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Structural Analysis of the Oligomeric States of Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and contributes to peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori secretes a pore-forming exotoxin known as vacuolating toxin (VacA). VacA contains two distinct domains, designated p33 and p55, and assembles into large “snowflake”-shaped oligomers. Thus far, no structural data are available for the p33 domain, which is essential for membrane channel formation. Using single-particle electron microscopy and the random conical tilt approach, we have determined the three-dimensional structures of six VacA oligomeric conformations at ~15-Å resolution. The p55 domain, composed primarily of ?-helical structures, localizes to the peripheral arms, while the p33 domain consists of two globular densities that localize within the center of the complexes. By fitting the VacA p55 crystal structure into the electron microscopy densities, we have mapped inter-VacA interactions that support oligomerization. In addition, we have examined VacA variants/mutants that differ from wild-type (WT) VacA in toxin activity and/or oligomeric structural features. Oligomers formed by VacA?6–27, a mutant that fails to form membrane channels, lack an organized p33 central core. Mixed oligomers containing both WT and VacA?6–27 subunits also lack an organized core. Oligomers formed by a VacA s2m1 chimera (which lacks cell-vacuolating activity) and VacA?301–328 (which retains vacuolating activity) each contain p33 central cores similar to those of WT oligomers. By providing the most detailed view of the VacA structure to date, these data offer new insights into the toxin's channel-forming component and the intermolecular interactions that underlie oligomeric assembly. PMID:23178866

Chambers, Melissa G.; Pyburn, Tasia M.; González-Rivera, Christian; Collier, Scott E.; Eli, Ilyas; Yip, Calvin K.; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Lacy, D. Borden; Cover, Timothy L.; Ohi, Melanie D.



Structural analysis of the oligomeric states of Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin.  


Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and contributes to peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori secretes a pore-forming exotoxin known as vacuolating toxin (VacA). VacA contains two distinct domains, designated p33 and p55, and assembles into large "snowflake"-shaped oligomers. Thus far, no structural data are available for the p33 domain, which is essential for membrane channel formation. Using single-particle electron microscopy and the random conical tilt approach, we have determined the three-dimensional structures of six VacA oligomeric conformations at ~15-Å resolution. The p55 domain, composed primarily of ?-helical structures, localizes to the peripheral arms, while the p33 domain consists of two globular densities that localize within the center of the complexes. By fitting the VacA p55 crystal structure into the electron microscopy densities, we have mapped inter-VacA interactions that support oligomerization. In addition, we have examined VacA variants/mutants that differ from wild-type (WT) VacA in toxin activity and/or oligomeric structural features. Oligomers formed by VacA?6-27, a mutant that fails to form membrane channels, lack an organized p33 central core. Mixed oligomers containing both WT and VacA?6-27 subunits also lack an organized core. Oligomers formed by a VacA s2m1 chimera (which lacks cell-vacuolating activity) and VacA?301-328 (which retains vacuolating activity) each contain p33 central cores similar to those of WT oligomers. By providing the most detailed view of the VacA structure to date, these data offer new insights into the toxin's channel-forming component and the intermolecular interactions that underlie oligomeric assembly. PMID:23178866

Chambers, Melissa G; Pyburn, Tasia M; González-Rivera, Christian; Collier, Scott E; Eli, Ilyas; Yip, Calvin K; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Lacy, D Borden; Cover, Timothy L; Ohi, Melanie D



Protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha, RPTP alpha, is a Helicobacter pylori VacA receptor.  


Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, cytochrome c release, and apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. To detect gastric proteins that serve as VacA receptors, we used VacA co-immunoprecipitation techniques following biotinylation of the cell surface and identified p250, a receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) as a VacA-binding protein (Yahiro, K., Niidome, T., Kimura, M., Hatakeyama, T., Aoyagi, H., Kurazono, H., Imagawa, K., Wada, A., Moss, J., and Hirayama, T. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36693-36699). VacA causes vacuolation of G401 cells, a human kidney tumor cell line, although they do not express RPTP beta. By co-immunoprecipitation with VacA, we identified p140 as a potential receptor in those cells. p140 purified by chromatography on a peanut agglutinin affinity matrix contained internal amino acid sequences of RGEENTDYVNASFIDGYRQK and AEGILDVFQTVK, which are identical to those in RPTP alpha. The peptide mass fingerprinting of p140 by time of flight-MS analysis also supported this identification. Treatment of G401 cells with RPTP alpha-morpholino antisense oligonucleotide before exposure to toxin inhibited vacuolation. These data suggest that RPTP alpha acts as a receptor for VacA in G401 cells. Thus, two receptor tyrosine phosphatases, RPTP alpha and RPTP beta, serve as VacA receptors. PMID:12626515

Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Wada, Akihiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kimura, Takahiro; Ogushi, Ken-ichi; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Yoshino, Ken-ichi; Yonezawa, Kazuyoshi; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya



Geographic distribution of vacA allelic types of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Distinct allelic types of Helicobacter pylori vacA have been defined. The geographic distribution of vacA alleles and cagA was assessed in this study. Methods: A total of 735 cultures from patients in 24 countries were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization on a line probe assay (LiPA). Results: In 124 (16.9%) of the 735 cultures,

Céu Figueiredo; Francis Mégraud; Salvador Pena; Peter Midolo; Dulciene Maria De Magalhães Queiroz; Fátima Carneiro; Bart Vanderborght; Maria Da Glória F. Pegado; Ricardo Sanna; Wink De Boer; Peter M. Schneeberger; Pelayo Correa; Enders K. W. Ng; John Atherton; Martin J. Blaser; Wim G. V. Quint



Remodeling the host environment: modulation of the gastric epithelium by the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA)  

PubMed Central

Virulence mechanisms underlying Helicobacter pylori persistence and disease remain poorly understood, in part, because the factors underlying disease risk are multifactorial and complex. Among the bacterial factors that contribute to the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections, the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is one of the most important. Analogous to a number of H. pylori genes, the vacA gene exhibits allelic mosaicism, and human epidemiological studies have revealed that several families of toxin alleles are predictive of more severe disease. Animal model studies suggest that VacA may contribute to pathogenesis in several ways. VacA functions as an intracellular-acting protein exotoxin. However, VacA does not fit the current prototype of AB intracellular-acting bacterial toxins, which elaborate modulatory effects through the action of an enzymatic domain translocated inside host cells. Rather, VacA may represent an alternative prototype for AB intracellular acting toxins that modulate cellular homeostasis by forming ion-conducting intracellular membrane channels. Although VacA seems to form channels in several different membranes, one of the most important target sites is the mitochondrial inner membrane. VacA apparently take advantage of an unusual intracellular trafficking pathway to mitochondria, where the toxin is imported and depolarizes the inner membrane to disrupt mitochondrial dynamics and cellular energy homeostasis as a mechanism for engaging the apoptotic machinery within host cells. VacA remodeling of the gastric environment appears to be fine-tuned through the action of the Type IV effector protein CagA which, in part, limits the cytotoxic effects of VacA in cells colonized by H. pylori. PMID:22919629

Kim, Ik-Jung; Blanke, Steven R.



ADHESION TESTING OF EPOXY COATING Enrique Vaca-Corts, Miguel A. Lorenzo, James O. Jirsa,  

E-print Network

ADHESION TESTING OF EPOXY COATING by Enrique Vaca-Cortés, Miguel A. Lorenzo, James O. Jirsa Supervisors ABSTRACT The hot water and knife adhesion tests developed in this study proved to be a valuable tool for quality control and for in-depth studies of coating adhesion. Hot water and knife adhesion

Texas at Austin, University of


Prevalence of vacA, cagA and babA2 genes in Cuban Helicobacter pylori isolates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) and blood adhesion binding antigen (babA2) genotypes of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) isolates from Cuban dyspeptic patients. METHODS: DNA was extracted from H pylori-positive cultures taken from 130 dyspeptic patients. Genotyping was performed by PCR, using specific primers for vacA (s1, s2, m1, m2), cagA and babA2 genes. Endoscopic observations and histological examinations were used to determine patient pathologies. RESULTS: vacA alleles s1, s2, m1 and m2 were detected in 96 (73.8%), 34 (26.2%), 75 (57.7%) and 52 isolates (40%), respectively, while the cagA gene was detected in 95 isolates (73.2%). One hundred and seven isolates (82.3%) were babA2-positive. A significant correlation was observed between vacAs1m1 and cagA and between vacAs1m1 and babA2 genotypes (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and between babA2 genotype and cagA status (P < 0.05); but, no correlation was observed between vacAs1 and babA2 genotypes. Eighty five (65.4%) and 73 (56.2%) strains were type 1 (vacAs1-cagA-positive) and “triple-positive” (vacAs1-cagA-babA2-positive), respectively, and their presence was significantly associated with duodenal ulcer (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: The distribution of the main virulence factors in the Cuban strains in this study resembled that of the Western-type strains, and the more virulent H pylori isolates were significantly associated with duodenal ulcer, ulcer disease being the worst pathology observed in the group studied. PMID:19132771

Torres, Lino E; Melián, Karelia; Moreno, Arlenis; Alonso, Jordis; Sabatier, Carlos A; Hernández, Mayrín; Bermúdez, Ludisleydis; Rodríguez, Boris L



Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in gastric carcinoma.  


Helicobacter pylori infection is the major etiological factor of gastric carcinoma. This disease is the result of a long, multistep, and multifactorial process, which occurs only in a small proportion of patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric carcinoma development is influenced by host genetic susceptibility factors, environmental factors, and H. pylori virulence. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and variability that affects H. pylori virulence factors may be useful to identify strains with different degrees of pathogenicity. This review will focus on VacA and CagA that have polymorphic regions that impact their functional properties. The characterization of H. pylori vacA and cagA-associated could be useful for identifying patients at highest risk of disease, who could be offered H. pylori eradication therapy and who could be included in programs of more intensive surveillance in an attempt to reduce gastric carcinoma incidence. PMID:25439067

Ferreira, Rui M; Machado, José C; Figueiredo, Ceu



The hero's story: typology, biblical allusion, and persona in Alvar Nu?n?ez Cabeza de Vaca's Narrative  

E-print Network

more perfect hero than Achilles, th th ~Od 1 th th Il' d t achieving a principal end of heroic poetry--the creation of a heroic exemplar, (168) Thus, through his Christ-associations Cabeza de Vaca appeared to be a Messianic figure, or the most...

Bell, Glenna Gail




Microsoft Academic Search

The disorderly occupation and intensive use of soil in the Paraíba State semi arid land, has resulted in an elevation in the levels of degradation of the environment, as much for the loss biodiversity as for increase in soil erosion. To eva luate the intensity of these processes, a watershed in Vaca Brava was chosen, presenting a strong contrast between

Luís Freire


Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease  

PubMed Central

Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott



How the loop and middle regions influence the properties of Helicobacter pylori VacA channels.  

PubMed Central

VacA is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by Helicobacter pylori in several strain-specific isoforms, which have been classified in two main families, m1 and m2, according to the sequence of a variable "midregion." Both forms are associated with gastric pathologies and can induce vacuolation of cultured cells. The comparison of two representative toxins, m1 17874 and m2 9554, has indicated that the m2 form is less powerful in vacuolation assays and that its effects are more strongly cell type dependent. To rationalize these differences and to investigate structure-function relationships in this toxin, we have compared the properties of the channels formed by these two variants and by a construct derived from 17874 by deleting a loop that connects the two toxin domains, which is shorter in 9554 than in 17874. Although the channels formed by all three proteins are similar, m2 9554 channels have, on average, a lower conductance and are less anion-selective and more voltage-dependent than the m1 pores. Furthermore, the rate of incorporation of 9554 VacA into planar bilayers depends on lipid composition much more strongly than that of 17874. The comparison with the behavior of the loop deletion mutant indicates that this latter property, as well as a portion of the conductance decrease, may be attributed to the reduction in loop length. The differences in pore properties are proposed to account in part for the different cytotoxicity exhibited by the two toxin isoforms. We furthermore present evidence suggesting that the conformation of the membrane-embedded toxin may be influenced by the lipid composition of the membrane itself. PMID:11720986

Tombola, F; Pagliaccia, C; Campello, S; Telford, J L; Montecucco, C; Papini, E; Zoratti, M



Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between H. pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA status and severity of disease. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens from 94 patients in The Netherlands were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. Results:cagA was

Céu Figueiredo; Ricardo Sanna; Anton Plaisier; Peter Schneeberger; Wink de Boer; Wim Quint



Typing of Helicobacter pylori vacA Gene and Detection of cagA Gene by PCR and Reverse Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report describes an analysis of two virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori. Parts of the cagA gene, as well as parts from the signal (s) and middle (m) regions of the mosaic vacA gene, were amplified with biotin-labelled PCR primers and the products were subsequently analyzed by a single-step reverse hybridiza- tion line probe assay (LiPA). This assay comprises




Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) Mediates Autophagy and Apoptosis Caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA*  

PubMed Central

In Helicobacter pylori infection, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA)-induced mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis is believed to be a major cause of cell death. It has also been proposed that VacA-induced autophagy serves as a host mechanism to limit toxin-induced cellular damage. Apoptosis and autophagy are two dynamic and opposing processes that must be balanced to regulate cell death and survival. Here we identify the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) as the VacA receptor for toxin-induced autophagy in the gastric epithelial cell line AZ-521, and show that VacA internalization through binding to LRP1 regulates the autophagic process including generation of LC3-II from LC3-I, which is involved in formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Knockdown of LRP1 and Atg5 inhibited generation of LC3-II as well as cleavage of PARP, a marker of apoptosis, in response to VacA, whereas caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk), and necroptosis inhibitor, Necrostatin-1, did not inhibit VacA-induced autophagy, suggesting that VacA-induced autophagy via LRP1 binding precedes apoptosis. Other VacA receptors such as RPTP?, RPTP?, and fibronectin did not affect VacA-induced autophagy or apoptosis. Therefore, we propose that the cell surface receptor, LRP1, mediates VacA-induced autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:22822085

Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Satoh, Mamoru; Nakano, Masayuki; Hisatsune, Junzo; Isomoto, Hajime; Sap, Jan; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nomura, Fumio; Noda, Masatoshi; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya



Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype in Chilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%). The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes. Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India. CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vacA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype. Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2 recedes H Pylori strain distribution in Spain and Portugal. PMID:16419167

Díaz, MI; Valdivia, A; Martínez, P; Palacios, JL; Harris, P; Novales, J; Garrido, E; Valderrama, D; Shilling, C; Kirberg, A; Hebel, E; Fierro, J; Bravo, R; Siegel, F; Leon, G; Klapp, G; Venegas, A



Association of IL1B -511C/-31T haplotype and Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes with gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori varies by population and geographic area. Our objective was to determine if the IL-1B -511 T>C and -31 C>T polymorphisms and H. pylori vacA genotypes are associated with risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer in a Mexican population. Methods We conducted endoscopic studies in 128 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. We took two biopsies from the body, antrum, or ulcer edge from each patient, and classified our histopathological findings according to the Sydney System. H. pylori infection and vacA genotyping were accomplished via PCR from total DNA of the gastric biopsies. We confirmed the presence of anti-H. pylori serum IgG and IgM in 102 control subjects. In both case subjects and control subjects, the IL-1B -511 T>C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLPs and the IL-1B -31 C>T polymorphism was genotyped by pyrosequencing. Results Sixty-two point seven (62.7%) of the 102 control subjects were H. pylori-seropositive. Among the case subjects, 100 were diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 28 with gastric ulcer. We found that 77% of the patients with chronic gastritis and 85.7% of the patients with gastric ulcer were H. pylori-positive. The predominant H. pylori genotype was vacA s1m1 (58.4%) and the most frequent subtype was vacA s1. The -511 TC, (rs16944 -511 T>C) genotype and the -511C allele were associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8 and OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.0, respectively). The subjects carrying -31T (rs1143627 -31 C>T) were found to be at a higher risk of having chronic gastritis (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-5.8). The IL-1B -511C/-31T haplotype was associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.8) but not with gastric ulcer. Conclusions The H. pylori vacA genotypes identified herein were similar to those reported for other regions of Mexico. The vacA s1m1 genotype was not associated with gastric ulcer. In the southern Mexican population, the IL-1B -511C and -31T alleles and the -511C/-31T and -511T/-31T haplotypes are associated with increased risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:20979650



Helicobacter pylori vacA i region polymorphism but not babA2 status associated to gastric cancer risk in northwestern Iran.  


