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1

SOBRE O VALOR ECONÔMICO DO SISTEMA DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO ANIMAL DOS EUA (NAIS): NOTÍCIAS A RESPEITO DO MAU DA VACA LOUCA AFETAM O CONSUMO DE CARNES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esse artigo investiga os efeitos de notícias a respeito do mau da vaca louca ou BSE sobre o consumo das carnes bovina, suína e de aves nos EUA. Presume-se que o sistema nacional de identificação animal (NAIS) poderia em tese atenuar a percepção de risco dos consumidores sobre contrair o mau da vaca louca ao consumir carnes. Sistemas de equações

Moises de Andrade Resende Filho; Brian L. Buhr

2008-01-01

2

Feasibility Design Report. Bauta-Toa Vaca Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes feasibility design studies prepared by the Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec) for the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority (PRWRA) for Bauta-Toa Vaca Tunnel, a key feature for initial diversion of water from northward flowing streams to ...

1970-01-01

3

Expanding Allelic Diversity of Helicobacter pylori vacA  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the gene encoding the vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) of Helicobacter pylori was analyzed in 98 isolates obtained from different geographic locations. The studies focused on variation in the previously defined s and m regions of vacA, as determined by PCR and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of four distinct types of s-region alleles: aside from the previously described s1a, s1b, and s2 allelic types, a novel subtype, designated s1c, was found. Subtype s1c was observed exclusively in isolates from East Asia and appears to be the major s1 allele in that part of the world. Three different allelic forms (m1, m2a, and m2b) were detected in the m region. On the basis of sequence alignments, universal PCR primers that allow effective amplification of the s and m regions from H. pylori isolates from all over the world were defined. Amplimers were subsequently analyzed by reverse hybridization onto a line probe assay (LiPA) that allows the simultaneous and highly specific hybridization of the different vacA s- and m-region alleles and tests for the presence of the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA). This PCR-LiPA method permits rapid analysis of the vacA and cagA status of H. pylori strains for clinical and epidemiological studies and will facilitate identification of any further variations.

van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Figueiredo, Ceu; Sanna, Ricardo; Pena, Salvador; Midolo, Peter; Ng, Enders K. W.; Atherton, John C.; Blaser, Martin J.; Quint, Wim G. V.

1998-01-01

4

Significance of Helicobacter pylori vacA intermediate region genotyping-a Bulgarian study.  

PubMed

The significance of the intermediate (i) region of the Helicobacter pylori vacA gene as a virulence factor associated with the severity of gastric disease is still disputable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and significance of vacA i alleles alone or in combination with other vacA alleles in symptomatic Bulgarian patients and to find out possible associations between vacA i genotype and patients' disease, age, sex, and other H. pylori virulence factors. Unlike vacA s1 and m1, vacA i1 prevalence was significantly higher (75.0%) in strains from peptic ulcer patients than in strains from nonulcer patients with gastric diseases (58.6%) (P = 0.022). Less virulent vacA s1 i2 m2 strains were more prevalent in females (P = 0.03), and cagA(+) was associated with vacA i1, s1, m1, and their combinations. In conclusion, vacA i status is a better predictor for the strain virulence than other vacA alleles. PMID:22951332

Yordanov, Daniel; Boyanova, Lyudmila; Markovska, Rumyana; Gergova, Galina; Mitov, Ivan

2012-08-28

5

Molecular Evolution of the Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin Gene vacA ? †  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse organism that is adapted for colonization of the human stomach. All strains contain a gene encoding a secreted, pore-forming toxin known as VacA. Genetic variation at this locus could be under strong selection as H. pylori adapts to the host immune response, colonizes new human hosts, or inhabits different host environments. Here, we analyze the molecular evolution of VacA. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate the subdivision of VacA sequences into three main groups with distinct geographic distributions. Divergence of the three groups is principally due to positively selected sequence changes in the p55 domain, a central region required for binding of the toxin to host cells. Divergent amino acids map to surface-exposed sites in the p55 crystal structure. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of vacA sequences and housekeeping gene sequences indicate that vacA does not share the same evolutionary history as the core genome. Further, rooting the VacA tree with outgroup sequences from the close relative Helicobacter acinonychis reveals that the ancestry of VacA is different from the African origin that typifies the core genome. Finally, sequence analyses of the virulence determinant CagA reveal three main groups strikingly similar to the three groups of VacA sequences. Taken together, these results indicate that positive selection has shaped the phylogenetic structure of VacA and CagA, and each of these virulence determinants has evolved separately from the core genome.

Gangwer, Kelly A.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Lacy, D. Borden; Cover, Timothy L.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

2010-01-01

6

Structural analysis of the oligomeric states of Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and contributes to peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori secretes a pore-forming exotoxin known as vacuolating toxin (VacA). VacA contains two distinct domains, designated p33 and p55, and assembles into large "snowflake"-shaped oligomers. Thus far, no structural data are available for the p33 domain, which is essential for membrane channel formation. Using single-particle electron microscopy and the random conical tilt approach, we have determined the three-dimensional structures of six VacA oligomeric conformations at ~15-Å resolution. The p55 domain, composed primarily of ?-helical structures, localizes to the peripheral arms, while the p33 domain consists of two globular densities that localize within the center of the complexes. By fitting the VacA p55 crystal structure into the electron microscopy densities, we have mapped inter-VacA interactions that support oligomerization. In addition, we have examined VacA variants/mutants that differ from wild-type (WT) VacA in toxin activity and/or oligomeric structural features. Oligomers formed by VacA?6-27, a mutant that fails to form membrane channels, lack an organized p33 central core. Mixed oligomers containing both WT and VacA?6-27 subunits also lack an organized core. Oligomers formed by a VacA s2m1 chimera (which lacks cell-vacuolating activity) and VacA?301-328 (which retains vacuolating activity) each contain p33 central cores similar to those of WT oligomers. By providing the most detailed view of the VacA structure to date, these data offer new insights into the toxin's channel-forming component and the intermolecular interactions that underlie oligomeric assembly. PMID:23178866

Chambers, Melissa G; Pyburn, Tasia M; González-Rivera, Christian; Collier, Scott E; Eli, Ilyas; Yip, Calvin K; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Lacy, D Borden; Cover, Timothy L; Ohi, Melanie D

2012-11-20

7

The role of small molecular weight compounds to increase vacuolation induced by VacA toxin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

VacA is a vacuolation protein toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori. Many compounds have been implicated in the regulation of VacA toxin activity. In this study, regulation of cell vacuolation induced by VacA was observed with the addition of glycine, glycine hydrochloride, xylitol, and taurine by neutral red dye uptake assay using gastric human epithelial cell cultures. Glycine, xylitol, and taurine

Juan Sun; Yan Wu; Zhuang Su; Zhifang Liu; Bingzhong Su; Zhiyue Liu; Wenzhong Liu; Haixia Zhao; Tana; Bateer; Yuki Eshita; Baofeng Chi; Lingyan Zhao; Xin Fang; Wenli Hao; Siqintoya Wu; Jiang Bian; Jie Chen; Xiaohui Ouyang

2010-01-01

8

Helicobacter pylori VacA disrupts apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori persistently colonize the human stomach and have been linked to atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Although it is well known that H. pylori infection can result in hypochlorhydria, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria. The functional consequences of VacA infection on parietal cell physiology were studied using freshly isolated rabbit gastric glands and cultured parietal cells. Secretory activity of parietal cells was judged by an aminopyrine uptake assay and confocal microscopic examination. VacA permeabilization induces an influx of extracellular calcium, followed by activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of ezrin at Met(469)-Thr(470), which results in the liberation of ezrin from the apical membrane of the parietal cells. VacA treatment inhibits acid secretion by preventing the recruitment of H,K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that VacA treatment disrupts the radial arrangement of actin filaments in apical microvilli due to the loss of ezrin integrity in parietal cells. Significantly, expression of calpain-resistant ezrin restored the functional activity of parietal cells in the presence of VacA. Proteolysis of ezrin in VacA-infected parietal cells is a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced inhibition of acid secretion. Our results indicate that VacA disrupts the apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells and thereby causes hypochlorhydria. PMID:18625712

Wang, Fengsong; Xia, Peng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Wei; Ward, Tarsha; Liu, Ya; Aikhionbare, Felix; Guo, Zhen; Powell, Michael; Liu, Bingya; Bi, Feng; Shaw, Andrew; Zhu, Zhenggang; Elmoselhi, Adel; Fan, Daiming; Cover, Timothy L; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

2008-07-14

9

A Novel Method for Genotyping the Helicobacter pylori vacA Intermediate Region Directly in Gastric Biopsy Specimens  

PubMed Central

The present report describes a novel method for genotyping the virulence-associated vacA intermediate (i) region of Helicobacter pylori in archive material. vacA i-region genotypes as determined by the novel method were completely concordant with those of sequence analysis and with those of functional vacuolation activity. The method was further validated directly in gastric biopsy specimens of 386 H. pylori-positive cases, and effective characterization of the vacA i region was obtained in 191 of 192 (99.5%) frozen and in 186 of 194 (95.9%) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens, respectively. The genotyping method was next used to address the relationship between the vacA genotypes and the cagA status. The vacA i1 genotype was associated with vacA s1 (where s indicates signal region), vacA m1 (where m indicates middle region), and cagA-positive genotypes (P < 0.0001), while the vacA i2 genotype was closely related with vacA s2, vacA m2, and cagA-negative genotypes (P < 0.0001). The relationship between H. pylori vacA i-region genotypes and gastric disease development was subsequently evaluated in the Portuguese population. Patients infected with vacA i1 strains showed an increased risk for gastric atrophy and for gastric carcinoma, with odds ratios of 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 27) and of 22 (95% CI, 7.9 to 63), respectively. Taken together, the results show that this novel H. pylori vacA i-region genotyping method can be applied directly to archive material, providing a fast evaluation of strain virulence determinants without the need of culture. The results further emphasize that the characterization of the vacA i region may be useful to identify patients at higher risk of gastric carcinoma development.

Ferreira, Rui M.; Machado, Jose C.; Letley, Darren; Atherton, John C.; Pardo, Maria L.; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Carneiro, Fatima

2012-01-01

10

Remodeling the host environment: modulation of the gastric epithelium by the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA)  

PubMed Central

Virulence mechanisms underlying Helicobacter pylori persistence and disease remain poorly understood, in part, because the factors underlying disease risk are multifactorial and complex. Among the bacterial factors that contribute to the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections, the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is one of the most important. Analogous to a number of H. pylori genes, the vacA gene exhibits allelic mosaicism, and human epidemiological studies have revealed that several families of toxin alleles are predictive of more severe disease. Animal model studies suggest that VacA may contribute to pathogenesis in several ways. VacA functions as an intracellular-acting protein exotoxin. However, VacA does not fit the current prototype of AB intracellular-acting bacterial toxins, which elaborate modulatory effects through the action of an enzymatic domain translocated inside host cells. Rather, VacA may represent an alternative prototype for AB intracellular acting toxins that modulate cellular homeostasis by forming ion-conducting intracellular membrane channels. Although VacA seems to form channels in several different membranes, one of the most important target sites is the mitochondrial inner membrane. VacA apparently take advantage of an unusual intracellular trafficking pathway to mitochondria, where the toxin is imported and depolarizes the inner membrane to disrupt mitochondrial dynamics and cellular energy homeostasis as a mechanism for engaging the apoptotic machinery within host cells. VacA remodeling of the gastric environment appears to be fine-tuned through the action of the Type IV effector protein CagA which, in part, limits the cytotoxic effects of VacA in cells colonized by H. pylori.

Kim, Ik-Jung; Blanke, Steven R.

2012-01-01

11

Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), a key toxin for Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with this Gram-negative pathogen is associated with the development of peptic ulcers and is linked to an increased risk of gastric cancer. H. pylori secretes many proteinaceous factors that are important for initial colonization and subsequent persistence in the host stomach. One of the major protein toxins secreted by H. pylori is the Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA). After secretion from the bacteria via a type V autotransport secretion system, the 88 kDa VacA toxin (comprised of the p33 and p55 subunits) binds to host cells and is internalized, causing severe “vacuolation” characterized by the accumulation of large vesicles that possess hallmarks of both late endosomes and early lysosomes. The development of “vacuoles” has been attributed to the formation of VacA anion-selective channels in membranes. Apart from its vacuolating effects, it has recently become clear that VacA also directly affects mitochondrial function. Earlier studies suggested that the p33 subunit, but not the p55 subunit of VacA, could enter mitochondria to modulate organelle function. This raised the possibility that a mechanism separate from pore formation may be responsible for the effects of VacA on mitochondria, as crystallography studies and structural modeling predict that both subunits are required for a physiologically stable pore. It has also been suggested that the mitochondrial effects observed are due to indirect effects on pro-apoptotic proteins and direct effects on mitochondrial morphology-related processes. Other studies have shown that both the p55 and p33 subunits can indeed be efficiently imported into mammalian-derived mitochondria raising the possibility that they could re-assemble to form a pore. Our review summarizes and consolidates the recent advances in VacA toxin research, with focus on the outstanding controversies in the field and the key remaining questions that need to be addressed.

Palframan, Samuel L.; Kwok, Terry; Gabriel, Kipros

2012-01-01

12

vacA Genotypes and Genetic Diversity in Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity in Helicobacter pylori strains may affect the function and antigenicity of virulence factors associated with bacterial infection and, ultimately, disease outcome. In this study, DNA diversity of H. pylori isolates was examined by analysis of vacA genotypes and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of H. pylori-associated genes (vacA, cagA, flaA, ureAB, and ureCD). Thirty-seven H. pylori isolates from 26 patients were successfully classified into distinct vacA allelic genotypes. The signal sequence allele s1 (31 of 37) predominated over the s2 allele (6 of 37) and was significantly associated with the occurrence (past or present) of gastric ulcers. A novel midregion allele, designated as m3, has been identified in two H. pylori isolates which could not be typed with midregion allele m1- or m2-specific primers. Additionally, significant nucleotide diversity yielding different amino acid sequences was demonstrated by DNA sequencing of vacA fragments from clinical isolates of H. pylori. Furthermore, RFLP analysis of 45 H. pylori isolates (including 15 paired isolates) obtained from antrum and corpus biopsy specimens from 30 individual patients showed remarkably high interhost diversity (one patient, one H. pylori strain) and intrahost identity in gene sequences coding for VacA, CagA, flagellin, and urease. Only in a single patient was a minor genotypic variation at different anatomic sites within the stomach identified. These data warrant the detailed analysis of the effect of genetic diversity on the function and antigenicity of H. pylori-associated virulence factors.

Han, Shan-Rui; Schreiber, Hans-Joachim; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Loos, Michael; Maeurer, Markus J.

1998-01-01

13

Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: vacA encodes the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori and exhibits marked variation in signal sequence and midgene coding regions. The implications for gastroduodenal pathology are unknown. The aim of this study was to define the association of vacA genotype with gastric inflammation and injury, in vitro cytotoxin activity, and peptic ulceration. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive dyspeptic patients underwent

JC Atherton; RM Peek; KT Tham; MJ Blaser

1997-01-01

14

vacA Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Relation to cagA Status and Clinical Outcomes in Iranian Populations  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mosaicism in vacA alleles with two distinct families of vacA signal sequences (s1 and s2) and two distinct families of middle region alleles (m1 and m2) has been reported. Research suggests that the vacA s1 genotype is closely associated with duodenal ulcer disease and with high cytotoxin production. The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of vacA genotyping with respect to gastric inflammation and injury, and clinical presentation in Iranian populations. Genomic DNA of biopsy specimens from patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), or gastric cancer (GC) were characterized based on ureC (glmM), cagA, and vacA genotyping by using polymerase chain reaction. Of 167 patients including 33 with PUDs, 129 with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), and 5 with GC, 96 (57.5%) cases were infected by Helicobacter pylori. Among these patients, H. pylori were isolated from 19 (57.7%) PUD patients, 74 (68.7%) NUD patients, and 3 (60%) GC patients. The cagA was detected in 76% of H. pylori-positive cases. The vacA s1-m2 genotype was the most prevalent in 7/19 PUD (37%) and 30/74 NUD (40.5%) patients with H. pylori infection. The prevalence of vacA s2-m1 (8%) was high in Iranian isolates. A significant association was not found between H. pylori genotypes and clinical outcomes. The vacA genotypes and cagA status were not useful markers for gastroduodenal diseases in Tehran, Iran.

Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Dabiri, Hossein; Baghaei, Kaveh; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Zojaji, Homayon; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Molaei, Mahsa; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

15

The association of vacA genotypes and Helicobacter pylori -related gastroduodenal diseases in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the three regions of the Helicobacter pylori vacA gene, the signal (s1 and s2), intermediate (i1 and i2) and middle regions (m1 and m2), are known to cause the differences\\u000a in vacuolating activities. However, it was unclear whether these vacA genotypes are associated with the development of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the Middle East. The

M. Sugimoto; M. R. Zali; Y. Yamaoka

2009-01-01

16

Inhibitory Effects of Anthocyanins on Secretion of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA Toxins  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins have been studied as potential antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. We investigated whether the biosynthesis and secretion of cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) could be suppressed by anthocyanin treatment in vitro. H. pylori reference strain 60190 (CagA+/VacA+) was used in this study to investigate the inhibitory effects of anthocyanins; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin 3-O-glucoside (Peo3G), pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (Pel3G), and malvidin 3-O-glucoside (M3G) on expression and secretion of H. pylori toxins. Anthocyanins were added to bacterial cultures and Western blotting was used to determine secretion of CagA and VacA. Among them, we found that C3G inhibited secretion of CagA and VacA resulting in intracellular accumulation of CagA and VacA. C3G had no effect on cagA and vacA expression but suppressed secA transcription. As SecA is involved in translocation of bacterial proteins, the down-regulation of secA expression by C3G offers a mechanistic explanation for the inhibition of toxin secretion. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that C3G inhibits secretion of the H. pylori toxins CagA and VacA via suppression of secA transcription.

Kim, Sa-Hyun; Park, Min; Woo, Hyunjun; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Lee, Gyusang; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Eom, Yong Bin; Han, Sang Ik; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Jong Bae

2012-01-01

17

Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Primary Human T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human CD4 T cells are major targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Resting T cells are resistant to HIV infection unless activated through the T-cell receptor (TCR) or by cytokine signals. How T-cell signaling promotes susceptibility of T cells to HIV infection remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the VacA toxin produced by Helicobacter pylori can inhibit HIV

Kyra Oswald-Richter; Victor J. Torres; Mark S. Sundrud; Scott E. VanCompernolle; Derya Unutmaz

2006-01-01

18

Helicobacter pylori oipA genetic diversity and its associations with both disease and cagA, vacA s, m, and i alleles among Bulgarian patients.  

PubMed

Prevalence of outer inflammatory protein (oipA) gene functional status in Helicobacter pylori strains from Southeastern Europe is still unclear. H. pylori strains from 70 symptomatic patients were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assessed for cagA and vacA types, and oipA gene functional status was evaluated by PCR and sequencing. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of strains with oipA status "on" genes (81%) and strong association between them and peptic ulcers, cagA, and vacA s1 and s1/m1 genotypes, regardless of the patient gender, place of residence, and age. Importantly, most vacA i1 strains (93%) harbored oipA status "on" versus only 57% of those with vacA i2 type. The vacA i1 genotype was less frequent (66%) than both cagA and vacA s1 types. The virulent strains with cagA(+) and vacA s1, m1, and i1 were detected in 35% as a predominant genotype and almost all (96%) of these strains harbored oipA status "on". In conclusion, the high prevalence of in-frame oipA gene strains (81%), associated with peptic ulcers and cagA(+), vacA s1, m1, m2, and, importantly, i1 genotypes, indicates a strong synergistic activity of H. pylori virulence factors. PMID:21937185

Markovska, Rumyana; Boyanova, Lyudmila; Yordanov, Daniel; Gergova, Galina; Mitov, Ivan

2011-09-19

19

Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease.  

PubMed

Half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

Bridge, Dacie R; Merrell, D Scott

2013-02-04

20

Clustering of Helicobacter pylori VacA in Lipid Rafts, Mediated by Its Receptor, Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase  , Is Required for Intoxication in AZ-521 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces multiple effects on epithelial cells through different cellular events: one involves pore formation, leading to vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, and the second involves cell signaling, resulting in stimulation of proinflammatory responses and cell detachment. Our recent data demonstrated that VacA uses receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP )a s a receptor, of which five

Masaaki Nakayama; Jyunzo Hisatsune; Eiki Yamasaki; Yoshito Nishi; Akihiro Wada; Hisao Kurazono; Jan Sap; Kinnosuke Yahiro; Joel Moss; Toshiya Hirayama

2006-01-01

21

The Cell-Specific Phenotype of the Polymorphic vacA Midregion Is Independent of the Appearance of the Cell Surface Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two alleles, m1 and m2, of the midregion of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA )o fHelicobacter pylori which code for toxins with different cell specificities. Here we describe the construction of five chimeric strains in which regions of vacA were exchanged between the two genotypes. By analyzing the toxicity of these strains for HeLa and RK13 cells we

David A. G. Skibinski; Christophe Genisset; Silvia Barone; John L. Telford

2006-01-01

22

Reconstitution of Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin from purified components  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori VacA is a pore-forming toxin that causes multiple alterations in human cells and contributes to the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The toxin is secreted by H. pylori as an 88 kDa monomer (p88) consisting of two domains (p33 and p55). While an X-ray crystal structure for p55 exists and p88 oligomers have been visualized by cryo-electron microscopy, a detailed analysis of p33 has been hindered by an inability to purify this domain in an active form. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of p33 under denaturing conditions and optimized conditions for the refolding of soluble protein. We show that refolded p33 can be added to purified p55 in trans to cause vacuolation of HeLa cells and inhibition of IL-2 production by Jurkat cells, effects identical to those produced by the p88 toxin from H. pylori. The p33 protein markedly enhances the cell-binding properties of p55. Size exclusion chromatography experiments suggest that p33 and p55 assemble into a complex consistent with the size of a p88 monomer. Electron microscopy of these p33/p55 complexes reveals small rod-shaped structures that can convert to oligomeric flower-shaped structures in the presence of detergent. We propose that the oligomerization observed in these experiments mimics the process by which VacA oligomerizes when in contact with membranes of host cells.

Gonzalez-Rivera, Christian; Gangwer, Kelly A.; McClain, Mark S.; Eli, Ilyas M.; Chambers, Melissa G.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Lacy, D. Borden; Cover, Timothy L.

2010-01-01

23

Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between H. pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA status and severity of disease. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens from 94 patients in The Netherlands were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. Results:cagA was

Céu Figueiredo; Ricardo Sanna; Anton Plaisier; Peter Schneeberger; Wink de Boer; Wim Quint

1998-01-01

24

Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with cagA-positive, cagA EPIYA motif ABD type, and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotype strains of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response and increased risk of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence and virulence factor genotypes found in Southeast Asia are similar to those in Western countries. Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease. Methods To determine the cagA status, cagA EPIYA motifs, and vacA genotypes of H. pylori, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 previous reports for 1,281?H. pylori strains detected from several Southeast Asian countries. Results The respective frequencies of cagA-positive and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes among examined subjects were 93% (1,056/1,133), 98% (1,010/1,033), 58% (581/1,009), and 96% (248/259), respectively. Stratification showed significant variation in the frequencies of cagA status and vacA genotypes among countries and the individual races residing within each respective country. The frequency of the vacA m-region genotype in patients infected with East Asian-type strains differed significantly between the northern and southern areas of Vietnam (p?vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (odds ratio: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.12, p?=?0.046 and 2.83, 1.50-5.34, p?=?0.001, respectively) in the examined Southeast Asian populations. Conclusions Both Western- and East Asian-type strains of H. pylori are found in Southeast Asia and are predominantly cagA-positive and vacA s1 type. In Southeast Asia, patients infected with vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains have an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease. Thus, testing for this genotype and the presence of cagA may have clinical usefulness.

2012-01-01

25

Evaluation of clarithromycin resistance and cagA and vacA genotyping of Helicobacter pylori strains from the west of Ireland using line probe assays.  

PubMed

The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance-associated mutations, the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes was determined in 50 gastric biopsy specimens from Helicobacter pylori-infected patients, using line probe assays. The clarithromycin resistance-associated mutation A2143G was detected in H. pylori strains from 26% of the specimens, which suggested that the high rate of H. pylori treatment failure in Ireland may be partly attributable to the presence of these mutations. All strains examined carried the vacA s1 genotype, and 76% were cagA positive. Of these 50 specimens, 13 (26%) carried H. pylori strains with vacA midregion genotype m1, 29 (58%) carried strains that were m2, 1 (2%) was infected by a strain that was positive for both m1 and m2, and 7 (14%) carried strains that could not be typed. PMID:11326028

Ryan, K A; van Doorn, L J; Moran, A P; Glennon, M; Smith, T; Maher, M

2001-05-01

26

81Kr-Kr age and multiple cosmic-ray exposure history of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas isotopic compositions were measured for a eucritic pebble and bulk material of a silicate-metal mixture from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite as well as pyroxene and plagioclase separated from the eucritic pebble by total melting and stepwise heating methods. Trapped noble gases were degassed completely by a high-temperature thermal event, probably at the formation of the Vaca Muerta parent body (VMPB). The presence of fissiogenic Xe isotopes from extinct 244Pu in the bulk samples might be a result of rapid cooling from an early high-temperature metamorphism. High concentrations of cosmogenic noble gases enabled us to determine precise isotopic ratios of cosmogenic Kr and Xe. Spallogenic Ne from Na and unique Ar isotopic compositions were observed. The 81Kr-Kr exposure age of 168 ± 8 Myr for the silicate pebble is distinctly longer than the age of 139 ± 8 Myr for the bulk samples. The precursor of the pebble had been irradiated on the surface of the VMPB for more than 60 Myr (first stage irradiation), with subsequent incorporation into bulk materials approximately 4 Gyr ago. The Vaca Muerta meteorite was excavated from the VMPB 140 Myr ago (second stage irradiation). Relative diffusion rates among the cosmogenic Ar, Kr, and Xe based on data obtained by stepwise heating indicate that Kr and Xe can be partially retained in pyroxene and plagioclase under the condition that resets the K-Ar system. This result supports the presence of fission Xe and of excess concentration of cosmogenic Kr, which could have survived the thermal event approximately 3.8 Gyr ago.

Bajo, Ken-Ichi; Nagao, Keisuke

2011-04-01

27

Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin/Subunit p34: Targeting of an Anion Channel to the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane  

PubMed Central

The vacuolating toxin VacA, released by Helicobacter pylori, is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. VacA contains two subunits: The p58 subunit mediates entry into target cells, and the p34 subunit mediates targeting to mitochondria and is essential for toxicity. In this study we found that targeting to mitochondria is dependent on a unique signal sequence of 32 uncharged amino acid residues at the p34 N-terminus. Mitochondrial import of p34 is mediated by the import receptor Tom20 and the import channel of the outer membrane TOM complex, leading to insertion of p34 into the mitochondrial inner membrane. p34 assembles in homo-hexamers of extraordinary high stability. CD spectra of the purified protein indicate a content of >40% ?-strands, similar to pore-forming ?-barrel proteins. p34 forms an anion channel with a conductivity of about 12 pS in 1.5 M KCl buffer. Oligomerization and channel formation are independent both of the 32 uncharged N-terminal residues and of the p58 subunit of the toxin. The conductivity is efficiently blocked by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), a reagent known to inhibit VacA-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that p34 essentially acts as a small pore-forming toxin, targeted to the mitochondrial inner membrane by a special hydrophobic N-terminal signal.

Harsman, Anke; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Reljic, Boris; Dian-Lothrop, Elke A.; Galmiche, Antoine; Kepp, Oliver; Becker, Lars; Gunnewig, Kathrin; Wagner, Richard; Rassow, Joachim

2010-01-01

28

A Tale of Two Toxins: Helicobacter Pylori CagA and VacA Modulate Host Pathways that Impact Disease  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that colonizes more than 50% of the world's population, which leads to a tremendous medical burden. H. pylori infection is associated with such varied diseases as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and two forms of gastric cancer: gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This association represents a novel paradigm for cancer development; H. pylori is currently the only bacterium to be recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, a significant amount of research has been conducted to identify the bacterial factors and the deregulated host cell pathways that are responsible for the progression to more severe disease states. Two of the virulence factors that have been implicated in this process are cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), which are cytotoxins that are injected and secreted by H. pylori, respectively. Both of these virulence factors are polymorphic and affect a multitude of host cellular pathways. These combined facts could easily contribute to differences in disease severity across the population as various CagA and VacA alleles differentially target some pathways. Herein we highlight the diverse types of cellular pathways and processes targeted by these important toxins.

