Myr, and star formation rates for each galaxy were then calculated as the combined mass of the young clusters divided by the cutoff age. Star formation rates computed in this way are far below those computed using the 22 micron emission. While some completeness effects are biasing the cluster-estimated SFRs low, the extreme difference (two orders of magnitude) may also point to SFR overestimation due to contamination from older stars in the 22 micron SFRs.

  9. Dispersal of Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2001-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) photoevaporation by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the inner disk (r < or approx. equals 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r > or approx. equals 10 AU for low mass stars. Disk dispersal timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed the solar nebula is called into question. Finally, we model the small bright objects ("proplyds") observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV photons from the nearby massive star Theta(sup 1)C.

  10. Dispersal of Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source; 2) close stellar encounters; 3) stellar winds; and 4) photoevaporation by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the inner disk (r approx. or less than 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r approx. or greater than 10 AU for low mass stars. Disk dispersal timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed he solar nebula is called into question. Finally, we model the small bright objects ('proplyds') observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV (ultraviolet) photons from the nearby massive star Theta(1)C.

  11. UV matters in shoaling decisions Ricarda Modarressie*, Ingolf P. Rick and Theo C. M. Bakker

    E-print Network

    -spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, L.). We investigated whether the presence or absence of UV wavelengths by UV wavelengths. Keywords: UV vision; ultraviolet; three-spined stickleback; Gasterosteus aculeatus

  12. FIRST DETECTION OF ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM A DETACHED DUST SHELL: GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE CARBON ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR U Hya

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Enmanuel; Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Ramstedt, Sofia

    2015-01-10

    We present the discovery of an extended ring of ultraviolet (UV) emission surrounding the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star U Hya in archival observations performed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. This is the third discovery of extended UV emission from a carbon AGB star and the first from an AGB star with a detached shell. From imaging and photometric analysis of the FUV and NUV images, we determined that the UV ring has a radius of ?110'', thus indicating that the emitting material is likely associated with the detached shell seen in the infrared. We find that scattering of the central point source of NUV and FUV emission by the dust shell is negligible. Moreover, we find that scattering of the interstellar radiation field by the dust shell can contribute at most ?10% of the FUV flux. Morphological and photometric evidence suggests that shocks caused by the star's motion through space and, possibly, shock-excited H{sub 2} molecules are the most likely origins of the UV flux. In contrast to previous examples of extended UV emission from AGB stars, the extended UV emission from U Hya does not show a bow-shock-like structure, which is consistent with a lower space velocity and lower interstellar medium density. This suggests the detached dust shell is the source of the UV-emitting material and can be used to better understand the formation of detached shells.

  13. Determination of CMPO using HPLC -UV

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Gary S. Groenewold; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2012-06-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) is an extractant proposed for selective separation of radionuclide metals from used nuclear fuel solutions using solvent extraction. Radiolysis reactions can degrade CMPO and reduce separation performance and hence methods for measuring concentration of CMPO and identifying degradation products are needed. A novel high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method employing ultraviolet detection (UV) was developed to detect and quantitate CMPO in dodecane. Some radiolysis products in gamma and alpha irradiated CMPO solutions were identified using HPLC/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Validation data indicated that the HPLC-UV method for CMPO determination provided good linearity, sensitivity, procedure accuracy and system precision. CMPO-nitric acid complexes were also identified, that account for the apparent loss of CMPO in acidic environment, independent of irradiation.