Helicobacter pylori-specific genotypes have been strongly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present work was to study the associations of H. pylori virulence factors, vacA i region polymorphisms and babA2 status with GC risk in Azerbaijan patients. The DNA extracted from gastric biopsy specimens was used to access the babA2 and vacA genotypes. Overall, babA2 was present in 85.39 % (76/89) of H. pylori strains: 19 out of 24 (79.16 %) strains from GC, 16 out of 17 (94.14 %) strains from peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 41 out of 48 (85.14 %) strains from chronic gastritis. No significant association was found between babA2 genotype and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). i1 vacA polymorphism was detected in 46/89 (51.68 %) strains: in 21/24 (87.5 %), 6/17 (35.29 %) and 19/48 (39.58 %) patients with GC, PUD and chronic gastritis, respectively. i2 allele was detected in 43 (48.31 %) out of all 89 strains examined: 3 (14.28 %) of 24 strains from GC, 11 (64.71 %) of 17 from PUD, and 29 (60.42 %) of 48 strains from chronic gastritis. In this study, multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the strong association of i1 allele with GC (partial regression correlation 0.455 ± 0.101; P = 0). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with GC compared with a control group (gastritis) (odds ratio 13.142, 95 % CI 3.116-55.430; P = 0). Findings from the measurement of H. pylori babA2 and vacA genotypes indicate a strong correlation between the vacA i1 allele and GC risk in the Azerbaijan area of Iran. PMID:25472424

Mottaghi, Batool; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Somi, Mohammad Hossein



CagA phosphorylation EPIYA-C motifs and the vacA i genotype in Helicobacter pylori strains of asymptomatic children from a high-risk gastric cancer area in northeastern Brazil.  


Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric diseases. Virulence factors such as VacA and CagA have been shown to increase the risk of these diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role of CagA EPIYA-C in gastric carcinogenesis and this factor has been shown to be geographically diverse. We investigated the number of CagA EPIYA motifs and the vacA i genotypes in H. pylori strains from asymptomatic children. We included samples from 40 infected children (18 females and 22 males), extracted DNA directly from the gastric mucus/juice (obtained using the string procedure) and analysed the DNA using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The vacA i1 genotype was present in 30 (75%) samples, the i2 allele was present in nine (22.5%) samples and both alleles were present in one (2.5%) sample. The cagA-positive samples showed distinct patterns in the 3' variable region of cagA and 18 of the 30 (60%) strains contained 1 EPIYA-C motif, whereas 12 (40%) strains contained two EPIYA-C motifs. We confirmed that the studied population was colonised early by the most virulent H. pylori strains, as demonstrated by the high frequency of the vacA i1 allele and the high number of EPIYA-C motifs. Therefore, asymptomatic children from an urban community in Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil are frequently colonised with the most virulent H. pylori strains. PMID:25494468

Braga, Lucia Libanez Bessa Campelo; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Alves de; Gonçalves, Maria Helane Rocha Batista; Chaves, Fernando Kennedy; Benigno, Tiago Gomes da Silva; Gomes, Adriana Dias; Silva, Cícero Igor Simões Moura; Anacleto, Charles; Batista, Sérgio de Assis; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães



Helicobacter pylori VacA Suppresses Lactobacillus acidophilus-Induced Interferon Beta Signaling in Macrophages via Alterations in the Endocytic Pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis and avoids elimination by the immune system of the infected host. The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus has been suggested to exert beneficial effects as a supplement during H. pylori eradication therapy. In the present study, we applied whole-genome microarray analysis to compare the immune responses induced in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori, or both bacteria in combination. While L. acidophilus induced a Th1-polarizing response characterized by high expression of interferon beta (IFN-?) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), H. pylori strongly induced the innate cytokines IL-1? and IL-1?. In BMDMs prestimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori blocked the expression of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-? and IL-12 and suppressed the expression of key regulators of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases. The inhibition of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-? was independent of H. pylori viability and the virulence factor CagPAI; however, a vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) mutant was unable to block IFN-?. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the addition of H. pylori to L. acidophilus-stimulated BMDMs redirects intracellular processing, leading to an accumulation of L. acidophilus in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Thus, our findings indicate that H. pylori inhibits the development of a strong Th1-polarizing response in BMDMs stimulated with L. acidophilus by blocking the production of IFN-? in a VacA-dependent manner. We suggest that this abrogation is caused by a redirection of the endocytotic pathway in the processing of L. acidophilus. PMID:23760466

Weiss, Gudrun; Forster, Sam; Irving, Aaron; Tate, Michelle; Ferrero, Richard L.; Hertzog, Paul; Frøkiær, Hanne; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria



The use of calcite mineral thermoluminescence for the determination of previously received gamma radiation dose in foodstuffs\\/E1 uso de la termoluminiscencia de la calcita para la determinación de la dosis de radiación gamma de alimentos previamente irradiados  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the potential use of calcite mineral dust as a high-dose radiation dosemeter. The results obtained show that saturation dose in natural calcite is of the order of 7 kGy. Measurements of absorbed dose, for samples previously irradiated with known gamma doses, showed a good level of agreement between actual doses and calculated doses, although the level of

M. Urbina; P. Beneitez; A. Millán; T. Calderón




Microsoft Academic Search

Substitution of concentrate feed with fresh mulberry (Morus alba), in the diet of dairy cattle. This experiment compared four balanced diets in which different percentages of 84-day-old fresh mulberry dry matter (0%, 20%, 40% and 60%) substituted its equivalent of dry matter in the concen- trate. The total intake of dry matter varied between 3.12% and 3.24% in relation to

Carlos Boschini


Concentrações hormonais e desenvolvimento folicular de vacas leiteiras em hipertermia sazonal e aguda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the seasonal and acute heat stress on follicular development and steroid and inhibin concentrations in follicular fluid, in bovine dominant follicle. Cows were distributed into four treatments: summer (n=5), autumn (n=5), animals heat stressed during the winter (n=5) and winter (n=9). On day 7 of the estrous cycle, animals were slaughtered and parameters related to follicle

B. J. Lew; R. Meidan; D. Wolfenson



Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...


Morfologia do fruto, semente e plântula do Mororó (ou pata de vaca) - Bauhína forficata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mororó or cow paw (Bauhinia forficata Linn) presents great importance for the savanna paraibana, so much for the home-made medicine as for its economical value, in spite of it is threatened of extinction according to caririzeiros of the area. It was aimed at the morphologic knowledge of the fruit, seed and plantule of this species. The fruits were collected

Giselle Medeiros; Humberto Silva; Myrthis Virginia; Alves de Almeida; Mário Luiz Farias; Patrícia de Lima Martins


Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional reservoirs: the Upper Jurassic Vaca  

E-print Network

Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional as to the scale of sedimentological variability within mudstone successions, and how related diagenetic alteration by Profs Taylor and Flint, to document the scale of sedimentological and diagenetic variability

Henderson, Gideon


Estimação de parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite no dia do controle e produção acumulada até 305 dias, para as primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Caracu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for first lactation test-day milk yields and 305 day milk yield (M305) for Caracu cows were estimated. The test-day animal model included additive genetic effect as random and contemporary group and age of cow (quadratic regression) as fixed effects. Two contemporary groups were defined to explain variation, composed by year, week of test and paddock (gc1) or year,

Lenira El Faro; Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque



Newly Discovered Paleocene and Eocene Rocks near Fairfield, California, and Correlation with Rocks in Vaca Valley and the So-Called Martinez Formation or Stage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discovery of a 3-foot thick sandstone bed with abundant Turritellid gastropods of late Paleocene age about 4 miles northeast of Fairfield and on the southwest flank of Cement Hill, Solano County provides an opportunity to reevaluate the relationships of lower Tertiary formations in this part of California. Cement Hill is named for travertine deposits in and on top of sandstone of Late Cretaceous age. In this report, the current study area where the Paleocene fossils were recently discovered is referred to as lower Cement Hill and is located in section 7 of the U.S. Geological Survey Fairfield North 7.5-minute quadrangle, Township 5 North, Range 1 West. Lower Cement Hill is about 23 miles north of the so-called Martinez 'formation' or stage area (Weaver and others, 1941) of late Paleocene age near Martinez. The Martinez 'formation' and stage have played a significant role in the development of early Tertiary stratigraphy in this part of California. The discovery of correlative rocks at Cement Hill was unsuspected and may be helpful in defining the extent of this so-called formation or stage. Coccolith identification and correlations are by David Bukry, foraminifer identifications and correlations by Alvin Almgren and Kristin McDougall, gastropod identification and correlation by LouElla Saul, and Radiolaria identifications and correlations are by Annika Sanfilippo.

Brabb, Earl E.; Ristau, Donn; Bukry, David; McDougall, Kristin; Almgren, Alvin A.; Saul, LouElla; Sanfilippo, Annika



Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over recent years, there have been observed in several cattle farms within the region of the Sierra de Cameros (La Rioja) mountains, reproductive alterations consisting of pre-mature births and birth of dead calves or calves of reduced viability. After laboratory examination of several cases with ne...


Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Diaz del Castillo and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Diaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three…

Bonvillian, John D.; Ingram, Vicky L.; McCleary, Brendan M.



Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 16, 48524866, October 2005  

E-print Network

- odenal ulcers and cancer. VacA associates with lipid rafts, is endocytosed, and reaches the late is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer in humans (Blaser and Atherton, 2004 of the stomach (Salama et al., 2001). The mature VacA cytotoxin (Mr: 90 kDa) exhibits the structure of an A

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Impairment of glutathione metabolism in human gastric epithelial cells treated with vacuolating cytotoxin from Helicobacter pylori.  


Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is believed to be one of the factors that induces gastric disease. Our previous study indicated that VacA causes a decrease in the intracellular ATP level in human gastric epithelial cells, suggesting to impair mitochondrial membrane potential followed by a decrease in energy metabolism (Kimura et al., Microb. Pathog., 1999, 26: 45--52). In the present study, we investigated whether the decrease in ATP level affects glutathione metabolism, in which its synthesis and efflux are ATP-dependent. Treatment of AZ-521 human gastric epithelial cells with 120 nM VacA for 6 h suppressed the efflux of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The efflux of GSSG from the cells and glutathione (GSH) synthesis of cells treated with VacA were approximately 50 and 70% of those of the control, respectively. The turnover rate of intracellular GSH was also suppressed by VacA. Viability of the cells pretreated with VacA, then further incubated with H(2)O(2), was decreased by 50% at 6 h and 70% at 12 h. These results suggested that VacA impairs GSH metabolism in the gastric epithelial cells, which weakens the resistance of the cells against oxidative stress or cellular redox regulation by GSH. PMID:11427034

Kimura, M; Goto, S; Ihara, Y; Wada, A; Yahiro, K; Niidome, T; Aoyagi, H; Hirayama, T; Kondo, T



Helicobacter pylori Genotyping and Sequencing Using Paraffin-Embedded Biopsies from Residents of Colombian Areas with Contrasting Gastric Cancer Risks  

PubMed Central

Background cagA-positive and vacA s1 and m1 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer (GC). We determined these genotypes using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens harvested from infected individuals and compared genotype distributions in two Colombian populations residing in geographic regions with a high and low incidence of GC. Methods DNA from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies from 107 adults was amplified using primers specific for cagA, for the cag ‘empty site’, for the s and m alleles of vacA, and for H. pylori 16S rRNA. Results H. pylori infection was detected by molecular assays in 97 (90.7%) biopsies. Complete genotyping of cagA and vacA was achieved in 94 (96.9%) cases. The presence of cagA was detected in 78 of 97 cases (80.4%); when considered separately, cagA and vacA s regions were not significantly associated with a particular geographic area. The vacA m1 allele and s1m1 genotypes were more common in the area of high risk for GC (p = .037 and p = .044, respectively), while the vacA m2 allele and s2m2 genotypes were more prevalent in the low-risk area. The prevalence of the combination of cagA-positive, vacA s1m1 genotypes was 84.3% and 60.5% for high and low risk areas, respectively (p = .011). Conclusions H. pylori cagA and vacA genotyping from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies permitted reliable typability and discrimination. The more virulent cagA-positive s1m1 strains, as well as vacA m1 genotype, were more prevalent in high risk than in low risk areas, which may contribute to the difference in GC risk between those two regions. PMID:18321303

Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Camargo, M. Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Bravo, Luis E.; Schneider, Barbara G.



Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to Helicobacter Pylori VacA-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the important virulence factors produced by H. pylori. VacA induces apoptotic cell death, which is potentiated by ammonia. VacA also causes cell death by mitochondrial damage, via signaling pathways that are not fully defined. Our aim was to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with VacA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up-regulated following incubation of gastric epithelial cells with VacA. The effect of VacA on CHOP induction was significantly enhanced by co-incubation with ammonium chloride. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-alpha, which is known to occur downstream of the ER stress sensor PKR-like ER-localized eIF2-alpha kinase (PERK) and to regulate CHOP expression, was also observed following incubation with VacA in the presence of ammonium chloride. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA resulted in inhibition of VacA-induced apoptosis. Further studies showed that silencing of the PERK gene with siRNA attenuated VacA-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2-alpha, CHOP induction, expression of BH3-only protein Bim and Bax activation, and cell death induced by VacA with ammonium chloride, indicating that ER stress may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction during VacA-induced toxicity. Activation of ER stress and up-regulation of BH3-only proteins were also observed in human H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Collectively, this study reveals a possible association between VacA-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and activation of ER stress in H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. PMID:24349255

Akazawa, Yuko; Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Kanda, Tsutomu; Minami, Hitomi; Yamaghchi, Naoyuki; Taura, Naota; Shiozawa, Ken; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakano, Masayuki; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya; Nakao, Kazuhiko



Analysis of the genotypic diversity of strains of Helicobacter pylori isolated from pediatric patients in Mexico.  