Jones, Kathleen R.; Whitmire, Jeannette M.; Merrell, D. Scott

2010-01-01

29

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes in Tunisian patients  

PubMed Central

Background Distinct virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vaculating cytotoxin (vacA), the cytotoxin associated gene (cagA), the induced by contact with epithelium factor Antigen (iceA gene) and the outer membrane protein oipA. In Tunisia, there are no data regarding the pattern of H. pylori genotypes; therefore, this prospective and multicentre study was the first to be done in Tunisia and aimed to investigate the prevalence of the vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes of H. pylori isolates from Tunisian patients with peptic ulceration, gastric cancer, MALT lymphoma and gastritis. Methods H. pylori was cultured from endoscopic biopsies obtained from 281 Tunisian patients. The vacA alleles, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes were determined by PCR. Results The vacA s1m1, s1m2 and s2m2 were respectively found in 10.7%, 12.5% and 45.6% of strains. The s2m1 genotype was not detected in our study. The cagA was found in 61.6% of isolates. The iceA1 and the iceA2 genotypes were respectively isolated in 60.2% and in 16% of strains. The oipA genotype was detected in 90.8% of strains. Considering the vacA and iceA genotypes, the presence of multiple H. pylori strains in a single biopsy specimen was found respectively in 31.4% and 23.8%. The comparison between strains isolated from antrum and fundus showed that Tunisian patients were infected with two or more strains of different cagA, vacA, iceA and oipA genotypes and the discordance was respectively in 9.6%, 4.6%, 8.9% and 8.5% of strains. Conclusion Our results showed that in 46% (131 strains among 281), the H. pylori strains were highly virulent in relation of the three or four virulent factors they could carry. These finding were described before in the literature. Tunisian patients were colonized by one or multiple strains of H. pylori in the same time in relation of presence of vacA m1/m2 and iceA1/iceA2 in the same biopsy. The discordance between strains isolated from antrum and fundus was high, and it is in favour of multicolonization.

2010-01-01

30

Molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori has elaborated a unique set of virulence factors that allow it to colonise the stomach wall. These factors include urease, helicoidal shape, flagella and adhesion molecules. Here we discuss the molecular characteristics and mechanisms of action of the vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, and the neutrophil-activating protein, HP-NAP. Their activities are discussed in terms of tissue alterations, which promote the

Cesare Montecucco; Marina de Bernard

2003-01-01

31

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori iceA, cagA, and vacA Status and Clinical Outcome: Studies in Four Different Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is continuing interest in identifying Helicobacter pylori virulence factors that might predict the risk for symptomatic clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that iceA and cagA genes are such markers and can identify patients with peptic ulcers. We compared H. pylori isolates from four countries, looking at the cagA and vacA genotypes, iceA alleles, and presentation of the infection.

YOSHIO YAMAOKA; TADASHI KODAMA; OSCAR GUTIERREZ; JONG G. KIM; KEI KASHIMA; DAVID Y. GRAHAM

1999-01-01

32

Distinct Diversity of vacA, cagA, and cagE Genes of Helicobacter pylori Associated with Peptic Ulcer in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization of the stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of acute and chronic gastric pathologies in humans. Several H. pylori virulence genes that may play a role in its pathogenicity have been identified. The most important determinants are vacA and cagA in the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) genes. In the present study, to consider the association of

Shiho Yamazaki; Akiyo Yamakawa; Tomoyuki Okuda; Masahiro Ohtani; Hiroyuki Suto; Yoshiyuki Ito; Yukinao Yamazaki; Yoshihide Keida; Hideaki Higashi; Masanori Hatakeyama; Takeshi Azuma

2005-01-01

33

Helicobacter pylori Counteracts the Apoptotic Action of Its VacA Toxin by Injecting the CagA Protein into Gastric Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers but is also a high risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The most pathogenic H. pylori strains (i.e., the so-called type I strains) associate the CagA virulence protein with an active VacA cytotoxin but the rationale for this association is unknown. CagA, directly injected by

Amanda Oldani; Mireille Cormont; Veronique Hofman; Valentina Chiozzi; Olivier Oregioni; Alexandra Canonici; Anna Sciullo; Patrizia Sommi; Alessia Fabbri; Vittorio Ricci; Patrice Boquet

2009-01-01

34

Extracellular pH Modulates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Vacuolation and VacA Toxin Internalization in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated whether an acidic extracellular pH may inhibit H. pylori-induced internalization of bacterial virulence factors by gastric epithelium, thus preventing ingestion of potentially dangerous luminal contents and resulting cellular damage. The interaction of H. pylori VacA toxin and ammonia (produced by H. pylori urease) with partly polarized gastric MKN 28 cells in culture was investigated at

Vittorio Ricci; Patrizia Sommi; Roberto Fiocca; Vittorio Necchi; Marco Romano; Enrico Solcia

2002-01-01

35

Association of IL1B -511C\\/-31T haplotype and Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes with gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori varies by population and geographic area. Our objective was to determine if the IL-1B -511 T>C and -31 C>T polymorphisms and H. pylori vacA genotypes are associated with risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer in a Mexican population. METHODS: We conducted endoscopic studies in

Dinorah N Martínez-Carrillo; Elvira Garza-González; Reyes Betancourt-Linares; Trinidad Mónico-Manzano; Cuauhtémoc Antúnez-Rivera; Adolfo Román-Román; Eugenia Flores-Alfaro; Berenice Illades-Aguiar; Gloria Fernández-Tilapa

2010-01-01

36

Association of peptic ulcer with increased expression of Lewis antigens but not cagA, iceA, and vacA in Helicobacter pylori isolates in an Asian population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Studies in Western populations suggest that cagA, iceA, and vacA gene status in Helicobacter pylori isolates is associated with increased virulence and peptic ulcer disease.?AIM—To investigate the relationship between peptic ulcer and expression of Lewis (Le) antigens as well as cagA, iceA, and vacA in H pylori isolates in Singapore.?METHODS—Expression of Le antigens in H pylori isolates obtained from patients with dyspepsia was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The cagA, iceA, and vacA status was determined by polymerase chain reaction.?RESULTS—Of 108 H pylori isolates, 103 (95.4%) expressed Lex and/or Ley, while Lea and Leb were expressed in 23 (21.3%) and 47 (43.5%) isolates, respectively. Expression of two or more Le antigens (Lex, Ley, Lea, or Leb) was significantly higher in H pylori isolated from ulcer patients than in non-ulcer patients (89.6% v 73.2%, p=0.035). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of cagA or iceA1 in H pylori isolates from peptic ulcer and non-ulcer patients (86.6% v 90.2% for cagA; 70.1% v 68.3% for iceA1), and no association of peptic ulcer with any specific vacA genotype.?CONCLUSIONS—The present study indicates that peptic ulcer disease is associated with increased expression of Lewis antigens but not cagA, iceA, or vacA genotype in H pylori isolates in our population. This suggests that cagA, iceA, and vacA are not universal virulence markers, and that host-pathogen interactions are important in determining clinical outcome.???Keywords: Lewis blood group antigens; cagA; iceA; vacA; Helicobacter pylori; peptic ulcer

Zheng, P; Hua, J; Yeoh, K; Ho, B

2000-01-01

37

Helicobacter pylori VacA suppresses Lactobacillus acidophilus-induced interferon beta signaling in macrophages via alterations in the endocytic pathway.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis and avoids elimination by the immune system of the infected host. The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus has been suggested to exert beneficial effects as a supplement during H. pylori eradication therapy. In the present study, we applied whole-genome microarray analysis to compare the immune responses induced in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori, or both bacteria in combination. While L. acidophilus induced a Th1-polarizing response characterized by high expression of interferon beta (IFN-?) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), H. pylori strongly induced the innate cytokines IL-1? and IL-1?. In BMDMs prestimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori blocked the expression of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-? and IL-12 and suppressed the expression of key regulators of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases. The inhibition of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-? was independent of H. pylori viability and the virulence factor CagPAI; however, a vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) mutant was unable to block IFN-?. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the addition of H. pylori to L. acidophilus-stimulated BMDMs redirects intracellular processing, leading to an accumulation of L. acidophilus in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Thus, our findings indicate that H. pylori inhibits the development of a strong Th1-polarizing response in BMDMs stimulated with L. acidophilus by blocking the production of IFN-? in a VacA-dependent manner. We suggest that this abrogation is caused by a redirection of the endocytotic pathway in the processing of L. acidophilus. IMPORTANCE Approximately half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. The factors that allow this pathogen to persist in the stomach and cause chronic infections have not yet been fully elucidated. In particular, how H. pylori avoids killing by macrophages, one of the main types of immune cell underlying the epithelium, remains elusive. Here we have shown that the H. pylori virulence factor VacA plays a key role by blocking the activation of innate cytokines induced by the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in macrophages and suppresses the expression of key regulators required for the organization and dynamics of the intracellular cytoskeleton. Our results identify potential targets for the treatment of H. pylori infection and vaccination, since specific inhibition of the toxin VacA possibly allows the activation of an efficient immune response and thereby eradication of H. pylori in the host. PMID:23760466

Weiss, Gudrun; Forster, Sam; Irving, Aaron; Tate, Michelle; Ferrero, Richard L; Hertzog, Paul; Frøkiær, Hanne; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria

2013-06-11

38

Síntese de proteína microbiana e concentrações de uréia em vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de palma forrageira e diferentes volumosos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Holstein cows were allotted to a 5 × 5 Latin square design with the objective of evaluating the microbial protein production, using the total excretion of purine derivatives (PD), obtained from spot urine collection, plasma and milk urea and nitrogen (N)-urea. The five treatments contained different forage sources: sugar cane bagasse (CB), tifton hay (TH), elephant grass hay (EH),

Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira; Renata Rodrigues da Silva; Alenice Ozino Ramos; Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras; Airon Aparecido Silva de Melo; Amanda Vasconcelos Guimarães

2009-01-01

39

PCR-Based Restriction Pattern Typing of the vacA Gene Provides Evidence for a Homogeneous Group among Helicobacter pylori Strains Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease  

PubMed Central

The results of PCR-based molecular typing of Helicobacter pylori strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 1,161-bp nucleotide sequence of the midregion of the vacA gene are reported. A total of 48 H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 18 patients with peptic ulcer dyspepsia, 15 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia, and 15 asymptomatic H. pylori-infected subjects were studied. Highly heterogeneous restriction patterns were obtained by digestion of PCR products with SauII, BglII, and HhaI, whereas HaeIII digestion resulted in a strictly homogeneous profile for H. pylori strains isolated from 14 of 18 (77.7%) patients with peptic ulcer dyspepsia, but a strictly homogeneous profile was found for strains from only 8 of 15 (53.3%) patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (P = 0.163) and 5 of 15 (33.3%) asymptomatic H. pylori-infected subjects (P = 0.014). A potentially important aspect of the results obtained is the clinical relevance, since a single restriction pattern seems to be able to identify the majority of H. pylori strains associated with peptic ulcer disease.

Donati, Manuela; Storni, Elisa; D'Apote, Lucia; Moreno, Sandra; Tucci, Antonio; Poli, Loris; Cevenini, Roberto

1999-01-01

40

Helicobacter pylori VacA Suppresses Lactobacillus acidophilus-Induced Interferon Beta Signaling in Macrophages via Alterations in the Endocytic Pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis and avoids elimination by the immune system of the infected host. The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus has been suggested to exert beneficial effects as a supplement during H. pylori eradication therapy. In the present study, we applied whole-genome microarray analysis to compare the immune responses induced in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori, or both bacteria in combination. While L. acidophilus induced a Th1-polarizing response characterized by high expression of interferon beta (IFN-?) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), H. pylori strongly induced the innate cytokines IL-1? and IL-1?. In BMDMs prestimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori blocked the expression of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-? and IL-12 and suppressed the expression of key regulators of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases. The inhibition of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-? was independent of H. pylori viability and the virulence factor CagPAI; however, a vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) mutant was unable to block IFN-?. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the addition of H. pylori to L. acidophilus-stimulated BMDMs redirects intracellular processing, leading to an accumulation of L. acidophilus in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Thus, our findings indicate that H. pylori inhibits the development of a strong Th1-polarizing response in BMDMs stimulated with L. acidophilus by blocking the production of IFN-? in a VacA-dependent manner. We suggest that this abrogation is caused by a redirection of the endocytotic pathway in the processing of L. acidophilus.

Weiss, Gudrun; Forster, Sam; Irving, Aaron; Tate, Michelle; Ferrero, Richard L.; Hertzog, Paul; Fr?kiaer, Hanne; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria

2013-01-01

41

Analysis of Expression of CagA and VacA Virulence Factors in 43 Strains ofHelicobacter pyloriReveals that Clinical Isolates Can Be Divided into Two Major Types and that CagA Is Not Necessary for Expression of the Vacuolating Cytotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization of the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum by Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathologies in humans. Duodenal ulcer formation strongly correlates with the expression of an antigen (CagA) that is usually coexpressed with the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), a protein that causes ulceration in the stomach of mice. However, the relationship between

ZHAOYING XIANG; STEFANO CENSINI; PIETRO F. BAYELI; JOHN L. TELFORD; NATALE FIGURA; RINO RAPPUOLI; ANDANTONELLO COVACCI

42

EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available

1993-07-01

43

O ASSOCIATIVISMO ENTRE OS PRODUTORES DE LEITE EM RESPOSTA A INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA 51: O CASO DO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA IZABEL DO OESTE - PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A atividade leiteira no Sudoeste do Paraná atravessa um processo de transformação. A Instrução Normativa 51, editada pelo Ministério da agricultura no ano de 2002, é uma recente alteração no setor leiteiro, a fim de garantir a qualidade do produto. O caso do município de Santa Izabel do Oeste, localizado no Sudoeste do Paraná, é um retrato desta mudança. As

Valdir Antonio Galante; Eloir Da Costa; Pessoa Fisica

2008-01-01

44

Is EM dead?  

PubMed

Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future. PMID:24124192

Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel

2013-10-15

45

Environmental Media Services (EMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Media Services (EMS) is a nonprofit communications clearinghouse committed to the expansion of media coverage on critical environmental and public health issues. True to their mission, EMS staff "build relationships with top scientists, physicians, and other experts to bring journalists the latest and most credible information." EMS's modest homepage is free of clutter but full of content. While several sections are under construction and updates (currently) appear irregular, a series of available articles provides useful summaries of important environmental news issues over the past six months. Current articles include "The impacts of global warming on the oceans" and "Cool companies," among others.

46

Organofosforados e carbamatos no leite produzido em quatro regiões leiteiras no Brasil: ocorrência e ação sobre Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. Organophosphates and carbamates in milk produced in four milk producing regions from Brazil: occurrence and activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical residues may be present in foods due to contamination in early stages of production, posing a potential risk to consumers. Organophosphates and carbamates are used in the control of parasites in animals and may generate residues in foods derived from these animals, like milk. This study aimed to survey the presence of these two pesticides in raw milk samples

Luís Augusto NERO; Marcos Rodrigues de MATTOS; Vanerli BELOTI; Márcia Aguiar; Ferreira BARROS; Daisy PONTES NETTO; Bernadette Dora; Gombossy de Melo

47

Gestão curricular em Matemática 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. A gestão curricular realizada pelo professor implica uma (re)construção do currículo, tendo em conta os seus alunos e as suas condições de trabalho. Esta gestão curricular assenta, de modo central, em dois elementos. Um deles é a criação de tarefas, a partir das quais os alunos se possam envolver em actividades matematicamente ricas e produtivas. As tarefas podem ser

João Pedro da Ponte

48

by EM tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the in vitro reconstitution of sperm nuclei and small DNA templates to mitotic chroma- tin in Xenopus laevis egg extracts by three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy (EM) tomography. Using specif- ically developed software, the reconstituted chromatin was interpreted in terms of nucleosomal patterns and the overall chromatin connectivity. The condensed chromatin formed

Peter König; Michael B. Braunfeld; John W. Sedat; David A. Agard

49

EFEITO DE DIFERENTES COMBINAÇÕES HORMONAIS SOBRE A TAXA DE RETORNO AO ESTRO E PRENHEZ EM VACAS DE CORTE LACTANDO, SUBMETIDAS À INSEMINAÇÃO ARTIFICIAL EM TEMPO FIXO. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HORMONAL COMBINATIONS ON RETURN TO ESTRUS AND PREGNANCY RATES IN LACTATING BEEF COWS, SUBJECTED TO A FIXED TIME INSEMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and of the Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) and their association on conception and pregnancy rates in lactating beef cows, subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). In this study, 223 crossbred cows, with 65.9% presenting body condition scores < 3, were used.The treatment 1 (TC

Eduardo Schmitt; Elias Moura Luz; Ivan Bianchi; Eduardo Bunselmeyer; Ferreira Filho; Marcio Nunes Corrêa; Thomaz Lucia; João Carlos Deschamps

2007-01-01

50

Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system or an energy management system (EMS) has an installed life of only 10 to 15 years. Because it can take five years or more to implement a new EMS or SCADA system, managing such projects is becoming a way of life for utilities. Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems is

Charles T. Lindeberg; Wayne R. Block

1993-01-01

51

Triple Jump Acceleration for the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the triple jump framework for ac- celerating the EM algorithm and other bound optimization methods. The idea is to extrapolate the third search point based on the previous two search points found by regu- lar EM. As the convergence rate of regular EM becomes slower, the distance of the triple jump will be longer, and thus provide

Han-shen Huang; Bou-ho Yang; Chun-nan Hsu

2005-01-01

52

Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

2002-01-01

53

Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at

Edelson

2003-01-01

54

Lietuvos teritorijos žem?s plutos deformacij? ir seismotektoninio potencialo ryšys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lietuvoje yra statini?, kelian?i? ekologinio pavojaus gr?sm? (Ignalinos atomin? elektrin?, Mažeiki? naftos perdirbimo ?mon?, chemijos gamyklos Jonavoje bei K?dainiuose ir pan.). Seisminiai ?vykiai gali sutrikdyti ši? ?moni? veikl? ir net lemti didel? pavoj? aplinkai, t. y. gali b?ti sukelta didel? aplinkos tarša chemin?mis bei radioaktyviosiomis medžiagomis. Seisminius ?vykius lemia teritorijos seismotektoninis potencialas. Seismotektoninis potencialas ir Žem?s plutos deformacijos yra tarpusavyje susij? rei\\vskiniai, kuriuos sukelia dažnai tie patys giluminiai procesai Žem?s gelm?se. Žem?s plutos deformacij? tyrimas yra vienas iš informacijos šaltini? prognozuojant teritorijos seismotektonin? aktyvum?. Straipsnyje nagrin?jamos Žem?s plutos horizontaliosios deformacijos, nustatomi Žem?s plutos ?tempi? poky?iai Lietuvos teritorijoje pagal GPS matavim? duomenis. Atlikus tyrimus pagal pateikiam? Žem?s plutos horizontali?j? deformacij? ir ?tempi? tyrimo metodik?, gauti nauji horizontali?j? deformacij? charakteristik? bei ?tempi? poky?i? rezultatai ir nustatytos j? s?sajos su seismotektoniniu potencialu.

Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Stanionis, Arminas; Levinskait?, Daiva

2010-01-01

55

DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-02-01

56

Speech Modelling Using Subspace and EM Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speech waveform can be modelled as a piecewise-stationary linear stochastic state space system, and its parameters can be est imated using an expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. One problem is the ini- tialisation of the EM algorithm. Standard initialisation s chemes can lead to poor formant trajectories. But these trajectories howev er are impor- tant for vowel intelligibility. The aim of

Gavin Smith; João F. G. De Freitas; Tony Robinson; Mahesan Niranjan

1999-01-01

57

himu-em: The French Polynesian connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

himu, em i and em ii are three of the main geochemical mantle components that give rise to oceanic island basalts [1]. They represent the end members that produce the extreme isotopic compositions measured on intraplate volcanics. In French Polynesia, all three mantle components are represented in volcanic rocks. The characteristic himu signature is found in Tubuai, Mangaia and Rurutu,

Catherine Chauvel; Albrecht W. Hofmann; Philippe Vidal

1992-01-01

58

EM international activities. February 1997 highlights  

SciTech Connect

EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

NONE

1997-02-01

59

National EMS Scope of Practice Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National EMS Scope of Practice Model is a continuation of the commitment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Health Resources and Services Administration to the implementation of the EMS Agenda for the Future. It is part of a...

2007-01-01

60

Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

Allen, D. M.

2003-08-01

61

Manufacturing Methods of Multi-ingredient Compost with EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is performed for increasing the integrated effect of EM by reasonable mixing of EM solution and multi-ingredient compost in agriculture. This compost has been manufactured by treating organic materials with EM and culturing other beneficial bacteria with high density, and by adding some minerals. The organic substrates were fermented by EM. There was a definite difference between organic

H. G. Ryang; M. S. Rim; Y. H. Rim; C. U. Chang; C. G. Kang; D. C. Yang

62

The error cause analysis in EM simulation of ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure validity and applicability of computation results, the EM characteristic of a ship must have a full embodiment in the simulation. In this paper, concerning EM environment, configuration feature and RF function requirements of a ship, illustrates EM characteristic and error cause from two aspects, i.e.EM simulation model, computation and analysis method. Aiming at a typical example, analyzes the

Wu Nan; Huang Song-gao; Wen Ding-e; Wang Chun

2008-01-01

63

Consumo e Fermentação Ruminal de Proteínas em Função de Suplementação Alimentar Energética e Protéica em Novilhos1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de suplementação energética sobre o consumo e a fermentação ruminal de proteínas em dois níveis de proteína dietética (6 e 20%). Quatro novilhos mestiços fistulados no rúmen foram utilizados em um quadrado latino e os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial 2 × 2, em que as dietas testadas constituíram-se de: A. só feno; B.

Natália Guarino; Souza Barbosa; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newandram Jham; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Antônio Bento Mâncio; José Carlos Pereira; Juliana Silva Oliveira

64

Marine EM Climatic Parameters. Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently there has been increased interest within the U.S. Navy in the use of climatology-based products to support the planning and execution of military operations. Climatological databases of atmospheric features that impact electromagnetic (EM) propag...

A. E. Barrios P. A. Frederickson

2007-01-01

65

EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.  

PubMed

The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

Mallard, A S

1991-10-01

66

Accelerated list-mode EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

List-mode data preserves all sampling information in three-dimensional (3-D) PET imaging and can reduce storage requirements for short-time frame acquisitions. List-mode expectation maximization-maximum likelihood (EM-ML), which has been implemented in a number of forms (such as the EM algorithm for list-mode maximum likelihood, the FAIR algorithm and COSEM), is an obvious choice to reconstruct from such data sets when the

A. J. Reader; R. Manavaki; S. Zhao; P. J. Julyan; D. L. Hastings; J. Zweit

2002-01-01

67

3D EM Characterization of Wafer Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes a method to characterize wafer probes using a 3D EM simulator. Rather than following the traditional method of building a custom test fixture for different probe setups and measuring the S-parameters, this 3D EM characterization method yields multi-port S-parameters of a specific probe structure by utilizing simulations. For a standard characterization, the S-parameters can be a

Hanyi Ding; Randy Wolf; John Ferrario

2001-01-01

68

Condições físicas em galáxias HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galáxias HII são galáxias anãs de baixa luminosidade que apresentam alta taxa de formação estelar. Seus espectros são dominados por intensas linhas de emissão devido à fotoionização pela presença de um grande número de estrelas do tipo O e B. Nós apresentamos um catálogo espectrofotométrico de 111 galáxias HII observadas no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo Boller & Chivens. Determinamos propriedades estatísticas da amostra e derivamos condições físicas (temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica) e abundâncias químicas. Para algumas galáxias, fomos também capazes de resolver espacialmente regiões de formação estelar individuais e determinar propriedades espectroscópicas para estas regiões separadamente, o que nos permitiu avaliar as flutuações das condições físico-químicas dentro das galáxias HII. Em particular, vimos que apesar das galáxias HII apresentarem formação estelar espalhada ao longo do corpo da galáxia, são objetos quimicamente homogêneos. A fim de estudar a evolução temporal dos objetos durante o tempo de vida das estrelas ionizantes construimos também alguns diagramas relacionando razões de linhas de emissão com a largura equivalente de Hb (EW(Hb)). Para interpretar tais diagramas utilizamos modelos de fotoionização para populações estelares integradas. Concluímos que as galáxias HII não correspondem a simples idéia de um burst instantâneo envolvido por um gás opaco aos fótons ionizantes e com densidade constante. As relações observadas entre razões de linhas e EW(Hb) podem ser melhor compreendidas se as galáxias HII apresentarem populações estelares mais velhas, que contribuem para o contínuo óptico observado.

Kehrig, C.; Telles, E.; Cuisinier, F.

2003-08-01

69

SOFIS FTS EM test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 ?m. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

2003-04-01

70

Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These videos introduce middle- and high school-age learners to the electromagnetic spectrum. The product consists of 8 animations including an introduction to electromagnetic waves and one animation for each wavelength of the EM spectrum (Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Each wavelength of the EM spectrum offers a construct to illustrate and teach about NASA sensors, missions, and science. Emphasis is placed on relevant science, such as lunar exploration, and hot science topics, such as climate change. The examples and narrative for each wavelength animation build on the learnersâ prior knowledge then introduces examples from NASA missions. These examples explore the use of spectral analysis and visualizations that help scientists make discoveries about the world around us using EM waves.

Benesch, Troy

2009-01-01

71

Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

Edelson, M.

2003-02-26

72

Report of Feasibility Study. MAPA/HPCM EMS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first annual revision of the Comprehensive Plan for Areawide Emergency Medical Services (EMS) of the Health Planning Council of the Midlands, and a feasibility study regarding the establishment of an areawide EMS System are presented. The feasibility ...

1974-01-01

73

Rural and Frontier EMS Town Hall Meeting Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) struggle to meet the needs and demands of citizens in communities across the nation. For rural or frontier communities it is becoming even more challenging to meet the communitys needs for prehospital emergency care. EMS S...

2008-01-01

74

Sinopse dos marcos em matéria de segurança alimentar na ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1995 Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (Ponto de controle crítico para análise de risco em frutos do mar, HACCP na sigla em inglês ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma

75

A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

2003-08-01

76

Do earthquakes generate EM signals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been significant interest in the seismoelectric effect which is the conversion of acoustic energy into electromagnetic energy. At the onset of the earthquake and at layer interfaces, it is postulated that the seismoelectric signal propagates at the speed of light and thus travels much faster than the acoustic wave. The focus has mainly been to use this method as a tool of predicting earthquakes. Our main objective is to study the possibility of using the seismoelectric effect to determine the origin time of an earthquake, establish an accurate velocity model and accurately locate microearthquakes. Another aspect of this research is to evaluate the possibility of detecting porous zones where seismic activity is postulated to generate fluid movement through porous medium. The displacement of pore fluid relative to the porous medium solid grains generates electromagnetic signals. The Institute of Earth Science and Engineering (IESE) has installed electromagnetic coils in 3 different areas to investigate the seismoelectric effect. Two of the research areas (Krafla in Iceland and Wairakei in New Zealand) are in active geothermal fields where high microearthquake activity has been recorded. The other area of research is at the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) at Parkfield area on the active San Andreas Fault which is associated with repeating earthquakes. In the Wairakei and Parkfield cases a single borehole electromagnetic coil close to borehole seismometers has been used whereas in the Krafla study area, 3 borehole electromagnetic coils coupled to borehole seismometers have been used. The technical difficulties of working in the borehole environment mean that some of these deployments had a short life span. Nevertheless in all cases data was gathered and is being analysed. At the SAFOD site, the electromagnetic coil recorded seismoelectric signals very close to a magnitude 2 earthquake. In the Wairakei and Krafla study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan

2010-05-01

77

Analysis of the EM Field Distribution in Smart Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the EM field distribution in U-home which is a smart home of Kun Shan University. It is apparent that wireless devices in U-home become EM field emitters. This paper states the measurement and the analysis of the EM field distribution generated by those devices. The measurements focus on some popular frequency bands,

Churng-Jou Tsai; Bo-Yuan Tsai; Jinn-Kwei Guo; Chun-Lin Lu; Chang-Fan Liu; Yu-Sheng Lin; Yeong-Her Wang

2010-01-01

78

On Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build up the mathematical connection between the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and gradient-based approaches for maximum likelihood learning of finite gaussian mixtures. We show that the EM step in parameter space is obtained from the gradient via a projection matrix P, and we provide an explicit expression for the matrix. We then analyze the convergence of EM in terms of

Lei Xu; Michael I. Jordan

1996-01-01

79

Induced EM Field and Absorbed Power Density Inside Human Torsos by 1 to 500 MHZ EM Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are numerical results on the internal EM field and absorbed power density inside a human torso induced by EM waves of frequencies ranging from 1 to 500 MHz and of both vertical and horizontal polarizations.

B. S. Guru K. M. Chen

1976-01-01

80

Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for Air Force contract F(41608-96-CA)116: Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields. Circuit cards (or circuit boards) of one type or another are used in nearly every electrical appliance used by the military or by commerce. This na...

D. Zwillinger

1998-01-01

81

EM algorithms for ML factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of EM algorithms for maximum likelihood factor analysis are presented for both the exploratory and confirmatory models. The algorithm is essentially the same for both cases and involves only simple least squares regression operations; the largest matrix inversion required is for aq ×q symmetric matrix whereq is the matrix of factors. The example that is used demonstrates that

Donald B. Rubin; Dorothy T. Thayer

1982-01-01

82

Áreas de Risco em Manaus: Inventário preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho pautou-se em mapear as ocorrências registradas pela Defesa Civil Municipal (SEMDEC), nos anos de 2005 a 2008, com a finalidade de identificar as áreas mais afetadas por eventos adversos (alagação e deslizamento). Para tanto, foram utilizadas a base cartográfica Google Earth e QGIS. Uma das principais dificuldades foi a localização precisa dos eventos, pois as bases cartográficas

Denise Rodrigues Cruz; Karla R. Mendes Cassiano; Reinaldo Corrêa Costa

2009-01-01

83

EMS response to an airliner crash.  