  14. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between $\\lta80$ and 800 dyne~cm$^{-2}$ before explosion, i.e. between $\\lta850$ and 550 km above $\\tau_{500}=1$. This places the phenomenon's origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfv\\'enic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  15. UV Spectra, Bombs, and the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-08-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reports plasma “bombs” with temperatures near 8 × 104 K within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, first because most bomb plasma pressures p (the largest reported case exceeds 103 dyn cm-2) fall well below photospheric pressures (\\gt 7× {10}3), and second, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the IRIS data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between ? 80 and 800 dyne cm-2 before explosion, i.e., between ? 850 and 550 km above {? }500=1. This places the phenomenon’s origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfvénic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  16. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Persyn, S.; Eterno, J.; Slater, D. C.; Davis, M. W.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Siegmund, O. H.; Marquet, B.; Gerard, J.; Grodent, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    Juno, a NASA New Frontiers mission, plans for launch in August 2011, a 5-year cruise (including a flyby of Earth in October 2013 for a gravity boost), and 14 months around Jupiter after arriving in August 2016. The spinning (2 RPM), solar-powered Juno will study Jupiter from a highly elliptical orbit, in which the spacecraft (for about 6 hours once every 11 days) dives down over the north pole, skims the outermost atmosphere, and rises back up over the south pole. This orbit allows Juno avoid most of the intense particle radiation surrounding the planet and provides an excellent platform for investigating Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. Part of the exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere will involve remote sensing of the far-ultraviolet H and H2 auroral emissions, plus gases such as methane and acetylene which add their absorption signature to the H2 emissions. This hydrocarbon absorption can be used to estimate the energy of the precipitating electrons; since more energetic electrons penetrate deeper into the atmosphere and the UV emissions they produce will show more absorption. Juno will carry an Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) to make spectral images of Jupiter's aurora. UVS is a UV imaging spectrograph sensitive to both extreme and far ultraviolet emissions in the 70-205~nm range that will characterize the morphology and spectral nature of Jupiter's auroral emissions. Juno UVS consists of two separate sections: a dedicated telescope/spectrograph assembly and a vault electronics box. The telescope/spectrograph assembly contains a telescope which feeds a 0.15-m Rowland circle spectrograph. The telescope has an input aperture 40×40~mm2 and uses an off-axis parabolic primary mirror. A flat scan mirror situated at the front end of the telescope (used to target specific auroral features at up to ±30° perpendicular to the Juno spin plane) directs incoming light to the primary. The light is then focused onto the spectrograph entrance slit, which has a 'dog- bone' shape 6° long, in three 2° sections of 0.2°, 0.05°, and 0.2° width (projected onto the sky). Light entering the slit is dispersed by a toroidal grating which focuses the UV bandpass onto a curved microchannel plate (MCP) cross delay line (XDL) detector with a solar blind UV- sensitive CsI photocathode, which makes up the instrument's focal plane. Tantalum shielding surrounds the detector assembly to protect the detector and the adjacent detector electronics from high-energy electrons. The main electronics box is located in the Juno vault. Inside are two redundant high-voltage power supplies (HVPS), two redundant low-voltage power supplies, the command and data handling (C&DH) electronics, heater/actuator activation electronics, scan mirror electronics, and event processing electronics. An overview of the UVS design and scientific performance will be presented.

  17. Thermomechanical investigations of UV cured epoxy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabrik, Róbert; Ille, Attila; Víg, András; Czajlik, István; Rusznák, István

    1996-03-01

    In this study the thermomechanical properties of UV cured epoxy coatings were investigated. The aim was to determine the thermomechanical behaviour of an epoxy coating in the function of the irradiation temperature. To achieve our aim, the UV radiation duration and the photoinitiator concentration were varied. It was found the Tg values of the samples increase with the elapsed time after the irradiation, the phenomenon that may be explained by the post-polymerisation of the irradiated samples. The Tg values also increase with photoinitiator concentration due to the greater number of polymerisation centres formed. However, the Tg values show a complicated dependence on the irradiation temperature, probably due to the thermal degradation of the photoinitiator.

  18. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  19. UV curing with water based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, E.; Haeussling, L.; Jaeger, U.

    1995-12-01

    Conventional coatings technology requires a large effort to reduce emissions of organic solvents and other volatile organic components. Alleviations, yet not a solution to this problem are high solids coatings formulations or even powder coatings technology. An entirely different concept is used in radiation curing of coatings, where all the elements of the originally low molar mass components of the coating formulation are polymerized into one large network. Thus there should be no emissions of low molar mass compounds from UV- or Electron beam cured films. Water as a diluent in UV-curable formulations can either be used directly as a solvent or in emulsions (with the help of emulsifying agents) without a loss in performance of coatings properties, such as hardness, elasticity and reactivity. To the contrary, the prearrangement of functionalities in the final coating due to the prior phase separation in the emulsion seems to slightly increase hardness and adhesion as well as elasticity.

  20. Investigation of the shell stars omicron and theta Per, and of the eclipsing binary beta Lyr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M.

    1975-01-01

    All three stars showed rather complicated spectra, which require a very detailed spectroscopic analysis. The far UV spectrum of Beta Lyrae is clearly peculiar, with a multitude of emission lines not observed on any other star so far scanned with Copernicus. This made this star at once the most interesting and also, in a sense, easier to study. The other two stars display a spectrum rich in absorption lines, some of them being fairly broad (as expected for photospheric lines of rapidly rotating objects), some sharp. The later were clearly non-photospheric lines. An attempt was made to distinguish the circumstellar from the interstellar components.