Genotypic differences in Helicobacter pylori play an important role in infection. We characterized the diversity of the cagA, cagE, babA2, and vacA genes in H. pylori strains isolated from pediatric patients and the relationship between these genes and clinical disease. Additionally, we employed the Neighbor-net algorithm to predict the behavior of the genotypes of the strains isolated from patients. Of 93 patients analyzed, 32 were positive for infection. A total of 160 H. pylori strains (five isolates per positive patient) were analyzed. A total of 91% and 83% of strains possessed the cagA and cagE genes, respectively. For the vacA gene, 84% of strains possessed the s1 allele, 15% the s2 allele, 81% the m1 allele and 13.8% the m2 allele. The babA2 gene was present in 79% of strains. Infection with H. pylori strains with the vacA (s1m1) genotype was associated with risk of esophagitis and gastritis (p=0.0001). The combination of cagA and vacA (s1m1) was significantly associated with abdominal pain (p=0.002); however, EPIYA type was not significantly associated with abdominal pain. A total of 16 different genotypes were identified; the most common genotype was vacAs1m1cagA+cagE+babA2+ (47.5%). A total of 84% of pediatric patients were infected by at least two and up to five different genotypes. The network recovered two genotype groups (A: strains with vacAs1 and B: strains with vacAs2). The presence of multiple paths in the network suggests that reticulate events, such as recombination or reinfection, have contributed to the observed genotypic diversity. PMID:25445660

Mendoza-Elizalde, S; Cortés-Márquez, A C; Giono-Cerezo, S; Zuñiga, G; Consuelo-Sánchez, A; Valencia-Mayoral, P; Vigueras-Galindo, J C; Escalona-Venegas, G; Arellano-Galindo, J; Velázquez-Guadarrama, N



Diagnostico de Prenez en Ganado Vacuno.  

E-print Network

$ vacas d para colamrse de palpau6n &b&a perrnitir,que el animal se pare a.a&&ksd3-- -ww,.~M..~m - d- TABLA I. COSTO DE PRODUCCION POR LIBRA DE PESO VIVO-EL COSTO DE OPERACION ES DE $95.00 POR VACA Peso al destete (libras) 550 500 450 400 350... palpar. Un;i mano puede agarrar la cola de la vaca como punto tle sosten. La otra del~e estar lien lubricada y con 10s dedos juntos en forma de cuiia. Se debe introducir la mano a travks del ano y en el recto con una presi6n constante y rripida...

Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.; Arias, A. A.



Vacuolating cytotoxin genotypes are strong markers of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori strains: a matched case-control study.  


The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a "clean" Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P < 0.05; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 0.76 to infinity). For DU, associations were found with vacA s1 (P = 0.002; OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.52 to 27.87) and i1 (P = 0.004; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.78) status but not with cagA status. Neither condition showed independent associations with the vacA m1 allele or with more biologically active forms of cagA with longer 3' variable regions. In this Belgian population, the best markers of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. PMID:24920772

Memon, Ameer A; Hussein, Nawfal R; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C



78 FR 32381 - Combined Notice of Filings #1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applicants: CalPeak Power--Border LLC, CalPeak Power--Enterprise LLC, CalPeak Power--Panoche LLC, CalPeak Power--Vaca Dixon LLC, CalPeak Power LLC, Chambers Cogeneration, Limited Partnership, Edgecombe Genco, LLC, EIF Hudson, LLC, Logan...



78 FR 67133 - Combined Notice of Filings #1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...LLC, CalPeak Power--Border LLC, CalPeak Power--Enterprise LLC, CalPeak Power--Panoche LLC, CalPeak Power--Vaca Dixon LLC Starwood Power-Midway LLC. Description: Quarterly Land Acquisition Report of CalPeak Power LLC, et al. Filed...




E-print Network

CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY-COATED REINFORCEMENT­BEAM TESTS by Khaled Z. Kahhaleh, Enrique Vaca which simulate a highly corrosive environment and under loading conditions producing concrete cracking was intended to produce a very aggressive environment and to accelerate corrosion of the specimens. The state

Texas at Austin, University of


Vicerrectorado de Docencia Ordenacin Acadmica y Ttulos  

E-print Network

_COMPLETO DOCTOR COMUNICACI�N EFECTIVA Y NUEVOS CANALES. WEB Y REDES SOCIALES. CC. Educ., Lenguaje, Cultura y Artes Profesionales Batle Mercade, Pablo No SINERGIAS DE EQUIPOS, RESTAURACI�N Y COMPORTAMIENTO SOCIAL Ciencias Sociales Geografía Humana Landeta Vacas, Marco Hugo No TRABAJO FIN DE MÁSTER CC. Educ., Lenguaje, Cultura y

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


The metamorphic history of eucrites and eucrite-related meteorites and the case for late metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report induced thermoluminescence data for separates from three HED meteorites and the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. The results of thermal modeling of the surface of their parent body are also described. The TL sensitivities for matrix samples from the LEW 85300, 302 and 303 paired eucrites and the Bholghati howardite are lower than the TL sensitivities for the clasts, consistent

Derek W. G. Sears; Steven J. K. Symes; J. David Batchelor; D. Glen Akridge; Paul H. Benoit



Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-06 I N M A C U L A D A R A N G E L VA Rangel Vacas 9th March 2005 Masters of Science thesis performed at Wireless Center, KTH Stockholm, Sweden Technology (ICT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden #12;Abstract Today a large percentage

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.


Promoter DNA Hypermethylation in Gastric Biopsies from Subjects at High and Low Risk for Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gene promoter CpG island hypermethylation is associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and may be an important initiator of gastric carcinogenesis. To examine factors influencing methylation, we utilized bisulfite Pyrosequencing® technology for quantitative analysis of promoter DNA methylation in RPRM, APC, MGMT and TWIST1 genes using DNA from 86 gastric biopsies from Colombian residents of areas with high and low incidence of gastric cancer. H. pylori colonies were cultured from the same subjects, and gastric pathology was evaluated. Virulence factors cagA (including EPIYA polymorphisms of the 3’ end) and vacA s and m regions were characterized in the H. pylori strains. Using univariate analysis, we found significantly elevated levels of RPRM and TWIST1 promoter DNA methylation in biopsies from residents of the high risk region compared to those from residents of the low risk region. The presence of cagA and vacA s1m1 alleles were independently associated with elevated levels of promoter DNA methylation of RPRM and MGMT. Using multivariate analysis, DNA methylation of RPRM was associated with location of residence, cagA and vacA s1m1 status, and methylation of TWIST1. We conclude that cagA and vacA virulence determinants are significantly associated with quantitative differences in promoter DNA methylation in these populations, but that other as yet undefined factors that differ between the populations may also contribute to variation in methylation status. PMID:20178103

Schneider, Barbara G.; Peng, Dun-Fa; Camargo, M. Constanza; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Mera, Robertino; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo; El-Rifai, Wael


45 27 from the University of Central Florida--have struggled  

E-print Network

the jungle-covered archaeological remains at Caracol in western Belize. Caracol was occupied from 600 b of radial roads, or causeways, links different parts of the site across most of Belize's lush Vaca Plateau in the field, we clearly needed a new strategy--a way to "see" through the dense forest covering

Weishampel, John F.

46 SCIENCE VOL 299 7 MARCH 2003 1487 P L A N E TA RY S C I E N C E  

E-print Network

- ulation is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that can cause stomach ulcers. A major. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 684 (2003). B I O M E D I C I N E Tough on the Stomach About half of the world's pop viru- lence factor in ulcer formation is the bacterial toxin VacA, which appears to disrupt gastric

Patterson, William P.


Diversity of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in Iranian patients with different gastroduodenal disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the diversity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and correlations with disease outcomes in an Iranian population with different gastroduodenal disorders. METHODS: Isolates of H. pylori from patients with different gastroduodenal disorders were analyzed after culture and identification by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted with the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). After DNA extraction, genotyping was done for cagA, vacA (s and m regions), iceA (iceA1, iceA2) and babA with specific primers for each allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All patients’ pathologic and clinical data and their relation with known genotypes were analyzed by using SPSS version 19.0 software. ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess relationships between categorical variables. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 71 isolates from 177 patients with different gastroduodenal disorders were obtained. Based on analysis of the cagA gene (positive or negative), vacA s-region (s1 or s2), vacA m-region (m1 or m2), iceA allelic type (iceA1 and iceA2) and babA gene (positive or negative), twenty different genotypic combinations were recognized. The prevalence of cagA, vacA s1, vacA s2, vacA m1, vacA m2, iceA1, iceA2, iceA1+iceA2 and babA were 62%, 78.9%, 19.7%, 21.1%, 78.9%, 15.5%, 22.5%, 40.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Interestingly, evaluation of PCR results for cagA in 6 patients showed simultaneous existence of cagA variants according to their size diversities that proposed mixed infection in these patients. The most prevalent genotype in cagA-positive isolates was cagA+/vacAs1m2/iceA1+A2/babA+ and in cagA-negative isolates was cagA-/vacAs1m2/iceA-/babA+. There were no relationships between the studied genes and histopathological findings (H. pylori density, neutrophil activity, lymphoid aggregation in lamina propria and glandular atrophy). The strains which carry cagA, vacAs1/m1, iceA2 and babA genes showed significant associations with severe active chronic gastritis (P = 0.011, 0.025, 0.020 and 0.031, respectively). The vacAs1 genotype had significant correlation with the presence of the cagA gene (P = 0.013). Also, babA genotype showed associations with cagA (P = 0.024). In the combined genotypes, only cagA+/vacAs1m1/iceA2/babA+ genotype showed correlation with severe active chronic gastritis (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: This genotyping panel can be a useful tool for detection of virulent H. pylori isolates and can provide valuable guidance for prediction of the clinical outcomes. PMID:24039362

Vaziri, Farzam; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Mirzaei, Tabassom; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Molaei, Mahsa; Maghsoudi, Nader; Zali, Mohammad Reza



Ethnicity association of Helicobacter pylori virulence genotype and metronidazole susceptibility  

PubMed Central

AIM: To characterise the cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates by analysing the strains’ vacA alleles and metronidazole susceptibilities in light of patient ethnicity and clinical outcome. METHODS: Ninety-five H. pylori clinical isolates obtained from patients with dyspepsia living in Malaysia were analysed in this study. Six genes in the cagPAI region (cagE, cagM, cagT, cag13, cag10 and cag67) and vacA alleles of the H. pylori isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates’ metronidazole susceptibility was also determined using the E-test method, and the resistant gene was characterised by sequencing. RESULTS: More than 90% of the tested isolates had at least one gene in the cagPAI region, and cag67 was predominantly detected in the strains isolated from the Chinese patients, compared with the Malay and Indian patients (P < 0.0001). The majority of the isolates (88%) exhibited partial deletion (rearrangement) in the cagPAI region, with nineteen different patterns observed. Strains with intact or deleted cagPAI regions were detected in 3.2% and 8.4% of isolates, respectively. The prevalence of vacA s1m1 was significantly higher in the Malay and Indian isolates, whereas the isolates from the Chinese patients were predominantly genotyped as vacA s1m2 (P = 0.018). Additionally, the isolates from the Chinese patients were more sensitive to metronidazole than the isolates from the Malay and Indian patients (P = 0.047). Although we attempted to relate the cagPAI genotypes, vacA alleles and metronidazole susceptibilities to disease outcome, no association was observed. The vacA alleles were distributed evenly among the strains with intact, partially deleted or deleted cagPAI regions. Interestingly, the strains exhibiting an intact cagPAI region were sensitive to metronidazole, whereas the strains with a deleted cagPAI were more resistant. CONCLUSION: Successful colonisation by different H. pylori genotypes is dependent on the host’s genetic makeup and may play an important role in the clinical outcome. PMID:23483193

Alfizah, Hanafiah; Rukman, Awang Hamat; Norazah, Ahmad; Hamizah, Razlan; Ramelah, Mohamed



Distinctiveness of Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Calcutta, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotypes of 78 strains of Helicobacter pylori from Calcutta, India (55 from ulcer patients and 23 from more-benign infections), were studied, with a focus on putative virulence genes and neutral DNA markers that were likely to be phylogenetically informative. PCR tests indicated that 80 to 90% of Calcutta strains carried the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) and potentially toxigenic vacAs1




Cyclostratigraphy of an orbitally-driven Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp succession, Southern Mendoza, Argentina: Implications for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Neuquén Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed sedimentological, sequence stratigraphical and cyclostratigraphical analyses have been made from four lower Tithonian-lower Valanginian sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation, exposed in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The Vaca Muerta Formation is characterized by decimetre-scale rhythmic alternations of marls, shales and limestones, and consists of five facies associations, which reflect different paleoenvironmental conditions: basin to restricted outer ramp, outer ramp, and middle ramp. Vertical organization within the Vaca Muerta Formation shows a well-ordered hierarchy of cycles, where elementary cycles, bundles and superbundles with frequencies within the Milankovitch band have been recognized. According to biostratigraphic data, elementary cycles have a periodicity of ~ 20 ky, which correlates with the precession cycle of Earth's axis. Spectral analysis based on series of cycle thickness allows us to identify frequencies of about 400 ky and 90-120 ky, which we interpret as the modulation of the precessional cycle by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. Cycles are probably driven by variations in carbonate exportation, as fluctuations in shallow-water carbonate production involve modifications in carbonate basinward exportation. Cyclostratigraphic data allowed us to build a floating orbital scale for the Tithonian-lower Valanginian interval in the Neuquén Basin. Correlation between studied sections allowed us to recognize a discontinuity between the Substeueroceras koeneni and Argentiniceras noduliferum ammonite zones in the Malargüe Anticline area. Orbital calibration of these sections is consistent with Riccardi's biostratigraphic scheme, wich place the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary within the Substeueroceras koeneni ammonite Zone. On the other hand, the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Virgatosphinctes mendozanus ammonite Zone) would be probably placed in the base of the middle Tithonian rather than the lower Tithonian, which is also consistent with our preliminary palaeomagnetic data.

Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Iglesia Llanos, Maria Paula




E-print Network

June 2004 283Notes DISTRIBUTION OF THE WHITE-ANKLED MOUSE (PEROMYSCUS PECTORALIS) IN NEW MEXICO-ankled mouse (Peromyscus pectoralis) was previously known only from Carls- bad Caverns National Park and nearby. RESUMEN Previamente, el rato´n de tobillo blanco (Peromyscus pectoralis) so´lo se conoci´a en el Parque



E-print Network

a Canarias con un claro objetivo: estudiar la calidad astronómica de las cumbres de Tenerife. Previamente astronómica de las cumbres de Tenerife y La Palma y que, al final, se reconozca internacionalmente la Cabildos de la provincia de Santa Cruz de Tenerife. En él se integra el Instituto Universitario de


Use of a Non-invasive Test (Entero-test) in the Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Children in an Endemic Area in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a strong risk factor for gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in children residing in the Colombian Andes. We aimed to validate the use of the Entero-test to culture and genotype H. pylori strains from asymptomatic Colombian children. Methods Children (age 10–15y, n=110, 80 of which were H. pylori-positive by the urea breath test, or UBT) were subjected to the Entero-test, and strings were cultured and/or used for DNA extraction for PCR. These children had been treated for H. pylori in 2007. A second population of children (age 10–15y, n= 95), who had not been previously treated were also subjected to the Entero-test. Results Of UBT+ children in the treated group, 29/80 (36%) Entero-test samples were H. pylori culture positive; 29 additional string extracts were tested by PCR for the H. pylori virulence factors cagA and vacA. PCR from cultures and extracts yielded a Sensitivity of 74% and Specificity of 87%. In the untreated group, 16 of 94 UBT+ children (17%) produced Entero-tests that were culture positive. Fifty-eight of 94 (62%) string extracts were PCR positive for cagA and/or vacA. In previously treated children, H. pylori strains were more often the less virulent vacA s2 (P=0.001), m2 (P=0.006), and i2 genotypes (P=0.039). Conclusions The Entero-test may be used as a non-invasive test to detect H. pylori in asymptomatic children residing in high risk areas for gastric cancer. Treatment of H. pylori in children was associated with less virulent genotypes. PMID:23880626

Arboleda, Richard N; Schneider, Barbara G; Bravo, Luis E; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Mera, Robertino M; Yepez, Maria Clara; Campo, Cristina; Correa, Pelayo



Investigation of the association between clinical outcome and the cag pathogenicity-island and other virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori isolates from patients with dyspepsia in Eastern Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aims of our work were to determine the presence of the cag pathogenicity-island (cag PAI) and other virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori recovered from patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer, and to investigate the correlation of these virulence genes with clinical outcome. The presence of the cagA, the promoter regions of cagA, cagE, cagT, and the left end of cag-PAI (LEC), cag right junction (cagRJ), the plasticity region open reading frames (ORFs), vacA and oipA genes among 69 H. pylori isolates were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Intact cag PAI was detected in only one (1.4%) isolate. The cagA gene was identified in 52.1% and 76.2% of isolates from patients with dyspepsia (gastritis and peptic ulcer), respectively. The plasticity region ORFs i.e. JHP912 and JHP931 were predominantly detected in isolates from peptic ulcer. Less than 25% of the isolates carried other ORFs. Types I, II and III were the most commonly found among the isolates. None of the isolates possessed type Ib, 1c, IIIb, IV and V motifs. The most commonly vacA genotypes were s1am1a and s1m2 in isolates with peptic ulcer and gastritis, respectively. The results confirmed that the prevalence of oipA (Hp0638) gene was 75% and 85.7% in patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer, respectively. Furthermore, vacA s1am1a positivity was significantly related to peptic ulcer (p < 0.05). PMID:24688521

Ozbey, Gokben; Demirel, Ulvi; Aygun, Cem; Ertas, Hasan Basri



Una obra uruguaya en Madrid  

E-print Network

SPRING 1986 103 Una obra uruguaya en Madrid Entre el 12 y el 15 de septiembre se ofrecieron al publico madrileño en el Centro Cultural de la Villa seis representaciones de Retrato de señora, con espejo (Vida y pasión de Margarita Xirgu). Este... sido una de las alumnas predilectas de Margarita Xirgu. Esta obra, previamente montada con éxito en Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Asunción y Barcelona, en Madrid ha sido un verdadero fracaso de taquilla, probablemente en gran medida porque ha coincidido...

Blaylock, Curtis



Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori express lipopolysaccharides and flagellin that do not activate efficiently Toll-like receptors and express dedicated effectors, such as ?-glutamyl transpeptidase, vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), arginase, that actively induce tolerogenic signals. In this perspective, H. pylori can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, when present in the stomach, H. pylori reduce the overall diversity of the gastric microbiota and promote gastric inflammation by inducing Nod1-dependent pro-inflammatory program and by activating neutrophils through the production of a neutrophil activating protein. The maintenance of a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors (vacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A) confer pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries. PMID:24914318

Moyat, Mati; Velin, Dominique



Isotopic, Chemical and Mineralogical Investigation's of Extraterrestrial Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the grant period we have concentrated on the following main topics: 1. Enstatite meteorites and original heterogeneity of Mn-53 distribution in the solar nebula. We have completed our studies of the enstatite chondrites. 2. Processes of planetary differentiation. We have completed our study of silicate clasts from the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta and found that the global Mn/Cr fractionation event that established mantle source reservoirs on the parent body of the Vaca Muerta silicate clasts occurred approx. 2 Ma after a similar event on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) parent body. 3. Carbonaceous chondrites. Much effort has been devoted during the last three years to the investigation of this important class of meteorites. 4. Early solar system timescales. Based on the studies of the Mn-53 - Cr-53 isotope system in various meteorites and using results obtained with other isotope chronometers we constructed an absolute time-scale for events in the early solar system. 5.Unusual meteorites. We have studied the anomalous pallasite Eagle Station. 6. The chromium isotopic composition as a tracer for extraterrestrial material on Earth. Based on the observed difference in the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratios between Earth and the other solar system objects we developed a method for detecting cosmic materials on Earth using the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratio as a tracer.

Lugmair, G. W.



Helicobacter pylori non-cytotoxic genotype enhances mucosal gastrin and mast cell tryptase.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the association, if any, between H pylori genotype and the gastric mucosal variations in the levels of gastrin, somatostatin, tryptase, and histamine. METHODS: 49 patients affected by duodenal ulcer and 48 by non-ulcer dyspepsia were studied. To identify the H pylori genotype, the presence of the cagA gene and vacA alleles m1, m2, s1, and s2 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction. Gastrin, somatostatin, tryptase, and histamine were measured in antral mucosal biopsies. RESULTS: 57 patients were infected with H pylori (30 with duodenal ulcer and 27 with non-ulcer dyspepsia). Gastrin and tryptase were increased in patients with H pylori infection, although the variations were statistically significant only for gastrin; somatostatin and histamine were not influenced by H pylori infection. In patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia the absence of the cagA gene and the presence of vacA alleles s2 and m2 were associated with higher values of tryptase and to a lesser extent of gastrin. These associations were not found in patients with duodenal ulcer. CONCLUSIONS: The cagA negative s2m2 strain of H pylori may be less dangerous for the gastric mucosa than other H pylori strains since it enhances tryptase production by gastric mucosal mast cells; this enzyme is thought to stimulate tissue turnover and favour wound healing. PMID:10450181

Basso, D; Navaglia, F; Brigato, L; Di Mario, F; Rugge, M; Plebani, M



Helicobacter pylori induced transactivation of SRE and AP-1 through the ERK signalling pathway in gastric cancer cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Helicobacter pylori infection induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-8 and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in gastric mucosa, and their genes have AP-1 binding sites in the promoter region. c-Fos is important for transactivation of AP-1 which has SRE in the promoter region. We conducted this study to confirm H pylori induced transactivation of these binding sites.?METHODS—Transactivation of SRE and AP-1 was evaluated in human gastric cancer cells TMK1 and MKN45 by luciferase reporter assay in transient transfection. We compared the effects of coculture with four H pylori strains, a cag pathogenicity island (PAI) positive strain TN2, its isogenic vacA negative (TN2-?vacA) or cagE negative (TN2-?cagE) mutants, and a cag PAI negative clinical isolate T68. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and c-Jun was measured by immunoblot, induction of IL-8 secretion by ELISA, and the effects of MEK by inhibitor U0126.?RESULTS—Both SRE and AP-1 were transactivated by coculture with TN2. Although TN2-?vacA induced comparable transactivation, TN2-?cagE and T68 showed decreased transactivation of SRE (65% and 51%) and AP-1 (71% and 54%, respectively, of TN2). Heat killed TN2 or indirect contact using a permeable membrane inhibited transactivation. Levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, JNK, and c-Jun were increased by coculture with TN2. MEK inhibitor U0126 reduced TN2 induced transactivation of SRE and AP1, as well as secretion of IL-8, by 83%, 87%, and 53%, respectively, of TN2.?CONCLUSIONS—Transactivation of SRE and AP-1, through ERK/MAPK and JNK/SAPK cascades, respectively, was found in gastric cancer cells cocultured with H pylori. Direct contact with viable bacteria possessing intact cag PAI is a prerequisite for the onset of intracellular signalling leading to AP-1 transactivation.???Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; SRE; AP-1; cag pathogenicity island PAI; gastric cancer PMID:11413105

Mitsuno, Y; Yoshida, H; Maeda, S; Ogura, K; Hirata, Y; Kawabe, T; Shiratori, Y; Omata, M



The Wittliff Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded at Texas State University-San Marcos by Austin screenwriter and photographer Bill Wittliff and his wife Sally, the Wittliff Collections bring together "the Southwest's literature, film, and music." Visitors to the website can share in all of these cultural wonders, including materials from the Southwestern Writers Collection and several extensive photography collections. First-time visitors should head on over to "The Collections" area to take in the travel narrative of Cabeza de Vaca, found in the Southwestern Writers Collection "Research and Archives", and a wonderful tribute to the TV series and book, "Lonesome Dove". Moving on, the "Exhibitions & Events" area contains information about their various traveling exhibits, events, and writer talks. The site is rounded out by an online gift store and more details about their book series and anthologies of Southwestern writers.


[Hypergastrinemia associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and sideropenic anemia in a 15-year-old girl].  


H. pylori is a major cause of primary chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in children. The authors give an account of H. pylori infection (cagA+, vacA+) in a 15-year-old girl where the initial clinical features included fatigue, collapses, and anorexia, elevated serum gastrin level (> 1000 mIU/l) raised the suspicion of gastrinoma. H. pylori gastric infection was also associated with iron-deficiency anemia. After treatment for H. pylori infection (omeprazole, clarithromycin, amoxycillin), clinical symptoms improved consistently, the serum gastrin level was repeteadly quite normal and hematologic and iron profiles were within the normal range. There is compelling evidence that H. pylori must be taken into account as a cause of hypergastrinemia other than gastrinoma in childhood. PMID:12650031

Sýkora, J; Cerná, Z; Hejda, V; Varvarovská, J; Stozický, F



A late Jurassic pterosaur (Reptilia, Pterodactyloidea) from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small to medium-sized pterodactyloid pterosaur (wingspan approximately 1.10 m) from the Upper Jurassic (middle-late Tithonian) marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation of Patagonia (Los Catutos area, central Neuquén Province, Argentina) is reported. The specimen lacks the skull but constitutes a nearly complete postcranial skeleton, which includes cervical and dorsal vertebrae; a few thoracic ribs; both pectoral girdles; the left pelvic girdle; a proximal right wing (humerus, ulna, and radius) and metacarpal IV; a left wing that lacks only wing phalanx four; and both hindlimbs, the right one without the foot. Ontogenetic features suggest that the new fossil corresponds to a relatively mature individual, probably a subadult. Observed characters support its assignment to the Archaeopteroactyloidea, a basal clade within the Pterodactyloidea. This specimen is the second pterosaur from Los Catutos and the most complete Jurassic pterosaur so far known from South America.

Codorniú, Laura; Gasparini, Zulma; Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana



Olivines and olivine coronas in mesosiderites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a study of olivines and their surrounding coronas in mesosiderites texturally and compositionally using optical and microprobe methods. Olivine composition ranges from Fo(58-92) and shows no consistent pattern of distribution within and between mesosiderites; olivine occurs as large single crystals or as partially recrystallized mineral clasts, except for two lithic clasts. These are Emery and Vaca Muerta, and both are shock-modified olivine orthopyroxenites. Fine-grained coronas surround olivine, except for those in impact-melt group mesosiderites and those without tridymite in their matrices. Coronas consist largely of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, chromite, merillite, and ilmenite, and are similar to the matrix, but lack metal and tridymite. Texturally the innermost parts of the corona can be divided into three stages of development: (1) radiating acicular, (2) intermediate, and (3) granular.

Nehru, C. E.; Zucker, S. M.; Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.



Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites - Implications for endogenous igneous processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an analysis of 13 igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites, using electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation techniques. These data, combined with literature data on compositions of 43 mesosiderite clasts were used to compile a classification scheme for the various types of mafic silicate clasts that occur in mesosiderites. These clasts were classified into five principal groups: (1) polygenic and monogenic cumulates (30 percent); (2) polygenic basalts (30 percent); (3) quench-textured rocks, comprising two compositional subgroups (those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5 percent), and those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2 percent)); (4) monogenic basalts (11 percent); and (5) ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9 percent) or olivine (4 percent). The conditions under which these clasts were formed are discussed.

Rubin, Alan E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.



Helicobacter pylori HopE and HopV porins present scarce expression among clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate how widely Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) HopE and HopV porins are expressed among Chilean isolates and how seroprevalent they are among infected patients in Chile. METHODS: H. pylori hopE and hopV genes derived from strain CHCTX-1 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli AD494 (DE3). Gel-purified porins were used to prepare polyclonal antibodies. The presence of both genes was tested by PCR in a collection of H. pylori clinical isolates and their expression was detected in lysates by immunoblotting. Immune responses against HopE, HopV and other H. pylori antigens in sera from infected and non-infected patients were tested by Western blotting using these sera as first antibody on recombinant H. pylori antigens. RESULTS: PCR and Western blotting assays revealed that 60 and 82 out of 130 Chilean isolates carried hopE and hopV genes, respectively, but only 16 and 9, respectively, expressed these porins. IgG serum immunoreactivity evaluation of 69 H. pylori-infected patients revealed that HopE and HopV were infrequently recognized (8.7% and 10.1% respectively) compared to H. pylori VacA (68.1%) and CagA (59.5%) antigens. Similar values were detected for IgA serum immunoreactivity against HopE (11.6%) and HopV (10.5%) although lower values for VacA (42%) and CagA (17.4%) were obtained when compared to the IgG response. CONCLUSION: A scarce expression of HopE and HopV among Chilean isolates was found, in agreement with the infrequent seroconversion against these antigens when tested in infected Chilean patients. PMID:20082477

Lienlaf, Maritza; Morales, Juan Pablo; Díaz, María Inés; Díaz, Rodrigo; Bruce, Elsa; Siegel, Freddy; León, Gloria; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro



Helicobacter Pylori Promotes the Expression of Krüppel-Like Factor 5, a Mediator of Carcinogenesis, In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori expresses a repertoire of virulence factors that increase gastric cancer risk, including the cag pathogenicity island and the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA). One host element that promotes carcinogenesis within the gastrointestinal tract is Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), a transcription factor that mediates key cellular functions. To define the role of KLF5 within the context of H. pylori-induced inflammation and injury, human gastric epithelial cells were co-cultured with the wild-type cag+ H. pylori strain 60190. KLF5 expression was significantly upregulated following co-culture with H. pylori, but increased expression was independent of the cag island or VacA. To translate these findings into an in vivo model, C57BL/6 mice were challenged with the wild-type rodent-adapted cag+ H. pylori strain PMSS1 or a PMSS1 cagE? isogenic mutant. Similar to findings in vitro, KLF5 staining was significantly enhanced in gastric epithelium of H. pylori-infected compared to uninfected mice and this was independent of the cag island. Flow cytometry revealed that the majority of KLF5+ cells also stained positively for the stem cell marker, Lrig1, and KLF5+/Lrig1+ cells were significantly increased in H. pylori-infected versus uninfected tissue. To extend these results into the natural niche of this pathogen, levels of KLF5 expression were assessed in human gastric biopsies isolated from patients with or without premalignant lesions. Levels of KLF5 expression increased in parallel with advancing stages of neoplastic progression, being significantly elevated in gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia compared to normal gastric tissue. These results indicate that H. pylori induces expression of KLF5 in gastric epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and that the degree of KLF5 expression parallels the severity of premalignant lesions in human gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23372710

Noto, Jennifer M.; Khizanishvili, Tinatin; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Khurana, Shradha S.; Sierra, Johanna C.; Krishna, Uma S.; Suarez, Giovanni; Powell, Anne E.; Goldenring, James R.; Coffey, Robert J.; Yang, Vincent W.; Correa, Pelayo; Mills, Jason C.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.