PubMed

This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

2012-06-01

84

Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of the sediment near the point of discharge. The vertical distribution was found to be in accordance with the local deposition rates. In the water phase no significant change in mercury content from 1975 to 1978/79 could be demonstrated. In 1978/79 a difference between Ems estuary and Dutch Wadden Sea was not significant. In 1978 mercury contents of eelpout Zoarces viviparus in the Ems estuary were about twice as high as in the Wadden Sea. In the Ems estuary a decrease of these contents was found between 1974/75 and 1978. A similar decline in the Wadden Sea may be related to a decreased mercury discharge by the River Rhine.

Essink, K.

1980-03-01

85

EM Topology: From Theory to Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main principles of the Electromagnetic Topology theory and the way of adapting them in order to make possible efficient analysis of EM-Coupling problems. Particularly, a difference is made between a low frequency analysis for which an adaptation of the method is required and a high frequency analysis for which direct application of the method seems achievable.

J.-P. Parmantier; I. Junqua

2007-01-01

86

Marine EM in GOM: Advances and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods provide valuable complementary information to conventional seismic exploration methods and success stories have been claimed by several oil companies: 1) as indicator of hydrocarbon presence derived from strong resistive anomalies 2) as complimentary tool in structural exploration. While 3D seismic identifies geological structures, it does not directly reveal the fluid content (hydrocarbons). Marine EM sounding exploits variations in electrical resistivity, and is directly sensitive to fluid saturation and thus resistive hydrocarbons. Under the right circumstances it can confirm the presence of hydrocarbons by identifying their resistive characteristics. This means that the possibility of drilling dry exploration wells is significantly reduced, as is the need for extensive appraisal drilling. EM data is used to resolve ambiguities in the structural interpretation of seismic data. For example, whereas the top of a diapiric salt body is often well constrained by seismic data, the position of the lower boundaries is often more elusive. Carbonate (or salt blankets, or resistive basalt) layers complicate the detection and characterization of deeper structure because of diffusive scattering in the layer. However, the resistivity contrast between these layers and the sediments below is an ideal target for EM sounding methods. Recently, two marine EM methods have become popular: The controlled source EM (CSEM) method and magnetotellurics (MT). The CSEM method uses an electric dipole source to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals to an array of receivers that measure the electromagnetic field at the seafloor. Variation in amplitude and phase of the received signal as the source is towed through the receiver array yield the resistivity structure of the sub-surface to depths of several kilometers. The MT method uses naturally occurring electromagnetic source fields to determine the resistivity of the sub-surface. Thus, by studying the variation in response as a function of frequency, the variation in resistivity as a function of depth may be determined. These methods give complementary information about the resistivity structure of the sub-seafloor. Whereas CSEM data are primarily sensitive to resistive structures, and in particular to layers that are thin compared to their depth of burial, MT data can constrain larger scale conductive structure. By combining natural and controlled source methods better constraints on the geometry and properties of the seafloor can be gained than from either data type alone. Several case histories with large salt structures in the section illustrate that the techniques are useful for future exploration in the GOM. We see the technology moving from its present focus of deep water to include shallower water depths (where CSEM sounding is presently restricted). In addition, we envision the integration of complimentary EM techniques to get a better constrained resistivity image of the subsurface.

MacGregor, L. M.; Strack, K. M.

2005-05-01

87

The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel

2012-01-01

88

Spacetime-based model of EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacetime based model of an electric field and a photon is presented. The model assumes that 4 dimensional spacetime has vacuum fluctuations at all frequencies up to Planck frequency. Gravitational wave theory is used to give insights into electromagnetic (EM) radiation. From gravitational wave equations it is possible to derive the impedance of spacetime and quantify energy propagating in the medium of spacetime. EM radiation is shown to experience the same impedance as gravitational waves. This implies that photons also are waves in the medium of spacetime. The distortion of spacetime produced by a photon is calculated. Experiments are suggested including an experiment that may improve the sensitivity of experiments attempting to detect gravitational waves.

Macken, John A.

2013-10-01

89

Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide\\u000a factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements\\u000a were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of\\u000a the

K. Essink

1980-01-01

90

Topic-based language models using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel statistical language model to capture topic-related long-range dependencies. Topics are mod- eled in a latent variable framework in which we also derive an EM algorithm to perform a topic factor decomposition based on a segmented training corpus. The topic model is combined with a standard language model to be used for on-line word

Daniel Gildea; Thomas Hofmann

1999-01-01

91

Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

2003-08-01

92

Generation and Identification of Arabidopsis EMS Mutants.  

PubMed

EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning. PMID:24057369

Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

2014-01-01

93

Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits  

PubMed Central

Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.

2012-01-01

94

Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.

2003-08-01

95

Activities of Effective Microorganism (EM) on the Nutrient Dynamics of Different Organic Materials Applied to Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 days incubation study was set up to investigate the effects of combined application of effective microorganism (EM) with composted or fresh organic materials on soil nutrient dynamics. Treatments include; Water (W) as Control, EM, Kraal manure (KM) + W, KM + EM, Lawn clippings (LC) +W, LC+EM, Commercial compost (CC) + W and CC + EM. A CO

L. Ncube

96

Complete-data spaces and generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms have been applied extensively for computing maximum-likelihood and penalized-likelihood parameter estimates in signal processing applications. Intrinsic to each EM algorithm is a complete-data space (CDS)-a hypothetical set of random variables that is related to the parameters more naturally than the measurements are. The authors describe two generalizations of the EM paradigm: (i) allowing the relationship between the

J. A. Fessler; A. O. Hero

1993-01-01

97

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

98

e/m Experiment Analysis Refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson's e/m experiment is widely popular in undergraduate courses to help gain an understanding of the properties of the electron. Our results using a standard apparatus, however, reveal significant systematic errors. We examine possible reasons for the discrepancy with the aim of modeling effects that were not included in the original analysis. We conclude that the energy loss of the electron beam as it travels through the helium and the distortion of the beam radius measurement by the curved glass of the tube are the two factors which dominate the discrepancy.

Harmon, Michael; Pruitt, Bryce; Velasquez, Kevin; Schelp, Rich

2011-10-01

99

Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

2004-04-01

100

Convergence in Norm for Alternating Expectation-Maximization (EM) Type Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a sufficient condition for convergence of a general class of alternating estimationmaximization(EM) type continuous-parameter estimation algorithms with respect to a given norm.This class includes EM, penalized EM, Green's OSL-EM, and other approximate EM algorithms.The convergence analysis can be extended to include alternating coordinate-maximization EM algorithmssuch as Meng and Rubin's ECM and Fessler and Hero's SAGE. The condition for

Alfred O. Hero; Jeffrey A. Fessler

1995-01-01

101

Recent development in open systems for EMS\\/SCADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the current situation and emerging trends of development of EMS\\/SCADA systems throughout the world, this report examines the `open system' concept from the viewpoints of users and suppliers. Current technologies for open distributed EMS\\/SCADAs and their possible future trends are described.

Yutaka Kokai; Fumio Masuda; Satoshi Horiike; Yasuji Sekine

1998-01-01

102

10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

2013-01-01

103

A European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.

Ananasso, Fulvio; Mistretta, Ignazio

1991-10-01

104

Milho para Ensilagem Colhido em Diferentes Estádios de Maturidade1  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Aluno de graduação em Agronomia - UNIFENAS 5 Aluno (a) de graduação em Zootecnia - UNIFENAS Abstract: This research work was conducted in the agricultural crop of 2005\\/2006 on the José do Rosário Vellano University farm in Alfenas\\/MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the maturity stage of the corn for ensiling on the percentage of DM,

Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara; André Ricardo da Silva; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Simone Silvia Senedese

105

On-chip em-sensitive interconnect structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever greater current densities in modern IC designs, electromigration (EM) in copper interconnects has become an important reliability factor. In this paper, we analyze current densities on bus and clock networks. We observe that under certain conditions, these networks may become sensitive to EM effects and prone to failure. We perform SPICE simulations on open source Wishbone bus

Di-an Li; Malgorzata Marek-Sadowska; Bill Lee

2010-01-01

106

Clustering Very Large Databases Using EM Mixture Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering very large databases is a challenge for traditional pattern recognition algorithms, e.g. the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for fitting mixture models, because of high memory and iteration requirements. Over large databases, the cost of the numerous scans required to converge and large memory requirement of the algorithm becomes prohibitive. We present a decomposition of the EM algorithm requiring a small

Paul S. Bradley; Cory Reina; Usama M. Fayyad

2000-01-01

107

Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

Miloni, O. I.

2003-08-01

108

Optimal multiple source location estimation via the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an algorithm for multiple source localization based on the Estimate-Maximize (EM) method. The EM method is an iterative algorithm that converges to the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimate of the unknown parameters by exploiting the stochastic syctem under consideration. In our case the algorithm will converge to the exact ML estimates of the various sources location parameters, where each

M. Feder; E. Weinstein

1985-01-01

109

A Two-Round Variant of EM for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of well-separated spherical Gaussians in , a sim- ple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the centers of the Gaussians to near-optimal precision, if the dimension is high ( ). We relate this to previous theoreti- cal and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman

2000-01-01

110

Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module B: EMS Systems in the United States - An Introductory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the United States is presented as part of an educational program for EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adpated to a variety...

B. A. Cooper G. Gibson

1977-01-01

111

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-12-01

112

Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems  

SciTech Connect

In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1998-07-01

113

LAN based data communication in modern energy management systems (EMS)  

SciTech Connect

The use of energy management systems (EMS) demands high reliability, real-time behavior and more and more economical systems. The last demand requires use of inexpensive standard components, whenever possible. The following article discusses realization of EMS, especially system communication, with respect to these constraints. Problems due to conventional use of standardized communication protocols in distributed supervisory systems in general and highly-reliable systems in particular are shown. Multicast communication concepts are presented as solutions, using standardized protocols in a problem specific way. The presented concepts fulfill the necessity of using standard components as well as the specific demands towards EMS.

Dieterle, W.; Kochs, H.D. [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Dittmar, E. [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)

1996-02-01

114

7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the FSA Administrator to make a determination that a natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical...If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available...

2013-01-01

115

E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

2005-10-03

116

Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) System for Grumman Maglev Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low ve...

S. S. Kalsi

1994-01-01

117

Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Instructor's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructor's manual for the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems administration and planning educational program is presented. The program curriculum consists of 23 modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educational settings. Guidelines are ...

M. Howells B. A. Cooper

1977-01-01

118

Structure of Matter, Forces, EM Waves, Spectroscopy, Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

119

EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Thi...

J. M. Gabelmann

2005-01-01

120

7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special EM...made for these additional travel funds: (1) Number of sessions. (2) Categories, by number, of personnel attending each session. (3) Estimated...

2012-01-01

121

Decentralized autonomous object-oriented EMS\\/SCADA system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management systems\\/supervisory control and data acquisition (EMS\\/SCADA) systems are usually geographically distributed and have operational organizations. They are changing in accordance with the various and varying environments, and they should be flexible enough to adapt to those changes quickly. The paper proposes a new architecture called SCOPE (System Configuration of Power Control System) to realize flexible and reliable EMS\\/SCADA

Toshibumi. Seki; H. Sato; T. Tanaka; H. Watanabe

1997-01-01

122

Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana

123

Atlanta school system EMS yields eight-month payback  

Microsoft Academic Search

A $150,000 School Master energy management system (EMS) saved the Atlanta school system $250,000 and paid for itself in eight months by reducing electricity and gas consumption by 30% and 37%, respectively. The EMS includes a central processor and a remote stand-alone processor for each of 14 schools. A DOE matching grant cut the $303,000 cost in half. Monitors with

Warrock

1984-01-01

124

DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new

R. Watkins; J. England

2010-01-01

125

EMS-Vision: a perceptual system for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a survey on the new Expectation- based Multifocal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system for autonomous vehicle guidance developed at the Universität der Bundeswehr München (UBM). EMS-Vision is the third generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. Its core element is a new camera arrangement, mounted on a high bandwidth pan-tilt head for active gaze control. Central knowledge

Rudolf Gregor; Michael Lützeler; Martin Pellkofer; K.-H. Siedersberger; Ernst Dieter Dickmanns

2002-01-01

126

Maximum likelihood noise cancellation using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the two-microphone speech enhancement problem is discussed. Specifically, a maximum-likelihood (ML) problem is formulated for estimating the parameters needed for canceling the noise, and solved by the iterative EM (estimate-maximize) technique. The EM algorithm has been implemented for both a simplified and a more general scenario. The results improve upon those obtained with the classical least-squares approach

MEIR FEDER; ALAN V. OPPENHEIM; EHUD WEINSTEIN

1989-01-01

127

Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.  

PubMed

The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations. PMID:10263702

Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N

1983-01-01

128

EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications  

SciTech Connect

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

2005-11-15

129

Electromagnetic divergence correction for 3D anisotropic EM modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, the application of divergence correction has been focusing on the electromagnetic (EM) isotropic modeling. However, in regions where the earth demonstrates strong electrical anisotropy due to lamina or faults saturated with water, the traditional divergence corrections may not be working for EM modeling. In this paper, based on the divergence-free property of the current density, we propose a divergence correction technique to speed up the EM modeling process for a 3D arbitrarily anisotropic earth. The volume current density weighting method is adopted for the discretization of divergence correction, so it can be applied to non-uniform grid model. By enforcing the constraints associated with the divergence-free property, the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) iterations and the total computational time for the EM modeling are largely reduced. Furthermore, we discuss how to divide the QMR process into sections and the influence of the number of iterations and the normalized residual on the solution process. We take a helicopter-borne EM system over a 3D earth with arbitrarily electrical anisotropy as an example to examine the effectiveness of our anisotropic divergence correction technique on the EM modelings.

Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun

2013-09-01

130

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

1998-12-31

131

Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

Copetti, M. V. F.

2003-08-01

132

Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation. PMID:20042313

Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

2009-12-29

133

The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

2013-01-01

134

Electromagnetic multifrequency sounding device EMS, Prototype 2. Comparison with commercial tools.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMS was developped in ninetees in Institute of Geophysics, Russian Academy of sciences, Siberian branch. In 1996-2001 years the numerous works for hydrogeology, civil engineering and archaeology were performed using EMS. The last year the second prototybe has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mapping, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation.

Abu Zeid, N.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

2003-04-01

135

Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

2003-08-01

136

Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.  

PubMed

The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm. PMID:1435595

Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

137

Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps  

PubMed Central

Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn.

Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

2011-01-01

138

Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

2003-08-01

139

EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program  

SciTech Connect

King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: 1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); 2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; 3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); 4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; 5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.

King, Bill (SRNL)

2010-11-01

140

EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program  

ScienceCinema

King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: 1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); 2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; 3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); 4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; 5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.

141

Rural Volunteer EMS: Reports from the Field. Final Report No. 99.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prehospital emergency care services (EMS) are an essential component of a comprehensive health care system. Rural residents and those traveling through rural areas rely on EMS for treatment and transport in the event of an injury or other health emergency...

M. Hamon R. T. Slifkin S. Rutledge V. A. Freeman

2010-01-01

142

The Mediating Role Of EMS Teamwork As It Pertains To HR Factors And Perceived Environmental Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Little management,theory or empirical results exist to guide managers,in maximizing,employee efforts to successfully implement Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In response, this study examines the relationship among,Human,Resource (HR) factors and employee perceptions of environmental,performance. Four hundred,thirty-seven (437) employees,were surveyed,in an organization with a well-developed EMS program,and ISO 14001 certification. Results suggest that management support for EMS, EMS training, employee empowerment,

Bonnie F. Daily; James W. Bishop; Robert Steiner

2007-01-01

143

Changes in the Microflora and Physiological - Biochemical Characteristics in the Culture of EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora of EM1 culture is converted from aerobic and neutral to anaerobic and acidic. Biochemical characteristics of EM1 changed according to change of microflora. pH, EC and content of organic acid of EM1 at the end of culture were 3 - 3.5, 0.6 - 0.9 s\\/m and 1.9 - 2.1 %, respectively. Antioxidation activity of EM1 increased in proportion to

C. M. Oh; S. B. Choi

144

EMS provider level does not impact use of air medical transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The local emergency medical services (EMS) provider level within a nearby EMS system changed from EMT-I to paramedic. This increase in level of care was expected to decrease utilization of air medical transport and increase acuity of patients flown. Setting: Semirural, mountainous area with an annual volume of 2800 transports. Methods: Retrospective review of the EMS database performed for

David E. Fosnocht; Eric R. Swanson; Elizabeth Middleton

2003-01-01

145

Convergence results for the EM approach to mixtures of experts architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is an iterative approach to maximum likelihood parameter estimation. Jordan and Jacobs recently proposed an EM algorithm for the mixture of experts architecture of Jacobs, Jordan, Nowlan and Hinton (1991) and the hierarchical mixture of experts architecture of Jordan and Jacobs (1992). They showed empirically that the EM algorithm for these architectures yields significantly faster convergence

Michael I. Jordan; Lei Xu

1995-01-01

146

Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: Concept generation of patient-handling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS

Karen M. Conrad; Paul A. Reichelt; Steven A. Lavender; Jessica Gacki-Smith; Sally Hattle

2008-01-01

147

Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to

N. Abu Zeid; E. Balkov; M. Chemyakina; A. Manstein; Y. Manstein; G. Morelli; G. Santarato

2003-01-01

148

Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Handbook for Wastewater Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How this Handbook is Organized This Wastewater EMS Handbook guides you through EMS implementation based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. The Handbook is designed primarily for EMS implementers, so the heart ...

2004-01-01

149

Epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases de desenvolvimento  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO São apresentados os dados anatômicos da epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases do desenvolvimento. Os segmentos foliares foram analisados em toda a extensão do limbo. As células intercostais da epiderme das faces adaxial e abaxial evidenciam-se com paredes sinuosas, retangulares e orientadas longitudinalmente em relação ao eixo do segmento foliar com acentuada

Mahedy Araújo Bastos Passos; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça

2006-01-01

150

HAMMONDIA HEYDORNI, NEOSPORA CANINUM E TOXOPLASMA GONDII EM CAPRINOS ABATIDOS NO ESTADO DA BAHIA, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii são protozoários coccídios que parasitam diferentes espécies animais domésticas e silvestres. E nquanto a infecção por H. heydorni parece ser assintomática, N. caninum e T. gondii podem provocar alterações reprodutivas em ruminantes. N. caninum é um importante causador de abortamentos em bovinos, ao passo que T. gondii induz a abortamentos em caprinos

R. S. UZÊDA; K. ABE-SANDES; L. F. P. GONDIM

151

ANÁLISE DAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING EM UMA FECULARIA DA REGIÃO DE TUPÃ-SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nas últimas décadas, verificou-se uma mudança no comportamento do consumidor no sentido de adotar uma postura mais consciente em relação aos produtos que adquire. No setor alimentício, essa evolução é nítida, em função da busca por uma maior qualidade de vida, agregando à dieta questões de saúde, incluindo produtos com menor conteúdo de gorduras e calorias, rico em fibras, pobre

Joao Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado; Timoteo Ramos Queiroz; Andrea Rossi Scalco

2008-01-01

152

Penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction using space-alternating generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most expectation-maximization (EM) type algorithmsfor penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstructionconverge slowly, particularly when one incorporatesadditive background effects such as scatter, random coincidences,dark current, or cosmic radiation. In addition,regularizing smoothness penalties (or priors) introduce parametercoupling, rendering intractable the M-steps of mostEM-type algorithms. This paper presents space-alternatinggeneralized EM (SAGE) algorithms for image...

Jeffrey A. Fessler; Alfred O. Hero III

1995-01-01

153

Polyproline II structure is critical for the enzyme protective function of soybean Em (LEA1) conserved domains.  

PubMed

Group 1 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA1) proteins protect enzyme activity from dehydration and are structurally conserved with three different 20 amino acid motifs in the N-terminal, middle and C-terminal domains. Three soybean Em (LEA1) domain peptides (Em-N, Em-2M and Em-C) covering these respective motifs were constructed and had differential protective ability on lactate dehydrogenase against freeze-thaw: Em-C > Em-2M > Em-N. CD spectroscopy revealed that Em-2M and Em-C contained both polyproline II (PII) helical structure and ?-helix, while Em-N had a high potential to form ?-helix but did not contain PII structure. The PII helical structure between the third and fifth glycine in the middle motif was shown, through site mutation, to be critical for the enzyme protective function of soybean Em (LEA1) conserved domain under freezing stress. PMID:21455835

Zou, Yongdong; Hong, Ruisha; He, Shuwen; Liu, Guobao; Huang, Zebo; Zheng, Yizhi

2011-04-01

154

EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's

Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

2005-01-01

155

Communications technology guidelines for EMS\\/SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Guideline Technical Paper is to provide a summary of the different communications technologies available for use or application with EMS\\/SCADA system projects. All of the various communication media are addressed with a brief description along with tables of the advantages and disadvantages of each and recommendations for choosing the most appropriate communication technology. The technologies discussed

Donald J. Marihart

2001-01-01

156

Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

2012-01-01

157

Preliminary study on the EMS of CRT display for computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) of cathode ray tube (CRT) display for computer was investigated preliminarily using the test method of bulk current injection (BCI). During the test, CW signals as electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals with different amplitude at a certain frequency were injected into the RGB, horizontal synchronization (HS) and vertical synchronization (VS) signal line of video graphics array (VGA)

Da Gang Xie; Nan Wu; Jing Yu; Xiang Song Yang; Dong Yun Hou

2010-01-01

158

Ultra-stiff, low mass, EM gun design  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance in an electromagnetic (EM) gun implies high velocity with minimal transition from a solid to plasma armature. Factors that affect gun performance include armature integrity, bore straightness and bore stiffness. Experiences firing solid armature at CEM-UT since 1987 have shown that the lack of one or more of these three ingredients will result in less than desirable performance.

M. D. Werst; J. R. Kitzmiller; C. S. Hearn; G. A. Wedeking

2004-01-01

159

Analysis of composite EM scattering based on accurate geometry modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to studying composite EM scattering from 2-D rough surface and half-buried 3-D target is proposed in this paper, from accurate geometry modeling to RCS analysis. First, two dimensional rough surface is simulated with spectral method, which then is converted into a continuous curved surface through inverse engineering. Target model and rough surface model are combined together to be

Jie Li; Qiong He; Lixin Guo; Bing Wei

2011-01-01

160

A Pilot Marine EM Study of Hydrate Ridge, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been proposed (e.g. Nigel Edwards, U. Toronto) that EM methods may be able to detect and map gas hydrate, which is more resistive than host sediments and thus provides an electrical target. While the base of hydrates often produces a distinctive seismic signature (the bottom-simulating reflector, or BSR), the gradational upper surface is less well imaged using

K. Weitemeyer; S. Constable; J. Behrens

2004-01-01

161

Match'em: using fuzzy logic to profile criminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details research undertaken at Bournemouth University into the use of a fuzzy development system called Matcher to build an offender profiling system. A brief introduction is given on the background and uses for offender profiling and the Matcher tool used to build the Match'em system. A description of the design of the system and its evaluation is provided.

M. Lefly; V. Austin

1997-01-01

162

Detecção Cooperativa de Intrusões em Redes Carrier Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hoje em dia os elementos de rede (NEs) da camada 2 do modelo OSI, bridges ou switches, são componentes complexos, com centenas de milhares de linhas de software, que podem ser vulneráveis a ataques, permitindo até a execução remota de código no seu CPU interno. Este trabalho apresenta um esquema para proteger infra-estruturas de rede Carrier Ethernet de ataques

Pan Jieke; João Redol; Miguel Correia

163

Sonar-Based Mapping With Mobile Robots Using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithms for learn- ing occupancy grid maps with mobile robots equipped with range finders, such as sonar sen- sors. Our approach employs the EM algorithm to solve the concurrent mapping and localization problem. To accommodate the spatial nature of range data, it relies on a two-layered representa- tion of maps, where global maps are composed from

Wolfram Burgard; Dieter Fox; Hauke Jans; Christian Matenar; Sebastian Thrun

164

Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey…

Johnson, Johanna H.

165

An EM algorithm for wavelet-based image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper introduces an expectation--maximization(EM) algorithm for image restoration (deconvolution) based on apenalized likelihood formulated in the wavelet domain. Regularizationis achieved by promoting a reconstruction with low-complexity,expressed in the wavelet coefficients, taking advantage ofthe well known sparsity of wavelet representations. Previous workshave investigated wavelet-based restoration but, except for certainspecial cases, the resulting criteria are solved...

Mário A. T. Figueiredo; Robert D. Nowak

2003-01-01

166

Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression

H. Sigurdsson; S. N. Carey; D. Wilson

2005-01-01

167

Hierarchical mixtures of experts and the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tree-structured architecture for supervised learning. The statistical model underlying the architecture is a hierarchical mixture model in which both the mixture coefficients and the mixture components are generalized linear models (GLIMs). Learning is treated as a maximum likelihood problem; in particular, we present an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for adjusting the parameters of the architecture. We also develop

Michael I. Jordan; Robert A. Jacobs

1993-01-01

168

Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A implantação de microcentrais hidrelétricas é uma das alternativas para suprir com energia comunidades pequenas e isoladas, situadas normalmente na área rural. O aproveitamento de potenciais hidráulicos de pequeno porte é uma alternativa cada vez mais viável devido não só à falta de recursos financeiros para os grandes empreendimentos, mas também pelo imenso potencial de geração em centrais de

Carlos R. Balarim; Luiz A. Targa; Jorim S. Virgens Filho; Alceu G. Andrade Filho; Giovana K. Wiecheteck

2004-01-01

169

FFTF EM service pump design, application, and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1975, HEDL selected Atomics International to review the design of three classes of EM Pumps (L-30, L-100, L-200) and to fabricate a total of fifteen pumps. One of the L-100 pumps was shipped to the liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) for sodium testing in the small components test loop (SCTL). The paper presents the HEDL design criteria, discusses the

G. Jacobson; E. H. Carter; G. J. Hallinan; R. L. Eichelberger

1977-01-01

170

Statistical Physics, Mixtures of Distributions, and the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that there are strong relationships between approaches to optmization and learning based on statistical physics or mixtures of experts. In particular, the EM algorithm can be interpreted as converging either to a local maximum of the mixtures model or to a saddle point solution to the statistical physics system. An advantage of the statistical physics approach is that

Alan L. Yuille; Paul E. Stolorz; Joachim Utans

1994-01-01

171

EM Localization and Separation using Interaural Level and Phase Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system for localizing and separating multiple sound sources from a reverberant two-channel recording. It consists of a probabilistic model of interaural level and phase differences and an EM algorithm for finding the maximum likelihood parameters of this model. By assigning points in the interaural spectrogram probabilistically to sources with the best-fitting parameters and then estimating the parameters

Michael I. Mandel; Daniel P. W. Ellis

2007-01-01

172

Extending EMS capabilities to include online stability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of stability assessment tools in the EMS. The main functions are the transient security and voltage security tools. They are invoked under several modes of operation to address the current state of the system as well as the immediate short-term planning horizons. Data exchange, preparation and output visualization are described in the context of distributed

Rene Avila-Rosales; Jay Giri; Rafael Lopez

2004-01-01

173

Síndrome da cabeça caída em doença do neurônio motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A síndrome da cabeça caída é causada por diminuição de força nos músculos extensores do pescoço sendo encontrada em diversas doenças neuro m u s c u l a res, bem como, na esclerose lateral amiotrófica. D e s c revemos o caso de três mulheres com diagnóstico de doença do neurônio motor com quadro clínico de disfagia

Paulo José Lorenzoni; Marcos Christiano Lange; Cláudia S. K. Kay; Luiz G. M. P. de Almeida; Hélio A. G. Teive; Rosana H. Scola; Lineu C. Werneck

2006-01-01

174

A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

2013-02-01

175

An EM algorithm for regression analysis with incomplete covariate information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression analysis is often challenged by the fact that some covariates are not completely observed. Among other approaches is a newly developed semiparametric maximum likelihood (SML) method that requires no parametric specification of the selection mechanism or the covariate distribution and that yields efficient inference, at least in some specific models. In this paper, we propose an EM algorithm for

Zhiwei Zhang; Howard E. Rockette

2007-01-01

176

GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.  

PubMed

GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times. PMID:11326345

Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

2001-05-01

177

An Evaluation of DOE-EM Public Participation Programs  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the scope and effectiveness of the public participation pr ograms, including Site-Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs), at seven U.S. Departmen t of Energy (DOE) sites: Fernald, Hanford, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Paduc ah, and Savannah River. The primary purpose of the study is to assist both DOE Field and Headquarters managers in reviewing and understanding lessons learned o ver the past decade concerning public participation programs administered by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The evaluation provides a snapsh ot of selected EM public participation programs at a particular point of time. It is based on interviews and site visits conducted between January and June 200 2- a time of change within the program. The study focuses on public participati on programs that incorporate a variety of activities and address a wide range of individual site activities and decisions. It uses the Acceptability Diamond as an evaluative framework to answer questions about stakeholders' experiences wit h, and assessment of, DOE-EM's public participation programs. The Acceptability Diamond, which was developed by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in previous research, identifies four program dimensions - substanti ve issues, decision-making process, relationships, and accountability - that det ermine the effectiveness of an agency's interactions with local communities. Es sentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimens ions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and s ituation. This framework provides a guide for agencies to 1) set objectives, 2) design public participation and oversight programs, and 3) set criteria for eva luating program effectiveness. In the current study, where the framework is use d as a means of assessing program effectiveness, the focus is on stakeholders' p erspectives of public participation: on the nature of DOE-EM's public disclosure and the four interrelated dimensions of DOE-EM's interactions with its neighbor ing communities

Bradbury, Judith A.; Branch, Kristi M.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

2003-02-28

178

EM calibration based on Post OPC layout analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Manufacturability (DFM) involves changes to the design and CAD tools to help increase pattern printability and improve process control. Design for Reliability (DFR) performs the same to improve reliability of devices from failures such as Electromigration (EM), gate-oxide break down, hot carrier injection (HCI), Negative Bias Temperature Insatiability (NBTI) and mechanical stress effects. Electromigration (EM) occurs due to migration or displacement of atoms as a result of the movement of electrons through a conducting medium. The rate of migration determines the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) which is modeled as a function of temperature and current density. The model itself is calibrated through failure analysis (FA) of parts that are deemed to have failed due to EM against design parameters such as linewidth. Reliability Verification (RV) of a design involves verifying that every conducting line in a design meets certain MTTF threshold. In order to perform RV, current density for each wire must be computed. Current itself is a function of the parasitics that are determined through RC extraction. The standard practice is to perform the RC extraction and current density calculation on drawn, pre-OPC layouts. If a wire fails to meet threshold for MTTF, it may be resized. Subsequently, mask preparation steps such as OPC and PSM introduce extra features such as SRAFs, jogs,hammerheads and serifs that change their resistance, capacitance and current density values. Hence, calibrating EM model based on pre-OPC layouts will lead to different results compared to post-OPC layouts. In this work, we compare EM model calibration and reliability check based on drawn layout versus predicted layout, where the drawn layout is pre-OPC layout and predicted layout is based on litho simulation of post-OPC layout. Results show significant divergence between these two approaches, making a case for methodology based on predicted layout.

Sreedhar, Aswin; Kundu, Sandip

2010-03-01

179

MAPEAMENTO DE GENES DE RESISTÊNCIA PARCIAL À FERRUGEM DA FOLHA EM CULTIVARES BRASILEIRAS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puccinia triticina Erikss. the causal agent of the leaf rust fungal disease common in southern Brazil, is the widest distributed and regularly occurring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) pathogen. The knowledge of resistance genes is fundamental for a more effective protection against the fungus. Due to the dinamic nature of cereal-fungus relationship, the resistance stability is difficult to

Sandra Patussi Brammer; Maria Irene; Baggio de Moraes; Amarílis L. Barcellos; Sandra Cristina; K. Milach; Antony Worland; Greg Penner

180

Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality  

PubMed Central

This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

2013-01-01

181

Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

2013-02-07

182

Efeito do gradiente de martensita induzida por deformação sobre o fenômeno de delayed cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o fenômeno de Delayed Cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos quando foram severamente deformados em operações de estampagem. Durante a conformação, a austenita destes aços se transformou em martensita e a fração volumétrica desta fase apresentou variação em relação à altura da parede do copo e à composição química dos aços. O cobre

Marta Ribeiro dos Santos; Hélio José Batista Alves; Robson Guimarães Lopes; Berenice Mendonça Gonzalez

2007-01-01

183

Access to Emergency Medical Services in Rural Areas: The Supporting Role of State EMS Agencies. Working Paper Number 38.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to improve the limited knowledge about rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the support of rural EMS by state EMS agencies. A telephone survey of state EMS directors was completed in early 2001 and collected information ...

A. Knott

2002-01-01

184

Conhecimento e inovação em sistemas locais de produção de revestimentos cerâmicos e os novos desafi os da concorrência internacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a compreensão das novas dinâmicas de geração de conhecimento e inovação em sistemas loc ais de produção a partir dos desafi os da concorrência internacional, por meio da realização de estudos em dois sistemas locais da indústria de cerâmica de revestimento no Brasil, um localizado em Santa Gertrudes\\/SP e outro em Criciúma\\/SC.

Gabriela Scur FEI; Renato Garcia EPUSP

2008-01-01

185

Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.  

PubMed

The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression. PMID:2932332

Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

1985-10-15

186

População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

2003-08-01

187

Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.  

PubMed

Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

2007-09-04

188

Long Term Monitoring of EM Signals Near Parkfield CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations of resistivity and anomalous electromagnetic (EM) signals have often been reported as precursors to earthquakes. Most of these reports are based on anecdotal observations of unusual phenomena associated with distant earthquakes, with anomalous signals that are often orders of magnitude larger than expected based on laboratory measurements. In an attempt to assess the validity of these reports, and to understand how such signals might be generated, anomalous EM signals and resistivity have been monitored since 1995 using magnetotelluric (MT) instruments at the site of the focused earthquake prediction experiment at Parkfield, CA. This EM monitoring array was fully operational and producing high quality data when the long awaited 28 Sept Mw=6.0 Parkfield earthquake occured. The Parkfield MT site, consisting of three magnetic induction coils and replicated orthogonal electric dipoles, was situated within a few kilometers of the northwestern end of the surface rupture, providing unprecedented observations of EM signals at a well calibrated site in very close proximity to a moderate (M~6) earthquake. A second MT site near Hollister, CA was also functioning well before, during, and after the earthquake, providing a callibrated reference for cancellation of normal EM variations due to ionospheric and magnetospheric sources. Analysis of this data using a variety of techniques has not revealed any anomalous signals which were unambiguos precursors to the 28 September Earthquake. In particular, residual E and B fields computed in both the time and frequency domains over the year 2004 using the remote Hollister site for prediction have been analyzed statistically, revealing no long term trends or changes in anomalous EM signal or noise levels in the months to days preceeding the earthquake. Similarly, no anomalous bursts of EM activity are seen immediately preceeding the earthquake. Based on our analysis of these residuals we conclude that any anomalous magnetic signals would have to be at least 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those reported to preceed the Loma Prieta earthquake. A strong co-seismic signal was observed. Much of this signal can probably be explained by motion of the sensors in the Earth's main field, although local electrokinetic effects in the vicinity of the sensor may also have contributed to these signals. Statisitcal analysis has also been performed on variations of daily estimates of apparent resistivity and phase at Parkfield. Systematic variations in these parameters are observed, including slow seasonal modulations and more rapid changes on time scales of a few days. However, comparison to weather records suggest that these signals are most probably related to ground moisture and precipitation events, modifying near surface distortion of the electric fields. Multivariate statistical analysis, including principal components and canonical coherence analysis have also been applited to the data, allowing alternate views of temporal variations of signal and noise characteristics. Although there are some anomalous signals deserving more careful study, there is no evidence from this analysis for significant anomalous EM signals preceeding the Parkfield earthquake.

Kappler, K.; Morrison, H.; Egbert, G.

2005-12-01

189

Tenants' energy bill calculated by custom EMS and software  

SciTech Connect

A Dallas real estate company reduced energy bills by 25% by allocating costs among tenants more fairly. Xencom Inc. assembled an energy management system (EMS) and custom software for the company that monitors and bills tenants who override the EMS during off-hours. The 600-point system made up of components of a number of manufacturers was installed in two buildings. Payback should occur in 18 months. Tenants wishing to override the system between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. weekdays and between Saturday noon and 7 a.m. Monday dial the computer on any touch phone to give their access and employee code, which identifies the office space for billing. The employee then identifies which building systems he needs.

Hines, V.

1985-08-19

190

Automatic Derivation of Statistical Algorithms: The EM Family and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning has reached a point where most probabilistic meth-ods can be understood as variations, extensions and combinations of a much smaller set of abstract themes, e. g., as different instances of the EM algorithm. This enables the systematic derivation of algorithms cus-tomized for different models. Here, we demonstrate the AUTOBAYES system which takes a high-level statistical model specification, uses

Alexander G. Gray; Bernd Fischer; Johann Schumann; Wray L. Buntine

2002-01-01

191

EM-Coffee: An Improvement of M-Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignment is a basic of sequence analysis. In the development of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) approaches, M-Coffee [1] was proposed as a meta-method for assembling outputs from different individual multiple aligners into one single MSA to boost the accuracy. Authors showed that M-Coffee outperformed individual alignment methods. In this paper, we propose an improvement of M-coffee, called EM-Coffee,

Nguyen Ha Anh Tuan; Ha Tuan Cuong; Nguyen Hoang Dung; Le Sy Vinh; Tu Minh Phuong

2010-01-01

192

Demand-driven volume rendering of terascale EM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neuroscience, a very promising bottom-up approach to understanding how the brain works is built on acquiring and analyzing electron microscopy (EM) scans of brain tissue, an area known as Connectomics. This results in volume data of extremely high resolution of 3--5nm per pixel and 25--50nm slice thickness, overall leading to data sizes of many terabytes [Jeong et al. 2010].

Johanna Beyer; Markus Hadwiger; Won-Ki Jeong; Hanspeter Pfister; Jeff Lichtman

2011-01-01

193

DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.

2013-07-01

194

Adaptive play in Texas Hold'em Poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present a Texas Hold’em poker player for limit heads- up games. Our bot is designed to adapt automatically to the strategy of the opponent,and is not based on Nash equilibrium computation. The main idea is to design a bot that builds beliefs on his opponent’s hand. A forest of game,trees is generated according to those beliefs and the

Raphaël Maîtrepierre; Jérémie Mary; Rémi Munos

2008-01-01

195

Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.

2003-08-01

196

Parameter estimation of superimposed signals using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally efficient algorithm for parameter estimation of superimposed signals based on the two-step iterative EM (estimate-and-maximize, with an E step and an M step) algorithm is developed. The idea is to decompose the observed data into their signal components and then to estimate the parameters of each signal component separately. The algorithm iterates back and forth, using the current

MEIR FEDER; EHUD WEINSTEIN

1988-01-01

197

Single sensor active noise cancellation based on the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop an approach to active noise cancellation using a single microphone. The noise field is modelled as a stochastic process, and a time-adaptive algorithm based on a modification of the block-estimate-maximize (EM) algorithm is used to adaptively estimate the parameters of this process. Based on these parameter estimates a canceling signal is generated. The algorithm developed is evaluated

A. V. Oppenheim; E. Weinstein; K. C. Zangi; M. Feder; D. Gauger

1992-01-01

198

A Novel EM Gradiometric Surveying System for Geophysical Reconnaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric principles are widely used in precision physics experiments and\\/or in advanced laboratory-based phase measurement systems. Phase resolution of such systems is a few orders of magnitude higher compared to that of standard mixer-based quadrature demodulators or lock-in technique. The first attempt of applying interferometric signal processing to transmitter-target-receiver based electromagnetic (EM) surveying in geophysical prospecting is described. It is

Alexey V. Veryaskin; Francis A. Torres; Timo P. Vaalsta; Ju Li; David G. Blair

2011-01-01

199

Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference

D. N. Smithe; D. Karipides; P. Stoltz; G. Cheng; H. Wang

2011-01-01

200

Effect of the nuclear factors EmBP1 and viviparous1 on the transcription of the Em gene in HeLa nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

Templates constructed from the wheat Em and maize rab28 promoters are efficiently and accurately transcribed in the well-characterized cell-free transcription system prepared from HeLa nuclei. Deletion analysis of the Em promoter indicates that a G-box (CACGTG) element (Em1b) is required for transcription. USF, a Myc transcription factor in HeLa nuclear extracts, activates transcription by binding to Em1b, as shown by the ability of an antibody raised against USF to inhibit transcription and to interfere with Em1b complex formation in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The addition of the recombinant Viviparous1 protein from maize to HeLa nuclear extracts specifically stimulated transcription of the Em promoter but was dependent on the presence of USF in the extract. In USF-depleted extracts, the addition of recombinant EmBP1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor from wheat, activated transcription through Em1b as well as from a similar G-box in the adenovirus major late promoter. Our study demonstrates that the basic transcriptional apparatus in HeLa nuclear extract supports transcription from plant promoters and can be used to assay the function of certain plant nuclear proteins, thereby helping to determine their effects on transcription.

Razik, M A; Quatrano, R S

1997-01-01

201

Estado nutricional em zinco e teste de acuidade do paladar em crianças de baixa estatura familiar Zinc nutritional status and taste acuity test in familial short stature children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Avaliar o estado nutricional em zinco e a percepção do paladar (salgado, doce, ácido e amargo) em crianças de baixa estatura familiar. Métodos: Estudo transversal de 30 crianças sem sinais de puberdade, pacientes do ambulatório de crescimento da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A ingestão dietética foi avaliada pelo método do Registro Alimentar. Para o teste de acuidade do

Andréa G. Marques; Luiz A. Lopes; Olga M. S. Amancio

202

APLICAÇÃO DO DIAGRAMA DE CAUSA E EFEITO E DA ANÁLISE SWOT NA DEFINIÇÃO DE PRIORIDADES EM UMA PROPRIEDADE RURAL ESPECIALIZADA EM CRIA DE BOVINOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo é resultante da utilização de duas ferramentas de gestão aplicadas a definição de problemas prioritários em uma propriedade rural especializada em cria de bovinos de corte. Contudo, este estudo foi composto de levantamento de dados e informações coletados a partir de entrevistas estruturadas aplicadas aos profissionais responsáveis pela produção, mercadologia, sistema de informações, finanças, gestão de pessoas e

Odilon Jose De Oliveira Neto; Jose Jeronimo de Lima; Vagner Antonio Maximo Cesar; Simone Oliveira Rezende; Reginaldo Santana Figueiredo

2008-01-01

203

EMS Providers and Exception From Informed Consent Research: Benefits, Ethics, and Community Consultation  

PubMed Central

As attention to, and motivation for, EMS-related research continues to grow, particularly exception from informed consent (EFIC) research, it is important to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers who are actively engaged in the research. Study Objective We explored the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers regarding their involvement in prehospital emergency research, particularly EFIC research. Method Using a qualitative design, 24 participants were interviewed including Nationally Registered Paramedics and Virginia certified Emergency Medical Technicians employed at Richmond Ambulance Authority, the participating EMS agency. At the time of our interviews, the EMS agency was involved in an exception from informed consent trial. Transcribed interview data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings were presented back to the EMS agency for validation. Results Overall, there appeared to be support for prehospital emergency research. Participants viewed research as necessary for the advancement of the field of EMS. Improvement in patient care was identified as one of the most important benefits. A number of ethical considerations were identified: individual risk versus public good and consent. EMS providers in our study were open to working with EMS researchers throughout the community consultation and public disclosure process. Conclusions EMS providers in our study value research and are willing to participate in studies. Support for research was balanced with concerns and challenges regarding the role of providers in the research process.

Ripley, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Cornelia; Prorock-Ernest, Amy; Foco, Rebecca; Luckett, Solomon; Ornato, Joseph P.

2013-01-01

204

Hydration-layer models for cryo-EM image simulation.  

PubMed

To compare cryo-EM images and 3D reconstructions with atomic structures in a quantitative way it is essential to model the electron scattering by solvent (water or ice) that surrounds protein assemblies. The most rigorous method for determining the density of solvating water atoms for this purpose has been to perform molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein-water system. In this paper we adapt the ideas of bulk-water modeling that are used in the refinement of X-ray crystal structures to the cryo-EM solvent-modeling problem. We present a continuum model for solvent density which matches MD-based results to within sampling errors. However, we also find that the simple binary-mask model of Jiang and Brünger (1994) performs nearly as well as the new model. We conclude that several methods are now available for rapid and accurate modeling of cryo-EM images and maps of solvated proteins. PMID:22609687

Shang, Zhiguo; Sigworth, Fred J

2012-05-17

205

Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

Not Available

2012-07-01

206

EMS-Vision: combining on- and off-road driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, work at the Universitat der Bundeswehr Muenchen (UBM) has been focused on autonomous road vehicles. During the last four years the Expectation-based Multi-focal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system has been developed and implemented. EMS-Vision is the 3rd generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. The explicit representation of the own capabilities combined with a complex control and information flow allows the implementation of decision units for goal oriented activation of locomotion and perception. Due to this general approach and in contrast to former UBM systems that were specially designed and optimized for certain limited scenarios and domains, e.g., road following on Autobahnen, the EMS-Vision system can handle complex driving missions spanning multiple domains. It has been realized on a decentralized parallel hardware structure, exclusively built of commercial off-the-shelf components, in both UBM test vehicles VaMoRs and VaMP. Results from an autonomously performed mission on the UBM campus are discussed.

Gregor, Rudolf; Luetzeler, Michael; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

2001-09-01

207

International EMS. How demand is shifting around the world.  

PubMed

The panelists agreed that prehospital systems around the world might very well begin seeing higher demand and lower acuity. However, the unique aspects of each culture that create different prehospital concerns also create different solutions to these needs. U.S. providers must consider for-profit organizations when attempting to reduce fragmentation to gain one lobbying voice, while EMS providers in some nations, such as in Latin America and India, must consider integrating their treatments with local shamens to gain patient acceptance. In Franco-German systems, efficient doctor training has allowed placement of anesthesiologists on ambulances, while prehospital providers in Vietnam have basic concerns, such as whether prehospital care can be sustained in the hospital environment. The shift in EMS around the world will Sdepend more on the expectations and demands of the customers in each nation. It will also depend on the ability of its EMS leaders and administrators to come up with solutions that get customers the most appropriate care in the most affordable manner. To learn more, go to www.jems.com/2020vision. PMID:24159727

2013-06-01

208

GLLH EM Invisible Cloak With Novel Front Branching And Without Exceed Light Speed Violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose new Global and Local (GL) electromagnetic (EM) cloaks with distinctive class material a_{\\\\alpha \\\\beta}\\\\log ^\\\\alpha (b_{\\\\alpha \\\\beta}\\/h) h^\\\\beta (GLLH Cloak) without exceed light speed violation. The refractive index of the GLLH cloak material, $n(r)$, is large than one or equal to one. Our GLLH cloak is created by GL EM modeling and GL EM cloak

Ganquan Xieand; Jianhua Li; Lee Xie; Feng Xie

2010-01-01

209

Theoretical and experimental investigations of gravity modification by specially conditioned EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary electromagnetic (em) fields do not couple significantly with those that underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia, and it is suggested that this is because they are of different field essence and form. It is also suggested that a much stronger electro-gravitic coupling might be accomplished for effective propulsion by conditioning ordinary em fields into configurations that are similar to those which underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia. This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental em field conditioning work. .

Froning, H. D.; Barrett, T. W.

2000-01-01

210

The Competitive EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures with BYY Harmony Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaussian mixture has been widely used for data modeling and analysis and the EM algorithm is generally employed for its parameter\\u000a learning. However, the EM algorithm may be trapped into a local maximum of the likelihood and even leads to a wrong result\\u000a if the number of components is not appropriately set. Recently, the competitive EM (CEM) algorithm for Gaussian

Hengyu Wang; Lei Li; Jinwen Ma

2008-01-01

211

EM-ANN models for microstrip vias and interconnects in dataset circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for accurate and efficient modeling of monolithic microwave\\/millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components by using electromagnetically trained artificial neural network (EM-ANN) software modules is presented. Full-wave EM analysis is employed to characterize MMIC components. Structures for simulation are chosen using design of experiments (DOE) methodology. EM-ANN models are then trained using physical parameters as inputs and S-parameters

Paul M. Watson; Kuldip C. Gupta

1996-01-01

212

Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

2003-08-01

213

EM703, a new derivative of erythromycin, inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling in human lung fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy has been proven to improve survival in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, although the mechanisms by which it does so remain unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides, the authors examined the effects of erythromycin (EM-A) and new derivative EM703 on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta /Smad signaling fibroblasts. EM-A and EM703 each inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the collagen production in human lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-beta. EM-A and EM703 inhibited the augmentation of Smad3 mRNA induced by TGF-beta. Smad7 mRNA was inhibited by TGF-beta, but augmented by coincubation with EM-A or EM703. EM-A and EM703 each inhibited p-Smad2/3 proteins induced by TGF-beta. Smad7 protein inhibited by TGF-beta restored beyond basal level by EM-A and EM703. These findings suggest that EM-A and EM703 inhibit TGF-beta signaling in human lung fibroblasts via inhibition of p-Smad2/3 through recovery of Smad7 level. PMID:18600500

Yu, ChangHe; Azuma, Arata; Li, YingJi; Wang, Chunyan; Abe, Sinji; Usuki, Jiro; Matsuda, Kuniko; Kudoh, Shoji; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Omura, Satoshi

2008-08-01

214

Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

Chang, F. C.

2000-01-12

215

The characteristics of lithospheric origin ULF EM radiation in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penetration of ultra low frequency (0.01-100 s-1) electromagnetic (ULF EM) radiation throughout ionosphere are calculated numerically for source in the lithosphere and in the magnetosphere. The changes of perturbation area shape during propagation in the ionosphere are investigated for different <> types in the lithosphere which excite this EM radiation. The wave and spatial characteristics of penetrated into upper ionosphere ULF EM field are determined. The influence of altitude profile's main parameters of ionosphere plasma and geophysical condition onto the penetration effect of ULF EM radiation throughout is discussed.

Cheremnykh, O. K.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Kremenetsky, I.

216

Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

2003-04-01

217

EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges  

SciTech Connect

EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

2009-04-10

218

EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.

2012-05-01

219

SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Math Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of resources for teaching mathematical fundamentals of electro- and magnetostatics constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. Included are homework questions, concept tests, and information about common student difficulties in the topic and ways to address these difficulties. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-06-29

220

State of the Art in EM Field Computation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

2006-09-25

221

Caucasicosides E-M, furostanol glycosides from Helleborus caucasicus.  

PubMed

Nine furostanol glycosides, namely caucasicosides E-M, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Helleborus caucasicus, along with 11 known compounds including nine furostanol glycosides, a bufadienolide and an ecdysteroid. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESIMS(n) analyses. The steroidal composition of leaves of H. caucasicus shows as particular feature the occurrence of steroidal compounds belonging to the 5? series, unusual for Helleborus species, and in particular, caucasicosides F-H are based on a 5?-polyhydroxylated steroidal aglycon never reported before. PMID:21893324

Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

2011-09-03

222

8 EMS vendors now offer guaranteed savings plans  

SciTech Connect

At least eight companies now offer company-wide insurance policies guaranteeing the savings projections of energy-management system (EMS) dealers. The plans can guarantee either that energy costs will be lower than the lease payments or that the user will achieve a stated payback. The plan requires users to buy a maintenance contract with their system. Drawbacks are the disincentive for users to seek additional energy savings and the problem of how to measure the savings. Users can request a policy through an insurance company if they are hesitant about a company policy. Spokesmen for several companies offering the insurance option describe the highlights of their programs. (DCK)

Raymond, M.

1983-02-14

223

Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.  

PubMed

Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only. PMID:7885367

Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

1995-04-01

224

Aristarchus's <em>On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moonem>: Greek and Arabic Texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1920s, T. L. Heath pointed out that historians of mathematics have "given too little attention to Aristarchus". This is still true today. The Greek text of Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moonem> has received little attention; the Arabic editions virtually none. Much of what this text has to tell us about ancient and medieval mathematics and the mathematical sciences has gone unnoticed. It should be taken as an important source for our understanding of the mathematical sciences of the early Hellenistic period.

Berggren, J. L.; Sidoli, N.

2007-05-01

225

ANÁLISE DOS INDICADORES DE HEMORRAGIA LETAL EM VÍTIMAS DE TRAUMA PENETRANTE DE TRONCO ADMITIDAS EM CHOQUE: UM MÉTODO OBJETIVO PARA SELECIONAR OS CANDIDATOS AO \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os indicadores de hemorragia letal em vítimas de trauma penetrante de tronco, admitidas com hipotensão arterial sistêmica e analisar sua aplicabilidade na seleção dos candidatos ao \\

José Gustavo Parreira

226

Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding  

PubMed Central

The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities.

Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

2012-01-01

227

Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding.  

PubMed

The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities. PMID:22375092

Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

2011-09-01

228

An EM framework for segmentation of tissue mixtures from medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation plays a major role in quantitative image analysis and computer aided detection (CAD) and diagnosis (CADx) for clinical applications. Conventional segmentation assigns a single label to each voxel, neglecting the partial volume (PV) effect. This work presents an EM (expectation maximization) framework for segmentation of tissue mixture in each voxel. Image data and tissue mixture models, EM algorithm

Zhengrong Liang; Xiang Li; Daria Eremina; Lihong Li

2003-01-01

229

The Greek EMS-SCADA: from the contractor to the user  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national electric utility of Greece has installed and put in operation a modern energy management system (EMS). This paper presents the evolution of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of the EMS during its two years of commercial operation. It classifies all the improvements implemented during this period in 3 areas: telecommunications, man-machine interface and core SCADA

D. T. Askounis; E. Kalfaoglou

2000-01-01

230

Comparison of EM and SEM Algorithms in Poisson Regression Models: A Simulation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose to compare two algorithms to compute maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters of a mixture Poisson regression model: the EM algorithm and the Stochastic EM algorithm. The comparison of the two procedures was done through a simulation study of the performance of these approaches on simulated data sets and real data sets. Simulation results show

Susana Faria; Gilda Soromenho

2012-01-01

231

Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

2009-01-01

232

Comparação entre o desempenho motor de homens e mulheres em séries múltiplas de exercícios com pesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A magnitude das respostas neuromusculares, metabólicas e morfológicas de homens e mulheres parece ser bastante diferen- ciada até mesmo quando esses sujeitos são submetidos a proto- colos de exercícios com pesos semelhantes. Todavia, as diferen- ças no desempenho motor entre homens e mulheres têm sido relatadas predominantemente em protocolos baseados em con- trações isométricas e isocinéticas. Assim, o objetivo

Emanuel Péricles Salvador; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; André Luiz Demantova Gurjão; Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias; Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Arli Ramos de Oliveira

2005-01-01

233

Analysis of developing EM wave absorber for port logistics RFID system by using Amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we developed an EM wave absorber having the absorption ability of more than 15 dB for port logistics RFID system by using Amorphous Metal Powder. Firstly, we fabricated EM wave absorber by using Amorphous Metal Powder and CPE(Chlorinated Polyethylene) with different composition ratios 80 ? 20 wt.% and 85 ? 15 wt.%. Secondly, we designed the optimum

Dong Soo Choi; Dong Il Kim; Do Yeol Kim; Dong Han Choi

2011-01-01

234

Using the EM algorithm to train neural networks: misconceptions and a new algorithm for multiclass classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been of considerable interest in recent years as the basis for various algorithms in application areas of neural networks such as pattern recognition. However, there exists some misconceptions concerning its application to neural networks. In this paper, we clarify these misconceptions and consider how the EM algorithm can be adopted to train multilayer perceptron (MLP)

Shu-Kay Ng; Geoffrey John McLachlan

2004-01-01

235

Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

2008-04-01

236

Effect of EM574 on Postprandial Pancreaticobiliary Secretion, Gastric Motor Activity, and Emptying in Conscious Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM574, an erythromycin derivative and a potentmotilin receptor agonist, is now under clinical trial asa gastroprokinetic drug. The aim of this study was toestimate the effect of EM574 on postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion, gastric motoractivity, and emptying in conscious dogs. Five mongreldogs were prepared. Indwelling cannulas for bothinfusion of phenolsulfonphthalein and aspiration ofluminal samples were inserted into the proximal anddistal duodenum,

Toshiyuki Tanaka; Akiyoshi Mizumoto; Erito Mochiki; Hideki Suzuki; Zen Itoh; Satoshi Omura

1999-01-01

237

Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland

J. G. Paine; W. A. White; R. C. Smyth; J. R. Andrews; J. C. Gibeaut

2005-01-01

238

Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module K: Legal Aspects of Emergency Medical Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on the legal aspects of emergency medical services (EMS) is presented as part of an educational program on EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educa...

J. O. Page

1977-01-01

239

Effects of reinforced concrete walls on transmission of EM Wave in WLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the condition of WLAN (wireless local area network), walls are the main obstacles in channel. Nowadays, many structures and buildings use reinforced concrete walls. These walls affect transmission of EM wave at some degree. This paper analyses the effects of some typical structural parameters of reinforced concrete walls on transmission of EM wave using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution

Liu Ping; Chen Gui; Long Yun-liang

2008-01-01

240

The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure

Jun Zhang

1993-01-01

241

Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

2011-06-24

242

Measurement and Analysis of L-Band (1535-1660 MHz) Electromagnetic (EM) Noise on Ships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program of L-band (1535-1660 MHz) electromagnetic (EM) noise measurements conducted on ships is described. The magnitude and duration of EM noise on ships is of particular significance in terms of potential radio frequency interference (RFI) to future M...

J. M. Clarke S. R. Cantor J. J. Winchus A. L. Caporale

1974-01-01

243

Características psicométricas do Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey (MBI-SS) em estudantes universitários brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI-SS) foi projetado para avaliar a síndrome de burnout em estudantes. Este artigo analisa as características psicométricas (fidedignidade e validade de construto) do MBI-SS em uma amostra de 514 estudantes. A análise fatorial identificou três fatores correlatos às três dimensões originalmente identificadas no inventário: exaustão emocional, eficácia profissional e descrença, indicando que a

Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara

244

ANÁLISE ECONÔMICA DE SUCESSÕES DE CULTURAS PARA MILHO, COM NÍVEIS DE NITROGÊNIO EM COBERTURA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O milho é uma cultura presente em todas as regiões brasileiras; nos últimos anos, seus custos de produção aumentaram. Técnicas que proporcionem economia, sem perda de produtividade, podem incentivar seu cultivo, tão importante no sistema de rota- ção de culturas. Os adubos verdes são opções para a redução de custos, principalmente em relação ao nitrogênio. Utilizaram-se dados de

DENIS AUGUSTO DA SILVA; CARLOS FERREIRA DE SOUZA

245

Marginal maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters: Application of an EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters in the marginal distribution, integrating over the distribution of ability, becomes practical when computing procedures based on an EM algorithm are used. By characterizing the ability distribution empirically, arbitrary assumptions about its form are avoided. The Em procedure is shown to apply to general item-response models lacking simple sufficient statistics for ability. This includes

R. Darrell Bock; Murray Aitkin

1981-01-01

246

Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

2003-08-01

247

Tumores experimentais do sistema nervoso central: padronização de modelo em roedores utilizando a linhagem 9L  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Grande variedade de modelos experimentais foram estabelecidos em neuro-oncologia durante as últimas décadas, a fim de estudar a biologia tumoral e a eficiciência de novas drogas e novos tratamentos em gliomas malignos humanos. Embora estes modelos estejam bem caracterizados e sejam facilmente reproduzíveis e aplicáveis, há limitações quanto ao seu uso e à resposta obtida, principalmente quando utilizados

Custódio Michailowsky; Flavio Key Niura; Ângela C. do Valle; Shigueko Sonohara; Thales D'Alessandro Meneguin; Ana Maria C. Tsanaclis

2003-01-01

248

Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

Weissman, Alexander

2013-01-01

249

Determining the ratio of charge to mass e\\/m for electrons by magnetic focusing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an instrument based on Busch's method of determining e\\/m for electrons. A square-wave deflection voltage is used for deflecting an electron beam. With this instrument, one can more easily and more accurately determine e\\/m for the electron. A comparison is made experimentally and theoretically among several ways of deflecting an electron beam.

Yong-Kang Yang

1998-01-01

250

A Probabilistic Analysis of EM for Mixtures of Separated, Spherical Gaussians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of k well-separated spherical Gaussians in Rd, a simple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the parameters of the Gaussians to near- optimal precision, if the dimension is high (d ln k). We relate this to previous theoretical and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman

2007-01-01

251

Elogio do cotidiano: a confiança e a arte da vida social em uma comunidade amazônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como antropóloga (em vez de, por exemplo, filósofa)1 meu objetivo é compreender e desvelar as visões de mundo de outras pessoas, em parti- cular as dos povos indígenas da floresta tropical amazônica. A versão local que, por muitos anos, venho tentando entender pertence aos Pia- roa, um povo que vive ao longo de tributários do rio Orinoco, na Vene- zuela.

Joanna Overing

1999-01-01

252

Realce de Bordas em Imagens Digitais: Uma Abordagem por Números Fuzzy  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma nova abordagem para a extração de bordas em imagens em tons de cinza. A abordagem proposta é baseada na teoria de números fuzzy. Os números fuzzy são apropriados para lidar com incertezas, uma vez que quantificam matematica- mente termos lingüísticos do tipo \\

Inês Ap; Gasparotto Boaventura; Adilson Gonzaga

253

Simple and effective EM-based optimization procedure for microwave filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective computerized optimization procedure for microwave filters is discussed. The basic idea is to integrate a fast and accurate electromagnetic (EM) solver, a filter design strategy, and two different optimization algorithms. The structural parameters to be modified are then chosen with the objective of improving the interaction between the EM solver and the optimization process. A simple

J. T. Alos; M. Guglielmi

1997-01-01

254

Time-delay estimation for filtered Poisson processes using an EM-type algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a modified EM algorithm to estimate a nonrandom time shift parameter of an intensity associated with an inhomogeneous Poisson process Nt, whose points are only partially observed as a noise-contaminated output X of a linear time-invariant filter excited by a train of delta functions, a filtered Poisson process. The exact EM algorithm for computing the maximum likelihood time

Nikolaos Antoniadis; A. O. Hero

1994-01-01

255

Effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM®) on the Growth Parameters of Fayoumi and Horro Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine growth promoter effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on Horro and Fayoumi chickens. This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center and National Veterinary Institute (Debre Zeit). A total of 450 chickens (225 from each breed) were used in this study. Birds were grouped according to treatment groups: EM-treated (with feed, with water, with feed

E. wondmeneh; T. Getachew; D. Tadelle

2011-01-01

256

ITS and Transportation Safety: EMS System Data Integration to Improve Traffic Crash Emergency Response and Treatment - Phase III Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transportation safety and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) literature has called for the development of better information system tools to support EMS to aid in reducing the human impact of medical emergencies. Building upon previous research by the r...

B. Hilton B. Schooley T. A. Horan

2011-01-01

257

NEW ISOTOPES OF EMANATION AND FRANCIUM: ²²³Em, ²²⁴Em, AND ²²⁴Fr  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the products of the interaction of thorium with 230 ; Mev protons revealed evidence for the existence of the neutron-excess isotopes: ; Em²²³, Em²²⁴, and Fr²²⁴. The existence of these three new ; isotopes was confirmed by identification of their decay products: Ra²²³ and ; Ra²²⁴. (auth);

Bellido

1961-01-01

258

Cryo-EM modeling by the molecular dynamics flexible fitting method  

PubMed Central

The increasing power and popularity of cryo-electron (cryo-EM) microscopy in structural biology brought about the development of so-called hybrid methods, which permit the interpretation of cryo-EM density maps beyond their nominal resolution in terms of atomic models. The Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge 2010 is the first community effort to bring together developers of hybrid methods as well as cryo-EM experimentalists. Participating in the challenge, the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method was applied to a number of cryo-EM density maps. The results are described here with special emphasis on the use of symmetry-based restraints to improve the quality of atomic models derived from density maps of symmetric complexes; on a comparison of the stereochemical quality of atomic models resulting from different hybrid methods; and on application of MDFF to electron crystallography data.

Chan, Kwok-Yan; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Schreiner, Eduard; Schulten, Klaus

2012-01-01

259

Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2012-03-01

260

A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

2004-01-14

261

Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin Promotes Bacterial Intracellular Survival in Gastric Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric epithelium of at least 50% of the world's human population, playing a causative role in the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Current evidence indicates that H. pylori can invade epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. However, relatively little is known about the biology of H. pylori invasion and survival in host

M. R. Terebiznik; C. L. Vazquez; K. Torbicki; D. Banks; T. Wang; W. Hong; S. R. Blanke; M. I. Colombo; N. L. Jones

2006-01-01

262

MEJORANDO LA UTILIZACION DE LA PROTEINA EN LA VACA LECHERA EN LACTANCIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy cows utilize feed CP with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Maximizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the most effective way...

263

Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation.

Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

2010-01-01

264

Perfil da automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade de uma cidade do sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: A automedicação tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas e assume uma importância maior quando é realizada por idosos, pois geralmente representam um grupo polimedicado. Objetivo: Avaliar a automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade localizados em uma cidade do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal baseado em entrevistas com idosos participantes de grupos

Edézio Antunes Cascaes; Maria Luiza Falchetti; Dayani Galato

265

A Gentle Tutorial of the EM Algorithm and its Application to Parameter Estimation for Gaussian Mixture and Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the maximum-likelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectation- Maximization (EM) algorithm can be used for its solution. We first describe the abstract form of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM pa- rameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities,

Jeff A. Bilmes

1997-01-01

266

Efeitos da monensina sobre a fermentação e sensibilidade de bactérias ruminais de bovinos sob dietas ricas em volumoso ou concentrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da monensina sobre as mudanças nos padrões de fermentação e resistência à perda do potássio intracelular das bactérias ruminais provenientes de quatro bovinos recebendo dietas ricas em volumoso ou concentrado. As bactérias obtidas por centrifugação diferencial foram resuspensas em um meio pobre em potássio, no qual foi medida a perda do p otássio intracelular,

Rogério de Paula Lana; James B. Russell

2001-01-01

267

Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.  

PubMed

Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding. PMID:18814746

Careless, James; Erich, John

2008-08-01

268

Detecting particles in cryo-EM micrographs using learned features.  

PubMed

A new learning-based approach is presented for particle detection in cryo-electron micrographs using the Adaboost learning algorithm. The approach builds directly on the successful detectors developed for the domain of face detection. It is a discriminative algorithm which learns important features of the particle's appearance using a set of training examples of the particles and a set of images that do not contain particles. The algorithm is fast (10 s on a 1.3 GHz Pentium M processor), is generic, and is not limited to any particular shape or size of the particle to be detected. The method has been evaluated on a publicly available dataset of 82 cryoEM images of keyhole lympet hemocyanin (KLH). From 998 automatically extracted particle images, the 3-D structure of KLH has been reconstructed at a resolution of 23.2 A which is the same resolution as obtained using particles manually selected by a trained user. PMID:15065673

Mallick, Satya P; Zhu, Yuanxin; Kriegman, David

269

SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of tutorials and tutorial pre-tests was constructed for a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. These tutorials are weekly student sessions, modeled after research-validated curricula developed at the University of Washington. Using these materials in study/recitation sections, students work in small groups with the instructor as a learning coach. The materials are designed to target known student difficulties, to elicit and develop conceptual understanding and math/physics connections. They also help faculty listen to student reasoning, get a clearer sense of student ideas, and determine where they are struggling. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael

2010-06-10

270

EM-based measurement fusion for HRR radar centroid processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a new algorithm for high range resolution (HRR) radar centroid processing for scenarios where there are closely spaced objects. For range distributed targets with multiple discrete scatterers, HRR radars will receive detections across multiple range bins. When the resolution is very high, and the target has significant extent, then it is likely that the detections will not occur in adjacent bins. For target tracking purposes, the multiple detections must be grouped and fused to create a single object report and a range centroid estimate is computed since the detections are range distributed. With discrete scatterer separated by multiple range bins, then when closely spaced objects are present there is uncertainty about which detections should be grouped together for fusion. This paper applies the EM algorithm to form a recursive measurement fusion algorithm that segments the data into object clusters while simultaneously forming a range centroid estimate with refined bearing and elevation estimates.

Slocumb, Benjamin J.; Blair, W. Dale

2002-08-01

271

EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4  

SciTech Connect

A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

Kurennoy, Sergey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19

272

Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

2011-03-01

273

TrakEM2 Software for Neural Circuit Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

A key challenge in neuroscience is the expeditious reconstruction of neuronal circuits. For model systems such as Drosophila and C. elegans, the limiting step is no longer the acquisition of imagery but the extraction of the circuit from images. For this purpose, we designed a software application, TrakEM2, that addresses the systematic reconstruction of neuronal circuits from large electron microscopical and optical image volumes. We address the challenges of image volume composition from individual, deformed images; of the reconstruction of neuronal arbors and annotation of synapses with fast manual and semi-automatic methods; and the management of large collections of both images and annotations. The output is a neural circuit of 3d arbors and synapses, encoded in NeuroML and other formats, ready for analysis.

Cardona, Albert; Saalfeld, Stephan; Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Preibisch, Stephan; Longair, Mark; Tomancak, Pavel; Hartenstein, Volker; Douglas, Rodney J.

2012-01-01

274

SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework question collection was constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course on electro- and magneto-statics. Many questions are related to textbook problems, but with added elements of explanation, sense-making, estimation or approximation, real-world connections, and multiple-representations. Not all these homework questions were used in the course design project. Some problems used include detailed instructor notes, including statistics on student performance on each homework problem assigned. The homework solutions are only available to instructors by writing the authors, Steven.Pollock@colorado.edu This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-06-10

275

OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

2003-08-01

276

DOE-EM privatization and the 2006 Plan: Principles for procurement policies and risk management  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Remediation and Waste Management (EM) has recently set in place programs to restructure the strategic planning mechanism that will drive its clean-up schedule, The 2006 Plan, and to create a new set of business relationships with private contractors that will reduce costs--privatization. Taken together, the 2006 Plan and privatization will challenge EM to create new business practices to recast its risk management policies to support these initiatives while ensuring that its responsibilities toward the environment, human health, and worker safety (ES and H) are maintained. This paper argues that the 2006 Plan has transformed EM`s traditional, bottoms-up approach based on technical dictates to a top-down approach based on management goals--a transformation from an engineering problem to an economic problem. The 2006 Plan evolved from EM`s Ten-Year Plan, and seeks to convert the largely open-ended planning approach previously undertaken by EM to a plan bounded by time and dollars. The plan emphasizes making tradeoffs and choosing activities that deliver the most clean-up for the dollar. It also recognizes that each major player--stakeholders, DOE, OMB and Congress--has distinct interests that must be resolved if the process is to succeed. This, in turn, has created the need for a corresponding transformation in risk management practices from compliance-driven to benefit/cost-driven.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Duemmer, C.L.

1997-08-01

277

Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

2003-08-01

278

Methodology for the development of a Canadian national EMS research agenda  

PubMed Central

Background Many health care disciplines use evidence-based decision making to improve patient care and system performance. While the amount and quality of emergency medical services (EMS) research in Canada has increased over the past two decades, there has not been a unified national plan to enable research, ensure efficient use of research resources, guide funding decisions and build capacity in EMS research. Other countries have used research agendas to identify barriers and opportunities in EMS research and define national research priorities. The objective of this project is to develop a national EMS research agenda for Canada that will: 1) explore what barriers to EMS research currently exist, 2) identify current strengths and opportunities that may be of benefit to advancing EMS research, 3) make recommendations to overcome barriers and capitalize on opportunities, and 4) identify national EMS research priorities. Methods/Design Paramedics, educators, EMS managers, medical directors, researchers and other key stakeholders from across Canada will be purposefully recruited to participate in this mixed methods study, which consists of three phases: 1) qualitative interviews with a selection of the study participants, who will be asked about their experience and opinions about the four study objectives, 2) a facilitated roundtable discussion, in which all participants will explore and discuss the study objectives, and 3) an online Delphi consensus survey, in which all participants will be asked to score the importance of each topic discovered during the interviews and roundtable as they relate to the study objectives. Results will be analyzed to determine the level of consensus achieved for each topic. Discussion A mixed methods approach will be used to address the four study objectives. We anticipate that the keys to success will be: 1) ensuring a representative sample of EMS stakeholders, 2) fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and 3) adhering to a predefined approach to measure consensus on each topic. Steps have been taken in the methodology to address each of these a priori concerns.

2011-01-01

279

Queda dos homic?dios em S?o Paulo, Brasil: uma an?lise descritiva  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (?74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (?78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (?79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (?74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social.

Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sergio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sergio

2012-01-01

280

A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihoods in emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

The maximum likelihood (ML) approach to estimating the radioactive distribution in the body cross section has become very popular among researchers in emission computed tomography (ECT) since it has been shown to provide very good images compared to those produced with the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is an often-used iterative approach for maximizing the Poisson likelihood in ECT because of its attractive theoretical and practical properties. Its major disadvantage is that, due to its slow rate of convergence, a large amount of computation is often required to achieve an acceptable image. In this paper the authors present a row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (RAMLA) as an alterative to the EM algorithm for maximizing the Poisson likelihood in ECT. The authors deduce the convergence properties of this algorithm and demonstrate by way of computer simulations that the early iterates of RAMLA increase the Poisson likelihood in ECT at an order of magnitude faster than the standard EM algorithm. Specifically, they show that, from the point of view of measuring total radionuclide uptake in simulated brain phantoms, iterations 1, 2, 3, and 4 of RAMLA perform at least as well as iterations 45, 60, 70, and 80, respectively, of EM. Moreover, they show that iterations 1,2,3, and 4 of RAMLA achieve comparable likelihood values as iterations 45, 60, 70, and 80, respectively, of EM. They also present a modified version of a recent fast ordered subsets EM (OS-EM) algorithm and show that RAMLA is a special case of this modified OS-EM. Furthermore, they show that the modification converges to a ML solution whereas the standard OS-EM does not.

Browne, J. [Advanced Research and Applications Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Pierro, A.R. de [State Univ. of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

1996-10-01

281

Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms on growth and yield of cotton. Treatments included: control; organic materials (OM); effective microorganisms (EM); OM+EM; mineral NPK (170:85:60 kg); 1/2 mineral NPK+EM; 1/2 mineral NPK+OM+EM and mineral NPK+OM+EM. OM and EM alone did not increase the yield and yield attributing components significantly but integrated use of both resulted in a 44% increase over control. Application of NPK in combination with OM and EM resulted in the highest seed cotton yield (2470 kg ha-1). Integrated use of OM+EM with 1/2 mineral NPK yielded 2091 kg ha-1, similar to the yield (2165 kg ha-1) obtained from full recommended NPK, indicating that this combination can substitute for 85 kg N ha-1. Combination of both N sources with EM also increased the concentrations of NPK in plants. Economic analysis suggested the use of 1/2 mineral NPK with EM+OM saves the mineral N fertilizer by almost 50% compared to a system with only mineral NPK application. This study indicated that application of EM increased the efficiency of both organic and mineral nutrient sources but alone was ineffective in increasing yield. PMID:16023343

Khaliq, Abdul; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hussain, Tahir

2005-07-14

282

Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 0.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When

Zhu Baoge; Gu Aiqiu; Deng Xiangdong; Deng Yuxuan; Lu Zixian

1995-01-01

283

EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating rollover. Vehicle intrusion, deformity, and seatbelt use appear to be more difficult to estimate with only fair agreement with the crash reconstructionist. As expected, the EMS provider estimated speed prior to the crash does not appear to be a reasonable proxy for change in velocity.

Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

284

Vibrational symmetry classification and torsional tunneling splitting patterns in G6(EM), G12, and G36(EM) molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the torsional splitting patterns in methanol-like molecules, with the excitation of small amplitude vibrational modes in the methyl group, are determined by mechanisms that can be formulated in an almost identical fashion to that for ethane-like molecules. This is achieved by treating ethane-like molecules by the internal axis method (IAM) and methanol-like molecules by the principal axis method (PAM) or rho-axis method (RAM). Using the extended molecular groups G6(EM) or C6v(M) for methanol and G36(EM) for ethane, vibrations perpendicular to the internal rotation axis are conveniently described by modes of higher degeneracy (E for methanol and Gs for ethane) in the absence of coupling of top and frame. Head-tail coupling operators, except the cos-type barrier terms, lower the degeneracy, causing vibrational splittings. Coupled vibrational pairs with torsional splitting patterns that we call 'regular' (pure A1, A2 pairs for methanol and pure E1d, E2d pairs for ethane) or 'inverted' (pure B1, B2 pairs for methanol and pure E1s, E2s pairs for ethane) can be formed as limit cases. Actual splitting patterns occur between the above limits, and are basically determined by torsional Coriolis coupling, which can tune more or less to resonance pairs of uncoupled basis levels linked by specific head-tail coupling operators. The inversion of torsional splitting patterns, observed in perpendicular vibrational modes of the methyl group of methanol, can be predicted by these theoretical considerations. Similar considerations apply to molecules of G12 symmetry.

Lattanzi, F.; di Lauro, C.

285

Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: dados diagnósticos e resultados terapêuticos em 241 casos Primary lung abscess: diagnostic findings and results of the treatment in 241 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINOPSE São mostrados aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos do abscesso pulmonar de aspiração. No período de 1968 a 2002 foram reunidos e estudados 241 casos da doença - 199 em homens e 42 em mulheres, com média de idade de 41,3 anos. Em 69% dos pacientes esteve presente a ingestão de álcool e em 64% o hábito tabágico. Tosse, expectoração, febre

ÂNGELA P. ZIEGLER; José S. Moreira; Rua Carlos Von Koseritz

286

7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

287

Carbon Nanotube Fiber-Reinforced Composite Structures for EM and Lightning Strike Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for repairing fiber-reinforced composite structures while maintaining original EM and lightning protection using carbon nanotubes, fibers, and thermoset resins is disclosed. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method comprises prepa...

D. H. Landis J. L. Conroy J. W. Piche P. J. Glatkowski

2005-01-01

288

Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module Q: Personnel Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on personnel management is presented as part of an educational program for emergency medical services (EMS) systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educatio...

E. C. Murphy

1977-01-01

289

Reservoir characterization and process monitoring with EM methods. 1994 Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past five years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have applied the EM induction method to the problem of petroleum reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) monitoring. The goal is to develop practica...

M. Wilt

1995-01-01

290

Examination of In-Bore Projectile Motion from an EM Railgun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was undertaken to examine electromagnetic (EM) gun barrel/projectile interaction. The RASCAL code was used in this study because of its ability to easily manipulate relevant parameters such as gun tube centerline, projectile/bore contact ...

L. Burton

1993-01-01

291

CHOYCE: a web server for constrained homology modelling with cryoEM maps  

PubMed Central

Summary: CHOYCE is a web server for homology modelling of protein components and the fitting of those components into cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps of their assemblies. It provides an interactive approach to improving the selection of models based on the quality of their fit into the EM map. Availability: http://choyce.ismb.lon.ac.uk/ Contact: m.topf@cryst.bbk.ac.uk; reda.rawi@uni-due.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Rawi, Reda; Whitmore, Lee; Topf, Maya

2010-01-01

292

An Effective EM\\/IR-drop Flow with UltraSim and VAVO\\/VAEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both static and dynamic methods are widely used for the electro-migration (EM) and IR-drop verifications. For analog and mixed-signal (AMS) designs, only dynamic spice-like simulations may provide adequate accuracy. It is well- known that dynamic simulations generally take a long run time even with so- called fast spice simulators, such as UltraSim. In addition, the EM and IR drop verifications

Wei-Si Jiang

293

Two different Em -like genes are expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a radish cDNA probe, we have isolated and characterized two genomic clones from Arabidopsis thaliana (GEA1 and GEA6) encoding two different proteins that are homologous to the “Early methionine-labelled” (Em) protein of wheat. GEA1 differs from GEA6 and Em clones of wheat in that a sequence coding for 20 amino acid residues is tandemly repeated 4 times. These two

Pascale Gaubier; Monique Raynal; Gillian Hull; Gordon M. Huestis; Françoise Grellet; César Arenas; Montserrat Pagès; Michel Delseny

1993-01-01

294

Esclerose múltipla: estudo descritivo de suas formas clínicas em 302 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A esclerose múltipla é uma das causas mais comuns de incapacidade neurológica crônica em adultos jovens. Avaliamos, através de estudo retrospectivo, características epidemiológicas, formas de apresentação, manifestações clínicas, evolução e o grau de incapacitação física da esclerose múltipla em 302 pacientes. A média da idade dos pacientes foi 37,7 anos e a relação entre os gêneros foi 3,13F:1M.

MARCOS AURÉLIO MOREIRA; EDUARDO FELIPE; MARIA FERNANDA MENDES; CHARLES PETER TILBERY

2000-01-01

295

On Iterative EM-Based Frequency Domain Joint Estimation of Synchronization Parameter and Channel Impulse Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an iterative EM-based frequency domain joint estimation algorithm of synchronization parameter and channel impulse response (CIR) in direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) system is proposed. This algorithm is based on the expectation-maximization (EM) method. A complete Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) analysis of the proposed algorithms is also given in this paper. Because this algorithm can

Cheng Li; Tianqi Wang; Hsiao-hwa Chen

2007-01-01

296

Acceleration of germination of super-hard rice cultivar EM10 by soaking with red onion.  

PubMed

Red onion accelerated the germination of rice seeds and inhibited microbial infestation during germination. After germination with red onion for 16 h at 35 °C, super-hard rice EM10 showed a higher germination ratio (2.3 times), and it contained more GABA (2.3 times) and glucose (2.9 times) than that soaked without onion. Due to soaking with red onion, germinated EM10 was fortified with quercetin (18 mg/100 g). PMID:21389608

Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

2011-03-07

297

Fully EM algorithms for the quasi-neutral, zero-electron-inertia model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm has been developed to compute the electromagnetic signature of impulsive currents in quasi-neutral, collisionless plasmas. Such plasmas are common in laser target chambers, space physics, and EMP generating events. Traditional models[1] used in this regime make the Darwin assumption that neglects purely EM waves. Computing electro-magnetic pulse behavior (EMP) requires the solution of the EM wave equations. Other

Dennis Hewett

2009-01-01

298

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation

M. Wilt; C. Schenkel; C. Torres-Verdin; Ki Ha Lee; Hung-Wen Tseng

1994-01-01

299

Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and

Christian Haas; John Lobach; Stefan Hendricks; Lasse Rabenstein; Andreas Pfaffling

2009-01-01

300

Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman–Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length

E. Al-Tarazi; J. Abu Rajab; A. Al-Naqa; M. El-Waheidi

2008-01-01

301

AIRBORNE EM SEA-ICE THICHNESS PROFILING OVER BRACKISH BALTIC SEA WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter-borne electromagnetic-inductive (EM) ice thickness measurements have been performed in February 2003 along the Finish Baltic Sea coast. Both, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia were surveyed. Measurements have been performed with a small, two-frequency EM-Bird, a towed sensor suspended 20 m below the heli- copter and operated 15 m above the ice surface. Results show that

Christian Haas

302

A note on stopping rules in EM-ML reconstructions of ECT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain pseudo-maximum likelihood estimates (i.e. the EM-ML algorithm) of radiopharmaceutical distributions based on data collected from emission computed tomography (ECT) systems is now a well developed area, as witnessed by a number of recent articles on that topic, including the detailed study of the relative performance of EM-ML and FBP reconstructions provided in

Valen E. Johnson

1994-01-01

303

Amplification and expression of EMS-1 (cortactin) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Amplification of chromosome 11q13 DNA sequences is detected in approximately 30% of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The amplified region includes genes for cyclin D1, hst-1, int-2, and more recently, ems-1. Ems-1 encodes an 80/85kd cytoskeletal associated protein termed cortactin, which has been shown to bind F-actin and is a pp60src substrate. We investigated 16 HNSCC cell lines for ems-1 DNA amplification and gene expression by western blotting and immunofluorescence using mAb 4F11. Amplification of ems-1 DNA was detected in 8/16 (50%) cell lines and was related directly to over-expression of cortactin by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Western blotting detected both forms of cortactin, p80 and p85, at equal intensity. Immunofluorescent staining revealed low levels of cortactin localized to the cytoplasm and surface membrane in normal bronchial epithelial cells and tumor cell cultures with single copy ems-1 DNA. In contrast, tumor cell cultures with ems-1 DNA amplification demonstrated intense, homogeneous cortactin cytoplasmic staining. These results suggest that overexpression of p80/85 may be a useful marker to identify 11q13 amplification, a molecular alteration correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer. PMID:8552396

Patel, A M; Incognito, L S; Schechter, G L; Wasilenko, W J; Somers, K D

1996-01-01

304

Method for estimating dynamic EM tracking accuracy of surgical navigation tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tracking systems have been used for several years in image guided medical procedures. Vendors often state static accuracies of a single retro-reflective sphere or LED. Expensive coordinate measurement machines (CMM) are used to validate the positional accuracy over the specified working volume. Users are interested in the dynamic accuracy of their tools. The configuration of individual sensors into a unique tool, the calibration of the tool tip, and the motion of the tool contribute additional errors. Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are considered an enabling technology for many image guided procedures because they are not limited by line-of-sight restrictions, take minimum space in the operating room, and the sensors can be very small. It is often difficult to quantify the accuracy of EM trackers because they can be affected by field distortion from certain metal objects. Many high-accuracy measurement devices can affect the EM measurements being validated. EM Tracker accuracy tends to vary over the working volume and orientation of the sensors. We present several simple methods for estimating the dynamic accuracy of EM tracked tools. We discuss the characteristics of the EM Tracker used in the GE Healthcare family of surgical navigation systems. Results for other tracking systems are included.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; Beauregard, Lee; Anderson, Peter

2006-03-01

305

SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Student Difficulties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of student difficulties identified in a junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course during four semesters of a curriculum transformation project. These resource documents present the research findings of this project that resulted from: interviews with students using âthink-aloudâ protocol as they worked through problems or diagrammed their understanding using concept maps; observations during help sessions and tutorials; student questions during lecture; student performance on concept tests / clicker questions; student performance on homework and exams; and student performance on the conceptual assessment developed for the course. In addition to student difficulties, these documents include the learning goals associated with each topic and class activities developed by other institutions to address that topic. Those who wish to learn more about these activities activities should steven.pollock@colorado.edu. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael

2010-06-10

306

EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

Nelson, S.D.

1994-10-01

307

Electromagnetic (EM) wave attachment to femtosecond laser plasma filaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis outlines a theoretical and experimental analysis of utilizing plasma filaments generated by a femtosecond class laser system as a means for transmission of Radio Frequency (RF) electro-magnetic waves. Theoretically, the plasma filaments are modeled as complex cylindrical wires in space for single and dual wire configurations. Attenuation as a function of distance is calculated for single wire TE mode propagation and dual wire TEM mode propagation. Minimum attenuation is shown to be dependant on filament diameter, electron density and filament separation (for the dual wire case). Initial experimental validation of theoretical models is performed with copper wire filament surrogates. RF/plasma filament interaction is then demonstrated in a rectangular waveguide fixture. Filament electron density enhancement is demonstrated in cylindrical resonant RF cavities (2.6 GHz and 0.9 GHz) where an increase in pulse width of attached EM waves beyond lifetimes of typical ultra-fast laser generated plasma filaments is observed. Transmission of RF energy out of resonant cavities along a filament is demonstrated further validating transmission theory.

Friedman, Daniel Clint

308

If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

Wellard, Stanley J.

2012-10-01

309

Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization…

Waters, John K.

2011-01-01

310

A INFLUÊNCIA DA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL NOS HÁBITOS DE CONSUMO: uma análise do comportamento de consumo em universitários do curso de Administração com Habilitação em Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As mudanças na sociedade trouxeram ao consumidor um grande poder de decisão, tornando-o responsável pela escolha de seu consumo e preferências. As empresas para acompanharem tais mudanças apostaram em transformações e adaptaram-se aos novos rumos do mercado. O marketing por sua vez, vem inovando suas estratégias e ações para atender a essas novas necessidades e determinações do consumidor e

Ana Carolina; Saad Camargo; Ligia Ghisi

311

NINHOS DE ABELHAS SEM FERRÃO (Hymenoptera, Meliponina) EM UMA REGIÃO DO RIO ARAGUARI, ARAGUARI-MG STINGLESS BESS NESTS (Hymenoptera, Meliponina) IN A REGION OF ARAGUARI RIVER, ARAGUARI-MG  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Os Meliponina tem ocorrência restrita a áreas tropicais e subtropicais e é na Região Neotropical que possuem a maior diversidade de espécies. A maioria faz seus ninhos preferencialmente em ocos de árvores, no entanto, algumas espécies podem nidificar em cavidades no solo, em cupinzeiros ou formigueiros (abandonados ou ativos), em ninhos de pássaros desativados ou em paredes de casas.

Estefane Leoncini SIQUEIRA; Roderic Breno MARTINES; Fernanda Helena

312

Adequação do consumo de ferro por gestantes e mulheres em idade fértil atendidas em um serviço de pré-natal Adequacy of iron consumption in pregnant and fertile women assisted by a prenatal service Adecuación del consumo de hierro por mujeres embarazadas y fértiles asistidas por un servicio prenatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Anemia por carência alimentar de ferro é o problema nutricional mais prevalente em nível de saúde coletiva e afeta crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva, em especial as gestantes. Este estudo avaliou o consumo de alimentos fontes de ferro, naturais e fortificados, e a adequação de energia e nutrientes de mulheres em idade reprodutiva, gestantes ou não. Desenvolveu-se um

Juliana Moreira Lino Viana; Adriana Uehara Santos; Maria Alice Tsunechiro; Ana Paula; Sayuri Sato; Isabel Bonadio; Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc; Elizabeth Fujimori

313

Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from global trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements in ocean island basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high ‘?’ = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place constraints on the lithological characteristics of the mantle end members.

Jackson, Matthew G.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

2008-11-01

314

Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from Global Trends between Radiogenic Isotopes and Major Elements in Ocean Island Basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high 'ì' = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent- daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place constraints on the lithological characteristics of the mantle end members.

Jackson, M. G.; Dasgupta, R.

2008-12-01

315

EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by the inhibition of TGF-? signaling in lung fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fourteen-membered ring macrolides have been effective in reducing chronic airway inflammation and also preventing lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice via anti-inflammatory effects. EM703 is a new derivative of erythromycin (EM) without the bactericidal effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of EM703 in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrosis in mice. METHODS:

Ying Ji Li; Arata Azuma; Jiro Usuki; Shinji Abe; Kuniko Matsuda; Toshiaki Sunazuka; Takako Shimizu; Yukiyo Hirata; Hirofumi Inagaki; Tomoyuki Kawada; Satoru Takahashi; Shoji Kudoh; Satoshi Omura

2006-01-01

316

EmCodeSyn: A visual framework for multi-rate data flow specifications and code synthesis for embedded applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new framework EmCodeSyn is introduced for visual debugging, execution and code synthesis from multi-rate data flow based specifications. EmCodeSyn is an attempt to create a formal semantics based visual framework for specifying safety critical applications such as automotive control, avionics fly-by-wire control, etc. In contrast with SIMULINK\\/Stateflow, LabVIEW and other visual tools, EmCodeSyn is based on

Bijoy A. Jose; Jason Pribble; Lemaire Stewart; Sandeep K. Shukla

2009-01-01

317

Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland habitat more accurately and in greater detail than is feasible from aerial photographs and limited field checks, approaching that achievable on the ground. Where vegetation is dense, lidar-derived elevations may represent the top of massed vegetation rather than the ground surface, leading to potential habitat misclassification. Measurements of shallow electrical conductivity using a ground-based EM instrument range over three orders of magnitude and also correlate well with NWI habitat and geomorphic unit. High conductivities are measured within marine and estuarine NWI units and in salt marsh, wind-tidal flat, and forebeach environments. Low conductivities are measured within upland and palustrine NWI habitats and in dune, VBF, and fresh marsh environments. Conductivity profiles possess more mappable detail than is present on NWI maps. Tests of an airborne EM sensor towed 30 m above the ground yielded insufficient resolution. Elevation and conductivity are inversely correlated along the transects. EM and lidar readily discern saline- and fresh-water environments and complement traditional wetland classification by helping distinguish environments that have similar signatures on aerial photographs. There is some overlap in elevation and conductivity among similar habitats and environments, but a statistical classification based on integrated data from lidar, EM, and aerial photographs can achieve greater resolution and accuracy than current remote-sensing methods. Future work should include evaluating the effect of vegetation density on lidar-beam penetration, quantifying seasonal change in ground conductivity in fresh and saline environments, examining the geographic variability of elevation and conductivity, and further evaluating the use of airborne EM sensors to measure conductivity at multiple exploration depths simultaneously.

Paine, J. G.; White, W. A.; Smyth, R. C.; Andrews, J. R.; Gibeaut, J. C.

2005-12-01

318

Scalable and interactive segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM datasets.  

PubMed

Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuro-scientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes. PMID:19834227

Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T

319

Scalable and Interactive Segmentation and Visualization of Neural Processes in EM Datasets  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuroscientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes.

Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T.

2011-01-01

320

The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S

321

Preliminary Seafloor Controlled Source EM Results From APPLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain events in the life cycle of oceanic lithosphere are dominantly two-dimensional. These include formation of crust at axial spreading centers and deformation at the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary. These processes may result in an electrically anisotropic oceanic lithosphere by creating conductive pathways in preferred orientations. Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) soundings and Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were made during the Anisotropy and Physics of the Pacific Lithosphere Experiment (APPLE), carried out in February/March 2001 approximately 600 km west of San Diego, California. Twenty seafloor electromagnetic field sensors were deployed: 4 long-wire CSEM recorders with 200 m electrode offsets, 6 high-frequency MT/CSEM recorders with two orthogonal 10 m offset electrodes and two orthogonal induction coil magnetometers, and 10 low-frequency MT recorders with a three-component fluxgate magnetometer and two orthogonal 10 m electric dipoles, 5 of which also recorded CSEM data. Every instrument was recovered, with data, during this primary cruise and a follow-up recovery cruise for the long-period instruments in August 2001. The deep-towed EM transmitter (DASI) was a 100 m horizontal electric dipole, which was towed in a 30 km radius circle around a central core of recorders. A radial tow was also performed. DASI transmitted a 4 Hz square wave throughout the CSEM phase of the experiment. Initial processing of the CSEM data reveals evidence of crustal anisotropy. In particular, transmitted electromagnetic energy is attenuated more strongly when propagating from west to east than from north to south. The difference in attenuation is about a factor of two, at a range of 30 km and a frequency of 4Hz. This confirms earlier results from the PEGASUS experiment, which proposed that oceanic lower crust and upper mantle with east-west trending lineaments of increased conductivity will exhibit greater attenuation of electric fields in the east-west direction. These lineaments may be deposits of conductive minerals (e.g. oxides, graphite) stretched out along the direction of plate motion.

Behrens, J. P.; MacGregor, L.; Constable, S.; Everett, M.

2001-12-01

322

DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO DE VARIEDADES DE MILHETO EM RAZÃO DA FENOLOGIA EM PRÉ-SAFRA AGRONOMIC ACTING OF CULTIVARS OF PEARL MILLET IN REASON OF THE FENOLOGY IN PRE-CROPPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (l.) R. Br.) tem sido a principal opção para a formação de palhada no sistema de plantio direto no cerrado, sendo cultivado em safrinha ou em pré-safra. Para esta última época, todavia, são necessárias informações que possibilitem seu cultivo sem prejudicar a época de semeadura da cultura de verão. O objetivo do trabalho

Fabio Ribeiro; Renato Lara; Gilson Pereira; Antônio Joaquim; Braga Pereira; Shinayder Cristina SANTOS; Santiel Alves; João Paulo; Goulart de SOUSA

323

Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

2003-08-01

324

Diffusion-Based EM Algorithm for Distributed Estimation of Gaussian Mixtures in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures has many applications in wireless sensor network (WSN), and its energy-efficient solution is still challenging. This paper presents a novel diffusion-based EM algorithm for this problem. A diffusion strategy is introduced for acquiring the global statistics in EM algorithm in which each sensor node only needs to communicate its local statistics to its neighboring nodes at each iteration. This improves the existing consensus-based distributed EM algorithm which may need much more communication overhead for consensus, especially in large scale networks. The robustness and scalability of the proposed approach can be achieved by distributed processing in the networks. In addition, we show that the proposed approach can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimation for Gaussian mixtures. Simulation results show the efficiency of this approach.

Weng, Yang; Xiao, Wendong; Xie, Lihua

2011-01-01

325

EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

2010-04-01

326

Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.  

PubMed

This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits. PMID:15285401

Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

2004-02-01

327

Applying WPD and SVD to Classification of EM Wave Induced by Partial Discharge in Power Transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial discharge (PD) current is an impulse signal at nanosecond level, which can generate electromagnetic (EM) wave containing broadband frequency information. The frequency band of EM signal is from MHz up to GHz. Due to different PD patterns, impulse currents with different shapes induce different EM waves containing different frequency information. Therefore, using the features extracted from frequency domain of EM signals, the classification of PD patterns can be effectively got. It is good to use wavelet or wavelet packet decomposition to select features. However, if the decomposition level is too shallow to find enough effective features, it cannot group the EM signals to the right pattern. On the contrary, although it is easier to find features to distinguish the PD pattern if the decomposition level is deep, there will be a lot of redundancy variables and it is hard to select features among so many variables. In this paper, a method is presented, which selected features in the whole decomposition tree instead of selecting among the leaf node of the tree, because more potential features can be found in the whole tree. With the present method, it is possible not only to get enough features, but also to eliminate the redundancy variables effectively. In order to validate the method, large EM signals from four PD patterns in a power transformer are acquired as the training data and testing data for feature selection and classification, and three common classification methods are introduced to classify the PD patterns using the features selected by the method. Most of the classification results are satisfactory indicating that the proposed method is effective.

Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Yong-Hong; Meng, Yong-Peng; Danikas, Michael G.

2013-06-01

328

EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the appropriate stage of development.

Lankford, M.; Geiger, J.; Carpenter, C.

2002-02-26

329

A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

2003-08-01

330

Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data  

PubMed Central

Cryo-elecron microscopy (Cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a “consensus” achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data.

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Tama, Florence

2011-01-01

331

Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data.  

PubMed

Cryo-elecron microscopy (cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a "consensus" achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data. PMID:22019767

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Tama, Florence

2011-10-13

332

The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key workforce measures – turnover rates and costs – where previously none have existed. Local EMS directors and policymakers at all levels of government may find the results and study methodology useful towards designing and evaluating programs targeting the EMS workforce.

Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

2010-01-01

333

Label-free visualization of ultrastructural features of artificial synapses via cryo-EM.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural details of presynapses formed between artificial substrates of submicrometer silica beads and hippocampal neurons are visualized via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The silica beads are derivatized by poly-d-lysine or lipid bilayers. Molecular features known to exist at presynapses are clearly present at these artificial synapses, as visualized by cryo-EM. Key synaptic features such as the membrane contact area at synaptic junctions, the presynaptic bouton containing presynaptic vesicles, as well as microtubular structures can be identified. This is the first report of the direct, label-free observation of ultrastructural details of artificial synapses. PMID:22860164

Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Yam, Patricia T; Madwar, Carolin; Bostina, Mihnea; Rouiller, Isabelle; Colman, David R; Lennox, R Bruce

2011-10-04

334

the Mean Field Theory in EM Procedures for Markov Random Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe how the mean field theory from statistical mechanics can be used in EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm when part of the data is modeled as a Markov random field (MRF). true parameters 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 estimated in EM procedure 0.06 0.09 -0.15 0.76 1.00 0.68 0.69 estimated from the region map -0.04 -0.03

Jun Zhang; James W. Modestino

1991-01-01

335

Specially Conditioned EM Fields for Propellant-less Impulsion within Higher Dimensional Spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A higher dimensional realm with room for both slower than light (STL) and faster-than-light (FTL) travel is defined, together with paths within this realm that enable: unlabored (momentum-conserving and energy-preserving) ship acceleration and deceleration between STL and FTL speeds. And it is shown that fields guiding ships on unlabored paths within this deeper realm must have components in more than the 3 spatial directions in which ordinary electromagnetic (EM) fields act. This is shown possible with EM fields that are transformed from lower U1 to higher SU2 Lie symmetry.

Froning, H. David

2009-03-01

336

A protein-based EM label for RNA identifies the location of exons in spliceosomes  

PubMed Central

To locate key RNA features in the structure of the spliceosome by EM, we fused a sequence-specific RNA binding protein to a protein with a distinct donut-shaped structure. We used this fusion to label spliceosomes assembled on a pre-mRNA that contained the target sequence in the exons. The label is clearly visible in EM images of the spliceosome, and subsequent image processing with averaging shows that the exons sit close to each other in the complex. This labeling strategy will serve as a general tool for analyzing the structures of RNA-containing macromolecular complexes.

Alcid, Eric A; Jurica, Melissa S

2010-01-01

337

Effect of EM on Soil Quality, Fruit Quality and Yield of Orange Trees in a Brazilian Citrus Orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field investigation was conducted during 1993-94 on citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the interactions of EM with soil, leaves, mite populations, fruit quality and yield of orange trees. The study was designed to test the ability of Effective Microorganisms (EM) to significantly change a number of soil parameters in the citrus agroecosystem. Climate of

A. D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; A. B. Sanches; M. C. S. Nogueira

338

A Zeeman-Stark\\/Markov model approach to study the EM-RF exposure of a potassium channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary increase in the use of electromagnetic (EM) radiofrequency (RF) radiation has stimulated new researches concentrated on the study of the early steps of the EM interaction mechanisms. As most of the effects due to the exogenous exposure of biosystem has been associated with the cell membrane, these researches are mainly oriented toward the study of the molecular aspects

Simona Bruna; Micaela Liberti; S. Giordano; E. Moggia; B. Bianco; G. D'Inzeo

2001-01-01

339

Assistência de enfermagem ao paciente em pulsoterapia com corticosteróide Nursing care of patients on corticosteroid pulse therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResUMo introdução: A pulsoterapia com corticosteróide endovenoso consiste na administração de corticosteróides em altas doses (a partir de 1 g\\/ dia), por três dias ou mais, ou em dias alternados. A necessidade de hospitalização ocorre devido aos possíveis efeitos colaterais que o paciente pode apresentar durante a infusão da droga; para tanto a monitorização dos parâmetros vitais, além de identificar

Deborah Rozencwajg; Carla Fátima; Paixão Nunes; Luciane Midory Sakuma; Cláudia Regina Laselva; Bartira Aguiar Roza

340

Left-Handed-Media Simulation and Transmission of EM Waves in Subwavelength Split-Ring-Resonator-Loaded Metallic Waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

At microwave frequencies, hollow metallic waveguides behave in certain aspects as a ``one-dimensional plasma.'' This feature will be advantageously used for simulating the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in left-handed metamaterials provided the hollow waveguide is periodically loaded with split ring resonators. It will be shown that EM transmission in this structure is feasible within a certain frequency band even

R. Marqués; J. Martel; F. Mesa; F. Medina

2002-01-01

341

AVALIAÇÃO DE PROCEDÊNCIAS E PROGÊNIES DE LIQUIDAMBAR DA AMÉRICA CENTRAL, DO MÉXICO E DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS, EM AGUDOS, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foi instalado um teste de procedência e progênie de Liquidambar styraciflua L. em Agudos, SP, em solo de areia quartzosa. Os materiais genéticos foram fornecidos pelo Oxford Forestry Institute, incluindo doze procedências da Guatemala, Honduras, Nicarágua, México e dos Estados Unidos, sendo testados juntamente com uma testemunha local, com duas a dez progênies por procedência. Medições efetuadas dos quatro até

Jarbas Y. Shimizu; Ivana H. Z. Spir

342

Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…

Adachi, Kohei

2013-01-01

343

Synoptic Field Measurements In The Ems Estuary Combining Adcp, Multi Sensor Equipped Current Meter and Gauge Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estuary of the Ems River is located in the north-west of Germany and forms partly the border line between the Netherlands and Germany. Between the lower Ems River and the outer estuary to the North Sea a brackish shallow water basin of mesohalin characteristics is located - the Dollart. The surface area ist about 100 km2 and the only

J. Jensen; T. Frank; Ch. Mudersbach

2002-01-01

344

AVALIAÇÃO DOS RISCOS DE ACIDENTES EM ATIVIDADES DE PODA DE ÁRVORES NA ARBORIZAÇÃO URBANA DO DISTRITO FEDERAL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar os riscos de acidentes em atividades de poda de árvores na arborização urbana do Distrito Federal. A coleta de dados foi feita com a aplicação de um questionário em forma de entrevista individual. Responderam ao questionário 94% dos funcionários, sendo 92% do total dos operadores de motosserra e 95% do total de

Nilton César Fiedler; Eduardo Hideki Sone; Ailton Teixeira do Vale; José de Fátima Juvêncio; Luciano José Minette

345

Comparison of 3D OS-EM and 4D MAP-RBI-EM reconstruction algorithms for cardiac motion abnormality classification using a motion observer  

PubMed Central

Using a heart motion observer, we compared the performance of two image reconstruction techniques, a 3D OS-EM algorithm with post Butterworth spatial filtering and a 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm. The task was to classify gated myocardial perfusion (GMP) SPECT images of beating hearts with or without regional motion abnormalities. Noise-free simulated GMP SPECT projection data was generated from two 4D NCAT beating heart phantom models, one with normal motion and the other with a 50% motion defect in a pie-shaped wedge region-of-interest (ROI) in the anterior-lateral left ventricular wall. The projection data were scaled to clinical GMP SPECT count level before Poisson noise was simulated to generate 40 noise realizations. The noise-free and noisy projection data were reconstructed using the two reconstruction algorithms, parameters chosen to optimize the tradeoff between image bias and noise. As a motion observer, a 3D motion estimation method previously developed was applied to estimate the radial motion on the ROI from two adjacent gates. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were computed for radial motion magnitudes corresponding to each reconstruction technique. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as an index for classification of regional motion. The reconstructed images with better bias and noise tradeoff were found to offer better classification for hearts with or without regional motion defects. The 3D cardiac motion estimation algorithm, serving as a heart motion observer, was better able to distinguish the abnormal from the normal regional motion in GMP SPECT images obtained from the 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm than from the 3D OS-EM algorithm with post Butterworth spatial filtering.

Tang, Jing; Lee, Taek-Soo; He, Xin; Segars, W. Paul; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

2010-01-01

346

Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.

2011-11-01

347

As paixões naturais e as ações humanas voluntárias em Thomas Hobbes1 The natural passions and voluntary human actions in Thomas Hobbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo procuram-se examinar as razões pelas quais se originam e procedem as ações humanas em Hobbes. Primeiramente, evidencia-se que as ações humanas procedem dos movimentos voluntários, e que tais movimentos são responsáveis pelo processo de deliberação humana. Em seguida, discute-se o papel da vontade em relação às ações voluntárias, ressaltando, sobretudo, como essas ações constituem-se em ações livres, de

Delmo Mattos da Silva

348

In Situ Data Processing With Workflow-based Embedded Cyberinfrastructure (emCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decreasing cost of sensors and sensor networks has led to the wide scale adoption of this technology by large numbers of scientists for the collection of data in the field. At the same time, advances in both hardware and software have resulted in increased processing power at the sensor, enabling sensors in the field to do more than just data collection. With an increase in the number of sensors and deployments, scientists need tools for the configuration, operation, and debugging problems on their sensor networks. Furthermore, as the amount of data increases, scientists need a way to quickly and easily tag, process, archive, and share their datasets. Without proper tools, it is common for data processing to happen weeks or sometimes months after it is collected. This leads to important events being missed and makes real-time data analysis impossible. Additionally, because data is often manually processed through a series of repetitive steps, the analysis is susceptible to errors that are hard to track after data is combined and shared among researchers. Our emCI (embedded cyberinfrastructure) toolkit enables researchers to easily collect, analyze, and share their data. emCI provides a web-portal with upload/download capabilities that accept data in a number of different formats and ultimately can be used to archive data and share datasets among scientists. emCI uses an embedded general-purpose computer in the field for interfacing with sensors, coordinating data collection, and providing reliable data transfer to the emCI web portal. emCI relies on workflow technologies to automate data processing pipelines and to provide provenance information. In particular, emCI uses the Pegasus Workflow Management System as a core component, adapting it to the embedded computation environment. emCI allows scientists to distribute tasks among sensors in field and servers in the lab. In-situ processing using embedded workflows enable data reduction and validation in the field. Scientists can also create embedded workflows for data analysis and sensor retasking, allowing for much faster response to events in the field as well as disconnected operation from the emCI portal. Workflows executed at the emCI portal can include heavier computations, and combine data from multiple sensors by performing data analysis on data from multiple sources. The emCI portal also supports workflows for data transfers, visualization, and the automatic monitoring of the embedded infrastructure. We have prototyped the emCI toolkit in a project that uses automated digital cameras and weather stations for observing climate change based on plant phenology observations. In this application, embedded workflows are being used to coordinate the field data collection, reduce and analyze image data in the field, and retask cameras based on embedded triggers. We are currently in the process of moving our deployment from prototype to production stage at the Stunt Ranch UC Reserve in the Santa Monica Mountains.

Mehta, G.; Silva, F.; Graham, E. A.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Rundel, P.

2011-12-01

349

Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

2003-08-01

350

REVISÃO DA LITERATURA SOBRE CONCEITOS E DEFINIÇÕES DE FRAGILIDADE EM IDOSOS Literature review on the concepts and definitions of frailty in elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar as definições de Fragilidade em Idosos, prevalentes em artigos científicos de revisão sobre o tema. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: (1) artigo de revisão sobre conceitos e definições de fragilidade em idosos, apresentando ênfase na inexistência de consenso sobre o termo \\

Ilka Nicéia; D'Aquino Oliveira

2008-01-01

351

Variação da independência funcional em idosos hospitalizados relacionada a variáveis sociais e de saúde Variation in functional independence in hospitalized elderly related to social and health variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de envelhecimento, as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as hospitalizações podem causar declínio funcional em idosos. Alguns fatores podem potencializar esse comprometimento funcional como gênero, número de internações, presença de acompanhante e medicações em uso. Objetivo: Identificar a variação da capacidade funcional em idosos no decorrer da hospitalização e relacionar a diferença com variáveis sociais e de saúde.

Kozue Kawasaki; Maria José D'Elboux Diogo

2007-01-01

352

SCADA EMS DMS-a part of the corporate IT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static world with a closed control room within the utility industry is changing to an environment where the SCADA\\/EMS\\/DMS system is part of the corporate IT systems. The driving force for this is the need for utilities to have accurate data available for quick business decisions on a deregulated market. Cost reduction and quality improvement facilitated by increased information

L. Grasberg; L. A. Osterlund

2001-01-01

353

Abordagem etnobotânica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em dermatologia na cidade de João Pessoa-Paraíba, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: As doenças de pele são muito comuns acometendo cerca de 1\\/3 da população mundial e as plantas medicinais, em especial as suas associações, são comumente usadas nas comunidades para o tratamento de micoses, erisipela e outras dermatoses. Todavia, um dos problemas enfrentados pelos profissionais da área de saúde atualmente é justamente a questão do uso concomitante de plantas medicinais

E. O. Lima; R. A. G. Oliveira; M. S. Toledo; João Pessoa

354

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR CALIBRATING REGIONAL (MULTI-FIELD) EM SURVEY DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research is to review and compare two commonly used spatial prediction techniques, cokriging (CoK) and hierarchical spatial regression (HSR), specifically with respect to predicting various soil properties from calibrating regional EM survey data. A brief review of the mathemati...

355

Sintomas Depressivos e Qualidade de Vida em Indivíduos com Epilepsia por Esclerose Mesial Temporal  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: Dificuldades no trabalho, em relacionamentos interpessoais, familiares e sociais, a percepção do estigma, da discriminação dentre outros têm sido associados aos estados depressivos interictais, influen- ciando negativamente a qualidade de vida (QV) das pessoas com epilepsia. A depressão tem alta prevalência (20 a 55%) nas epilepsias, sendo vista como o fator mais importante no julgamento do paciente sobre

Neide Barreira Alonso; Tatiana Indelicato da Silva; Ana Carolina Westphal; Auro Mauro Azevedo

356

Analysis on the characteristics of the EM wave absorber using Sendust and Amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we fabricated several samples using amorphous metal powder and Sendust as magnetic loss materials and CPE as binder. Firstly, we fabricated EM wave absorber with different composition ratio of 60 : 40, 70 : 30 and 80 : 20 wt.%. and thickness of 1 mm and 2 mm. Then we compared the measured absorption ability based on

Dong Soo Choi; Gun Suk Yoo; Dong Il Kim

2009-01-01

357

AERODYNAMIC RESPONSE OF AN EMS-TYPE MAGLEV VEHICLE RUNNING ON FLEXIBLE GUIDEWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an incremental iterative procedure was carried out to study aerodynamic response of an EMS-type maglev vehicle moving over a series of guideway girders at constant speeds. The maglev vehicle is simulated as a rigid car body supported by a rigid levitation frame using a uniformly distributed spring-dashpot system, in which the electromagnetic forces are controlled by an

J. D. Yau

358

Delineation of Groundwater and Soil Contamination Using EM Survey at an Industrial Abandoned Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts by the activity in our hand with appropriate methods, and the geophysical techniques have often been using in the subsurface environmental monitoring and remediation processes. In the study an Electromagnetic survey (EM) is performed to delineate deeply the extent of contamination at an industrial abandoned site, to detect the spread

Zhang Shaohong

2010-01-01

359

2o CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE P&D EM PETRÓLEO & GÁS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A escassez do petróleo e a crescente pressão dos organismos ambientais têm contribuído significativamente para o aumento da utilização mundial do gás natural, nos diversos setores, em substituição aos combustíveis fósseis. Porém, no Brasil, o governo pretende utilizar o combustível para alimentar várias termelétricas a fim de suprir o déficit energético. O estudo mostra que esta opção acarreta

Eduardo Rocha Praça; Ernesto Ferreira; Nobre Júnior; João Bosco; Furtado Arruda

360

6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

361

Estudo comparativo das amplitudes de movimento da coluna cervical em idosos com diferentes níveis de aptidão  

Microsoft Academic Search

REsumo Introdução:Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar e comparar as amplitudes de movimento (ADM) da coluna cervical em dois grupos de idosos com níveis diferentes de aptidão física. Métodos: Foram selecionados 40 voluntários assintomáticos com idade entre 60-75 anos e subdivididos pelo seu respectivo nível de aptidão física. Os voluntários então foram submetidos a mensuração de suas respectivas ADM pelo

Cristiano Oliveira de Carvalho; Denis Aron; José Alberto; Alves Silva; Luis Flávio Horta Bicalho; Ana Paula; Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa; Vânia Ferreira de Figueiredo

2006-01-01

362

Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation  

EPA Science Inventory

The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

363

Effect of EM on Soil Properties and Nutrient Cycling in a Citrus Agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on soil and on natural cycling of nutrients, a field investigation was conducted with citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. A Typic Hapludox soil predominates as a deep, well-drained, clay soil with high hydrogen and aluminum contents and low base saturation, The organic matter content of the soil is moderate,

D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; M. J. A. Jorge; M. C. S. Nogueira

364

Longer term impacts of transformed courses on student conceptual understanding of E&M  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have measured upper-division physics majors' performance using two research-based conceptual instruments in E&M, the BEMA and the CUE (Colorado Upper Division Electrostatics assessment.) The BEMA has been given pre/post in freshman E&M (Physics II) courses, and the BEMA and CUE have been given pre/post in several upper-division E&M courses. Some of these data extend over 10 semesters. We used PER-based techniques to transform the introductory and upper-division courses starting in Fall 2004 and 2007, respectively. Our longitudinal data allow us to measure "fade" on BEMA performance between freshman and junior year. We investigate the effects of curricula on students by comparing juniors who were enrolled in traditional vs. transformed physics as freshmen, as well as those who were enrolled in traditional or transformed upper-division E&M I, using both BEMA and CUE measures. We find that while freshman reforms significantly impact BEMA scores, junior-level reforms affect CUE but not BEMA outcomes.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-01-19

365

The mean field theory in EM procedures for Markov random fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many signal processing and pattern recognition applications, the hidden data are modeled as Markov processes, and the main difficulty of using the maximisation (EM) algorithm for these applications is the calculation of the conditional expectations of the hidden Markov processes. It is shown how the mean field theory from statistical mechanics can be used to calculate the conditional expectations

Jun Zhang

1992-01-01

366

6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

367

EM121 Sonar Calibration Experiment Using MPL's Phantom DS4 ROV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a series of measurements carried out at sea in December 1995, to determine the acoustic source levels of a SIMRAD EM-121 multibeam echo-sounder installed aboard USNS SUMNER (TAGS-61). This was done by navigating a refer...

C. D. Moustier

1996-01-01

368

Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

2013-01-01

369

The Trier mummy Paï-es-tjau-em-aui-nu: radiological and histological findings.  

PubMed

The ancient Egyptian mummy Paï-es-tjau-em-aui-nu, now on exhibition in the Rheinische Landesmuseum in Trier, Germany, was examined by conventional X-ray radiography, computed tomography, and digital fluoroscopy. In addition, some tissues were biopsied for further histologic identification. Along with some representative images, the peculiarities of the Trier mummy concerning the mummification process are presented. PMID:12111080

Sigmund, G; Minas, M

2001-11-14

370

Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.  

PubMed

Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help. PMID:23097838

Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

2012-10-01

371

Analysis and measurements of EM and substrate coupling effects in common RF integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of coupling between inductors and resonators fabricated in Si substrates is presented and the effects on RF systems and components is discussed. EM simulators (e.g., Agilent Momentum) provide accurate near field analysis of coupling in lossy and complex silicon substrates. Measurements verify theory and a novel experimental technique to measure inductor and resonator coupling makes use of injection-lockable

Rony E. Amaya; Peter H. R. Popplewell; Mark Cloutier; Calvin Plett

2004-01-01

372

FOTOSSENSIBILIZAÇÃO EM ANIMAIS DE PRODUÇÃO NA REGIÃO SEMI-ÁRIDA DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a ocorrência de surtos naturais de fotossensibilização que vêm ocorrendo em diversas espécies animais na região semi-árida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram visitadas 17 propriedades nas quais estavam ocorrendo casos naturais desta patologia. Foram realizadas entrevistas com os tratadores, exames clínicos e provas séricas bioquímicas de função hepática nos animais afetados. Também

M. F. Macedo; M. B. Bezerra; B. Soto Blanco

373

Modeling of Transmission Lines with EM Wave Coupling by Finite Difference Quadrature Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an efficient numerical approxi- mation technique, called the Finite Difference Quadrature (FDQ) Method, which has been adapted to model transmission lines (TL's) with external EM wave coupling. The finite difference quadrature method can quickly compute finite differences be- tween adjacent grid points by estimating a weighted linear sum of derivatives at a set of points belonging to

Qinwei Xu; Pinaki Mazumder

374

Seed Treatment With EM and Micronutrients for Controlling Rice and Maize Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine whether seed treatment of rice and maize with Effective Microorganisms (EM) and micro nutrients could reduce the incidence of disease and parasite injury, and prevent nutrient imbalances after germination. Potassium and certain micro nutrient metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) are essential activators of enzyme systems for the biosynthesis of organic compounds in plants.

A. M. Primavesi; Fazenda Ecológica; Itaí SP Brazil

375

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is

Michael Wilt; Clifford Schenkel; Michael Wratcher; Ilia Lambert; Carlos Torres-Verdin; Tseng H. W

1996-01-01

376

Adoção de Padrões de Informação em Saúde: Estudo de Caso do Diagnóstico Nutricional proposto pela ADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Atualmente existem muitos padrões para a área de informação em saúde sendo especificados. Um destes foi proposto pela American Dietetic Association (ADA) para a definição do diagnóstico nutricional, que é composto por três domínios: Ingestão Nutricional, Nutrição Clínica e Comportamento Nutricional. Porém existe dificuldade na utilização destes padrões, uma vez que geralmente os critérios para determinar o diagnóstico não

Luciene Zotelli; Claudia M. C. Moro; João Dias; Cristina Martins

377

The ‘Bavarian Turnip’ — a rediscovered local vegetable variety of Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. var. rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bavarian Turnip (Bayerische Rübe, Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. var. rapa) is a nearly lost crop today. Until 1900, this local variety was commonly grown in Bavaria for human consumption. The special and very distinct characters of this variety in comparison with recent breeds are preferred by the farmers families and assured the persistence and survival of this turnip

Ludwig Reiner; Thomas Gladis; Harald Amon; Andreas Emmerling-Skala

2005-01-01

378

Learning mixture models using a genetic version of the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to find new pattern recognition techniques that correctly classify complex structures has risen as an im- portant field of research. A well-known solution to this problem, which has proven to be very powerful, is the use of mixture models. Mixture models are typically fitted using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Unfortu- nately, optimal results are not always achieved because

Aleix M. Mart; Jordi Vitri

379

Estudo epidemiológico das dermatofitoses em instituições públicas da cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 RESUMO - As dermatofitoses são infecções superficiais capazes de produzir lesões em tecidos queratinizados, como pele, pêlo, e unhas. Foram examinados 536 indivíduos procedentes de Barretos, com suspeita clínica de infecções fúngicas, no período de Novem- bro de 2002 a Outubro de 2003, verificando-se a incidência e a etiologia das dermatofitoses. Material coletado de várias regiões cor- póreas foram

Cátia Rezende; Graziela Porsani Borsari; Fernanda Regina Cavalcanti

380

Accelerated Iterative Reconstruction for Positron Emission Tomography Based on the EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EM method that was originally developed for maximum likelihood estimation in the context of mathematical statistics may be applied to a stochastic model of positron emission tomography (PET). The result is an iterative algorithm for image reconstruction that is finding increasing use in PET, due to its attractive theoretical and practical properties. Its major disadvantage is the large amount

Robert M. Lewitt; Gerd Muehllehner

1986-01-01

381

External Resource: Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics: Building the EMS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit of study, students participate in iterative model building as they encounter patterns in various celestial phenomena and attempt to provide a causal explanation for them. Each of the six materials within Building the EMS Model focuses on a di

1900-01-01

382

Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

2013-01-01

383

Dieta cetogênica e dieta de Atkins modificada no tratamento da epilepsia refratária em crianças e adultos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: A dieta cetogênica (DC) e a dieta de Atkins modificada (DAM) são dietas terapêuticas mun- dialmente utilizadas no tratamento da epilepsia refratária em crianças e adultos. No Brasil estas modalidades de tratamento são pouco indicadas, restringindo a poucos centros. Metodologia: Revisão de literatura sobre a utilização da DC e DAM no tratamento da epilepsia refratária. Conclusões: A DC

Luciana Midori Inuzuka-Nakaharada

2008-01-01

384

Application of Complex Ray Theory in EM Scattering and RCS Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex ray theory provides a simple and useful approach for the analysis of the propagation and scattering of HF EM waves in various complicated environments. This paper deals with complex ray fields in free space, reflection and refraction at a sing...

Y. Ruan

1990-01-01

385

USO DO GESSO MINERAL EM LATOSSSOLO CULTIVADO COM CANA DE AÇÚCAR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium contents in soils from the sugar cane plantation áreas of Pernambuco estate Brazil, are often phytotoxic, specially em subsurfeces. Mineral gypsum has gained growing interest for supplying Ca and demosshing Al saturation, therefore enchancing the root system development. The work was carried out to evaluate the efectts of mineral gypsum applied to on oxisol. The treatments compused five doses

Eduardo César; Medeiros Saldanha; Alexandre Tavares da Rocha; Emídio Cantídio Almeida de Oliveira; Fernando José Freire

386

Dynamic partnership: A new approach to EM technology commercialization and deployment  

SciTech Connect

The task of restoring nuclear defense complex sites under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program presents an unprecedented challenge to the environmental restoration community. Effective and efficient cleanup requires the timely development or modification of novel cleanup technologies applicable to radioactive wastes. Fostering the commercialization of these innovative technologies is the mission of EM-50, the EM Program Office of Science and Technology. However, efforts are often arrested at the {open_quotes}valley of death,{close_quotes} the general term for barriers to demonstration, commercialization, and deployment. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a not-for-profit, contract-supported organization focused on research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C) of energy and environmental technologies, is in the second year of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) designed to deliver EM technologies into the commercial marketplace through a unique combination of technical support, real-world demonstration, and brokering. This paper profiles this novel approach, termed {open_quotes}Dynamic Partnership,{close_quotes} and reviews the application of this concept to the ongoing commercialization and deployment of four innovative cleanup technologies. 2 tabs.

Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H. [and others

1996-12-31

387

Community-Based Needs Assessment: Assisting Communities in Building a Stronger EMS System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When people call for medical help in a rural area, they expect a rapid response, competent staff, and good equipment from the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Too often, their expectations are formed by what they see on TV, not by the reality in th...

2009-01-01

388

Transforming Legacy Energy Management System (EMS) Modules into Reusable Components: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-layer adaptive wrapping technique is proposed in this paper to migrate legacy Energy Management System (EMS) modules into reusable components, and therefore transforming the legacy system into a component-based system. Meanwhile, an XML based database wrapping technique is proposed to provide a flexible data exchange solution. These techniques help not only maintaining the reliability but also increasing the reusability

Qing Zhao; In Hoh; Xiaowei Wu; Garng M. Huang

2000-01-01

389

Avaliação da função motora em crianças com distrofia muscular congênita com deficiência da merosina  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A distrofia muscular congênita (DMC) compõe um grupo de miopatias caracterizadas por hipo- tonia e fraqueza muscular notadas até o primeiro ano de vida. Em torno de 40% a 50% dos casos são decor- rentes de deficiência primária da proteína merosina (DM), os quais apresentam um fenótipo mais homogêneo, com grave comprometimento motor e respiratório. Foram avaliadas neste

Fernanda M. Rocco; Fernanda H. Gianini Luz; Alexsander Junquera Rossato; Antônio Carlos Fernandes; Acary S. B. Oliveira; Javier Toledano Beteta; Edmar Zanoteli

2005-01-01

390

Descrição morfológica e fenologia floral em alfavaca do campo (Ocimum campechianum Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Ocimum campechianum Mill, conhecida no nordeste brasileiro como alfavaca do campo, é uma importante fonte de óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas, inflorescências e sementes da planta adulta, cujas propriedades medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares são reconhecidas e empregadas na medicina natural e culinária regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo da morfologia floral e fenologia da floração em

Anderson Brito da Silva; Marcela Fonseca Souza; Alisson Harley; Brito da Silva

391

FERMAT: A high frequency em scattering code from complex scenes including objects and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fast high frequency analysis method of complex 3D targets and environment is achieved by coupling electromagnetic asymptotic formulations and shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) approach. Different applications of the tools from EM fields evaluation are then presented.

H. J. Mametsa; S. Laybros; A. Berges; P. F. Combes; P. N'Guyen; P. Pitot

2006-01-01

392

AN ANALYTICAL VIEW ON EM-TV BASED METHODS FOR INVERSE PROBLEMS WITH POISSON NOISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the task of reconstructing images corrupted by Poisson noise, which is im- portant in various applications, such as fluorescence microscopy, positron-emission-tomography (PET) or astronomical imaging. In this work, we focus on reconstruction strategies, combining expectation- maximization (EM) and total variation (TV) based regularization, and present detailed analytical as well as numerical achievements. In the past, extensions of the

CHRISTOPH BRUNE; ALEX SAWATZKY; MARTIN BURGER

393

Nhs: Network-based Hierarchical Segmentation for Cryo-EM Density Maps  

PubMed Central

Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) experiments yield low-resolution (3–30Å) 3D-density maps of macromolecules. These density maps are segmented to identify structurally distinct proteins, protein domains, and sub-units. Such partitioning aids the inference of protein motions and guides fitting of high-resolution atomistic structures. Cryo-EM density map segmentation has traditionally required tedious and subjective manual partitioning or semi-supervised computational methods, while validation of resulting segmentations has remained an open problem in this field. Our network-based bias-free segmentation method for cryo-EM density map segmentation, Nhs (Network-based hierarchical segmentation), provides the user with a multi-scale partitioning, reflecting local and global clustering, while requiring no user input. This approach models each map as a graph, where map voxels constitute nodes and edges connect neighboring voxels. Nhs initiates Markov diffusion (or random walk) on the weighted graph. As Markov probabilities homogenize through diffusion, an intrinsic segmentation emerges. We validate the segmentations with ground-truth maps based on atomistic models. When implemented on density maps in the 2010 Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge, Nhs efficiently and objectively partitions macromolecules into structurally and functionally relevant sub-regions at multiple scales.

Burger, Virginia; Chennubhotla, Chakra

2012-01-01

394

EM radiation from Wi-LAN base station and its’ effects in human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM Fields have adverse effects on Human health. Tissue damage could occur due to the body inability to cope with the excessive heat that could be generated during the exposure to Radio Frequency. The parameters of concern with respect to human health are the rate at which a person absorbs electromagnetic energy, called the specific absorption rate (SAR). Electric field

Hikma Shabani; M. R. Islam; A. H. M. Alam; H. E. Abd El-Raouf

2008-01-01

395

EVALUACIÓN DEL SISTEMA DE PRODUCCIÓN DE EM-COMPOST UTILIZANDO AIREACIÓN FORZADA Y RESIDUOS DE BANANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

For sustainable banana production, the EARTH University's Agro-commercial Enterprise has investigated management alternatives for the biodegradable banana residues from harvest and packing processes. Several investigations have been carried out in the area of organic fertilizer production as a way of optimizing resources and EM-compost with forced aeration was found to be a viable alternative. Using the results of these experiments,

K. Reátegui; H. Zenteno; C. Hernández; L. Quirós

396

Back Strength and Flexibility of EMS Providers in Practicing Prehospital Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the execution of prehospital care duties, an EMS provider may be required to carry equipment and patients over long distances or over multiple flights of stairs at any time of the day. At a minimum, a prehospital provider must have sufficient lower back strength and hamstring flexibility to prevent musculoskeletal injury while lifting. This study administered fitness assessments related

Matthew T. Crill; David Hostler

2005-01-01

397

KEY AND SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISONS: RMO comparison final report: 2006-2007 Resistance standards comparison between SIM laboratories. SIM.EM-K1, 1 ? SIM.EM-K2, 1 G? SIM.EM-S6, 1 M?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group for Electricity and Magnetism of the Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) initiated the key and supplemental regional comparisons SIM.EM-K1-K2-S6 to provide the first internationally recognized comparisons of precision resistance measurements for nations of the western hemisphere. These comparisons include the official metrology institutes of six members of SIM and follow the guidelines for key comparisons under the 1999 CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provided the comparison standards and acted as the pilot laboratory in the SIM.EM-K1-K2-S6 comparisons, which began in January 2006 and were completed in September 2007. By means of procedures for linking key comparison data, the SIM.EM-K1-K2 comparisons will help to provide assurance of equality in measurements between the nations organized in SIM and the participants in the CCEM key comparisons. The analysis included in this report (Appendix A) specifically provides methods for calculating the degrees of equivalence and their uncertainties between the national measurement standards of the participating laboratories (Appendix B). A subsequent analysis (Appendix G) provides methods and results linking this regional comparison to CCEM key comparison CCEM-K2 and a recent BIPM-NIST bilateral comparison at the 1 ? level. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Elmquist, R. E.; Jarrett, D. G.; Zhang, N. F.

2009-01-01

398

Ženkl? Sistemos Mokyklini? Geografijos Atlas? ?kio Žem?lapiuose Semiotiniu Aspektu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Šiais laikais kartografinio raštingumo aktualumas yra akivaizdus. Kartografin?s kalbos mokymas turi b?ti pradedamas jau vaikyst?je, o ypa? jos ugdymui daug d?mesio skiriama mokyklos metais. Svarbus vaidmuo ?ia tenka naudojamiems geografijos atlasams, j? kokybei. Straipsnyje supažindinama su tyrimo rezultatais, gautais analizuojant ženkl? sistemas mokyklini? geografijos atlas? ?kio žem?lapiuose (vaizduojan?iuose išteklius, pramon?, bioprodukcin? ?k?, transporto bei ekonominius ryšius) semiotiniu aspektu. Tyrimui pasirinkta "Briedžio", "Šviesos", "Prad?" leidykl? atlasai. Metodika parengta atsižvelgiant ? ženkl? bei kartografinio vaizdo suvokimo psichologij?, vartotoj? kontingent?, be to, pasinaudota jau sudaryta temini? žem?lapi? komunikacin?s kokyb?s nustatymo ir vertinimo metodologija, kurioje pateikiama ir ženkl? sistem? semiotinis vertinimas trimis aspektais - semantiniu, sintaktiniu bei pragmatiniu. Apibr?žti svarbiausieji kiekvieno aspekto vertinimo kriterijai bei požymiai, turintys didžiausi? ?tak? ženkl? sudarymo korekti\\vskumui, j? suvokimo efektyvumui: semantika - ženkl? formos, ženkl? spalvos asociatyvumas su žymimuoju; sintaktika - ženkl? semantinis bei taksonominis diferencijavimas, pereinamumo rai\\vska; pragmatika - žem?lapio grafin? bei informacin? apkrovos, kartografinio pagrindo optimalumas, grafinis originalumas. Mokykliniuose geografijos atlasuose naudojam? ženkl? sistem? semiotin? analiz? atskleid? ne tik privalumus, bet ir tr?kumus. Kartografin?s produkcijos leidyklos, rengdamos publikacijas spaudai, tur?t? koreguoti ir pavienius ženklus, ir kartografin? rai\\vsk?. Dažniausiai pasitaikantys tr?kumai: per mažai skiriama d?mesio sintaktiniams ženkl? ryšiams perteikti - semantin?s ženkl? grup?s ne?vardijamos, neatskleidžiama hierarchija, žem?lapi? informacin?s apimtys nedid?ja atsižvelgiant ? moksleivi? amži?, kartografinis vaizdas per daug schematizuojamas, neie\\vskoma originalesni? žem?lapio apipavidalinimo b?d?. Ženkl? sistem? tobulinimas geografijos atlasuose sudaryt? palankesnes prielaidas efektyvesniems kartografin?s kalbos ?sisavinimo procesams.

Dumbliauskien?, Maryt?; Ro?i?t?, Inga

2009-01-01

399

Determining and Prioritizing the Organizational Determinants of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Improving the organization of pre-hospital emergency to provide emergency medical services (EMS), as a part of health system, plays an important role in timely and properly response to incidents, as well as, reducing mortalities and disabilities. Objective This study was conducted to determine the organizational determinants of emergency medical services in Iran and analyze their relationship and prioritize them. Materials and Methods The present study is kind of descriptive and cross-sectional study that has been conducted on the first half of 2010 using DEMATEL method (a group decision-making technique). Required data were collected using a questionnaire from a sample of 30 Iranian experts in pre-hospital emergency, who were selected using available sampling method. Results The determinants of establishing an independent EMS organization as a policy maker and observer organization, providing services through public organizations such as Emergency 115, private organizations partnership in pre-hospital emergency system, and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as organizational determinants. Also, establishing an independent EMS organization and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as the most affecting and affected organizational determinants, respectively, with the coordinates (1.01 and 1.01) and (0.85 and - 0.85) in the pre-hospital emergency organizational determinants graph. Conclusions Emergency medical services should be considered as a system with its independent components. Establishing an independent EMS organization, integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management, as well as, extending the possibility of providing EMS through private sector are essential in order to make fundamental reforms in providing emergency medical services in Iran.

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin

2013-01-01

400

Foreground object detection using top-down information based on EM framework.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel foreground object detection scheme that integrates the top-down information based on the expectation maximization (EM) framework. In this generalized EM framework, the top-down information is incorporated in an object model. Based on the object model and the state of each target, a foreground model is constructed. This foreground model can augment the foreground detection for the camouflage problem. Thus, an object's state-specific Markov random field (MRF) model is constructed for detection based on the foreground model and the background model. This MRF model depends on the latent variables that describe each object's state. The maximization of the MRF model is the M-step in the EM framework. Besides fusing spatial information, this MRF model can also adjust the contribution of the top-down information for detection. To obtain detection result using this MRF model, sampling importance resampling is used to sample the latent variable and the EM framework refines the detection iteratively. Besides the proposed generalized EM framework, our method does not need any prior information of the moving object, because we use the detection result of moving object to incorporate the domain knowledge of the object shapes into the construction of top-down information. Moreover, in our method, a kernel density estimation (KDE)-Gaussian mixture model (GMM) hybrid model is proposed to construct the probability density function of background and moving object model. For the background model, it has some advantages over GMM- and KDE-based methods. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of our method, particularly in handling the camouflage problem. PMID:22645266

Liu, Zhou; Huang, Kaiqi; Tan, Tieniu

2012-05-22

401

Investigating metal removal potential by Effective Microorganisms (EM) in alginate-immobilized and free-cell forms.  

PubMed

Metal removal potential of both alginate-immobilized and free-cells of Effective Microorganisms (EM-1™ Inoculant) was investigated in this study. Results revealed that removal of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) followed a similar trend where alginate-immobilized EM were more efficient compared to free-cells of EM. For these metals, 0.940, 2.695 and 4.011mgg(-1) of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) were removed compared to only 0.160, 0.859 and 0.755mgml(-1) removed by free-cells, respectively. The higher efficiency of alginate-immobilized EM was primarily attributed to the alginate matrix. This was evident when both alginate-immobilized EM and plain alginate beads (without EM), were not significantly different in their removal efficacies. Presence of alginate also enhanced the use of the biosorbents as maximum metal sorption was achieved after 120min as opposed to only 60min for free-cells. EM per se in immobilized or free-cell forms did not enhance metal removal efficacy. PMID:24001691

Ting, Adeline Su Yien; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Ikmal Hafiz Mahamad; Tan, Wei Shang

2013-08-19

402

Increased survival after EMS witnessed cardiac arrest. Observations from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Epistry - Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is common and lethal. It has been suggested that OHCA witnessed by EMS providers is a predictor of survival because advanced help is immediately available. We examined EMS witnessed OHCA from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) to determine the effect of EMS witnessed vs. bystander witnessed and unwitnessed OHCA. Methods Data were analyzed from a prospective, population-based cohort study in 10 U.S. and Canadian ROC sites. Individuals with non-traumatic OHCA treated 04/01/06 – 03/31/07 by EMS providers with defibrillation or chest compressions were included. Cases were grouped into EMS-witnessed, bystander witnessed, and unwitnessed and further stratified for bystander CPR. Multiple logistic regressions evaluated the odds ratio (OR) for survival to discharge relative to the EMS-witnessed group after adjusting for age, sex, public/private location of collapse, ROC site, and initial ECG rhythm. Of 9,991 OHCA, 1022 (10.2%) of EMS-witnessed, 3,369 (33.7%) bystander witnessed, and 5,600 (56.1%) unwitnessed. Results The most common initial rhythm in the EMS-witnessed group was PEA which was higher than in the bystander- and unwitnessed groups (p<0.001). The adjusted OR (95% CI) of survival compared to the EMS-witnessed group was 0.41, (0.36, 0.46) in bystander witnessed with bystander CPR, 0.37, (0.33, 0.43) in bystander witnessed without bystander CPR, 0.17 (0.14, 0.20) in unwitnessed with bystander CPR and 0.21 (0.18, 0.24) in unwitnessed cases without bystander CPR. Conclusions Immediate application of prehospital care for OHCA may improve survival. Efforts should be made to educate patients to access 9-1-1 for prodromal symptoms.

Hostler, David; Thomas, Elizabeth G; Emerson, Scott S; Christenson, James; Stiell, Ian G; Rittenberger, Jon C; Gorman, Kyle R; Bigham, Blair L; Callaway, Clifton W; Vilke, Gary M; Beaudoin, Tammy; Cheskes, Sheldon; Craig, Alan; Davis, Daniel P; Reed, Andrew; Idris, Ahamed; Nichol, Graham

2010-01-01

403

Evaluation of the toxicity and safety of the antioxidant beverage effective microorganisms-X (EM-X) in animal models.  

PubMed

The acute and chronic toxicity tests and the mutagenic test of the extracts from the fermentation of plants with effective microorganisms (EM-X) were performed in the mouse and the rat. In acute toxicity test, mice were orally treated three times per day with 20-fold of concentrated EM-X for 7 days. For chronic toxicity test, the rats were orally treated with original EM-X once a day for 90 days at the dosages of 180, 120 or 60ml/kg. At the levels tested EM-X did not lead to significant changes in food consumption, body weight, behaviors and stools. Hematological assays on red blood, white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, granulocyte, middle cell and coagulation time and the biochemical assays on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, glucose, total bilirubin, creatinine and total cholesterol did not show abnormal changes. The histological inspection of principal organs of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney did not show significant pathological changes. The delaying toxic reactions were detected 2 weeks after administration of EM-X was stopped. The mutagenic test showed that EM-X did not cause mutagenesis and tests of micronucleus of bone marrow cell and sperm shape abnormality upon EM-X were negative. The maximal tolerance dose of EM-X was calculated to be 1800ml/kg BW in the mouse and rat. Thus, oral administration of EM-X does not present acute and chronic toxicity and mutagenic effects in the animals. PMID:21783606

Ke, Bin; Liang, Yun-Fei; Zhong, Zheng-Xian; Higa, Terou; Aruoma, Okezie I

2005-09-01

404

Measurement of EM Field Inside a Cruising Aircraft: Potential Problems for the Use of Mobile Phones on Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) emissions from portable electronic devices (PEDs) carried onboard aircraft can interfere with avionic systems. Several onboard systems using EM waves have been planned, such as mobile communications and UWB (ultra-wideband) entertainment services distribution. Manufacturers of this system develop schemes to avoid electromagnetic interference by the transmissions (emissions) of mobile phones with avionic systems; some local-specific problems still remain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate to what extent non-GSM transmissions from the ground base stations reach inside a cruising aircraft. The EM field at the base station frequency bands is measured in a cruising small aircraft.

Kohmura, A.; Picard, J.; Yonemoto, N.; Yamamoto, K.

405

Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers  

PubMed Central

In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a descriptor for a supposedly intraepithelial, precancerous lesion. Preliminary evidence is also presented that suggests that there is a morphologically recognizable "clear cell EmGD" that probably represents a precancerous lesion to endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

Fadare, Oluwole; Zheng, Wenxin

2008-01-01

406

Effect of organic-inorganic hybrid P123-em-SBA15 on lithium transport properties of composite polymer electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel PEO-based composite polymer electrolyte by using organic-inorganic hybrid EO20PO70EO20-emmesoporous silica (P123-em-SBA15) as the filler has been developed. The experiment results show that P123-em-SBA15 can\\u000a enhance the lithium-ion transference number of the composite polymer electrolyte, which is induced by the special topology\\u000a structure of P123 in P123-em-SBA15 hybrid. In addition, room temperature ionic conductivity of the composite polymer electrolyte

Jingyu Xi; Xiaobin Huang; Xiaozhen Tang

2004-01-01

407

AN?LISE DA INSER??O DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ?TICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO M?DICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA P?BLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-?=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-?=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-?=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato.

Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

2009-01-01

408

2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm. The meeting format encompassed three break-out sessions, which focused on needs and opportunities associated with the following LTM technical areas: (1) Performance Monitoring Tools, (2) Systems, and (3) Information Management. The specific objectives of the Technical Forum were to identify: (1) technical targets for reducing EM costs for life-cycle monitoring; (2) cost-effective approaches and tools to support the transition from active to passive remedies at EM waste sites; and (3) specific goals and objectives associated with the lifecycle monitoring initiatives outlined within the Roadmap. The first Breakout Session on LTM performance measurement tools focused on the integration and improvement of LTM performance measurement and monitoring tools that deal with parameters such as ecosystems, boundary conditions, geophysics, remote sensing, biomarkers, ecological indicators and other types of data used in LTM configurations. Although specific tools were discussed, it was recognized that the Breakout Session could not comprehensively discuss all monitoring technologies in the time provided. Attendees provided key references where other organizations have assessed monitoring tools. Three investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The second Breakout Session was on LTM systems. The focus of this session was to identify new and inventive LTM systems addressing the framework for interactive parameters such as infrastructure, sensors, diagnostic features, field screening tools, state of the art characterization monitoring systems/concepts, and ecosystem approaches to site conditions and evolution. LTM systems consist of the combination of data acquisition and management efforts, data processing and analysis efforts and reporting tools. The objective of the LTM systems workgroup was to provide a vision and path towards novel and innovative LTM systems, which should be able to provide relevant, actionable information on system performance in a cost-effective manner. Two investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The last Breakout Session of the Technical Forum

Mayer, J.

2009-09-30

409

National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is likely to be required as a result of future federal energy legislation that includes end-use energy efficiency, either as a stand-alone energy-efficiency resource standard (EERS) or as part of a clean energy or renewable energy standard. This study is focused primarily on this third reason and thus explores issues associated with a national EM&V standard if energy efficiency is a qualifying resource in federal clean energy legislation. Developing a national EM&V standard is likely to be a lengthy process; this study focuses on the critical first step of identifying the issues that must be addressed in a future standard. Perhaps the most fundamental of these issues is 'how good is good enough?' This has always been the fundamental issue of EM&V for energy efficiency and is a result of the counter-factual nature of efficiency. Counter-factual in that savings are not measured, but estimated to varying degrees of accuracy by comparing energy consumption after a project (program) is implemented with what is assumed to have been the consumption of energy in the absence of the project (program). Therefore, the how good is good enough question is a short version of asking how certain does one have to be of the energy savings estimate that results from EM&V activities and is that level of certainty properly balanced against the amount of effort (resources, time, money) that is utilized to obtain that level of certainty. The implication is that not only should energy efficiency investments be cost-effective, but EM&V investments should consider risk management principles and thus also balance the costs and value of information derived from EM&V (EM&V should also be cost-effective).

Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

2011-02-04

410

Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

2003-08-01

411

200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.  

PubMed

This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities commence will be an important component of future strategies. More sophisticated EMD, CAD and AVL technologies will also play an indispensable role in reforming system design and daily operations. In light of the events of Sept. 11 and events yet to occur, EMS managers and providers face significant operational challenges. Overcoming these challenges will require leadership, a willingness to question and change tradition and the ability to cope with the discomfort of changing demands and uncertainty. Maintaining the hard-fought successes of EMS will increasingly require more imagination and the willingness of current and future practitioners to study, develop and implement innovative approaches to addressing future requirements. PMID:11858002

Cady, Geoff

2002-02-01

412

EFECTO DEL MEDIO EM-Bokashi EN EL CULTIVO DE LA MICROALGA MARINA Tetraselmis suecica K. EFFECT OF EM-Bokashi MEDIUM ON THE LABORATORY REARING OF THE MARINE MICRO ALGA Tetraselmis suecica K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of EM-Bokashi medium on the marine micro alga Tetraselmis suecica reared in the laboratory was studied. Two nutritive media were used: Yashima medium was used as a control treatment and the other medium had organic components coming from EM-Bokashi which is a fertilizing product. The latter was inoculated in three different doses: 1:1000; 1:1500; 1:2000. The highest population

Luzmila Rodríguez; Juan Juscamaita; Jessie Vargas

413

Educational Program for EMS (Emergency Medical Services) Systems Administration and Planning. Module V - Decision Making and Management Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on decisionmaking and management science is presented as part of an educational program for emergency medical services (EMS) systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a va...

E. Turban

1977-01-01

414

Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical elec...

L. C. Bartel

1993-01-01

415

The integrated performance evaluation program quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities  

SciTech Connect

EM`s (DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management) Integrated Performance Evaluation Program (IPEP) has the purpose of integrating information from existing PE programs with expanded QA activities to develop information about the quality of radiological, mixed waste, and hazardous environmental sample analyses provided by all laboratories supporting EM programs. The guidance addresses the goals of identifying specific PE sample programs and contacts, identifying specific requirements for participation in DOE`s internal and external (regulatory) programs, identifying key issues relating to application and interpretation of PE materials for EM headquarters and field office managers, and providing technical guidance covering PE materials for site-specific activities. (PE) Performance Evaluation materials or samples are necessary for the quality assurance/control programs covering environmental data collection.

Not Available

1994-05-01

416

Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, Microanalysis, and the Ethnography of Speaking (EM-CA-MA-ES): Resonances and Basic Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses resonances and basic issues of the four language and social interaction divisions of the National Communication Association and the International Communication Association: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, Microanalysis, and the Ethnography of Speaking (EM-CA-MA-ES). (Author/VWL)|

Wieder, D. Lawrence

1999-01-01

417

[A review of automatic particle recognition in Cryo-EM images].  

PubMed

Advances in cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) and single-particle reconstruction have led to increasingly high resolutions of macromolecular three-dimensional reconstruction. However, for keeping up the continuing improvements in resolution, it is necessary to increase the number of particles included in performing reconstructions. Manual selection of particles, even assisted by computer, is a bottleneck of single-particle reconstruction. Cryo-EM image has low signal-to-noise ratio and low contrast, which leads to difficulty in particle picking. Various approaches have been developed to address the problem of automatic particle. This paper describes the application of template-based method, edge based method, feature-based method, neural network, DoG-based and simulated annealing approach in particle picking. The characteristics of various approaches are discussed, and the future development is presented. PMID:21089695

Wu, Xiaorong; Wu, Xiaoming

2010-10-01

418

Research-Based Course Materials and Assessments for Upper-Division Electrodynamics (E&M II)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Favorable outcomes from ongoing research at the University of Colorado Boulder on student learning in junior-level electrostatics (E&M I) have led us to extend this work to upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II). We describe here our development of a set of research-based instructional materials designed to actively engage students during lecture (including clicker questions and other in-class activities); and an instrument for assessing whether our faculty-consensus learning goals are being met. We also discuss preliminary results from several recent implementations of our transformed curriculum, plans for the dissemination and further refinement of these materials, and offer some insights into student difficulties in advanced undergraduate electromagnetism.

Baily, Charles; Dubson, Michael; Pollock, Steven J.

2013-05-28

419

A fully automated approach to segmentation of irregularly shaped cellular structures in EM images.  

PubMed

While there has been substantial progress in segmenting natural images, state-of-the-art methods that perform well in such tasks unfortunately tend to underperform when confronted with the different challenges posed by electron microscope (EM) data. For example, in EM imagery of neural tissue, numerous cells and subcellular structures appear within a single image, they exhibit irregular shapes that cannot be easily modeled by standard techniques, and confusing textures clutter the background. We propose a fully automated approach that handles these challenges by using sophisticated cues that capture global shape and texture information, and by learning the specific appearance of object boundaries. We demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques and closely matches the performance of human annotators. PMID:20879348

Lucchi, Aurélien; Smith, Kevin; Achanta, Radhakrishna; Lepetit, Vincent; Fua, Pascal

2010-01-01

420

[3D liver vessel segmentation based on hessian matrix and GMM-EM algorithm].  

PubMed

An accurate segmentation of vascular systems is fundamental for many medical applications. In this paper, we propose a 3D vessel enhancement and extraction method. It is based on the analysis of Hessian matrix and Gaussian mixture model-expectation-maximization (GMM-EM) algorithm. Firstly, tube-like vessels were detected and enhanced based on the Hessian matrix eigenvalues. And then, the vascular system was segmented, and then a rough system was obtained with GMM-EM. Hessian-based filters were found to be sensitive to noise and sometimes gave discontinued vessels. Hence, we utilized the closing operation to avoid discontinuity and a 3D-filter on the segmented vessels to reduce noise brought by the contrast agent. Finally, a searching method based on spatial connected area is presented to connect the vascular system in 3D. The experimental results illustrated the efficiency of the method for 3D liver vessel segmentation proposed in this paper. PMID:23865305

Pi, Jingrui; Fang, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Runzong

2013-06-01

421

Noise models and cryo-EM drift correction with a direct-electron camera.  

PubMed

Blurring due to specimen-holder drift is a common occurrence in cryo-EM images. Cameras employing active-pixel sensors are capable of high frame rates such that a single low-dose exposure can be acquired as a series of frames. In this paper we consider the possibility of tracking and compensating for overall drift in typical single-particle specimens through the analysis of frame sequences. A problem that arises in tracking through cross-correlation of frames obtained with the DE-12 camera from Direct Electron LLC is the presence of "hot-pixel noise". This random pattern of bright pixels is highly correlated among frames. We show how a model of this noise can be employed to greatly reduce its effects. A filter function is derived that optimizes the tracking of image shifts by cross-correlation, and we demonstrate the tracking of specimen drift in typical cryo-EM specimens. PMID:23748163

Shigematsu, H; Sigworth, F J

2013-04-18

422

Model of human low-density lipoprotein and bound receptor based on CryoEM  

PubMed Central

Human plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, transfer cholesterol from plasma to liver cells via the LDL receptor (LDLr). Here, we report the structures of LDL and its complex with the LDL receptor extracellular domain (LDL·LDLr) at extracellular pH determined by cryoEM. Difference imaging between LDL·LDLr and LDL localizes the site of LDLr bound to its ligand. The structural features revealed from the cryoEM map lead to a juxtaposed stacking model of cholesteryl esters (CEs). High density in the outer shell identifies protein-rich regions that can be accounted for by a single apolipoprotein (apo B-100, 500 kDa) leading to a model for the distribution of its ?-helix and ?-sheet rich domains across the surface. The structural relationship between the apo B-100 and CEs appears to dictate the structural stability and function of normal LDL.

Ren, Gang; Rudenko, Gabby; Ludtke, Steven J.; Deisenhofer, Johann; Chiu, Wah; Pownall, Henry J.

2010-01-01

423

Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011.

Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

424

Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007-2011.  

PubMed

Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

Brown, Brandon S; Pogue, Korby A; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H

2012-01-11

425

Helicopter EMS transport outcomes literature: annotated review of articles published 2004-2006.  

PubMed

Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of debate. As is the case with other scientific endeavors, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with a 2004 review that covered the literature published between 2000 and 2003. The current review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature from 2004 through 2006. PMID:17907037

Thomas, Stephen H

426

Evaluation of the toxicity and safety of the antioxidant beverage effective microorganisms-X (EM-X) in animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute and chronic toxicity tests and the mutagenic test of the extracts from the fermentation of plants with effective microorganisms (EM-X) were performed in the mouse and the rat. In acute toxicity test, mice were orally treated three times per day with 20-fold of concentrated EM-X for 7 days. For chronic toxicity test, the rats were orally treated with

Bin Ke; Yun-Fei Liang; Zheng-Xian Zhong; Terou Higa; Okezie I. Aruoma

2005-01-01

427

Quantificação de clorofilas em folhas de macieiras 'Royal Gala' e 'Fuji' com métodos ópticos não-destrutivos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O método-padrão para a quantificação de clorofilas em folhas é destrutivo e relativamente demorado. Com o advento dos medidores portáteis, a quantificação de clorofilas tornou-se fácil e rápida, podendo ser realizada de forma não-destrutiva a campo. Colorímetros também podem ser utilizados para a avaliação não-destrutiva da coloração de tecidos vegetais, e, portanto, para a quantificação de clorofilas em

Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante; Cristiano André Steffens; Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi; Erlani de Oliveira Alves

2008-01-01

428

Working with the EM38 Earth Conductivity Meter: Geophysical Survey at the Hopeton Earthwork, Chillicothe, Ohio, May, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of EM hardware, and specifically the Geonics EM38 used in the Hopeton survey, lies in its availability, its data collecting speed, and its particular geophysical sensitivity. It also can be used to measure two types of geophysical information, earth conductivity (measured in mS\\/m or millisiemens\\/meter) and magnetic susceptibility (measured in ppt or parts per thousand) although it is

R. Berle Clay

429

X-Ray, Optical, and Radio Observations of the Type II Supernovae 1999em and 1998S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Type II-P (plateau) supernova SN 1999em and Type IIn (narrow emission line) SN 1998S have enabled estimation of the profile of the SN ejecta, the structure of the circumstellar medium (CSM) established by the pre-SN stellar wind, and the nature of the shock interaction. SN 1999em is the first Type II-P detected at both X-ray and radio

David Pooley; Walter H. G. Lewin; Derek W. Fox; Jon M. Miller; Christina K. Lacey; Schuyler D. Van Dyk; Kurt W. Weiler; Richard A. Sramek; Alexei V. Filippenko; Douglas C. Leonard; Stefan Immler; Roger A. Chevalier; Andrew C. Fabian; Claes Fransson; Ken'ichi Nomoto

2002-01-01

430

Hydrolysis of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Esters (Parabens) and Their Aerobic Transformation into Phenol by the Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Strain EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter cloacae strain EM was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben. It harbored a high-molecular-weight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Strain EM was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement (1,700 and 180 mg of methyl and

NELLY VALKOVA; FRANCOIS LEPINE; LOREDANA VALEANU; MARYSE DUPONT; LOUISETTE LABRIE; JEAN-GUY BISAILLON; REJEAN BEAUDET; FRANCOIS SHARECK; RICHARD VILLEMUR

2001-01-01

431

Multi-class brain segmentation using atlas propagation and EM-based refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, multi-atlas segmentation has emerged as one of the most accurate techniques for the segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images, especially when combined with intensity-based refinement techniques such as graph-cut or expectation-maximization (EM) optimization. However, most of the work so far has focused on intensity-based refinement strategies for individual anatomical structures such as the hippocampus. In this

Christian Ledig; Robin Wolz; Paul Aljabar; Jyrki Lotjonen; Rolf A. Heckemann; Alexander Hammers; Daniel Rueckert

2012-01-01

432

Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em

S. Silva E Costa

2003-01-01

433

Influence analysis for Poisson inverse Gaussian regression models based on the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Poisson inverse Gaussian regression models, it is very complicated to obtain the influence measures based on the traditional\\u000a method, because the associated likelihood function involves intractable expressions, such as the modified Bessel function.\\u000a In this paper, the EM algorithm is employed as a basis to derive diagnostic measures for the models by treating them as a mixed Poisson regression

Feng-Chang Xie; Bo-Cheng Wei

2008-01-01

434

Identification of EMS-Induced Mutations in Drosophila melanogaster by Whole-Genome Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next-generation methods for rapid whole-genome sequencing enable the identification of single-base- pair mutations in Drosophila by comparing a chromosome bearing a new mutation to the unmutagenized sequence. To validate this approach, we sought to identify the molecular lesion responsible for a recessive EMS-induced mutation affecting egg shell morphology by using Illumina next-generation sequencing. After obtaining sufficient sequence from larvae that

Justin P. Blumenstiel; Aaron C. Noll; Jennifer A. Griffiths; Anoja G. Perera; Kendra N. Walton; William D. Gilliland; R. Scott Hawley; Karen Staehling-Hampton

2009-01-01

435

The stability of money demand in Germany and in the EMS: Impact of German unification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stability of Narrow Money Demand in Germany and Aggregate Money Demand in the EMS: Impact of German Unification. —This\\u000a paper shows that the German monetary union not only had an impact on the stability of the narrow money demand in Germany but\\u000a also on the stability of the aggregate demand for money in two larger European currency areas, consisting

Martin Falk; Norbert Funke

1995-01-01

436

Model Selection Criteria for Missing-Data Problems Using the EM Algorithm  

PubMed Central

We consider novel methods for the computation of model selection criteria in missing-data problems based on the output of the EM algorithm. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving incomplete data within an EM framework, from covariates missing at random in arbitrary regression models to nonignorably missing longitudinal responses and/or covariates. Toward this goal, we develop a class of information criteria for missing-data problems, called ICH,Q, which yields the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion as special cases. The computation of ICH,Q requires an analytic approximation to a complicated function, called the H-function, along with output from the EM algorithm used in obtaining maximum likelihood estimates. The approximation to the H-function leads to a large class of information criteria, called ICH?(k),Q. Theoretical properties of ICH?(k),Q, including consistency, are investigated in detail. To eliminate the analytic approximation to the H-function, a computationally simpler approximation to ICH,Q, called ICQ, is proposed, the computation of which depends solely on the Q-function of the EM algorithm. Advantages and disadvantages of ICH?(k),Q and ICQ are discussed and examined in detail in the context of missing-data problems. Extensive simulations are given to demonstrate the methodology and examine the small-sample and large-sample performance of ICH?(k),Q and ICQ in missing-data problems. An AIDS data set also is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zhu, Hongtu; Tang, Niansheng

2009-01-01

437

The microtubule binding drug EM011 inhibits the growth of paediatric low grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low grade gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours representing the most common form of neoplasms in the central nervous system among children. Although gross total resection remains the principal treatment, it is often impractical especially for the resection of tumours within eloquent regions of the brain. Instead Radiotherapy is utilised in such cases, but because of its associated toxicities, it is refrained from use among younger children. These limitations coupled with hypersensitivity and toxicities associated with some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, have ignited the need to search for safer and more effective treatments for paediatric low grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated the EM011 drug on the growth of two pilocytic and one diffuse paediatric astrocytoma cell lines, using an assortment of cancer assays. We discovered that treatments of low grade gliomas with EM011 abrogated cell viability by inducing a decrease in cell proliferation and an arrest in the S and G2M cell cycle phases, followed by a converse increase in apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell migratory and invasion indices, as well as anchorage independent growth in soft agarose, were significantly attenuated. These findings were mechanistically associated with a transient release of AIF, a disruption of microtubule architecture, and a decline in the expression of key genes which drive cancer progression including EGFR, mTORC1, JUN and multiple MMPs. In fact, the activity of MMP2 was also perturbed by EM011. These findings, in conjunction with the insignificant adverse side effects established from other studies, make EM011 an appealing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of paediatric low grade gliomas. PMID:23402815

Ajeawung, Norbert F; Joshi, Harish C; Kamnasaran, Deepak

2013-02-09

438

EMS and UV irradiation induce unstable resistance against CAA fungicides in Bremia lactucae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild type (WT) field isolates of Bremia lactucae failed to germinate in vitro or infect lettuce leaves in the presence of CAA (carboxylic acid amide) fungicides. Minimal\\u000a inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for mandipropamid, dimethomorph, benthiavalicarb and iprovalicarb were 0.005, 0.5, 0.5 and\\u000a 5 ?g?ml?1, respectively. Mutagenesis experiments showed that spores exposed to EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) or UV irradiation (254 nm)\\u000a could infect

Avia E. Rubin; Ayelet-Chen Werdiger; Mathias Blum; Ulrich Gisi; Helge Sierotzki; Dietrich Hermann; Yigal Cohen

2011-01-01

439

Premissas histórico-socioculturais sobre a família brasileira em função do sexo e da idade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Segundo a abordagem etnopsicológica, as premissas histórico-socioculturais, que constituem crenças inquestionáveis consensualmente aceitas por um grupo social, desempenham papel chave na compreensão do comportamento individual. Apoiando-se nessa perspectiva, investigou-se a influência do sexo e idade no grau de adesão a premissas sobre a família brasileira. A amostra compreendeu 393 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, distribuídos em quatro faixas etárias,

Eveline Maria Leal Assmar; Maria Cristina Ferreira; Heliane Novaes; Mariana Tomaz

2000-01-01

440

Summary Report for Working Group on High Gradient & EM Structure Based Accelerators.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the summary of presentations and discussions of the High Gradient and EM Structure Based Accelerators Working Group at the 2008 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. The working group mission statement and charge are described and presentations on different topics are summarized. The topics include investigations of high gradient limitations (experimental and theoretical), new ideas and achievements in development of acceleration structures, rf sources, components, materials for accelerator applications, and others.

Yakovlev, V.; Smirnova, E. I.

2009-01-01

441

Sector collapse at Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano (Lesser Antilles): numerical simulation and landslide behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kick 'em Jenny volcano is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles. It lies within a horseshoe-shaped structure open to the west northwest, toward the deep Grenada Basin. A detailed bathymetric survey of the basin slope at Kick 'em Jenny and resulting high-resolution digital elevation model allowed the identification of a major submarine landslide deposit. This deposit is thought to result from a single sector collapse event at Kick 'em Jenny and to be linked to the formation of the horseshoe-shaped structure. We estimated the volume and the leading-edge runout of the landslide to be ca. 4.4 km3 and 14 km, respectively. We modelled a sector collapse event of a proto Kick 'em Jenny volcano using VolcFlow, a finite difference code based on depth-integrated mass and momentum equations. Our models show that the landslide can be simulated by either a Coulomb-type rheology with low basal friction angles (5.5°-6.5°) and a significant internal friction angle (above 17.5°) or, with better results, by a Bingham rheology with low Bingham kinematic viscosity (0 < ? B < 30 m2/s) and high shear strength (130 < ? ? 180 m2/s2). The models and the short runout distance suggest that the landslide travelled as a stiff cohesive flow affected by minimal granular disaggregation and slumping on a non-lubricated surface. The main submarine landslide deposit can therefore be considered as a submarine mass slide deposit that behaved like a slump.

Dondin, Frédéric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Kelfoun, Karim; Fournier, Nicolas; Randrianasolo, Auran

2012-03-01

442

The Distance to SN 1999em from the Expanding Photosphere Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present optical and infrared spectroscopy of the first 2 months of evolution of the Type II supernova SN 1999em. We combine these data with high-quality optical\\/infrared photometry beginning only 3 days after shock breakout, in order to study the performance of the ``expanding photosphere method'' (EPM) in the determination of distances. With this purpose, we develop a technique to

Mario Hamuy; Philip A. Pinto; José Maza; Nicholas B. Suntzeff; M. M. Phillips; Ronald G. Eastman; R. C. Smith; C. J. Corbally; D. Burstein; Yong Li; Valentin Ivanov; Amaya Moro-Martin; L. G. Strolger; R. E. de Souza; S. dos Anjos; Elizabeth M. Green; T. E. Pickering; Luis González; Roberto Antezana; Marina Wischnjewsky; G. Galaz; M. Roth; S. E. Persson; R. A. Schommer

2001-01-01

443

Maximum-likelihood narrow-band direction finding and the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized EM (expectation-maximization) algorithms have been derived for the maximum-likelihood estimation of the direction-of-arrival of multiple narrowband signals in noise. Both deterministic and stochastic signal models are considered. The algorithm for the deterministic model yields estimates of the signal amplitudes, while that for the stochastic model yields estimates of the powers of the signal. Both algorithms have the properties that

Michael I. Miller; D. R. Fuhrmann

1990-01-01

444

Rectenna Design and Optimization Using Reciprocity Theory and Harmonic Balance Analysis for Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rectenna design methodology combining electromagnetic (EM) simulation and harmonic balance (HB) analysis is presented. It consists of applying reciprocity theory to calculate the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the receiving antenna and optimizing the rectifying circuit parameters using HB analysis. The method is demonstrated by designing a 2.45-GHz rectenna based on a square aperture-coupled patch antenna with dual linear polarization.

A. Georgiadis; G. Andia; A. Collado

2010-01-01

445

Iterative multiuser receivers for CDMA channels: an EM-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum-likelihood detection for the multiuser code-division multiple-access (CDMA) channel is prohibitively complex. This paper considers new iterative multiuser receivers based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and related, more powerful “space-alternating” algorithms. The latter algorithms include the SAGE algorithm and a new “missing parameter” space-alternating algorithm that alternately updates individual parameter components or treats them as probabilistic missing data. Application of

Laurie B. Nelson; H. Vincent Poor

1996-01-01

446

Compact Elongated Mushroom (EM)EBG Structure for Enhancement of Patch Antenna Array Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact elongated mushroom electromagnetic band-gap (EM-EBG) structure, exploiting the thickness of the substrate to achieve higher isolation compared to the case of the conventional mushroom EBG (CM-EBG), is proposed for the enhancement of the performances of patch antenna arrays. Guidelines, based on fairly accurate formulas, are provided for the design of the stop-band of the structure. The compactness of

Martin Coulombe; Sadegh Farzaneh Koodiani; Christophe Caloz

2010-01-01

447

The sky's the limit. How to plan your career in EMS.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to make EMS a career. The key is deciding that the field of prehospital care is where you ultimately want to be and planning where you want to go and what you want to do within the field. Follow these tips on becoming an EMT, moving up to paramedic and, finally, deciding whether to become a manager, and find out for yourself that the sky really is the limit. PMID:10121491

Roell, F

1992-08-01

448

Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100EM1 Operable Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy\\/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from

Newcomer

1999-01-01

449

System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

Proise, M.

1994-05-01

450

Design Considerations of EM-PM Hybrid Levitation and Propulsion Device for Magnetically Levitated Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design considerations of electromagnet\\/permanent magnet (EM-PM) hybrid levitation and propulsion device for magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicle. The machine requires PMs with high coercive force in order to levitate the vehicle by only PMs, and propulsion force is supplied by long-stator linear synchronous motor (LSM). The advantages of this configuration are an increasing levitation airgap length

Han-Wook Cho; Hyung-Suk Han; Jong-Min Lee; Bong-Sub Kim; So-Young Sung

2009-01-01

451

The Soils and Groundwater EM20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soils and Groundwater EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be

Fix

2008-01-01

452

An EM algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes

J. C. Long; R. C. Williams; M. Urbanek

1995-01-01

453

Abscisic acid-responsive sequences from the em gene of wheat.  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that a chimeric gene containing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene linked to a 646-base pair 5' fragment (-554 to +92) from the abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated Em gene from wheat is correctly expressed in transgenic tobacco. We observe high activity only in embryos of mature seeds, and immature seeds cultured on ABA show enhanced expression. Using a rice transient assay, we identify a 260-base pair fragment (-168 to +92) that accounts for the ABA-specific 15-fold to 20-fold increase in GUS expression. A 50-base pair sequence (-152 to -103) fused 5' in either orientation to a truncated cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (35S) increases GUS activity threefold in the presence of ABA. Insertion of the Em 5'-untranslated region (+6 to +86) between the 35S promoter and the ATG of GUS results in a 10-fold increase in GUS activity in the absence of ABA. These results suggest the following two functional fragments of the Em 5' region: an ABA response element from -152 to -103 and an element between +6 and +86 that quantitatively increases the ABA response.

Marcotte, W R; Russell, S H; Quatrano, R S

1989-01-01

454

Reaching the information limit in cryo-EM of biological macromolecules: experimental aspects.  

PubMed

Although cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of biological macromolecules has made important advances in the past few years, the level of current technical performance is still well below what the physics of electron scattering would allow. It should be possible, for example, to use cryo-EM to solve protein structures at atomic resolution for particle sizes well below 80 kDa, but currently this has been achieved only for particles at least 10 times larger than that. In this review, we first examine some of the reasons for this large gap in performance. We then give an overview of work that is currently in progress to 1), improve the signal/noise ratio for area detectors; 2), improve the signal transfer between the scattered electrons and the corresponding images; and 3), reduce the extent to which beam-induced movement causes a steep fall-off of signal at high resolution. In each case, there is substantial reason to think that cryo-EM can indeed be made to approach the estimated physical limits. PMID:21575566

Glaeser, Robert M; Hall, Richard J

2011-05-18

455

Comparison between ML-EM and modified Newton algorithms for SPECT image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expectation maximization method for maximum likelihood image reconstruction (ML- EM) is one of the most popular algorithms used in SPECT and PET, because it is based on the realistic assumption that photon emission and counts follow a Poisson process. Moreover, this method retains two important theoretical and practical properties namely nonnegativity and self-normalization of the reconstructed image. This latter property means that the number of emitted photons is equal to the number of counts. However, the major disadvantage of this method is the large amount of computation that is required, due to its slow rate of convergence. In this paper, we demonstrate that the ML-EM algorithm is a special case of the modified Newton method and can thus be accelerated by multiplying at each iteration the changes to the image, as calculated by the standard algorithm, by an overrelaxation parameter. This accelerated ML-EM algorithm can further be optimally accelerated, and converges to a good maximum likelihood estimator.

Noumeir, Rita; Mailloux, Guy E.; Mallouche, Hail; Lemieux, Raymond

1993-08-01

456

Developing a high-resolution x-ray imager using electron-multiplying (EM) CCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications at synchrotron facilities such as macromolecular crystallography and high energy X-ray diffraction require high resolution imaging detectors with high dynamic range and large surface area. Current systems can be split into two main categories: hybrid pixel detectors and scintillator-coupled Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs). Whilst both have limitations, CCD-based systems (coupled to fibre-optics to increase imaging area) are often used in these applications due to their small pixels and the high resolution. Electron-Multiplication CCDs (EM-CCDs) are able to suppress the readout noise associated with increased readout speed offering a low noise, high speed detector solution. A previous pilot study using a small-area (8 mm × 8 mm) scintillator-coupled EM-CCD found that through high frame-rates, low noise and novel uses of photon-counting, resolution could be improved from over 80 ?m to 25 ?m at 2 fps. To further improve this detector system, high speed readout electronics can be used alongside a fibre-optic taper and EM-CCD to create a "best of both worlds" solution consisting of the high resolution of a CCD, along with the low noise, high speed (high dynamic range) and large effective area of pixel detectors. This paper details the developments in the study and discusses the latest results and their implication on the system design.

Tutt, James H.; Hall, David J.; Holland, Andrew D.; Murray, Neil J.; Endicott, James

2013-09-01

457

Direct electron detection yields cryo-EM reconstructions at resolutions beyond 3/4 Nyquist frequency  

PubMed Central

One limitation in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is the inability to recover high-resolution signal from the image-recording media at the full-resolution limit of the transmission electron microscope. Direct electron detection using CMOS-based sensors for digitally recording images has the potential to alleviate this shortcoming. Here, we report a practical performance evaluation of a Direct Detection Device (DDD) for biological cryo-EM at two different microscope voltages: 200 and 300 kV. Our DDD images of amorphous and graphitized carbon show strong per-pixel contrast with image resolution near the theoretical sampling limit of the data. Single-particle reconstructions of two frozen-hydrated bacteriophages, P22 and ?15, establish that the DDD is capable of recording usable signal for 3-D reconstructions at about 4/5 of the Nyquist frequency, which is a vast improvement over the performance of conventional imaging media. We anticipate the unparalleled performance of this digital recording device will dramatically benefit cryo-EM for routine tomographic and single-particle structural determination of biological specimens.

Bammes, Benjamin E.; Rochat, Ryan H.; Jakana, Joanita; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

2012-01-01

458

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

SciTech Connect

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.

Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Torres-Verdin, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Lee, Ki Ha [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tseng, Hung-Wen [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

459

Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads  

SciTech Connect

NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

2003-10-30

460

In Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1 S-Layer Homology Domains Do Not Attach to Peptidoglycan  

PubMed Central

Three exocellular enzymes of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1 possess a C-terminal triplicated sequence related to a domain of bacterial cell surface proteins (S-layer proteins). At least one copy of this sequence, named the SLH (for S-layer homology) domain, is also present at the N terminus of the S-layer protein of this bacterium. The hypothesis that SLH domains serve to anchor proteins to the cell surface was investigated by using the SLH domain-containing xylanase. This enzyme was isolated from T. thermosulfurigenes EM1, and different forms with and without SLH domains were synthesized in Escherichia coli. The interaction of these proteins with isolated components of the cell envelope was determined to identify the attachment site in the cell wall. In addition, a polypeptide consisting of three SLH domains and the N terminus of the S-layer protein of T. thermosulfurigenes EM1 were included in these studies. The results indicate that SLH domains are necessary for the attachment of these proteins to peptidoglycan-containing sacculi. Extraction of the native sacculi with hydrofluoric acid led to the conclusion that not peptidoglycan but accessory cell wall polymers function as the adhesion component in the cell wall. Our results provide further evidence that attachment of proteins via their SLH domains represents an additional mode to display polypeptides on the cell surfaces of bacteria.

Brechtel, Elke; Bahl, Hubert

1999-01-01