Virulence of infecting Helicobacter pyloristrains and intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration are associated with levels of DNA hypermethylation in gastric mucosae  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation changes are known to occur in gastric cancers and in premalignant lesions of the gastric mucosae. In order to examine variables associated with methylation levels, we quantitatively evaluated DNA methylation in tumors, non-tumor gastric mucosae, and in gastric biopsies at promoters of 5 genes with methylation alterations that discriminate gastric cancers from non-tumor epithelia (EN1, PCDH10, RSPO2, ZIC1, and ZNF610). Among Colombian subjects at high and low risk for gastric cancer, biopsies from subjects from the high-risk region had significantly higher levels of methylation at these 5 genes than samples from subjects in the low risk region (p ? 0.003). When results were stratified by Helicobacter pylori infection status, infection with a cagA positive, vacA s1m1 strain was significantly associated with highest methylation levels, compared with other strains (p = 0.024 to 0.001). More severe gastric inflammation and more advanced precancerous lesions were also associated with higher levels of DNA methylation (p ? 0.001). In a multivariate model, location of residence of the subject and the presence of cagA and vacA s1m1 in the H. pylori strain were independent variables associated with higher methylation in all 5 genes. High levels of mononuclear cell infiltration were significantly related to methylation in PCDH10, RSPO2, and ZIC1 genes. These results indicate that for these genes, levels of methylation in precancerous lesions are related to H. pylori virulence, geographic region and measures of chronic inflammation. These genes seem predisposed to sustain significant quantitative changes in DNA methylation at early stages of the gastric precancerous process. PMID:24128875

Schneider, Barbara G; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Sicinschi, Liviu A; Mera, Robertino; Peng, Dun-Fa; Roa, Juan Carlos; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G; de Sablet, Thibaut; Bravo, Luis E; Wilson, Keith T; El-Rifai, Wael; Peek Jr, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo



Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: An idea for how to live in peace  

PubMed Central

In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the “persistence mechanisms” of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria “invisible” to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts. PMID:25110419

Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina



Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.  


More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen



Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Pakistan Reveals High Degrees of Pathogenicity and High Frequencies of Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori contributes to failure in eradicating the infection and is most often due to point and missense mutations in a few key genes. Methods The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates from 46 Pakistani patients were determined by Etest. Resistance and pathogenicity genes were amplified, and sequences were analyzed to determine the presence of mutations. Results A high percentage of isolates (73.9%) were resistant to metronidazole (MTZ), with considerable resistance to clarithromycin (CLR; 47.8%) and amoxicillin (AML; 54.3%) also observed. Relatively few isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TET; 4.3%) or to ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13%). However, most isolates (n = 43) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. MTZ-resistant isolates contained missense mutations in oxygen-independent NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA; 8 mutations found) and NADH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA; 4 mutations found). In the 23S rRNA gene, responsible for CLR resistance, a new point mutation (A2181G) and 4 previously reported mutations were identified. Pathogenicity genes cagA, dupA, and vacA s1a/m1 were detected frequently in isolates which were also found to be resistant to MTZ, CLR, and AML. A high percentage of CagA and VacA seropositivity was also observed in these patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences showed uniform distribution of the 3? region of cagA throughout the tree. Conclusions We have identified H. pylori isolates in Pakistan which harbor pathogenicity genes and worrying antibiotic resistance profiles as a result of having acquired multiple point and missense mutations. H. pylori eradication regimens should therefore be reevaluated in this setting. PMID:24827414

Rasheed, Faisal; Campbell, Barry James; Alfizah, Hanafiah; Varro, Andrea; Zahra, Rabaab; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Pritchard, David Mark



Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

Soler-López, Luis R.



Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer Show Same Phylogeographic Origin in the Andean Region in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants. PMID:25121764

Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio



Task force of the Polish Society of Gastroenterology: genotypic and clinical differences of seropositive Helicobacter pylori children and adults in the Polish population.  


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the upper gastrointestinal tract diseases in both children and adults. The aim of this paper was to assess the differences between the clinical course of the disease in children and adults. This paper also presents an analysis of clinical symptoms, endoscopic and histopathological findings, H. Pylori cagA and vacA genotypes rates and analysis of the sensitivity of these strains to antibiotics in the Polish population, with possible practical and therapeutic implications. The multicenter study on the frequency of H. pylori infections assessed by the presence of antibodies in IgG class against H. pylori in serum was conducted in the years 2002 and 2003. The study group included 6565 children and adults, in 3827 of whom antibodies levels were above 24 U/mL. The authors analyzed clinical and endoscopic symptoms and in some patients with H. pylori seropositivity also histopathological changes, and cagA and vacA genes. Sensitivity of H. pylori strains to antibiotics were also analyzed. Differences between the frequency of infection between children and adults were determined. Endoscopic examination in adults revealed more frequent cases of gastropathy (P=0.003) and erosive gastritis (P=0.001), and in children-thick mucosal folds (P<0.0001). Histopathological examinations carried out in adults have revealed atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. In children, cagA(+) s1m1 was observed more frequently than in adults (34.0% versus 23.1%; P=0.02) contrary to cagA(-)s2m2 which occurred more frequently in adults (27.1% versus 14.0%; P=0.003). No effect of the infection on nausea, regurgitation, vomiting, heartburn, and abdominal pain in children was detected. However, adults infected with H. pylori suffered from more frequent episodes of heartburn and abdominal pain. The H. pylori strain exhibited a high resistance to metronidazole (higher in adults: 41.7% versus 27.4%; P=0.002), and to clarithromycin (higher in children: 20.2% versus 15.4%; P>0.05), and dual resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin (higher in children: 9.9% versus 8.4%; P>0.05). Resistance of the H. pylori to amoxicillin and tetracycline was not detected. The conducted study indicated clinical differences in the H. pylori infection in children and adults. Among the differences in children, especially the more frequent infections by the cagA(+)s1m1/m2 strain could have an influence on further consequences of the infection. The obtained results could be useful in therapeutic decisions. PMID:25554984

Iwanczak, B; Laszewicz, W; Iwanczak, F; Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, K; Rozynek, M; Dzierzanowska, D; Gosciniak, G; Dlugosz, J



Helicobacter pylori upregulates expression of epidermal growth factor-related peptides, but inhibits their proliferative effect in MKN 28 gastric mucosal cells.  

PubMed Central

Acute exposure to Helicobacter pylori causes cell damage and impairs the processes of cell migration and proliferation in cultured gastric mucosal cells in vitro. EGF-related growth factors play a major role in protecting gastric mucosa against injury, and are involved in the process of gastric mucosal healing. We therefore studied the acute effect of H. pylori on expression of EGF-related growth factors and the proliferative response to these factors in gastric mucosal cells (MKN 28) derived from gastric adenocarcinoma. Exposure of MKN 28 cells to H. pylori suspensions or broth culture filtrates upregulated mRNA expression of amphiregulin (AR) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), but not TGFalpha. This effect was specifically related to H. pylori since it was not observed with E. coli, and was independent of VacA, CagA, PicA, PicB, or ammonia. Moreover, H. pylori broth culture filtrates stimulated extracellular release of AR and HB-EGF protein by MKN 28 cells. AR and HB-EGF dose-dependently and significantly stimulated proliferation of MKN 28 cells in the absence of H. pylori filtrate, but had no effect in the presence of H. pylori broth culture filtrates. Inhibition of AR- or HB-EGF- induced stimulation of cell growth was not mediated by downregulation of the EGF receptor since EGF receptor protein levels, EGF binding affinity, number of specific binding sites for EGF, or HB-EGF- or AR-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor were not significantly altered by incubation with H. pylori broth culture filtrates. Increased expression of AR and HB-EGF were mediated by an H. pylori factor > 12 kD in size, whereas antiproliferative effects were mediated by both VacA and a factor < 12 kD in size. We conclude that H. pylori increases mucosal generation of EGF-related peptides, but in this acute experimental model, this event is not able to counteract the inhibitory effect of H. pylori on cell growth. The inhibitory effect of H. pylori on the reparative events mediated by EGF-related growth factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastroduodenal injury. PMID:9541490

Romano, M; Ricci, V; Di Popolo, A; Sommi, P; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; Bruni, C B; Ventura, U; Cover, T L; Blaser, M J; Coffey, R J; Zarrilli, R



Proteins released by Helicobacter pylori in vitro.  


Secretion of proteins by Helicobacter pylori may contribute to gastric inflammation and epithelial damage. An in vitro analysis was designed to identify proteins released by mechanisms other than nonspecific lysis. The radioactivity of proteins in the supernatant was compared with that of the intact organism by two-dimensional gel phosphorimaging following a 4-h pulse-chase. The ratio of the amount of UreB, a known cytoplasmic protein, in the supernatant to that in the pellet was found to be 0.25, and this was taken as an index of lysis during the experiments (n = 6). Ratios greater than that of UreB were used to distinguish proteins that were selectively released into the medium. Thus, proteins enriched more than 10-fold in the supernatant compared to UreB were identified by mass spectrometry. Sixteen such proteins were present in the supernatant: VacA; a conserved secreted protein (HP1286); putative peptidyl cis-trans isomerase (HP0175); six proteins encoded by HP0305, HP0231, HP0973, HP0721, HP0129, and HP0902; thioredoxin (HP1458); single-stranded-DNA-binding 12RNP2 precursor (HP0827); histone-like DNA-binding protein HU (HP0835); ribosomal protein L11 (HP1202); a putative outer membrane protein (HP1564); and outer membrane proteins Omp21 (HP0913) and Omp20 (HP0912). All except HP0902, thioredoxin, HP0827, HP0835, and HP1202 had a signal peptide. When nalidixic acid, a DNA synthesis inhibitor, was added to inhibit cell division but not protein synthesis, to decrease possible contamination due to outer membrane shedding, two outer membrane proteins (Omp21 and Omp20) disappeared from the supernatant, and the amount of VacA also decreased. Thus, 13 proteins were still enriched greater than 10-fold in the medium after nalidixic acid treatment, suggesting these were released specifically, possibly by secretion. These proteins may be implicated in H. pylori-induced effects on the gastric epithelium. PMID:12399485

Kim, Nayoung; Weeks, David L; Shin, Jai Moo; Scott, David R; Young, Mary K; Sachs, George



Interleukin-17 levels in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa and pathologic sequelae of colonization  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the role of interleukin (IL)-17 in gastric ulcerogenesis. METHODS: Thirty-six gastric ulcer (GU) patients and 29 non-ulcer (NU) patients were enrolled in this study. Mucosal biopsy samples were obtained from the gastric antrum and GU site during endoscopy. Samples were used in in situ stimulation for 48 h in the presence of 10 ?g/mL phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA), histological examination, and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) culture. IL-17 and IL-8 protein levels in culture supernatants were assayed by ELISA. IL-17 mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). H pylori cagA and vacA status was assessed by reverse hybridization using a line probe assay (LiPA). IL-8 levels in culture supernatants were assayed after AGS cells were co-cultured with H pylori strain 26 695 or recombinant human (rh) IL-17. RESULTS: All 36 GU patients and 15 of 29 NU patients were found to be H pylori-positive, while 14 NU patients were H pylori-negative. All 51 H pylori strains from both GU and NU patients were cagA- and vacAs1/m1-positive. Antral mucosal tissues from H pylori-positive patients contained significantly (H pylori-positive NU patients: median 467 pg/mg/protein, range 53-2 499; H pylori-negative NU patients: median 104 pg/mg/protein, range 16-312, P<0.0005) higher levels of IL-17 than those from uninfected patients. IL-17 levels at the ulcer site were significantly (ulcer site: median 1 356 pg/mg/protein, range 121-1 3730; antrum: median 761 pg/mg/protein, range 24-7 620, P<0.005) higher than those at distant sites in the antrum. Biopsies from H pylori-positive GU and NU patients showed IL-17 mRNA expression in all samples whereas those from the antrum of the H pylori-negative controls showed no detectable expression. A significant correlation was seen between IL-17 and IL-8 levels at each biopsy site (ulcer: r = 0.62, P<0.0001; antrum: r = 0.61, P<0.0001) in GU patients. RhIL-17 and H pylori strain 26 695 each stimulated IL-8 production from AGS cells. CONCLUSION: IL-17 may play an important role in the inflammatory response to H pylori colonization, and may ultimately influence the outcome of H pylori-associated diseases that arise within the context of gastritis. PMID:16419159

Mizuno, Tomokazu; Ando, Takafumi; Nobata, Kazuo; Tsuzuki, Tomoyuki; Maeda, Osamu; Watanabe, Osamu; Minami, Masaaki; Ina, Kenji; Kusugami, Kazuo; Peek, Richard M.; Goto, Hidemi



Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is geochemically of low grade. In contrast, a large crosscutting bitumen dyke is of higher grade and formed later. At other localities, near basement faults, bitumen dykes have cap-rocks of hydrothermal calcrete. Other dykes or their wall rocks contain hydrothermal minerals. Finally, some dykes splay upward towards the current land surface. We conclude that (1) the bitumen dykes formed during volcanic activity in Pliocene-Pleistocene times, and that (2) heat advection by hydrothermal fluids helped to generate oil, which migrated upwards or downwards from the source rock and filled intrusive veins, before solidifying to bitumen, by loss of volatile elements. This unconventional hydrocarbon system may have significant implications for regional exploration in the foothills of the Andes.

Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain



Astronomía Mocoví  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.


Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.


Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.



Helicobacter acinonychis: Genetic and Rodent Infection Studies of a Helicobacter pylori-Like Gastric Pathogen of Cheetahs and Other Big Cats  

PubMed Central

Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a U.S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that each strain lacked the cag pathogenicity island and contained a degenerate vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Analyses of nine other genes (glmM, recA, hp519, glr, cysS, ppa, flaB, flaA, and atpA) revealed a ?2% base substitution difference, on average, between the two H. acinonychis groups and a ?8% difference between these genes and their homologs in H. pylori reference strains such as 26695. H. acinonychis derivatives that could chronically infect mice were selected and were found to be capable of persistent mixed infection with certain H. pylori strains. Several variants, due variously to recombination or new mutation, were found after 2 months of mixed infection. H. acinonychis ' modest genetic distance from H. pylori, its ability to infect mice, and its ability to coexist and recombine with certain H. pylori strains in vivo should be useful in studies of Helicobacter infection and virulence mechanisms and studies of genome evolution. PMID:14702304

Dailidiene, Daiva; Dailide, Giedrius; Ogura, Keiji; Zhang, Maojun; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Kusters, Johannes G.; Berg, Douglas E.



Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:16847081

Kusters, Johannes G.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.



Four thousand years of environmental change and human activity in the Cochabamba Basin, Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human-environmental interactions. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability ( c. 4000-3370 and c. 2190-1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes ( c. 3370-2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP-present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus ( Sporormiella) c. 1340 -1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.

Williams, Joseph J.; Gosling, William D.; Coe, Angela L.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Gulliver, Pauline


The engineering and geological constraints of the intraslope basins and submarine canyons of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

It is well realized that future hydrocarbon discoveries on the upper and lower continental slope and rise off Texas and Louisiana necessitate innovative methods for the construction of platforms and pipelines in a very difficult engineering and complex geological environment. There are 105 intraslope basins and 5 major submarine canyons on the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, many of which may be prime targets for hydrocarbon production. Examination of the physiographic, geophysical and geotechnical characteristics of the intraslope basins of Pigmy and Vaca basins and the Alaminos submarine canyon are used as examples to typify the various engineering and geological constraints that are most likely to be encountered on the continental slope and rise and along the Sigsbee Escarpment in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. High-resolution bathymetry identifies such constraints as high-angle intraslope basin walls, walls that exceed 40 degrees are not uncommon. Sediment slumps and other instabilities, such as long-term sediment creep and other affects of halokenesis and contemporaneous faulting, are illustrated and evaluated from high-resolution geophysics. The small canyons and large gullies that dissect the parameter flanks of Alaminos Canyon, that may be the results of both recent and old turbidity currents and debris flows, are structures that require engineering consideration in the implement of seafloor structures in, near or down slope of these features.

Bryant, W.R.; Yuh Liu, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ponthier, J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)



Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution.  


The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host-pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J; Ahmed, Niyaz



Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?  

PubMed Central

The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

Hussein, Nawfal R



Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: a new enigma?  


The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/10(5)) to low in Israel (12.5/10(5)) and very low in Egypt (3.4/10(5)). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

Hussein, Nawfal R



Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution  

PubMed Central

The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host–pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J.; Ahmed, Niyaz



Helicobacter pylori Genotypes Associated with Gastric Histo-Pathological Damages in a Moroccan Population  

PubMed Central

H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human’s genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU) of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults’ patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology. PMID:24349327

Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Amarti, Afaf; El Rhazi, Karima; El Khadir, Mounia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Souleimani, Abdellah; Bennani, Bahia



Down-regulated Th17 Responses Are Associated with Reduced Gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Children  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori induces less gastric inflammation in children than adults. Here we investigated whether this reduced inflammation involves dysregulated Th17 responses. H. pylori-infected children and adults in Santiago, Chile had similar levels of H. pylori colonization, proportions of bacteria containing cagA and s1/s2 vacA markers of virulence and strain genotypes (predominantly hpEurope), but the children had significantly reduced levels of gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The reduced neutrophil accumulation in infected children was accompanied by significantly fewer gastric Th17 cells and significantly lower levels of IL-17-specific mRNA and protein compared to infected adults. The gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected children also contained higher numbers of IL-10+ cells and increased levels of both IL-10 and Foxp3 mRNA compared to that of infected adults. Thus, reduced gastric inflammation, including diminished neutrophil accumulation, in H. pylori-infected children compared with infected adults is likely due to down-regulated gastric Th17/IL-17 responses as a consequence of enhanced mucosal regulatory T cell activity in the children. PMID:23299619

Bimczok, Diane; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Cover, Timothy L.; Venegas, Alejandro; Salazar, Maria G.; Smythies, Lesley E.; Harris, Paul R.; Smith, Phillip D.



Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin  

PubMed Central

Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (?1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (?16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.



Comparing genomes of Helicobacter pylori strains from the high-altitude desert of Ladakh, India.  


The genomic diversity of Helicobacter pylori from the vast Indian subcontinent is largely unknown. We compared the genomes of 10 H. pylori strains from Ladakh, North India. Molecular analysis was carried out to identify rearrangements within and outside the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) and DNA sequence divergence in candidate genes. Analyses of virulence genes (such as the cag PAI as a whole, cagA, vacA, iceA, oipA, babB, and the plasticity cluster) revealed that H. pylori strains from Ladakh are genetically distinct and possibly less virulent than the isolates from East Asian countries, such as China and Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the cagA-glr motifs, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus patterns, repetitive extragenic palindromic signatures, the glmM gene mutations, and several genomic markers representing fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms revealed that Ladakhi strains share features of the Indo-European, as well as the East Asian, gene pools. However, the contribution of genetic features from the Indo-European gene pool was more prominent. PMID:15814963

Kauser, Farhana; Hussain, M Abid; Ahmed, Irshad; Ahmad, Naheed; Habeeb, Aejaz; Khan, Aleem A; Ahmed, Niyaz



PA02.08. Role of herbs in psychosomatic disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Stress is taking toll of the health of the people in this present competitive and challenging world. Ayurvedic acharayas have realized the role of mind on the body thousands of years ago. While mentioning the etiology of almost every disease our acharyas have mentioned the psychological factors like bhaya, shoka, kroda etc along with the physiological causes. It shows the effect of mind in causation of a disease. These psychological factors like bhaya, shoka etc when become excessive and uncontrollable they lead to manasika rogas. These manasika rogas are called as psychosomatic disorders. In Ayurveda a number of herbs have been mentioned as medhya rasayanas. The herbs like brahmi, mandookaparni, shankapuspi, aswagandha, yestimadhu, guduchi etc, have been mentioned at various contexts which work in different ways to help restore the health in psychosomatic disorders. Hence the present topic the “ROLE OF HERBS IN PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS” was taken up to study the mode of action of herbs mentioned in manasika rogas. Method: The drugs mentioned by the brihatrayees under the treatment of manasika rogas like unmada and apasmara are enumerated and later the properties of most frequently mentioned herbs are studied. Result: The herbs like Brahmi, Shankapuspi act by their nootropic activity and the herbs like Lashuna, Vaca etc act by their high antioxidant property. Conclusion: The drugs by our acharyas act by their rasa, guna virya and vipaka help in the elimination of aggravated dosas their by helps the body to regain the homeostasis of tridoshas.

Ramgopal, KVRSS



Phylogeographic Origin of Helicobacter pylori Determines Host-Adaptive Responses upon Coculture with Gastric Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

While Helicobacter pylori infects over 50% of the world's population, the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric disease are not fully understood. Bacterial, host, and environmental factors play a role in disease outcome. To investigate the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori pathogenesis, global gene expression of six H. pylori isolates was analyzed during coculture with gastric epithelial cells. Clustering analysis of six Colombian clinical isolates from a region with low gastric cancer risk and a region with high gastric cancer risk segregated strains based on their phylogeographic origin. One hundred forty-six genes had increased expression in European strains, while 350 genes had increased expression in African strains. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with motility, pathogenicity, and other adaptations to the host environment. European strains had greater expression of the virulence factors cagA, vacA, and babB and were associated with increased gastric histologic lesions in patients. In AGS cells, European strains promoted significantly higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression than did African strains. African strains significantly induced apoptosis, whereas only one European strain significantly induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that gene expression profiles of clinical isolates can discriminate strains by phylogeographic origin and that these profiles are associated with changes in expression of the proinflammatory and protumorigenic cytokine IL-8 and levels of apoptosis in host epithelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that bacterial factors determined by the phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains may promote increased gastric disease. PMID:23630959

Sheh, Alexander; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Merrell, D. Scott; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T.



Helicobacter pylori's virulence and infection persistence define pre-eclampsia complicated by fetal growth retardation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To better understand the pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in pre-eclampsia (PE), and whether it is associated or not with fetal growth retardation (FGR). METHODS: Maternal blood samples were collected from 62 consecutive pregnant women with a diagnosis of PE and/or FGR, and from 49 women with uneventful pregnancies (controls). Serum samples were evaluated by immunoblot assay for presence of specific antibodies against H. pylori antigens [virulence: cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA); ureases; heat shock protein B; flagellin A; persistence: vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA)]. Maternal complete blood count and liver enzymes levels were assessed at delivery by an automated analyzer. RESULTS: A significantly higher percentage of H. pylori seropositive women were found among PE cases (85.7%) compared to controls (42.9%, P < 0.001). There were no differences between pregnancies complicated by FGR without maternal hypertension (46.2%) and controls. Importantly, persistent and virulent infections (VacA/CagA seropositive patients, intermediate leukocyte blood count and aspartate aminotransferase levels) were exclusively associated with pre-eclampsia complicated by FGR, while virulent but acute infections (CagA positive/VacA negative patients, highest leukocyte blood count and aspartate aminotransferase levels) specifically correlated with PE without FGR. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly indicate that persistent and virulent H. pylori infections cause or contribute to PE complicated by FGR, but not to PE without feto-placental compromise. PMID:22215939

Cardaropoli, Simona; Rolfo, Alessandro; Piazzese, Annalisa; Ponzetto, Antonio; Todros, Tullia



The immunogenetics and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Highlights of the First Sino-European Workshop on the Immunogenetics and Pathogenesis of Gastric Cancer.  


Clinical scientists from eight European countries and China gathered in the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an on April 26-28, 2001 to discuss collaboration on a modern approach to gastric cancer prevention. Participants at the First Sino-European Workshop on Immunogenetics and Pathogenesis of Gastric Cancer presented their most up-to-date research results on topics ranging from epidemiology and immune mechanisms to Helicobacter pylori and vaccine development. Researchers then formed groups with their Chinese or European counterparts to plan future research endeavors which will benefit Chinese and European populations alike. After 3 years of organization between the Institute of Digestive Diseases of the Fourth Medical University in Xi'an, China and the Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the first workshop came into being under the joint sponsorship of the Commission of the European Union, National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xi'an, China. As gastric cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor in China, the workshop was of special significance to the Chinese researchers and to the Chinese population in general. During the workshop, presentations on the epidemiology of gastric cancer showed that this disease is in fact common the world over: it is the second most common cancer next to lung cancer and about 1 million new cases were diagnosed in 2000. Three-quarters of the cases of gastric cancer occur in Asia, and approximately 80% of these cases are in China and Japan. Genetic factors and environmental factors such as diet and H. pylori infection play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. As a recognized cause of gastric cancer, H. pylori was the subject of various presentations ranging from immunological studies, molecular analysis of strains and pathogenesis to vaccine development. Specific areas of discussion included bacterial-epithelial interactions in H. pylori infection, epidemiology in China, global distribution of vacA and cagA genotypes, new evidence for host factors, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and H. pylori as independent risk factor for gastric cancer, new diagnostic techniques for H. pylori using serum levels of pepsinogen I, and autoimmune processes in corpus atrophy. Vaccine development using a variety of strategies against H. pylori was the subject of an entire session of talks. Oral immunization with urease with Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin was shown to be safe and immunogenic in humans as a mucosal adjuvant. Results of a study using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as a vehicle for DNA-mediated immunization in mice were also presented. A final presentation discussed an ongoing trial comparing strain variability in the vacA and cagA gene sequences and disease expression between H. pylori infection in Europe and China. Researchers also discussed the role of IL1 gene family and TNF gene polymorphisms in gastric pathology and various immune mechanisms involved in gastric cancer, such as down-regulation of NF kappa B, IL-1 and IL-1RA, cyclooxygenase signalling, and identification of MGAg antibodies. An interactive discussion followed each presentation and ideas and suggestions were provided. According to specialty, the presenters were then assigned to groups of four or five to make plans for joint research projects. A number of international and Chinese observers were present, including representatives from the European Commission, the World Health Organization and the Chinese National Center for Biotechnology Development, and offered input on the financial feasibility of such projects. PMID:12532177

Wu, K; Crusius, J B A; Fan, D; Peña, A S



Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger  

PubMed Central

Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5–6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, ?-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Berg, Douglas E.; Backert, Steffen



The design of vaccines against Helicobacter pylori and their development.  


Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative, spiral, microaerophylic bacterium that infects the stomach of more than 50% of the human population worldwide. It is mostly acquired during childhood and, if not treated, persists chronically, causing chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and in some individuals, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric B cell lymphoma. The current therapy, based on the use of a proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotics, is efficacious but faces problems such as patient compliance, antibiotic resistance, and possible recurrence of infection. The development of an efficacious vaccine against H. pylori would thus offer several advantages. Various approaches have been followed in the development of vaccines against H. pylori, most of which have been based on the use of selected antigens known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the infection, such as urease, the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA), the neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), and others, and intended to confer protection prophylactically and/or therapeutically in animal models of infection. However, very little is known of the natural history of H. pylori infection and of the kinetics of the induced immune responses. Several lines of evidence suggest that H. pylori infection is accompanied by a pronounced Th1-type CD4(+) T cell response. It appears, however, that after immunization, the antigen-specific response is predominantly polarized toward a Th2-type response, with production of cytokines that can inhibit the activation of Th1 cells and of macrophages, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The exact effector mechanisms of protection induced after immunization are still poorly understood. The next couple of years will be crucial for the development of vaccines against H. pylori. Several trials are foreseen in humans, and expectations are that most of the questions being asked now on the host-microbe interactions will be answered. PMID:11244046

Del Giudice, G; Covacci, A; Telford, J L; Montecucco, C; Rappuoli, R



Helicobacter pylori Induces miR-155 in T Cells in a cAMP-Foxp3-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Amongst the most severe clinical outcomes of life-long infections with Helicobacter pylori is the development of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma - diseases often associated with an increase of regulatory T cells. Understanding H. pylori-driven regulation of T cells is therefore of crucial clinical importance. Several studies have defined mammalian microRNAs as key regulators of the immune system and of carcinogenic processes. Hence, we aimed here to identify H. pylori-regulated miRNAs, mainly in human T cells. MicroRNA profiling of non-infected and infected human T cells revealed H. pylori infection triggers miR-155 expression in vitro and in vivo. By using single and double H. pylori mutants and the corresponding purified enzymes, the bacterial vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tested positive for their ability to regulate miR-155 and Foxp3 expression in human lymphocytes; the latter being considered as the master regulator and marker of regulatory T cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of the Foxp3 transcription factor in T cells abolished miR-155 expression. Using adenylate cyclase inhibitors, the miR-155 induction cascade was shown to be dependent on the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Furthermore, we found that miR-155 directly targets the protein kinase A inhibitor ? (PKI?) mRNA in its 3?UTR, indicative of a positive feedback mechanism on the cAMP pathway. Taken together, our study describes, in the context of an H. pylori infection, a direct link between Foxp3 and miR-155 in human T cells and highlights the significance of cAMP in this miR-155 induction cascade. PMID:20209161

Fassi Fehri, Lina; Koch, Manuel; Belogolova, Elena; Khalil, Hany; Bolz, Christian; Kalali, Behnam; Mollenkopf, Hans J.; Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Karlas, Alexander; Schneider, Thomas; Churin, Yuri; Gerhard, Markus; Meyer, Thomas F.



Detection of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori following noncryogenic storage of rapid urease tests for 30 days  

PubMed Central

Objective Traditional Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy has been undermined by increasing antimicrobial, especially clarithromycin, resistance. Susceptibility testing in most areas is difficult or unavailable. We assessed whether gastric biopsies stored at room temperature in a rapid urease test were suitable for H. pylori clarithromycin susceptibility testing. Methods After 30 days of storage at room temperature, DNA was extracted from a gastric biopsy present within a rapid urease test (Hpfast). H. pylori status and clarithromycin susceptibility were evaluated used H. pylori-specific PCR for ureA, vacA, and allele-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction of the 23S rRNA genes. The PCR results were compared with histology, RUT, and culture. H. pylori positive was defined as RUT and either culture or histology positive; H. pylori negative as RUT, culture and histology negative. Results Samples from 31 subjects were evaluated; 11 were H. pylori positive including 9 by culture; 8 of which had allele-specific primer-PCR results from the RUT specimen for the detection of mutations of the 23S rRNA gene. When both tests were available, culture and PCR results were concordant in 8/8 (100%). Fifteen of the 20 histology, RUT and culture negative cases had all 3 PCR’s negative. In one all 3 were positive; in 3 only the 23S rRNA was positive and in 1 only ureA was positive. Conclusion Gastric biopsy specimens stored within the gel of an RUT for 30 days can be used to for molecular testing confirm the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and test for clarithromycin susceptibility. PMID:22188917

LI, Yuan; RIMBARA, Emiko; THIRUMURTHI, Selvi; TRESPALACIOS, Alba; REDDY, Rita; SABOUNCHI, Saman; ATTUMI, Taraq Assed; GRAHAM, David Yates



Application of Stool-PCR test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of stool-PCR test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in pediatric populations. METHODS: Based on endoscopic features (including nodular gastritis, erosive duodenitis and ulcer) and/or a positive rapid urease test (RUT) obtained during endoscopy, 28 children from a group of children admitted to the Children's Medical Center of Tehran for persistent upper gastrointestinal problems were selected to compare biopsy-based tests with stool-PCR. Their gastric activity and bacterial density were graded by the updated Sydney system, and their first stool after endoscopy was stored at -70°C. Biopsies were cultured on modified campy-blood agar plates and identified by gram-staining, biochemical tests, and PCR. Two methods of phenol-chloroform and boiling were used for DNA extraction from H pylori isolates. Isolation of DNA from stool was performed using a stool DNA extraction kit (Bioneer Inc, Korea). PCR was performed using primers for detection of vacA, cagA, and 16srRNA genes in both isolates and stool. RESULTS: Sixteen out of 28 child patients (57%) were classified as H pylori positive by biopsy-based tests, of which 11 (39%) were also positive by stool-PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of stool-PCR was 62.5% and 92.3% respectively. H pylori was observed in histological sections for 10 out of 11 stool-positive patients. Association was observed between higher score of H pylori in histology and positivity of stool-PCR. Also association was observed between the more severe form of gastritis and a positive stool-PCR. CONCLUSION: Association between higher score of H pylori in histology and a positive stool-PCR make it a very useful test for detection of H pylori active infection in children. We also suggest that a simple stool-PCR method can be a useful test for detection of H pylori virulence genes in stool. PMID:19152455

Falsafi, Tahereh; Favaedi, Raha; Mahjoub, Fatemeh; Najafi, Mehri



Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo



Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties  

PubMed Central

From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14%) salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68%) vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%). The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44%) and cagA (57.625). VacA s1a (37.28%) and iceA1 (47.45%) were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%), s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%), and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81%) were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%), amoxicillin (67.79%), and ampicillin (61.01%). High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria. PMID:25184146

Yahaghi, Emad; Khamesipour, Faham; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Sakhaei, Mohammad Hossein; Masoudimanesh, Mojtaba; Khameneie, Maryam Khayyat



Analysis of Surface-Exposed Outer Membrane Proteins in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

More than 50 Helicobacter pylori genes are predicted to encode outer membrane proteins (OMPs), but there has been relatively little experimental investigation of the H. pylori cell surface proteome. In this study, we used selective biotinylation to label proteins localized to the surface of H. pylori, along with differential detergent extraction procedures to isolate proteins localized to the outer membrane. Proteins that met multiple criteria for surface-exposed outer membrane localization included known adhesins, as well as Cag proteins required for activity of the cag type IV secretion system, putative lipoproteins, and other proteins not previously recognized as cell surface components. We identified sites of nontryptic cleavage consistent with signal sequence cleavage, as well as C-terminal motifs that may be important for protein localization. A subset of surface-exposed proteins were highly susceptible to proteolysis when intact bacteria were treated with proteinase K. Most Hop and Hom OMPs were susceptible to proteolysis, whereas Hor and Hof proteins were relatively resistant. Most of the protease-susceptible OMPs contain a large protease-susceptible extracellular domain exported beyond the outer membrane and a protease-resistant domain at the C terminus with a predicted ?-barrel structure. These features suggest that, similar to the secretion of the VacA passenger domain, the N-terminal domains of protease-susceptible OMPs are exported through an autotransporter pathway. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the repertoire of surface-exposed H. pylori proteins that may mediate bacterium-host interactions, as well as the cell surface topology of these proteins. PMID:24769695

Voss, Bradley J.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; McDonald, W. Hayes



Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites: Implications for endogenous igneous processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have analyzed thirteen igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation and combined these data with literature data for forty-three analyzed mesosiderite clasts. They classify these well-characterized clasts into the following five principal groups: (1) Polygenic and monogenic cumulates (39%) are coarse-grained gabbros that are highly depleted in incompatible elements (relative to H chondrites); they formed at moderate depth either as residues of low-degree partial melting of pre-existing cumulate eucrites or as cumulates from parent melts similar to cumulate eucrites. (2) Polygenic basalts (30%) are finer-grained rocks with positive europium anomalies, La/Lu ratios < 1, and lower rare earth element abundances than basaltic eucrites. It seems likely that these rocks were formed near their parent body surface by remelting mixtures of major amounts of basaltic eucrites and lesser amounts of cumulate eucrites. (3) Quench-textured rocks comprise two compositional groups, (a) those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5%), and (b) those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2%). The quench-textured rocks are probably monogenic; they formed most likely when small-scale impacts at their parent body surface totally melted small amounts of basaltic or cumulate eucrite material. (4) Monogenic basalts (11%) resemble basaltic eucrites and formed by endogenous igneous processes on the mesosiderite parent body (MPB). (5) Ultramafic rocks are cumulates consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9%) or olivine (4%). Orthopyroxenite clasts closely resemble diogenites and were formed most likely by endogenous igneous processes.

Rubin, A.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Mittlefehldt, D.W. (Lockheed Engineering and Science Co., Houston, TX (United States))



Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677. PMID:21039971

Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J



The dynamics of heat shock system activation in Monomac-6 cells upon Helicobacter pylori infection.  


Immune system cells, particularly phagocytes, are exposed to direct contact with pathogens. Because of its nature - elimination of pathogenes - their cytoprotective systems supposed to be quick and forceful. Physiological consequence of phagocytosis for the phagocyte is the apoptotic death to prevent the eventual survival of bacteria as intracellular parasites. However, in some cases, defense systems used by the bacteria force the immune cells to prolong the contact with the pathogen for its effective elimination. Experiments were performed on Monomac-6 cells exposed to live CagA, VacA expressing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) over different period of time. Total cellular RNA, cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were isolated for polymerase chain reaction, Western-blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. We found that Monomac-6 cells infection with H. pylori resulted in the translocation of the entire cellular content of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the cytoplasm, where its presence could protect cell against toxic products of engulfed bacteria and premature apoptosis. At the same time the nuclear translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and activation of HSP70 gene transcription was noticed. Action of HSP70 might to postpone monocyte apoptosis through protecting cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins from damaging effect of bacterial products, what could be the defending mechanism against the toxic stress caused by engulfed bacteria and provide the immune cell with the sufficient amount of time required for neutralization of the bacteria from phagosomes, even at the expense of temporary lack of the protection of nuclear proteins. PMID:25554983

Pierzchalski, P; Jastrzebska, M; Link-Lenczowski, P; Leja-Szpak, A; Bonior, J; Jaworek, J; Okon, K; Wojcik, P



Phylogeographic Origin of Helicobacter pylori Is a Determinant of Gastric Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Helicobacter pylori colonises the stomach in half of all humans, and is the principal cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While gastric cancer rates correlate with H. pylori prevalence in some areas, there are regions where infection is nearly universal, but rates of gastric cancer are low. In the case of Colombia, there is a 25-fold increase in gastric cancer rate in the Andean mountain (high risk) region compared to the coastal (low risk) region, despite similarly high (~90%) H. pylori prevalence in the two locations. Our aim was to investigate the ancestral origin of H. pylori strains isolated from subjects in these high and low risk regions and to determine whether this is a predictive determinant of precancerous lesions. Methods Multi-locus sequence typing was used to investigate phylogeographic origins of infecting H. pylori strains isolated from subjects in the Pacific coast and Andean mountains in the state of Nariño, Colombia. We analysed 64 subjects infected with cagA+ vacA s1m1 strains. Gastric biopsy slides from each individual were scored for histologic lesions and evaluated for DNA damage by immunohistochemistry. Results We show that strains from the high risk region were all of European phylogeographic origin, whereas those from the low risk region were of either European (34%) or African origin (66%). European strain origin was strongly predictive of increased premalignant histologic lesions and epithelial DNA damage, even in the low risk region; African strain origin was associated with reduced severity of these parameters. Conclusion The phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains provides an explanation for geographic differences in cancer risk deriving from this infection. PMID:21357593

de Sablet, Thibaut; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Schneider, Barbara G.; Asim, Mohammad; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Bravo, Luis E.; Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Mera, Robertino M.; Israel, Dawn A.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Cover, Timothy L.; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T.



Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic.  


Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9?%. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17-91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5?%. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5?%, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2?%). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy. PMID:24965801

Shiota, Seiji; Cruz, Modesto; Abreu, José A Jiménez; Mitsui, Takahiro; Terao, Hideo; Disla, Mildre; Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Yamaoka, Yoshio



Pneumatocele selar a tensión: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura  

PubMed Central

Introducción: El neumoencéfalo a tensión luego de la cirugía transesfenoidal es poco común. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artículo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensión de presentación tardía. Descripción del caso: Una mujer de 57 años consultó por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le había realizado una cirugía transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le había colocado una derivación lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Además, se le había realizado una resección transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirugía debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llevó a cabo una resonancia magnética que demostró un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervención: Se realizó un abordaje transciliar. La región selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abrió la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despuós del procedimiento, su campo visual retornó a la normalidad. Un año después de su última cirugía, continua asintomática. Conclusión: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensión es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirugía transesfenoidal. Su manifestaciónw clínica sería la alteración visual debida a la compresión inferior de la vía óptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensión debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damián; Campero, Abraham



Mucosal polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers  

PubMed Central

AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT-lymphoma. Conventional invasive tests are less sensitive than non-invasive tests in diagnosing H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing H pylori infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of mucosal polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. METHODS: In patients with bleeding, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, we checked rapid urease test, histology, bacterial culture and mucosal polymerase chain reaction for detecting H pylori infection. Positive H pylori infection was defined as positive culture or both a positive histology and a positive rapid urease test. For mucosal polymerase chain reaction of H pylori, we checked vacA (s1a, s1b, s1c, s2, m1, m1T, m2), iceA1, iceA2 and cag A. RESULTS: Between October 2000 and April 2002, 88 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 60/28, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 55/33), 81 patients with non-bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 54/27, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 45/36) and 37 patients with chronic gastritis (males/females: 24/13) were enrolled in this study. In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, 45 patients (51%), 71 patients (88%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively were found to have positive H pylori infection (P<0.001). In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection was positive in 54 patients (61%), 70 patients (86%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively (P<0.001). The sensitivity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mucosal polymerase reaction for H pylori infection were significantly lower in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (84%, 79% and 81%) than in patients with non-bleeding peptic ulcers (99%, 99% and 98%) (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.001 respectively). The sensitivity, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mucosal polymerase reaction for H pylori were significantly lower in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (84%, 83% and 81%) than in patients with chronic gastritis (100%, 100% and 100%) (P = 0.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Mucosal polymerase chain reaction for detecting H pylori infection is not reliable in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. PMID:15637749

Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Lo, Wen-Ching; Perng, Chin-Lin; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Li, Anna Fen-Yau; Ou, Yueh-Hsing



In vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the 3’ region of cagA gene in Helicobacter pylori isolates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the in vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cultured from gastric biopsies from 206 Colombian patients with dyspeptic symptoms from a high-risk area for gastric cancer were included as study material. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. Resistant isolates at baseline and in amoxicillin and clarithromycin serial dilutions were subjected to genotyping (cagA, vacA alleles s and m), Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Images of the RAPD amplicons were analyzed by Gel-Pro Analyzer 4.5 program. Cluster analyses was done using SPSS 15.0 statistical package, where each of the fingerprint bands were denoted as variables. Dendrograms were designed by following Ward’s clustering method and the estimation of distances between each pair of H. pylori isolates was calculated with the squared Euclidean distance. RESULTS: Resistance rates were 4% for amoxicillin and 2.7% for clarithromycin with 2% double resistances. Genotyping evidenced a high prevalence of the genotype cagA-positive/vacA s1m1. The 3’ region of cagA gene was successfully amplified in 92.3% (12/13) of the baseline resistant isolates and in 60% (36/60) of the resistant isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. Upon observing the distribution of the number of EPIYA repetitions in each dilution with respect to baseline isolates, it was found that in 61.5% (8/13) of the baseline isolates, a change in the number of EPIYA repetitions lowered antibiotic pressure. The gain and loss of EPIYA motifs resulted in a diversity of H. pylori subclones after bacterial adjustment to changing conditions product of antibiotic pressure. RAPD PCR evidenced the close clonal relationship between baseline isolates and isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic pressure does not induce loss of the cag pathogenicity island, but it can lead - in most cases - to genetic rearrangements within the 3’ region cagA of the founding bacteria that can affect the level of tyrosine phosphorylation impacting on its cellular effects and lead to divergence of cagA-positive subclones. PMID:24106405

Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andrés; Matta, Andrés Januer; Pazos, Alvaro; Bravo, Luis Eduardo



The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical signature and timing of metamorphism (dated at ca. 465 Ma in the study area), which allow definition of a single, mafic back-arc belt in central Argentina, from San Luis to La Pampa.

Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura



Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility: a petrofrabric tool for understanding mechanisms of fold and thrust belt evolution. Application in Malargüe FTB, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fold and thrust belts (FTB), sedimentary beds are folded and faulted but rocks do not always show evidence of strong internal deformation. Nevertheless, several studies have demonstrated that a weak internal deformation (layer parallel shortening) can be recorded at the matrix scale before any macroscopic deformation. The Anisotropy of Magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides information about the preferred orientation of billions of magnetic minerals. It enables the definition of a magnetic fabric, which may be visualized as an ellipsoid with principal axes K1 ? K2 ? K3. Basic elements of a magnetic fabric are the magnetic foliation (K1-K2 plane) and the magnetic lineation (K1 axe), when they are statistically defined. Both are related to strain-controlled petrofrabric. The Neuquén Basin is a wide intracratonic sag basin with complex and polyphased/diachronic evolution. The Pacific subduction and south Atlantic opening were the mechanisms controlling the large scale geodynamic framework. By late Triassic times, continental scale extension initiated fault-related narrow rift depocenters which later evolved toward a sag basin from middle Jurassic to upper Cretaceous. At that time, the basin started to record the compressive stress regime from the Pacific subduction. Three pulses of compressive deformation (Cretaceous, Paleogene and Miocene) are recorded in this retro-arc foreland setting. Approximately 300 samples have been collected from 30 sites in terrigenous rocks located along three cross sections from foothills to uplifted foreland area in Malargüe FTB. We mainly sample Kimmeridgian red beds of the Tordillo formation, Tithonian shales from the Vaca Muerta Fm, and late cretaceous red beds of the Neuquén Group. AMS fabrics are used as a proxy to measure accumulated microscopic finite strain and compares it with mesoscale (fractures) and macroscale structures (faults, folds…). This multi-scaled approach helps in defining a kinematic scenario for Malargüe FTB evolution by classifying magnetic fabrics related either to (1) sedimentary processes or (2) pre-folding layer parallel shortening (LPS) or (3) syn-folding kinematics depending on folding mode. Propagation of deformation in this case is neither uniform nor gradual. Therefore Malargüe FTB cannot be defined as a classical critical wedge; On the contrary extensional inheritance exerts a strong influence in localization of compressive deformation (LPS).

Branellec, Matthieu; Callot, Jean Paul; Aubourg, Charles; Nivière, Bertrand; Ringenbach, Jean Claude



Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30–31°S. PMID:25334020

Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.



Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix  

PubMed Central

Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis



Delineation of the High Enthalpy Reservoirs of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Geothermal System, South-Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal system associated with the Pleistocene-Holocene Sierra Nevada volcano (SNVGS) in the Araucanía Region of Chile has surface manifestations from the north-western flank of the volcano, up to Manzanar and Malalcahuello. Baños del Toro, located on the northwestern flank of the volcano, has numerous fumaroles and acid pools (acid sulfate waters, T=~90°C, pH=2.1, TDS=3080 mg/L); while Aguas de la Vaca, near the base of the volcano, has a bubbling spring (chloride-sulfate waters, T=~60°C, pH=7.0, TDS=950 mg/L). Five shallow (<120m) wells (2 at Manzanar and 3 at Malalcahuello) dug and drilled in the Cautín River Valley discharge alkaline (pH= 9-10) waters with relatively low TDS (130-210mg/L). The main heat source of the geothermal system is apparently the magmatic system of the Sierra Nevada volcano. Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) that transects the area forms excellent conduits for the flow of the geothermal waters. The geothermal reservoirs are hosted in the volcanic rocks interceded with glacial deposits over the North Patagonian Batholith that forms an impermeable barrier, and thus constitutes the lower boundary of the geothermal system and also controls the lateral flow of the fluids. An equilibrium temperature of ~210°C is derived from gas geothermometry (CO2/Ar-H2/Ar) of the discharges at Baños del Toro. Geothermal fluids from the upflow area on the northwestern flank of the volcano migrate northwards to the Cautín River Valley. The geothermal system has a high enthalpy reservoir(s) on the northwestern flank of the Sierra Nevada volcano and low-enthalpy reservoirs in the Cautín River Valley that have been tapped to form spas at Manzanar and Malalcahuello. While sub-vertical fractures of LOFZ facilitate the recharge of the system, lateral flow of the geothermal fluids is apparently controlled by lithology; Melipueclo Pluton in particular prevents the westward flow from the upflow zone, causing the flow only northwards to Malalcahuello and subsequently westward on meeting poorly permeable Guapitrío Member of the Cura-Mallín Formation. This change in the flow direction from northwestward up to Malalcahuello to westward towards Manzanar is supported by topographic and hydrographic conditions as well, besides available geological and geophysical data. SNVGS is perhaps the most promising geothermal system in the area, considering the presence of high enthalpy reservoir and stable heat source, ideal for its development as geothermal resource. Acknowledgments: Authors would like to acknowledge the funding for this work through the PBCT PDA-07 project of CONICYT and Geothermal Program (Cátedra de Geotermia) of the Ministry of Energy and Mining, Government of Chile.

Alam, M.; Muñoz, M.; Parada, M.



Groundwater capture processes under a seasonal variation in natural recharge and discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Capture" is the increase in recharge and the decrease in discharge that occurs when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system that was in a previous state of approximate dynamic equilibrium. Regional groundwater models are usually used to calculate capture in a two-step procedure. A steady-state solution provides an initial-head configuration, a set of flows through the boundaries for the modeled region, and the initial basis for the capture calculation. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions renders the capture calculation. When seasonality is a modeling issue, the use of a single initial hydraulic head and a single set of boundary flows leads to miscalculations of capture. Instead, an initial condition for each season should be used. This approach may be accomplished by determining steady oscillatory solutions, which vary through the seasons but repeat from year to year. A regional groundwater model previously developed for a portion of the San Pedro River basin, Arizona, USA, is modified to illustrate the effect that different initial conditions have on transient solutions and on capture calculations. Résumé Les "prélèvements" sont constitués par l'augmentation de la recharge et par la diminution de l'écoulement qui se produit lorsqu'un pompage est imposéà un système aquifère qui était auparavant dans un état proche de l'équilibre dynamique. Les modèles régionaux de nappe sont en général utilisés pour calculer les prélèvements dans une procédure à deux étapes. Une solution en régime permanent donne la configuration piézométrique initiale, un jeu de conditions aux limites pour la région modélisée et les données de base pour le calcul des prélèvements. Les solutions transitoires donnent les modifications globales des conditions aux limites. Lorsque des variations saisonnières sont produites en sortie du modèle, le recours à une piézométrie initiale unique et à un seul jeu de données de conditions aux limites conduit à un mauvais calcul des prélèvements. Il faut alors utiliser une condition de recharge initiale pour chaque saison. Cette approche peut être réalisée en déterminant des solutions permanentes périodiques, variantes au cours des saisons, mais se répétant d'année en année. Un modèle de nappe régional, précédemment mis au point pour une partie du bassin de la rivière San Pedro (Arizona, États-Unis), a été modifié pour illustrer l'effet de conditions initiales différentes sur des solutions transitoires et sur le calcul des prélèvements. Resumen Se define como "captura" al aumento de recarga y descenso de descarga que tiene lugar cuando se impone un bombeo en un acuífero en estado de equilibrio dinámico. Se suelen utilizar modelos regionales de agua subterránea para calcular la captura en un procedimiento que consta de dos etapas. Una solución en régimen estacionario proporciona la distribución inicial de niveles piezométricos, los flujos a través de los contornos de la región modelada y el punto de partida para el cálculo de la captura. Las soluciones transitorias proporcionan los cambios en los flujos a través de los contornos. La diferencia entre las soluciones estacionaria y transitoria da el valor de la captura. Cuando los cambios estacionales son importantes, la utilización de un único estado inicial de niveles y de flujos en los contornos da lugar a errores en el cálculo de la captura. En este caso debe usarse una condición inicial para cada una de las estaciones. Esto se puede conseguir obteniendo soluciones periódicas estacionarias, que varíen a lo largo de las estaciones, pero que se repitan año a año. Un modelo regional desarrollado previamente para el estudio de una parte de la cuenca del Río San Pedro, en Arizona (EE.UU.) se modificó para ilustrar el efecto que las distintas condiciones iniciales tienen en el cálculo de la captura.

Maddock, Thomas, III.; Vionnet, Leticia Beatriz


Using operational data to estimate the reliable yields of water-supply wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable yield of a water-supply well depends on many different factors, including the properties of the well and the aquifer; the capacities of the pumps, raw-water mains, and treatment works; the interference effects from other wells; and the constraints imposed by ion licences, water quality, and environmental issues. A relatively simple methodology for estimating reliable yields has been developed that takes into account all of these factors. The methodology is based mainly on an analysis of water-level and source-output data, where such data are available. Good operational data are especially important when dealing with wells in shallow, unconfined, fissure-flow aquifers, where actual well performance may vary considerably from that predicted using a more analytical approach. Key issues in the yield-assessment process are the identification of a deepest advisable pumping water level, and the collection of the appropriate well, aquifer, and operational data. Although developed for water-supply operators in the United Kingdom, this approach to estimating the reliable yields of water-supply wells using operational data should be applicable to a wide range of hydrogeological conditions elsewhere. Résumé La productivité d'un puits capté pour l'adduction d'eau potable dépend de différents facteurs, parmi lesquels les propriétés du puits et de l'aquifère, la puissance des pompes, le traitement des eaux brutes, les effets d'interférences avec d'autres puits et les contraintes imposées par les autorisations d'exploitation, par la qualité des eaux et par les conditions environnementales. Une méthodologie relativement simple d'estimation de la productivité qui prenne en compte tous ces facteurs a été mise au point. Cette méthodologie est basée surtout sur une analyse des données concernant le niveau piézométrique et le débit de prélèvement, quand ces données sont disponibles. De bonnes données opérationnelles sont particulièrement importantes quand il s'agit de puits dans des aquifères fissurés, libres et peu profonds, dans lesquels la performance réelle d'un puits peut varier considérablement de celle prédite à partir d'une approche plus analytique. Des données essentielles dans les processus d'estimation de la productivité sont l'identification d'un niveau piézométrique de pompage le plus profond possible et le recueil de données opérationnelles appropriées concernant le puits et l'aquifère. Bien qu'elle ait été développée pour des opérateurs gérant des captages en Grande-Bretagne, cette approche de l'estimation de la productivité des puits de captage d'eau potable à partir de données opérationnelles peut être appliquée à une large gamme de conditions hydrogéologiques en d'autres lieux. Resumen La productividad de un pozo de abastecimiento depende de varios factores, entre los que se incluyen las propiedades del pozo y del acuífero, la capacidad de la bomba, las obras de mantenimiento, la interferencia de otras captaciones y las restricciones impuestas por permisos legales, calidad del agua y aspectos ambientales. Se ha desarrollado una metodología relativamente simple para estimar la productividad de un pozo teniendo en cuenta todos los factores previamente mencionados. Esta metodología se basa principalmente en el análisis de niveles y caudales cuando estos datos están disponibles. Se requieren buenos datos de operación, principalmente cuando el pozo está situado en un acuífero de poco espesor, no confinado y en medio fracturado, donde la respuesta del sistema puede diferir enormemente de la predicción analítica. Un punto destacado en el estudio de productividad es la identificación del descenso máximo admisible. Aunque desarrollada para el Reino Unido, la metodología puede ser utilizada a un amplio rango de condiciones hidrogeológicas en otras zonas del mundo.

Misstear, Bruce D. R.; Beeson, Sarah


Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved mathematical hydrodynamic quasi-two-dimensional model of cells, CELSUB3, is presented for simulating drainage systems that consist of pumping well fields or subsurface drains. The CELSUB3 model is composed of an assemblage of algorithms that have been developed and tested previously and that simulate saturated flow in porous media, closed conduit flow, and flow through pumping stations. A new type of link between aquifer cells and drainage conduits is proposed. This link is verified in simple problems with well known analytical solutions. The correlation between results from analytical and mathematical solutions was considered satisfactory in all cases. To simulate more complex situations, the new proposed version, CELSUB3, was applied in a project designed to control the water-table level within a sewer system in Chañar Ladeado Town, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Alternative drainage designs, which were evaluated under conditions of dynamic recharge caused by rainfall in a critical year (wettest year for the period of record) and a typical year, are briefly described. After analyzing ten alternative designs, the best technical-economic solution is a subsurface drainage system of closed conduits with pumping stations and evacuation channels. Résumé. Un modèle hydrodynamique perfectionné de cellules en quasi 2D, CELSUB3, est présenté dans le but de simuler des systèmes de drainage qui consistent en des champs de puits de pompage ou de drains souterrains. Le modèle CELSUB3 est composé d'un assemblage d'algorithmes développés et testés précédemment et qui simulent des écoulements en milieu poreux saturé, en conduites et dans des stations de pompage. Un nouveau type de lien entre des cellules d'aquifères et des drains est proposé. Ce lien est vérifié dans des problèmes simples dont les solutions analytiques sont bien connues. La corrélation entre les résultats des solutions analytiques et des solutions mathématiques a été considérée comme satisfaisante dans tous les cas. Afin de simuler des situations plus complexes, la nouvelle version proposée, CELSUB3, a été mise en œuvre dans un projet destiné à contrôler le niveau de la nappe à l'intérieur d'un système d'égouts, dans la ville de Chaar Ladeado (province de Santa Fe, Argentine). Différentes organisations du projet de drainage, qui ont été testées pour des conditions de recharge dynamique causées par la pluie au cours d'une année critique (la plus humide de la chronique disponible) et une année typique, sont brièvement décrites. Après analyse de dix organisations différentes, la meilleure solution technico-économique retenue est un système de drainage souterrain de conduites avec des stations de pompage et des canaux d'évacuation. Resumen. Se presenta un modelo matemático hidrodinámico cuasi-bidimensional de celdas, CELSUB3, apto para la simulación integral de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo basados en campos de bombeo o drenes subsuperficiales. El modelo de simulación presenta un ensamble de algoritmos, previamente desarrollados y testeados, que representan al escurrimiento a través del medio poroso saturado, escurrimiento en conducciones cerradas, estaciones de bombeo, etc. En la estructura del modelo se propone un nuevo tipo de vinculación entre celdas acuíferas y conductos de drenaje, la cual es verificada en problemas simples con solución analítica conocida arrojando, en todos los casos, resultados satisfactorios. Abordando situaciones más complejas, la nueva versión propuesta fue aplicada en un proyecto de control de niveles freáticos que acompaña un sistema de conductos cloacales, en la localidad de Chañar Ladeado, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen las alternativas de drenaje consideradas las cuales fueron evaluadas bajo recargas dinámicas provocadas por años críticamente lluviosos y en situaciones típicas. Los resultados derivados permitieron definir, tras analizar una decena de proyectos alternativos, la mejor solución técnico-económica consistente en un sistema de drenes subte

Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo



Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de corriente no circulares perturba significativamente el movimiento de las partículas alrededor del Sol e incrementa su vida media en la Nebulosa. El flujo medio del gas se modela de forma simple, analizándose la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas mediante simulaciones numéricas. Al incrementarse la vida media y la densidad superficial de las partículas sólidas, los mecanismos de confinamiento derivados de la presencia de vórtices y ondas espirales actuan sobre el material sólido de la Nebulosa (mediante agregación colisional o inestabilidades gravitacionales) de manera mucho más eficiente que la previamente considerada. Esto ofrece nuevas posibilidades para la formación de planetesimales y núcleos de planetas gigantes, y puede explicar la formación rápida de planetas extrasolares gigantes. Además, esta Tesis analiza la respuesta de las partículas, en un disco protoplanetario con un radio de 100 UA en torno a una estrella de tipo solar, al campo gravitatorio derivado de la presencia de dos estrellas compañeras ligadas en una órbita relativamente elongada (300-1600 UA). Para llevar a cabo este análisis, se han realizado una serie de simulaciones numéricas de configuraciones jerárquicas coplanares utilizando un programa FORTRAN que integra directamente las ecuaciones del movimiento con el objeto de modelar la presencia de las fuerzas gravitacionales y viscosas. El disco protoplanetario masivo se encuentra en torno a una de las componentes de la binaria. La evolución temporal del subdisco de polvo depende directamente de la naturaleza (directa o retrógrada) de la revolución relativa de la compañera estelar, y de la temperatura y la masa del disco circunestelar.

de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos



The conceptualization model problem—surprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

Bredehoeft, John



Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux sont grossièrement caractérisés par des différentes gammes de résistivitéélectrique se recouvrant, dépendant surtout de la teneur en argiles et du degré de cimentation. Les résistivités près de la côte diminuent du fait de l'intrusion marine. Ces variations de résistivité ont été cartographiées à partir de 400km de profils électromagnétiques, dans le domaine temporel ; trois zones ont été distinguées dans l'aquifère alluvial. Le biseau salé a aussi été délimité, jusqu'à 10km de la côte. L'épaisseur de la partie saturée des graviers va de 20-160m sur une étendue supérieure à 600km2. Resumen Un tercio de la población de Omán depende de las aguas subterráneas extraídas del aluvial de la Llanura de Batinah, en la costa del Golfo de Omán. Para determinar la profundidad y naturaleza del aluvial, así como los límites del acuífero, se han usado técnicas de exploración geofísica profunda. El basamento y los límites estructurales del aluvial en su contacto con los sedimentos marinos del Terciario y la ofiolita cretácica se obtuvieron mediante sísmica de reflexión, registrada previamente en campañas de exploración petrolífera. La base del aluvial buza hacia el norte desde el pie de las Montañas del Norte de Omán, alcanzando una profundidad máxima de 2000m en la costa. Las distintas facies del aluvial están caracterizadas por rangos distintos, pero superpuestos, de resistividad eléctrica, dependiendo del contenido en arcillas y del grado de cementación. Las resistividades cerca de la costa se reducen por la intrusión salina. Estas variaciones de resistividad se obtuvieron con registros electromagnéticos a lo largo de un perfil de 400km, con el objetivo de distinguir las tres zonas del acuífero aluvial. También se pudo obtener la geometría de la cuña de intrusión, que llega hasta 10km de la costa. El espesor de las gravas saturadas que forman el acuífero oscila entre los 20-160m en un área superior a 600km2.

Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim