Sample records for vacas prenhes previamente

  1. Roles of conserved residues within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase in replication and latency in mice

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Shariya L.; Pesola, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of the herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase (HSV-1 Pol) is essential for viral DNA synthesis and production of infectious virus in cell culture. While mutations that affect 5?–3? polymerase activity have been evaluated in animal models of HSV-1 infection, mutations that affect other functions of HSV-1 Pol have not. In a previous report, we utilized bacterial artificial chromosome technology to generate defined HSV-1 pol mutants with lesions in the previously uncharacterized pre-NH2-terminal domain. We found that the extreme N-terminal 42 residues (deletion mutant pol?N43) were dispensable for replication in cell culture, while residues 44–49 (alanine-substitution mutant polA6) were required for efficient viral DNA synthesis and production of infectious virus. In this study, we sought to address the importance of these conserved elements in viral replication in a mouse corneal infection model. Mutant virus pol?N43 exhibited no meaningful defect in acute or latent infection despite strong conservation of residues 1–42 with HSV-2 Pol. The polA6 mutation caused a modest defect in replication at the site of inoculation, and was severely impaired for ganglionic replication, even at high inocula that permitted efficient corneal replication. Additionally, the polA6 mutation resulted in reduced latency establishment and subsequent reactivation. Moreover, we found that the polA6 replication defect in cultured cells was exacerbated in resting cells as compared to dividing cells. These results reveal an important role for the conserved motif at residues 44–49 of HSV-1 Pol for ganglionic viral replication. PMID:24413420

  2. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori vacA genotype in Japanese patients with gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shimoyama; T. Yoshimura; T. Mikami; S. Fukuda; J. E. Crabtree; A. Munakata

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To examine the vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains in Japan and to define whether any specific genotype was associated with gastric cancer. METHODS: The allelic variation of vacA gene was studied using a recently introduced polymerase chain reaction based vacA genotyping system. RESULTS: 80 H pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsies of 40 patients with gastric cancer

  3. Acid-induced Dissociation of VacA, the Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin, Reveals Its Pattern of Assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis I. Hanson; John E. Heuser

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we describe the ultrastructural changes associated with acid activation of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA). Purified VacA molecules imaged by deep-etch electron microscopy form z 30-nm hexagonal \\

  4. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha, RPTP alpha, is a Helicobacter pylori VacA receptor.

    PubMed

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Wada, Akihiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kimura, Takahiro; Ogushi, Ken-ichi; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Yoshino, Ken-ichi; Yonezawa, Kazuyoshi; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2003-05-23

    Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, cytochrome c release, and apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. To detect gastric proteins that serve as VacA receptors, we used VacA co-immunoprecipitation techniques following biotinylation of the cell surface and identified p250, a receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) as a VacA-binding protein (Yahiro, K., Niidome, T., Kimura, M., Hatakeyama, T., Aoyagi, H., Kurazono, H., Imagawa, K., Wada, A., Moss, J., and Hirayama, T. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36693-36699). VacA causes vacuolation of G401 cells, a human kidney tumor cell line, although they do not express RPTP beta. By co-immunoprecipitation with VacA, we identified p140 as a potential receptor in those cells. p140 purified by chromatography on a peanut agglutinin affinity matrix contained internal amino acid sequences of RGEENTDYVNASFIDGYRQK and AEGILDVFQTVK, which are identical to those in RPTP alpha. The peptide mass fingerprinting of p140 by time of flight-MS analysis also supported this identification. Treatment of G401 cells with RPTP alpha-morpholino antisense oligonucleotide before exposure to toxin inhibited vacuolation. These data suggest that RPTP alpha acts as a receptor for VacA in G401 cells. Thus, two receptor tyrosine phosphatases, RPTP alpha and RPTP beta, serve as VacA receptors. PMID:12626515

  5. Molecular Evolution of the Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin Gene vacA ? †

    PubMed Central

    Gangwer, Kelly A.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Lacy, D. Borden; Cover, Timothy L.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse organism that is adapted for colonization of the human stomach. All strains contain a gene encoding a secreted, pore-forming toxin known as VacA. Genetic variation at this locus could be under strong selection as H. pylori adapts to the host immune response, colonizes new human hosts, or inhabits different host environments. Here, we analyze the molecular evolution of VacA. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate the subdivision of VacA sequences into three main groups with distinct geographic distributions. Divergence of the three groups is principally due to positively selected sequence changes in the p55 domain, a central region required for binding of the toxin to host cells. Divergent amino acids map to surface-exposed sites in the p55 crystal structure. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of vacA sequences and housekeeping gene sequences indicate that vacA does not share the same evolutionary history as the core genome. Further, rooting the VacA tree with outgroup sequences from the close relative Helicobacter acinonychis reveals that the ancestry of VacA is different from the African origin that typifies the core genome. Finally, sequence analyses of the virulence determinant CagA reveal three main groups strikingly similar to the three groups of VacA sequences. Taken together, these results indicate that positive selection has shaped the phylogenetic structure of VacA and CagA, and each of these virulence determinants has evolved separately from the core genome. PMID:20870762

  6. Mutational Analysis of the vacA Promoter Provides Insight into Gene Transcription in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Mark H.; Cover, Timothy L.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of 12 Helicobacter pylori promoters indicates the existence of a consensus ?10 hexamer (TAtaaT) but little conservation of ?35 sequences. In this study, mutations in either the H. pylori vacA ?10 region or the ?35 region resulted in decreased vacA transcription and suggested that an extended ?10 motif is utilized. Thus, despite the lack of a ?35 consensus sequence for H. pylori promoters, the ?35 region plays a functional role in vacA transcription. PMID:10094707

  7. Selective Inhibition of Ii-dependent Antigen Presentation by Helicobacter pylori Toxin VacA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Molinari; Mariolina Salio; Carmela Galli; Nathalie Norais; Rino Rappuoli; Antonio Lanzavecchia; Cesare Montecucco

    Summary A major virulence factor in the stomach chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori is a protein toxin (VacA), which alters cell membrane trafficking of late endosomal\\/prelysosomal compartments. Its role in the chronic infection established by H. pylori is unknown. To test the possibility that VacA alters antigen processing taking place in prelysosomal compartments, we have used the well-established model of

  8. Structure and interaction of VacA of Helicobacter pylori with a lipid membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Pagliaccia; Xiao-Ming Wang; Florence Tardy; John L. Telford; Jean-Marie Ruysschaert; Veronique Cabiaux

    2000-01-01

    In its mature form, the VacA toxin of Helicobacter pylori is a 95-kDa protein which is released from the bacteria as a low-activity complex. This complex can be activated by low-pH treatment that parallels the activity of the toxin on target cells. VacA has been previously shown to insert itself into lipid membranes and to induce anion- selective channels in

  9. The Versatility of the Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin VacA in Signal Transduction and Molecular Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Backert, Steffen; Tegtmeyer, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    By modulating important properties of eukaryotic cells, many bacterial protein toxins highjack host signalling pathways to create a suitable niche for the pathogen to colonize and persist. Helicobacter pylori VacA is paradigm of pore-forming toxins which contributes to the pathogenesis of peptic ulceration. Several cellular receptors have been described for VacA, which exert different effects on epithelial and immune cells. The crystal structure of VacA p55 subunit might be important for elucidating details of receptor interaction and pore formation. Here we discuss the multiple signalling activities of this important toxin and the molecular crosstalk between VacA and other virulence factors. PMID:22069547

  10. Serological Assays for Identification of Human Gastric Colonization by Helicobacter pylori Strains Expressing VacA m1 or m2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandrabali Ghose; Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Victor J. Torres; Marialuisa Crosatti; Abraham Nomura; Richard M. Peek; F. Francois; M. J. Blaser

    2007-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori vacA gene encodes a secreted protein (VacA) that alters the function of gastric epithelial cells and T lymphocytes. H. pylori strains containing particular vacA alleles are associated with differential risk of disease. Because the VacA midregion may exist as one of two major types, m1 or m2, serologic responses may potentially be used to differentiate between patients

  11. Cytotoxicity and recognition of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, RPTPalpha and RPTPbeta, by Helicobacter pylori m2VacA.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Blanquita B; Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Wada, Akihiro; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nishi, Yoshito; Yamazaki, Shiho; Azuma, Takeshi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Ohtani, Masahiro; van der Wijk, Thea; den Hertog, Jeroen; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2005-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces vacuolation in mammalian cell lines. Sequence differences in the middle of VacA molecules define two families, termed m1VacA and m2VacA, which differ in cell specificity. Similar to m1VacA, m2VacA is activated by acid or alkali, which enhances its binding to cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that, in AZ-521 cells, activated m2VacA, similar to m1VacA, binds to two receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, RPTPalpha and RPTPbeta suggesting that activated m2VacA as well as m1VacA may contribute to gastrointestinal disease following H. pylori infection. G401 cells express RPTPalpha, not RPTPbeta, and responded to both m1VacA and m2VacA. HeLa cells likewise expressed RPTPalpha, not RPTPbeta, but, in contrast to other cell lines, responded poorly to m2VacA. m1VacA associated with RPTPalpha of HeLa cells to an extent similar to that in other toxin-sensitive cells, whereas activated m2VacA bound HeLa cell RPTPalpha less well, consistent with its low vacuolating activity against these cells. The molecular mass of RPTPalpha from HeLa cells is less than that of the protein from G401 cells, although their extracellular amino acid sequences are virtually identical, with only two amino acid differences noted. Different post-translational modifications of RPTPalpha in HeLa cells may be responsible for the reduced susceptibility to m2VacA. PMID:16098216

  12. The Intermediate Region of Helicobacter pylori VacA Is a Determinant of Toxin Potency in a Jurkat T Cell Assay

    PubMed Central

    González-Rivera, Christian; Algood, Holly M. Scott; Radin, Jana N.; McClain, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for peptic ulceration, noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. The secreted VacA toxin is an important H. pylori virulence factor that causes multiple alterations in gastric epithelial cells and T cells. Several families of vacA alleles have been described, and H. pylori strains containing certain vacA types (s1, i1, and m1) are associated with an increased risk of gastric disease, compared to strains containing other vacA types (s2, i2, and m2). Thus far, there has been relatively little study of the role of the VacA intermediate region (i-region) in toxin activity. In this study, we compared the ability of i1 and i2 forms of VacA to cause functional alterations in Jurkat cells. To do this, we manipulated the chromosomal vacA gene in two H. pylori strains to introduce alterations in the region encoding the VacA i-region. We did not detect any differences in the capacity of i1 and i2 forms of VacA to cause vacuolation of RK13 cells. In comparison to i1 forms of VacA, i2 forms of VacA had a diminished capacity to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and suppress interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Correspondingly, i2 forms of VacA bound to Jurkat cells less avidly than did i1 forms of VacA. These results indicate that the VacA i-region is an important determinant of VacA effects on human T cell function. PMID:22585965

  13. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), a key toxin for Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Palframan, Samuel L.; Kwok, Terry; Gabriel, Kipros

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with this Gram-negative pathogen is associated with the development of peptic ulcers and is linked to an increased risk of gastric cancer. H. pylori secretes many proteinaceous factors that are important for initial colonization and subsequent persistence in the host stomach. One of the major protein toxins secreted by H. pylori is the Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA). After secretion from the bacteria via a type V autotransport secretion system, the 88 kDa VacA toxin (comprised of the p33 and p55 subunits) binds to host cells and is internalized, causing severe “vacuolation” characterized by the accumulation of large vesicles that possess hallmarks of both late endosomes and early lysosomes. The development of “vacuoles” has been attributed to the formation of VacA anion-selective channels in membranes. Apart from its vacuolating effects, it has recently become clear that VacA also directly affects mitochondrial function. Earlier studies suggested that the p33 subunit, but not the p55 subunit of VacA, could enter mitochondria to modulate organelle function. This raised the possibility that a mechanism separate from pore formation may be responsible for the effects of VacA on mitochondria, as crystallography studies and structural modeling predict that both subunits are required for a physiologically stable pore. It has also been suggested that the mitochondrial effects observed are due to indirect effects on pro-apoptotic proteins and direct effects on mitochondrial morphology-related processes. Other studies have shown that both the p55 and p33 subunits can indeed be efficiently imported into mammalian-derived mitochondria raising the possibility that they could re-assemble to form a pore. Our review summarizes and consolidates the recent advances in VacA toxin research, with focus on the outstanding controversies in the field and the key remaining questions that need to be addressed. PMID:22919683

  14. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Princz, Diana; Guariglia-Oropeza, Verónica; Avila, Maira; Correnti, María; Perrone, Marianella; Gutierrez, Beatriz; Torres, Javier; Megraud, Francis; Cavazza, María Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA)/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1) or 286-bp (s2) product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1) or 642-bp (m2) regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region. PMID:20512250

  15. Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JC Atherton; RM Peek; KT Tham; MJ Blaser

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: vacA encodes the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori and exhibits marked variation in signal sequence and midgene coding regions. The implications for gastroduodenal pathology are unknown. The aim of this study was to define the association of vacA genotype with gastric inflammation and injury, in vitro cytotoxin activity, and peptic ulceration. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive dyspeptic patients underwent

  16. Intracellular VacA Is a Valuable Marker to Predict Whether Helicobacter pylori Induces Progressive Atrophic Gastritis That Is Associated with the Development of Gastric Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikio Karita; Satoshi Teramukai; Satoru Matsumoto; Hidemi Shibuta

    2005-01-01

    VacA was histochemically stained in biopsy specimen and was intracellularly and mainly located in fundic gland area. It is recognized gastric atrophy was observed in the H. pylori-positive patients with intracellular VacA compared with others. The aim of study is to understand the relationship between intracellular VacA and the progression of gastric atrophy that is associated with gastric cancer. Biopsy

  17. The recurrence interval of forest fires in Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain--northwest of Portugal).

    PubMed

    Ferreira Leite, Flora; Bento Gonçalves, António; Vieira, António

    2011-02-01

    The recurrence of forest fires is degrading an important part of the Portuguese natural heritage namely its forest and soils. In this paper we present the case study of Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain-northwest Portugal), where in recent decades, particularly in the 70s, there was a significant increase in the number of forest fires and in the areas scorched annually. There is thus a turning point between a period when fire was an integral part of the ecosystems and when fire has become a serious threat to woodland management and development (Bento Gonçalves, 2006). Starting with a thorough characterization of forest fires and based on the mapping of scorched areas between 1990 and 2006, we have proceeded to identify the annual pattern of maximum recurrence and the definition of the return interval in Cabeço da Vaca, producing thus a valuable document to support management and forestry development in general. PMID:20576260

  18. Pathogenicity island cag, vacA and IS605 genotypes in Mexican strains of Helicobacter pylori associated with peptic ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the pathogenicity island cag (cag PAI) and the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA). Virtually all strains have a copy of vacA, but its genotype varies. The cag PAI is a region of 32 genes in which the insertion of IS605 elements in its middle region has been associated with partial or total deletions of it that have generated strains with varying virulence. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the cag PAI integrity, vacA genotype and IS605 status in groups of isolates from Mexican patients with non-peptic ulcers (NPU), non-bleeding peptic ulcers (NBPU), and bleeding peptic ulcers (BPU). Methods The cag PAI integrity was performed by detection of eleven targeted genes along this locus using dot blot hybridization and PCR assays. The vacA allelic, cag PAI genotype 1 and IS605 status were determined by PCR analysis. Results Groups of 16-17 isolates (n = 50) from two patients with NPU, NBPU, and BPU, respectively, were studied. 90% (45/50) of the isolates harbored a complete cag PAI. Three BPU isolates lacked the cag PAI, and two of the NBPU had an incomplete cag PAI: the first isolate was negative for three of its genes, including deletion of the cagA gene, whereas the second did not have the cagM gene. Most of the strains (76%) had the vacA s1b/m1 genotype; meanwhile the IS605 was not present within the cag PAI of any strain but was detected elsewhere in the genome of 8% (4/50). Conclusion The patients had highly virulent strains since the most of them possessed a complete cag PAI and had a vacA s1b/m1 genotype. All the isolates presented the cag PAI without any IS605 insertion (genotype 1). Combined vacA genotypes showed that 1 NPU, 2 NBPU, and 1 BPU patients (66.6%) had a mixed infection; coexistence of H. pylori strains with different cag PAI status was observed in 1 NBPU and 2 BPU (50%) of the patients, but only two of these patients (NBPU and BPU) had different vacA genotypes. PMID:21569518

  19. Fossil Particle Tracks and Uranium Distributions in Minerals of the Vaca Muerta Meteorite.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R L; Naeser, C W; Price, P B; Walker, R M; Marvin, U B

    1965-04-30

    Fossil tracks of charged particles have been observed in minerals separated from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. Irradiation of samples of the meteorite with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, together with measurements of track-length distribution, indicate that some of the tracks result from the spontaneous fission of uranium impurities; others, however, are of different origin. Uranium concentrations, which ranged from about 4000 parts per million in a zircon grain to less than 10(-3) parts per million in hypersthene and anorthite, were also measured by irradiating samples with thermal neutrons. PMID:17801934

  20. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  1. Clinical Relevance of the vacA, iceA, cagA, and flaA Genes of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated in Eastern Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Chuan Wu; Pai-Yu Chou; Chi-Tan Hu; Zuo-Chai Liu; Chih-Yung Lin; Yi-Hsiung Tseng; Nien-Tsung Lin

    2005-01-01

    Received 22 January 2005\\/Accepted 3 February 2005 The genotypes of Helicobacter pylori flaA, cagA, vacA, and iceA were determined for DNA isolated from patients with chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer in eastern Taiwan. The vacA gene encoding the s1a subtype was found to predominate in peptic ulcer patients, and the iceA1 genotype was associated with chronic gastritis. cagA and flaA

  2. Clustering of Helicobacter pylori VacA in Lipid Rafts, Mediated by Its Receptor, Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase  , Is Required for Intoxication in AZ-521 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Nakayama; Jyunzo Hisatsune; Eiki Yamasaki; Yoshito Nishi; Akihiro Wada; Hisao Kurazono; Jan Sap; Kinnosuke Yahiro; Joel Moss; Toshiya Hirayama

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces multiple effects on epithelial cells through different cellular events: one involves pore formation, leading to vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, and the second involves cell signaling, resulting in stimulation of proinflammatory responses and cell detachment. Our recent data demonstrated that VacA uses receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP )a s a receptor, of which five

  3. The expression of VacA in BCF of Helicobacter pylori and its relationship to vacuolated effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Li; Hou Xiaohua; Yi Cuiqiong; Zhang Jinkun

    2002-01-01

    Summary  The vacuolated effect of Helicobacter (H. pylori) and its relationship to vacuolated cytotoxin antigen (VacA) were investigated\\u000a by the method of cytotoxic test and SDS-pobyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Of the 62 clinical isolates, the broth\\u000a culture filter (BCF) of 43 strains caused the Vero cell intracytoplasmically vacuolated. H. pylori strains were divided into\\u000a H. pylori (Toxin+) group with vacuolated effect

  4. Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céu Figueiredo; Ricardo Sanna; Anton Plaisier; Peter Schneeberger; Wink de Boer; Wim Quint

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: Clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between H. pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA status and severity of disease. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens from 94 patients in The Netherlands were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. Results:cagA was

  5. An integrated sequence stratigraphy-organic geochemistry study of the Vaca Muerta petroleum systems, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lara, M.E. [Lagoven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Wavrek, D.A. [ERSI, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Vines, R.; Laffitte, G.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This study shows that the Early Tithonian maximum flooding surface associated with the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation is an oil-prone marine condensed section which accumulated in the distal and shelfal parts of the basin during the maximum transgression. The overlying organic-rich sequences were deposited in a low-angle ramp setting in response to minor relative sea-level changes within an overall relative still-stand. Throughout the basin, the TOC content of the Vaca Muerta Formation decreases upward with the maximum TOC values correlating to the basal condensed section. Lateral variations in depositional setting along the Neuquen Embayment correlate to different source facies within the Vaca Muerta Formation. The distal source facies consist of multiple stacked marine condensed depositional sequences of all systems tracts. The upward decrease in TOC of the distal facies is gradual indicating that prolonged sediment starvation resulted in the accumulation of a thick organic-rich section. However, expulsion efficiency from the distal source facies was relatively low as it required high levels of thermal stress. The shelfal source facies consist of a single marine condensed section whose TOC content abruptly decreases upward due to the diluting effect of clastic highstand progradation. The low-angle shelfal setting favored widespread accumulation of the relatively thin shelfal facies, but coarser sediment interbedding increased expulsion efficiency from this facies. Kimmeridgian-incised valleys provided a regional migration pathway for hydrocarbons generated from both the distal and shelfal source facies.

  6. Vacuolating Cytotoxin (vacA) Alleles of Helicobacter pylori Comprise Two Geographically Widespread Types, m1 and m2, and Have Evolved Through Limited Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, John C.; Sharp, Paul M.; Cover, Timothy L.; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Peek, Richard M.; Thompson, Stuart A.; Hawkey, Christopher J.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) alleles of Helicobacter pylori vary, particularly in their mid region (which may be type m1 or m2) and their signal peptide coding region (type s1 or s2). We investigated nucleotide diversity among vacA alleles in strains from several locales in Asia, South America, and the USA. Phylogenetic analysis of vacA mid region sequences from 18 strains validated the division into two main groups (m1 and m2) and showed further significant divisions within these groups. Informative site analysis demonstrated one example of recombination between m1 and m2 alleles, and several examples of recombination among alleles within these groups. Recombination was not sufficiently extensive to destroy phylogenetic structure entirely. Synonymous nucleotide substitution rates were markedly different between regions of vacA, suggesting different evolutionary divergence times and implying horizontal transfer of genetic elements within vacA. Non-synonymous/synonymous rate ratios were greater between m1 and m2 sequences than among m1 sequences, consistent with m1 and m2 alleles encoding functions fitting strains for slightly different ecological niches. PMID:10486057

  7. Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynne, J.J.; Pleytez, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cave ecosystems are considered one of the most poorly studied and fragile systems on Earth. Belize caves are no exception. This paper represents the first effort to synthesize information on both invertebrate and vertebrate observations from a Belize cave. Based on limited field research and a review of literature, we identified two ecologically sensitive areas, and developed a species inventory list containing 41 vertebrate and invertebrate morphospecies in Actun Chapat, Vaca Plateau, west-central Belize. Actun Chapat contains two ecologically sensitive areas: (1) a large multiple species bat roost, and (2) a subterranean pool containing troglobites and stygobites. The inventory list is a product of sporadic research conducted between 1973 and 2001. Ecological research in this cave system remains incomplete. An intensive systematic ecological survey of Actun Chapat with data collection over multiple seasons using a suite of survey techniques will provide a more complete inventory list. To minimize human disturbance to the ecologically sensitive areas, associated with ecotourism, we recommend limited to no access in the areas identified as "sensitive".

  8. H. pylori Escape Host Immunoreaction Through Inhibiting ILK Expression by VacA

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianping; Li, Ping; Tao, Jing; Shi, Xiaodong; Hu, Baoyu; Chen, Huabiao; Guo, Xiaokui

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) persistently colonizes the gastric mucosa despite a vigorous immune response. Vacuolating cytotoxin secreted by H. pylori has turned out to be a potent immunomodulatory toxin, but the signal transduction pathways involved has not been studied in macrophages. We observed in this study that vacA-deficient H. pylori induced significantly higher expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and endothelial nitric oxygen synthase (eNOS), and significantly more production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in monocyte/macrophage-like U937 cells, as compared with isogenic vacA+H. pylori. The expression of eNOS mRNA in U937 cells overexpressing ILK was markedly increased compared with those transfected with empty vectors. Thus, vacA-deficient H. pylori appears to upregulate ILK expression, which modulates the expression of eNOS and as a result, stimulates the production of ROS. It is VacA that prevents such a process by inhibiting ILK expression, helping H. pylori escape host immunoreaction. This mechanism explains, at least in part, persistent infection of H. pylori in the stomach. PMID:19567202

  9. 81Kr-Kr age and multiple cosmic-ray exposure history of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, Ken-Ichi; Nagao, Keisuke

    2011-04-01

    Noble gas isotopic compositions were measured for a eucritic pebble and bulk material of a silicate-metal mixture from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite as well as pyroxene and plagioclase separated from the eucritic pebble by total melting and stepwise heating methods. Trapped noble gases were degassed completely by a high-temperature thermal event, probably at the formation of the Vaca Muerta parent body (VMPB). The presence of fissiogenic Xe isotopes from extinct 244Pu in the bulk samples might be a result of rapid cooling from an early high-temperature metamorphism. High concentrations of cosmogenic noble gases enabled us to determine precise isotopic ratios of cosmogenic Kr and Xe. Spallogenic Ne from Na and unique Ar isotopic compositions were observed. The 81Kr-Kr exposure age of 168 ± 8 Myr for the silicate pebble is distinctly longer than the age of 139 ± 8 Myr for the bulk samples. The precursor of the pebble had been irradiated on the surface of the VMPB for more than 60 Myr (first stage irradiation), with subsequent incorporation into bulk materials approximately 4 Gyr ago. The Vaca Muerta meteorite was excavated from the VMPB 140 Myr ago (second stage irradiation). Relative diffusion rates among the cosmogenic Ar, Kr, and Xe based on data obtained by stepwise heating indicate that Kr and Xe can be partially retained in pyroxene and plagioclase under the condition that resets the K-Ar system. This result supports the presence of fission Xe and of excess concentration of cosmogenic Kr, which could have survived the thermal event approximately 3.8 Gyr ago.

  10. Comparison of serum antibody titers to Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides, CagA, VacA and partially purified cellular extracts in a Japanese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichi Yokota; Ken-ichi Amano; Nobuhiro Fujii; Takashi Yokochi

    2000-01-01

    We examined the levels of antibody titers against Helicobacter pylori antigens, three types of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), recombinant CagA antigen, recombinant VacA antigen and partially purified cellular antigens in the sera of Japanese volunteers. The three types of LPSs are LPS carrying the highly antigenic epitope, LPS carrying the weakly antigenic epitope and rough LPS, classified on the basis of antigenicity

  11. A Tale of Two Toxins: Helicobacter Pylori CagA and VacA Modulate Host Pathways that Impact Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kathleen R.; Whitmire, Jeannette M.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that colonizes more than 50% of the world's population, which leads to a tremendous medical burden. H. pylori infection is associated with such varied diseases as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and two forms of gastric cancer: gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This association represents a novel paradigm for cancer development; H. pylori is currently the only bacterium to be recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, a significant amount of research has been conducted to identify the bacterial factors and the deregulated host cell pathways that are responsible for the progression to more severe disease states. Two of the virulence factors that have been implicated in this process are cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), which are cytotoxins that are injected and secreted by H. pylori, respectively. Both of these virulence factors are polymorphic and affect a multitude of host cellular pathways. These combined facts could easily contribute to differences in disease severity across the population as various CagA and VacA alleles differentially target some pathways. Herein we highlight the diverse types of cellular pathways and processes targeted by these important toxins. PMID:21687723

  12. Association among H. pylori virulence markers dupA, cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a novel virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that is associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in some populations. The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of dupA gene and evaluate the association among dupA and other virulence factors including cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 205 dyspeptic patients (100 children and 105 adults). DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and its virulence factors using the polymerase chain reaction method. Results Patients with gastritis tested positive for H. pylori more frequently. The dupA gene was detected in 41.5% of them (85/205); cagA gene was found in 98 isolates (47.8%) and vacA genotype s1/m1 in 50.2%, s1/m2 in 8.3%, s2/m2 in 36.6%, s2/m1 in 0.5% and s1/s2/m1/m2 in 4.4%. We also verified a significant association between cagA and dupA genes [p?=?0.0003, relative risk (RR) 1.73 and confidence interval [CI]?=?1.3–2.3]. The genotypes s1/m1 were also associated with dupA gene (p?=?0.0001, RR: 1.72 and CI: 1.3–2.2). The same associations were found when analyzing pediatric and adult groups of patients individually. Conclusion Ours results suggest that dupA is highly frequent in Brazilian patients and is associated with cagA gene and vacA s1/m1 genotype, and it may be considered an important virulence factor in the development of gastric diseases in adults or children. PMID:24456629

  13. Helicobacter pylori vacA i region polymorphism but not babA2 status associated to gastric cancer risk in northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Batool; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Somi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori-specific genotypes have been strongly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present work was to study the associations of H. pylori virulence factors, vacA i region polymorphisms and babA2 status with GC risk in Azerbaijan patients. The DNA extracted from gastric biopsy specimens was used to access the babA2 and vacA genotypes. Overall, babA2 was present in 85.39 % (76/89) of H. pylori strains: 19 out of 24 (79.16 %) strains from GC, 16 out of 17 (94.14 %) strains from peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 41 out of 48 (85.14 %) strains from chronic gastritis. No significant association was found between babA2 genotype and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). i1 vacA polymorphism was detected in 46/89 (51.68 %) strains: in 21/24 (87.5 %), 6/17 (35.29 %) and 19/48 (39.58 %) patients with GC, PUD and chronic gastritis, respectively. i2 allele was detected in 43 (48.31 %) out of all 89 strains examined: 3 (14.28 %) of 24 strains from GC, 11 (64.71 %) of 17 from PUD, and 29 (60.42 %) of 48 strains from chronic gastritis. In this study, multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the strong association of i1 allele with GC (partial regression correlation 0.455 ± 0.101; P = 0). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with GC compared with a control group (gastritis) (odds ratio 13.142, 95 % CI 3.116-55.430; P = 0). Findings from the measurement of H. pylori babA2 and vacA genotypes indicate a strong correlation between the vacA i1 allele and GC risk in the Azerbaijan area of Iran. PMID:25472424

  14. Relationship between Tobacco, cagA and vacA i1 Virulence Factors and Bacterial Load in Patients Infected by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Estefanía; Aragones, Nuria; Saez, Jesús; Galiana, Antonio; Sola-Vera, Javier; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Paz-Zulueta, María; Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Pérez, Estefanía; Sillero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Several biological and epidemiological studies support a relationship between smoking and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to increase the risk of pathology. However, there have been few studies on the potential synergistic association between specific cagA and vacA virulence factors and smoking in patients infected by Helicobacter pylori. We studied the relationship between smoking and cagA, vacA i1 virulence factors and bacterial load in H. pylori infected patients. Methods Biopsies of the gastric corpus and antrum from 155 consecutive patients in whom there was clinical suspicion of infection by H. pylori were processed. In 106 patients H. pylori infection was detected. Molecular methods were used to quantify the number of microorganisms and presence of cagA and vacA i1 genes. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain patients’ clinical data and lifestyle variables, including tobacco and alcohol consumption. Adjusted Odds Ratios (ORadjusted) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results cagA was significantly associated with active-smoking at endoscope: ORadjusted 4.52. Evidence of association was found for vacA i1 (ORadjusted 3.15). Bacterial load was higher in active-smokers, although these differences did not yield statistical significance (median of 262.2 versus 79.4 copies of H. pylori per cell). Conclusions The association between smoking and a higher risk of being infected by a virulent bacterial population and with higher bacterial load, support a complex interaction between H. pylori infection and environmental factors. PMID:25794002

  15. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori iceA, cagA, and vacA Status and Clinical Outcome: Studies in Four Different Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOSHIO YAMAOKA; TADASHI KODAMA; OSCAR GUTIERREZ; JONG G. KIM; KEI KASHIMA; DAVID Y. GRAHAM

    1999-01-01

    There is continuing interest in identifying Helicobacter pylori virulence factors that might predict the risk for symptomatic clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that iceA and cagA genes are such markers and can identify patients with peptic ulcers. We compared H. pylori isolates from four countries, looking at the cagA and vacA genotypes, iceA alleles, and presentation of the infection.

  16. Comparison of serum antibody titers to Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides, CagA, VacA and partially purified cellular extracts in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Yokota, S; Amano, K; Fujii, N; Yokochi, T

    2000-04-15

    We examined the levels of antibody titers against Helicobacter pylori antigens, three types of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), recombinant CagA antigen, recombinant VacA antigen and partially purified cellular antigens in the sera of Japanese volunteers. The three types of LPSs are LPS carrying the highly antigenic epitope, LPS carrying the weakly antigenic epitope and rough LPS, classified on the basis of antigenicity in humans. IgG titers against all H. pylori antigens tested were significantly different between gastroduodenal patients and healthy adults without H. pylori infection. IgG titers against LPS carrying the weakly antigenic epitope, rough LPS and VacA antigen, as well as IgA titers against the partially purified cellular extract were significantly higher in gastroduodenal patients than in H. pylori-positive healthy adults. However, IgG titers against LPS carrying the highly antigenic epitope, CagA antigen or the partially purified cellular extract showed no significant difference between patients and H. pylori-positive healthy adults. The results indicated that increases in IgG titers against VacA antigen and the weakly antigenic and core epitopes of LPS, and in IgA titer against the partially purified cellular extract, were associated with disease state and may be useful in identifying active infection of H. pylori. PMID:10754247

  17. Genotyping of cagA and vacA, Lewis antigen status, and analysis of the poly-(C) tract in the ?(1,3)-fucosyltransferase gene of Irish Helicobacter pylori isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieran A. Ryan; Anthony P. Moran; Sean O. Hynes; Terry Smith; Denise Hyde; Colm A. O’Morain; Majella Maher

    2000-01-01

    Much work has focused on trying to identify markers in Helicobacter pylori that might allow the eventual disease outcome of an infection to be predicted. In this study we examined the cagA and vacA genotype, and Lewis status in a panel of 43 Irish H. pylori clinical isolates, and investigated a possible correlation with disease pathology. In addition, differences in

  18. Genetic Analysis of cagA and vacA Genes in Helicobacter Pylori Isolates and Their Relationship with Gastroduodenal Diseases in the West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Souod, Negar; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Ranjbar, Reza; Sarshar, Meysam

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori have different virulence factors which are associated with several gastroduodenal diseases; however, this association is variable in different geographical regions. Data of genotypes of Iranian H. pylori isolates are few. Objectives The aim of the current study was to investigate the cagA/vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates and determine the relationship between these genotypes with respect to different gastric disorders in patients of Chaharmahalo Bakhtiarian. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, gastric biopsies were taken from 200 patients with gastrodoudenal diseases. Histopathological features were recognized by specialist. The samples were subjected to PCR for detection and identification of ureC, cagA and vacA genes. Results The frequency of the vacA genotypes, sa1/m1, s1a/m1b, s1a/m2, s1b/m1a, s1b/m1b, s1b/m2, s1c/m1a, s1c/m1b, s1c/m2, s2/m1a, s2/m1b and s2/m2 were 27(6.6%), 8(4.3%), 45(28.04%), 7(3.7%), 5(2.5%), 10 (6.1%), 12 (7.4%), 4 (2.5%), 18(11%), 6(3.7%), 0 and 22(13.5%) respectively. The cagA gene was detected in 92% of strains. Based on our findings, it seemed that cagPAI and vacA s1 genotypes were associated with some gastric disorders in patients with H. pylori. In this region, the isolates carrying s1a/m2 were the most prevalent. Conclusions We found considerable relationship between s1a/m1a, s1a/m2, s2/m2 and s1c/m1a and some gastric disorders. Further studies about the role of H. pylori virulence factors and gastric disorders were recommended. PMID:24349721

  19. Genotyping of cagA and vacA, Lewis antigen status, and analysis of the poly-(C) tract in the alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase gene of Irish Helicobacter pylori isolates.

    PubMed

    Ryan, K A; Moran, A P; Hynes, S O; Smith, T; Hyde, D; O'Morain, C A; Maher, M

    2000-06-01

    Much work has focused on trying to identify markers in Helicobacter pylori that might allow the eventual disease outcome of an infection to be predicted. In this study we examined the cagA and vacA genotype, and Lewis status in a panel of 43 Irish H. pylori clinical isolates, and investigated a possible correlation with disease pathology. In addition, differences in the poly-(C) tract of the alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase gene were examined to identify a possible correlation with gene expression. Only three of 43 isolates were cagA-negative, whereas the remaining 40 isolates, independent of pathology, were cagA-positive. In all the strains we examined, the vacA signal-sequence was type s1a. For the vacA mid-region 12/43 isolates were type m1 and 31/43 isolates were type m2. These data, and examination of isolates from different pathology groups, suggests that there is no correlation between virulence and vacA genotype in the Irish population of H. pylori isolates. Western blotting of whole cell lysates from 32 H. pylori isolates showed 3/32 displayed only the Le(x) epitope, 12/32 only the Le(y), 13/32 both epitopes and 4/32 neither epitope. No apparent association between Lewis phenotype and disease pathology was evident. A range of lengths of poly-(C) tract were observed in the alpha(1, 3)-fucosyltransferase gene, however the length of the tract in an isolate did not correlate with the Lewis structures present. We conclude that future studies on H. pylori pathogenesis should not alone focus on the importance of molecular markers, but also on the host response, including genetic background and immune responsiveness. PMID:10799800

  20. CagA phosphorylation EPIYA-C motifs and the vacA i genotype in Helicobacter pylori strains of asymptomatic children from a high-risk gastric cancer area in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Lucia Libanez Bessa Campelo; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Alves de; Gonçalves, Maria Helane Rocha Batista; Chaves, Fernando Kennedy; Benigno, Tiago Gomes da Silva; Gomes, Adriana Dias; Silva, Cícero Igor Simões Moura; Anacleto, Charles; Batista, Sérgio de Assis; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric diseases. Virulence factors such as VacA and CagA have been shown to increase the risk of these diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role of CagA EPIYA-C in gastric carcinogenesis and this factor has been shown to be geographically diverse. We investigated the number of CagA EPIYA motifs and the vacA i genotypes in H. pylori strains from asymptomatic children. We included samples from 40 infected children (18 females and 22 males), extracted DNA directly from the gastric mucus/juice (obtained using the string procedure) and analysed the DNA using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The vacA i1 genotype was present in 30 (75%) samples, the i2 allele was present in nine (22.5%) samples and both alleles were present in one (2.5%) sample. The cagA-positive samples showed distinct patterns in the 3’ variable region of cagA and 18 of the 30 (60%) strains contained 1 EPIYA-C motif, whereas 12 (40%) strains contained two EPIYA-C motifs. We confirmed that the studied population was colonised early by the most virulent H. pylori strains, as demonstrated by the high frequency of the vacA i1 allele and the high number of EPIYA-C motifs. Therefore, asymptomatic children from an urban community in Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil are frequently colonised with the most virulent H. pylori strains. PMID:25494468

  1. Analysis of Expression of CagA and VacA Virulence Factors in 43 Strains ofHelicobacter pyloriReveals that Clinical Isolates Can Be Divided into Two Major Types and that CagA Is Not Necessary for Expression of the Vacuolating Cytotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHAOYING XIANG; STEFANO CENSINI; PIETRO F. BAYELI; JOHN L. TELFORD; NATALE FIGURA; RINO RAPPUOLI; ANDANTONELLO COVACCI

    Colonization of the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum by Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathologies in humans. Duodenal ulcer formation strongly correlates with the expression of an antigen (CagA) that is usually coexpressed with the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), a protein that causes ulceration in the stomach of mice. However, the relationship between

  2. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of a Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp (Vaca Muerta Formation): A misunderstood exceptional source rock in the Southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Riccardi, Alberto C.; Martín-Chivelet, Javier; López-Gómez, José

    2014-04-01

    The Vaca Muerta Formation (early Tithonian-early Valanginian) is a rhythmic succession of marls and limestones, cropping out in the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina. This lithostratigraphic unit was traditionally interpreted as basinal to slope deposits. Detailed facies analysis allows to differentiate seven facies associations, representing basinal to middle ramp facies of a homoclinal ramp system prograding westward from the eastern margin, and slope facies attributed to a distally steepened ramp system that progrades eastward from the Andean volcanic arc in the west. Two sequence hierarchies are recognized: five third order depositional sequences, and fifteen fourth order high-frequency sequences. Fluctuations in organic matter content within the Vaca Muerta Formation suggest relationship with depositional sequences, finding the highest values associated with transgressive system tracts. This work represents an important advance in the understanding of the sedimentary and stratigraphic evolution of this exceptional unconventional reservoir. Our sequence stratigraphic approach contributes to the understanding of the relationship between organic matter, facies, and sea-level changes.

  3. artigo original Bioequivalência de Preparações Comerciais de L-Tiroxina (100 e 200µg): Avaliação em Pacientes Hipotireóideos Previamente Tireoidectomizados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalinda Y. A. Camargo; Jean Jorge; Ana K. M. Bezerra; Katia Seidenberger; Eduardo Tomimori; Maria Silvia Cardia; Meyer Knobel; Lenine Brandão; Geraldo Medeiros-Neto

    Bioequivalence of Commercial Formulations of L-Thyroxine (100 and 200µg): Evaluation in Previously Thyroidectomized Hypothyroid Patients. A major issue influencing prescribing patterns of physicians has been the relative bioavailability and bioequivalence of commercial levothyroxine preparations. Some studies have suggested similar bioequivalence between various L-T4 tablets while other reports have found differences. Some of these studies have been criticized for methodological defects

  4. Independencia para actividades de la vida diaria en ancianos previamente autónomos intervenidos por fractura de cadera secundaria a una caída tras 6 meses de evolución

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Candel-Parra; María Pilar Córcoles-Jiménez; María Ángeles del Egidofernández; Ascensión Villada-Munera; María Delirio Jiménez-Sánchez; Mónica Moreno-Moreno; Miriam Carrión-González; Ángeles Denia-Cortés

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveTo measure recovery of independence in activities of daily living (ADL) 6 months after surgery in elderly patients (previously independent and without cognitive impairment) with hip fracture caused by a fall.

  5. Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...

  6. Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional reservoirs: the Upper Jurassic Vaca

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional as to the scale of sedimentological variability within mudstone successions, and how related diagenetic alteration by Profs Taylor and Flint, to document the scale of sedimentological and diagenetic variability

  7. Restrição alimentar e atividade ovariana luteal cíclica pós-parto em vacas girolanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADEMIR DE MORAES FERREIRA; JOÃO HENRIQUE MOREIRA VIANA; WANDERLEI FERREIRA DE SÁ; LUIZ SÉRGIO DE ALMEIDA CAMARGO; RUI DA SILVA VERNEQUE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss on postpartum cross bred Holstein x Gir (HZ) cows in good body score condition (BSC = 3.5 to 4.5) at calving on the delay of beginning or on maintenance of ovarian luteal cyclic activity (OLCA). Cows were distributed in three treatments: Group I (n = 15), maintenance;

  8. Contagem de células somáticas no leite de vacas suplementadas no pré-parto com selênio e vitamina E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Jorge Paschoal; Marcus Antonio Zanetti; José Aparecido Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Selenium and vitamin E are important antioxidants for cells and tissues protection acting directly as a support for the udder health. This experiment was aimed at evaluating the influence of prepartum selenium and vitamin E supplementation on milk somatic cell counts of Holstein cows during summer period. Eighty animals were allocated into four treatments: control; supplementation with 2.5mg Se day

  9. The hero's story: typology, biblical allusion, and persona in Alvar Nu?n?ez Cabeza de Vaca's Narrative 

    E-print Network

    Bell, Glenna Gail

    1991-01-01

    -Anglo immigrants to be, if not Americans. Yet, wonder as we may, we cannot deny that Crevecoeur's ethnocentric outlook was typical of his time. But sadly enough, even now, when many of us think of the United States' genesis, the Puritans come to mind first...

  10. EFECTO DE LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL AL PARTO SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO Y VARIACIÓN DE PESO CORPORAL POSTPARTO DE VACAS MESTIZAS LECHERAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libardo Maza; Roger Salgado O

    Body condition and body weight at birth have a direct relation, as with postpartum reproductive behavior as with post partum weight change. Being in mind that cows with extreme body condition score at birth, as too low <3.0 as too high >4.0 in a 1-5 scale, showed less reproductive behavior, in relation to the cyclical luteal ovarian activity, silent estrus

  11. Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over recent years, there have been observed in several cattle farms within the region of the Sierra de Cameros (La Rioja) mountains, reproductive alterations consisting of pre-mature births and birth of dead calves or calves of reduced viability. After laboratory examination of several cases with ne...

  12. Vacuolating Cytotoxin and Variants in Atg16L1 that Disrupt Autophagy Promote Helicobacter pylori Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Raju, D; Hussey, S; Ang, M; Terebiznik, M.R.; Sibony, M; Galindo-Mata, E; Gupta, V; Blanke, S.R.; Delgado, A; Romero-Gallo, J; Ramjeet, M; Mascarenhas, H; Peek, R.M.; Correa, P; Streutker, C; Hold, G; Kunstmann, E; Yoshimori, T; Silverberg, M. S.; Girardin, S.E.; Philpott, D.J.; El Omar, E; Jones, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims The Helicobacter pylori toxin vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) promotes gastric colonization and its presence (VacA+) is associated with more-severe disease. The exact mechanisms by which VacA contributes to infection are unclear. We previously found that limited exposure to VacA induces autophagy of gastric cells, which eliminates the toxin; we investigated whether autophagy serves as a defense mechanism against H pylori infection. Methods We investigated the effect of VacA on autophagy in human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) and primary gastric cells from mice. Expression of p62, a marker of autophagy, was also assessed in gastric tissues from patients infected with toxigenic (VacA+) or nontoxigenic strains. We analyzed the effect of VacA on autophagy in peripheral blood monocytes obtained from subjects with different genotypes of ATG16L1, which regulates autophagy. We performed genotyping for ATG16L1 in two cohorts of infected and uninfected subjects. Results Prolonged exposure of AGS and mouse gastric cells to VacA disrupted induction of autophagy in response to the toxin, because the cells lacked cathepsin-D in autophagosomes. Loss of autophagy resulted in the accumulation of p62 and reactive oxygen species. Gastric biopsies samples from patients infected with VacA+, but not nontoxigenic strains of H pylori, had increased levels of p62. Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from individuals with polymorphisms in ATG16L1 that increase susceptibility to Crohn's disease had reduced induction of autophagy in response to VacA+ compared to cells from individuals that did not have these polymorphisms. The presence of the ATG16L1 Crohn’s disease risk variant increased susceptibility to H pylori infection in 2 separate cohorts. Conclusions Autophagy protects against infection with H pylori; the toxin VacA disrupts autophagy to promote infection, which could contribute to inflammation and eventual carcinogenesis. PMID:22333951

  13. Uptake of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicles by Gastric Epithelial Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heather; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Hampton, Mark B.; Keenan, Jacqueline I.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori bacteria colonize the human stomach where they stimulate a persistent inflammatory response. H. pylori is considered noninvasive; however, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-enriched outer membrane vesicles (OMV), continuously shed from the surface of this bacterium, are observed within gastric epithelial cells. The mechanism of vesicle uptake is poorly understood, and this study was undertaken to examine the roles of bacterial VacA cytotoxin and LPS in OMV binding and cholesterol and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in vesicle uptake by gastric epithelial cells. OMV association was examined using a fluorescent membrane dye to label OMV, and a comparison was made between the associations of vesicles from a VacA+ strain and OMV from a VacA? isogenic mutant strain. Within 20 min, essentially all associated OMV were intracellular, and vesicle binding appeared to be facilitated by the presence of VacA cytotoxin. Uptake of vesicles from the VacA+ strain was inhibited by H. pylori LPS (58% inhibition with 50 ?g/ml LPS), while uptake of OMV from the VacA? mutant strain was less affected (25% inhibition with 50 ?g/ml LPS). Vesicle uptake did not require cholesterol. However, uptake of OMV from the VacA? mutant strain was inhibited by a reduction in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (42% with 15 ?g/ml chlorpromazine), while uptake of OMV from the VacA+ strain was less affected (25% inhibition with 15 ?g/ml chlorpromazine). We conclude that VacA toxin enhances the association of H. pylori OMV with cells and that the presence of the toxin may allow vesicles to exploit more than one pathway of internalization. PMID:20876296

  14. Presentations at the II Simposio Internacional sobre Restauracin Ecolgica, held in Santa Clara, Cuba, on April 16-22, 2007 as reported by Francisco A. Comn (2008) in Ecological Restoration

    E-print Network

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    2008-01-01

    manglar Predictive planning: Its role in integrated coastal zone planning and development with an emphasis for the management and conservation of three lakes in the community of Vacas (Cochabamba, Bolivia) Authors: F. Ely, T

  15. BLABLA -PALEONTOLOGA COMBUSTIBLES SLIDOS (ASFALTITA) DE LA PROVINCIA

    E-print Network

    Galland, Olivier

    . Vaca Muerta, de edad Jurásica tardía. En la provincia del Neuquén, las vetas son mayormente filones Tromen. Ahí la asfaltita es de alto grado, pero en otros lugares es de grado menor.También cerca de las

  16. Host Cell Responses to Genotypically Similar Helicobacter pylori Isolates from United States and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Ando; Richard M. Peek; Y.-C. Lee; U. Krishna; K. Kusugami; M. J. Blaser

    2002-01-01

    Associations of Helicobacter pylori genotypes with disease differ between Western countries and Asia. There- fore, we directly compared histopathological and in vitro responses to clinical isolates with similar genotypes. Sixty-three cagA vacAs1\\/m1 H. pylori isolates (United States, n 24; Japan, n 39) and eight cagA-negative vacAs2\\/m2 strains were incubated with AGS cells, and supernatants were assayed for interleukin-8 (IL-8) and

  17. New Serological Assay for Detection of Putative Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Young Park; Yong-Kyun Cho; Tadashi Kodama; Hala M. T. El-Zimaity; Michael S. Osato; David Y. Graham; Yoshio Yamaoka

    There is considerable interest in determining Helicobacter pylori infection outcomes in relation to the putative H. pylori virulence factors CagA and VacA. Molecular methods can identify cagA and vacA genotypes of H. pylori; however, these methods require cultured strains or gastric biopsy specimens and thus are not suitable for routine clinical use or most epi- demiologic studies. Serology-based detection methods

  18. New Serological Assay for Detection of Putative Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Young Park; Yong-Kyun Cho; Tadashi Kodama; Hala M. T. El-Zimaity; Michael S. Osato; David Y. Graham; Yoshio Yamaoka

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining Helicobacter pylori infection outcomes in relation to the putative H. pylori virulence factors CagA and VacA. Molecular methods can identify cagA and vacA genotypes of H. pylori; however, these methods require cultured strains or gastric biopsy specimens and thus are not suitable for routine clinical use or most epi- demiologic studies. Serology-based detection methods

  19. The fire stones carry: Ethnographic records and archaeological expectations for hot-rock cookery in western North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alston V. Thoms

    2008-01-01

    Ethnographic data from Kalispel elders in the 1930s attest to use of wild root foods, rock-filled earth ovens, steaming and boiling pits, and hot-rock griddles during the 1800s in forested montane regions of the interior Northwest. Cabeza de Vaca’s narrative of his 1528–1536 travels across the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas and deserts of northern Mexico illustrates the importance of

  20. Helicobacter pylori induced interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells is associated with CagA positive phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Crabtree; A Covacci; S M Farmery; Z Xiang; D S Tompkins; S Perry; I J Lindley; R Rappuoli

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To use a range of natural phenotypically variant strains of Helicobacter pylori with disparate CagA and VacA (vacuolating cytotoxin) expression to determine which bacterial factors are more closely associated with epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction. METHODS--Gastric epithelial cells (AGS and KATO-3) were co-cultured with five H pylori strains which were variously shown to express the cagA gene\\/CagA protein, VacA and\\/or to

  1. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE GRANO DE MAÍZ Y TRIGO BROTADO EN RACIONES DE VACAS LECHERAS PARIDAS EN OTOÑO Y QUE CONSUMEN ENSILAJE DE MAÍZ 1 Comparison of kernel corn and sprouted wheat for diets of dairy cows with autumn calving and consumption of corn silage 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Hazard; Claudio Rojas; Cristian Hewstone

    2004-01-01

    A B S T R A C T In the Carillanca Regional Agricultural Research Institute, kernel corn (Zea mays L.) was compared with sprouted wheat (Tritricum aestivum L.) incorporated in the concentrate of cows that consumed corn silage plus 4 kg of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Eight Chilean Frison Negro cows were assigned to each treatment. The treatments evaluated were

  2. EMBRYO TRANSFER IN ANGUS AND BRAHMAN RECIPIENT COWS: EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION ON INDUCED ESTRUS AND PREGNANCY Transferencia de Embriones en Vacas Receptoras Angus y Brahman: Efecto de Dos Métodos de Sincronización de Celos sobre el Celo Inducido y Preñez

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad C. Chase; Carlos A. Vargas; Andrew C. Hammond; Timothy A. Olson; James L. Griffin; Clifton N. Murphy; Assefaw Tewolde; Michael J. Fields

    2009-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 88 Angus and 87 Brahman cows were used as recipients to determine the effects of breedtype and method of estrous synchronization on induced estrus and subsequent pregnancy following embryo transfer. Estrus was synchronized in recipients using either prostaglandin-F2 (PGF; Lutalyse) or progestogen (PRO; Syncro-Mate-B). Re- cipients were treated (im) with PGF on day -11 (25 mg),

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to Helicobacter Pylori VacA-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Yuko; Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Kanda, Tsutomu; Minami, Hitomi; Yamaghchi, Naoyuki; Taura, Naota; Shiozawa, Ken; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakano, Masayuki; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the important virulence factors produced by H. pylori. VacA induces apoptotic cell death, which is potentiated by ammonia. VacA also causes cell death by mitochondrial damage, via signaling pathways that are not fully defined. Our aim was to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with VacA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up-regulated following incubation of gastric epithelial cells with VacA. The effect of VacA on CHOP induction was significantly enhanced by co-incubation with ammonium chloride. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-alpha, which is known to occur downstream of the ER stress sensor PKR-like ER-localized eIF2-alpha kinase (PERK) and to regulate CHOP expression, was also observed following incubation with VacA in the presence of ammonium chloride. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA resulted in inhibition of VacA-induced apoptosis. Further studies showed that silencing of the PERK gene with siRNA attenuated VacA-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2-alpha, CHOP induction, expression of BH3-only protein Bim and Bax activation, and cell death induced by VacA with ammonium chloride, indicating that ER stress may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction during VacA-induced toxicity. Activation of ER stress and up-regulation of BH3-only proteins were also observed in human H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Collectively, this study reveals a possible association between VacA-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and activation of ER stress in H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. PMID:24349255

  4. Neutron capture records of mesosiderites and an iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2011-10-01

    The Sm and Gd isotopic compositions of silicates from six mesosiderites (Dalgaranga, Estherville, Morristown, Northwest Africa (NWA) 1242, NWA 2932, and Vaca Muerta) and one iron meteorite (Udei Station) were determined to elucidate the cosmic-ray exposure records. All seven samples showed significant 150Sm/ 149Sm and 158Gd/ 157Gd isotopic shifts from neutron capture reactions corresponding to neutron fluences of (1.3-21.8) × 10 15 n cm -2. In particular, Vaca Muerta showed a significantly higher neutron fluences than the other six samples. The parameter for the degree of neutron thermalization ( ?Sm/ ?Gd) also showed a significant difference between Vaca Muerta (0.76) and the other samples (0.93-1.20). These results suggest a two-stage irradiation of the Vaca Muerta silicates in the parent body (>50 Ma) before formation of the mesosiderite and during its transit to Earth (138 Ma). This is consistent with the 81Kr-Kr cosmic-ray exposure age data of a Vaca Muerta pebble from a previous noble gas isotopic study.

  5. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Shiota, Seiji; Matsuda, Miyuki; Binh, Tran Thanh; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Tshering, Lotay; Dung, Ho D. Q.; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsunari, Osamu; Myint, Thein; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and ?-(1,3)galT(jhp0563) was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/?-(1,3)galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/?-(1,3)galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer. PMID:26090448

  6. A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments. PMID:26123572

  7. A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3’-5’ exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments. PMID:26123572

  8. Standardized performance analysis (SPA) for the cow-calf enterprise: Paraguayan case study 

    E-print Network

    Nunez, Jorge Luis Rejis

    1996-01-01

    1-Nov-93 10-May-94 Reconciliacidn de Inventario de Vacas Expuestas a Toro: Descripcion Inventario inicial: Fecha Cabezas 15-Sep-92 1 Total de vientres expuestos a toros al inicio de la epoca de entore 3, 431 2 Descarles expuestos a toros 3... 541 mss vaquillas de reemplazo y vacas compradas, a exponer o expuestas en el inventario inicial 12 Porcentaje de Reemplazo Por Vientre Expuesto (11/9) x 100. 15. 7% Medidas de Performance de Prenez: 13a Numero de vientres expuestos sometidos al...

  9. A inevitabilidade de um sismo em Lisboa, s no se sabendo

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    dispositivo próprio colocado previamente. #12;AR e pontes estão seguras Já a Assembleia da República so- freu, em 2008, obras de reforço na parede da sala das sessões, que re- velara debilidades. Também as pontes

  10. CantoblancoNoticiasdelaUniversidadAutnomadeMadrid Nmero9Octubre1999

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    públicas madrileñas, que "tenemos la responsabilidad de conse- guir que la universidad pública alcance las más altas cotas de calidad docente, exce- lencia investigadora e influencia social". Previamente, el

  11. Programacin Paralela Programacin en memoria distribuida: MPI 1

    E-print Network

    Giménez, Domingo

    Programación Paralela Programación en memoria distribuida: MPI 1 PROGRAMACIÓN PARALELA Modelos de programación paralela Programación en memoria distribuida: MPI · MPI1.1: www.mpi; Programación Paralela Programación en memoria distribuida: MPI 2 ¿Qué es MPI? Previamente PVM: Parallel

  12. DownloadedBy:[NorthwesternUniversity]At:14:157September2007 Karen Banai*,$

    E-print Network

    of the speech-ABR in typically developing children and in children with LD. We also review studies procesamiento auditivo a nivel de la corteza. Luego de un examen cri´tico de datos previamente publicados

  13. Induction of Gastric Epithelial Cell Apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma S. Krishna; Dawn A. Israel; Richard M. Peek

    2003-01-01

    Chronic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori is a strong risk factor for the development of distal gastric adenocarcinoma. A specific host response to H. pylori that may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis is epithelial cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of H. pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) to induce gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. When cocultured with

  14. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Extracellular Protein Release by Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WAYNE SCHRAW; MARK S. MCCLAIN

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of extracellular protein release by Helicobacter pylori ,w e analyzed the entry of metabolically radiolabeled bacterial proteins into broth culture supernatant. At early time points, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) constituted a major extracellular protein. Subsequently, culture supernatants accumulated many proteins that were components of intact bacterial cells. This nonselective release of proteins was associated with

  15. Distinct Diversity of the cag Pathogenicity Island among Helicobacter pylori Strains in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Azuma; Akiyo Yamakawa; Shiho Yamazaki; Masahiro Ohtani; Yoshiyuki Ito; Atsushi Muramatsu; Hiroyuki Suto; Yukinao Yamazaki; Yoshihide Keida; Hideaki Higashi; Masanori Hatakeyama

    2004-01-01

    The severity of Helicobacter pylori-related disease is correlated with the presence of a cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Genetic diversity within the cag PAI may have a modifying effect on the pathogenic potential of the infecting strain. We analyzed the complete cag PAI sequences of 11 representative Japanese strains according to their vacA genotypes and clinical effects and examined the relationship

  16. 29 June 2010 Aristotle put together a list of birds (n =170)

    E-print Network

    Butler, Christopher J.

    over eight volumes, including 39 never before illustrated John James Audubon (1785-1851) Published birds passing." - Christopher Columbus De Vaca (1528), Castenada (1541-1542) noted birds John White (1585) painted watercolors The Ornithology of Francis Willughby (1678) by Willughby and John Ray

  17. El sexo recompensado: una práctica en el centro de las vulnerabilidades (ITS\\/VIH\\/SIDA) de las jóvenes mexicanas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Lise Théodore; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez; Pilar Torres; Gabriela Luna

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To discuss the risks for Mexican young women who engage in sexual relations in exchange for social or economic benefits, also known as compensated sex (CS), with the objective of exploring its possible public health implications. Material and Methods. This is a qualitative study conducted in youths 15 to 25 years of age in Cuerna- vaca, Morelos, Mexico, between

  18. EXPLORATION OF UNDER-ICE REGIONS WITH OCEAN PROFILING AGENTS (EUROPA)

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    EXPLORATION OF UNDER-ICE REGIONS WITH OCEAN PROFILING AGENTS (EUROPA) D. W. Allen, M. Jones, L. Mc. VaCAS-2013-01 Copyright c 2013 #12;#12;Summary Europa is an incredibly enticing target for exploration ­ the nearest reaches of what may be a vast new "habitable zone" of interior oceans warmed

  19. Adherence and invasion of mouse-adapted H pylori in different epithelial cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao-Jun; Meng, Fan-Liang; Ji, Xiao-Yun; He, Li-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the adhesion and invasion abilities of different mouse adapted H pylori strains in different cell lines in vitro and investigate their effects on the virulence factors cagA and vacA. METHODS: The adherence and invasion abilities of different H pylori strains in different epithelial cell lines were examined by the gentamycin protection assay. The null mutants of cagA and vacA were processed by direct PCR mutation method. The morphologic changes of different cell lines after H pylori attachment were examined by microscopy. RESULTS: The densities of adherence to and invasion into cells in vitro were different from those in the mouse infection experiments. 88-3887 strain could invade and adhere to cells stronger than SS1 and X47. All tested strains had better adhering and invasive abilities in SCG-7901 cell. CagA and vacA minus mutants had the same invasion and adherent abilities as their wild types. In all strains and cell lines tested, only AGS cell had the significant hummingbird phenotype after inoculation with the 88-3887 wild-type. CONCLUSION: Both the host cells and the bacteria play important parts in the invasion and adhesion abilities of H pylori. CagA and VacA are not related to the ability of invasion and adhesion of H pylori in different cell lines in vitro. PMID:17352012

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence genotypes among children in Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozbey, Gokben; Dogan, Yasar; Demiroren, Kaan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the virulence genotypes of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) if present in children in Eastern Turkey and if those genotypes are mostly associated with severe clinical presentations. METHODS: A total of 49 H. pylori positive Turkish children (42 with antral nodularity and 7 with peptic ulcer) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with abdominal symptoms during the period from March 2011 to September 2012 were enrolled in this study. Antral nodularity was diagnosed endoscopically by two of the authors. We determined for the presence of cagA, vacA, cagE, iceA and babA2 genotypes of H. pylori isolates in DNA obtained directly from frozen gastric biopsy samples by polymerase chain reaction test using specific primers. RESULTS: Of the 49 H. pylori isolates studied, 61.2%, 91.8%, 22.4%, 28.6%, 57.1% and 40.8% were positive for the cagA, vacA s1, cagE, iceA1, iceA2 and babA2 genes, respectively. We showed that the most common vacA subtype was s1a (79.6%). However, the s2 gene was found less frequently with an isolation rate of 8.2% of the H. pylori isolates. The genotypes iceA2 and vacA s1m2 were the most frequently found types in children with antral nodularity. In addition, the genotypes iceA1, babA2 and vacA s1m1 were found in similar ratios in all the H. pylori isolates obtained from children with peptic ulcer. The genotypes vacA s2m1 and s1c were not observed in any of isolates studied. CONCLUSION: This study showed that vacA s1m2, cagA and iceA2 were the most common genotypes, and no association between antral nodularity and genotypes was observed. PMID:24151385

  1. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Extracellular Protein Release by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Schraw, Wayne; McClain, Mark S.; Cover, Timothy L.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of extracellular protein release by Helicobacter pylori, we analyzed the entry of metabolically radiolabeled bacterial proteins into broth culture supernatant. At early time points, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) constituted a major extracellular protein. Subsequently, culture supernatants accumulated many proteins that were components of intact bacterial cells. This nonselective release of proteins was associated with a decreasing turbidity of cultures and loss of bacterial viability, indicative of an autolytic process. The rates of VacA secretion and autolysis were each influenced by medium composition, and therefore these may be regulated phenomena. Extracellular release of proteins by H. pylori may be an important adaptation that facilitates the persistence of H. pylori in the human gastric mucus layer. Moreover, entry of proinflammatory proteins into the gastric mucosa may contribute to the induction of a mucosal inflammatory response. PMID:10496902

  2. NMR Studies of Membrane Associating Peptides and Implications in Autotransporter Function

    E-print Network

    Sekar, Giridhar

    2014-10-07

    P N. meningitidis 1UYN EspP E. coli 2QOM EspP (N1023A) E. coli 3SLJ BrkA B. pertussis 3QQ2 Hbp (N1191D) E. coli 3AEH Passenger Domain EspP E. coli 3SZE Pet E. coli 4OM9 Pertactin B. pertussis 1DAB VacA H. pylori 2QV3 Hap H. influenzae 3SYJ IgaP H... in their structures. Crystal structures have been determined for the passenger domains of various autotransporters including those of EspP [45], Hbp and Pet from E. coli [46, 47], pertactin from B. pertussis [48], VacA from H. pylori [49], Hap and IgaP from H...

  3. Helicobacter pylori in North and South America before Columbus.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Orito, Etsuro; Mizokami, Masashi; Gutierrez, Oscar; Saitou, Naruya; Kodama, Tadashi; Osato, Michael S; Kim, Jong G; Ramirez, Francisco C; Mahachai, Varocha; Graham, David Y

    2002-04-24

    We present a molecular epidemiologic study, based on an analysis of vacA, cagA and cag right end junction genotypes from 1042 Helicobacter pylori isolates, suggesting that H. pylori was present in the New World before Columbus. Eight Native Colombian and Alaskan strains possessed novel vacA and/or cagA gene structures and were more closely related to East Asian than to non-Asian H. pylori. Some Native Alaskan strains appear to have originated in Central Asia and to have arrived after strains found in South America suggesting that H. pylori crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to the New World at different times. PMID:12062433

  4. Pediatric Helicobacter pylori Isolates Display Distinct Gene Coding Capacities and Virulence Gene Marker Profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Talarico; Benjamin D. Gold; Jutta Fero; Dexter T. Thompson; Jeannette Guarner; Steven Czinn; Nina R. Salama

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains display remarkable genetic diversity, and the presence of strains bearing the toxigenic vacA s1 allele, a complete cag pathogenicity island (PAI), cagA alleles containing multiple EPIYA phosphorylation sites, and expressing the BabA adhesin correlates with development of gastroduodenal disease in adults. To better understand the genetic variability present among pediatric strains and its relationship to disease, we

  5. Analysis of iceA genotypes in South African Helicobacter pylori strains and relationship to clinically significant disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kidd; R M Peek; A J Lastovica; D A Israel; A F Kummer; J A Louw

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDSouth African Helicobacter pylori isolates are characterised by the universal presence ofcagA but have differences in vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles which correlate with clinically significant disease. However, the candidate virulence marker gene iceA has not been investigated.AIMTo characterise the genetic organisation and heterogeneity oficeA genotypes in different South African clinical isolates.PATIENTS AND METHODSWe studied H pylori strains isolated from

  6. Virulence Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains from West Bengal Residents with Overt H. pylori-Associated Disease and Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Chattopadhyay; Simanti Datta; Abhijit Chowdhury; Sujit Chowdhury; Asish K. Mukhopadhyay; K. Rajendran; S. K. Bhattacharya; Douglas E. Berg; G. Balakrish Nair

    2002-01-01

    We compared putative molecular markers of virulence (vacA, cagA, and iceA )o fHelicobacter pylori strains isolated from 52 adult duodenal ulcer patients from West Bengal, India, with those of H. pylori strains isolated from 48 adult healthy volunteers from the same region. On the basis of genotyping by PCR, we conclude that the H. pylori strains isolated from the two

  7. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Compounds on Activation and Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Kranzer; Liane Sollner; Michael Aigner; Norbert Lehn; Ludwig Deml; Michael Rehli; Wulf Schneider-Brachert

    2005-01-01

    Recently, we and others have shown that Helicobacter pylori induces dendritic cell (DC) activation and maturation. However, the impact of virulence factors on the interplay between DCs and H. pylori remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of cag pathogenicity island (PAI) and VacA status on cytokine release and up-regulation of costimulatory molecules in H. pylori-treated DCs. In addition, to

  8. DNA-Level Characterization of Helicobacter pylori Strains from Patients with Overt Disease and with Benign Infections in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motiur Rahman; Asish K. Mukhopadhyay; Shamsun Nahar; Simanti Datta; Milan Mashhud Ahmad; Safique Sarker; Ibna M. Masud; Lars Engstrand; M. John Albert; G. Balakrish Nair; Douglas E. Berg

    2008-01-01

    The complex relation between the genotype of Helicobacter pylori and its association with clinical outcome is not well understood. Studies in the West have showed that strains expressing certain virulence factors (vacAs1, vacAm1, and cagA) are associated with duodenal ulcer disease. However, the H. pylori genotype is known to vary with geographic region. In the present study, we compared several

  9. PCR-Based Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Real-Time Determination of Clarithromycin Resistance Directly from Human Gastric Biopsy Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANIE A. CHISHOLM; ROBERT J. OWEN; E. LOUISE TEARE; SETH SAVERYMUTTU

    2001-01-01

    A novel PCR detection assay that amplifies the Helicobacter pylori-specific vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) and thus enables rapid diagnosis of infection is described. Additionally, a real-time probe hybridization melting point analysis assay to detect all three mutations in the 23S rRNA gene associated with clarithromycin resistance was applied directly to antral gastric biopsy samples. Comparison with culture and an alternative

  10. Helicobacter pylori ?-glutamyl transpeptidase and vacuolating cytotoxin promote gastric persistence and immune tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Oertli, Mathias; Noben, Manuel; Engler, Daniela B.; Semper, Raphaela P.; Reuter, Sebastian; Maxeiner, Joachim; Gerhard, Markus; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Infection with the gastric bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is typically contracted in early childhood and often persists for decades. The immunomodulatory properties of H. pylori that allow it to colonize humans persistently are believed to also account for H. pylori’s protective effects against allergic and chronic inflammatory diseases. H. pylori infection efficiently reprograms dendritic cells (DCs) toward a tolerogenic phenotype and induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) with highly suppressive activity in models of allergen-induced asthma. We show here that two H. pylori virulence determinants, the ?-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, contribute critically and nonredundantly to H. pylori’s tolerizing effects on murine DCs in vitro and in vivo. The tolerance-promoting effects of both factors are independent of their described suppressive activity on T cells. Isogenic H. pylori mutants lacking either GGT or VacA are incapable of preventing LPS-induced DC maturation and fail to drive DC tolerization as assessed by induction of Treg properties in cocultured naive T cells. The ?ggt and ?vacA mutants colonize mice at significantly reduced levels, induce stronger T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses, and/or trigger more severe gastric pathology. Both factors promote the efficient induction of Tregs in vivo, and VacA is required to prevent allergen-induced asthma. The defects of the ?ggt mutant in vitro and in vivo are phenocopied by pharmacological inhibition of the transpeptidase activity of GGT in all readouts. In conclusion, our results reveal the molecular players and mechanistic basis for H. pylori-induced immunomodulation, promoting persistent infection and conferring protection against allergic asthma. PMID:23382221

  11. Reference Guide for Texas Ranchers (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    2005-11-16

    expresados como por ciento de la composici?n de la dieta en base seca y como nutrientes diarios por animal Especie y Clase Prot. cruda TDN Calcio F?sforo Onzas/d?a % lbs/d?a % ozs/d?a % ozs/d?a % Vacas 1 Secas Lactantes 13.6 30.4 5.9 9.2 7.9 11.0 52 52 0...

  12. Role of strain type, AGS cells and fetal calf serum in Helicobacter pylori adhesion and invasion assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Petersen; J. Blom; L. P. Andersen; K. A. Krogfelt

    2000-01-01

    In a human gastric biopsy specimen, 30% of adhering Helicobacter pylori strain AF4 (cagA and VacA positive) was associated with adhesion pedestals. In an AGS cell assay, only a few percent of this type I strain was found to be associated with adhesion pedestals. Nevertheless, a larger proportion of the type I strain was found to invade AGS cells (P<0.03)

  13. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and the host immune response: implications for therapeutic vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Prinz; Nadia Hafsi; Petra Voland

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is associated with specific gastric disease. Virulence factors, such as urease, the vacuolating toxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated antigen CagA or blood-group-antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), an adherence factor, might account for the development of different diseases. Vaccination trials exploiting the antigenic properties of some of these proteins have not been successful in preventing infection

  14. Clinical Relevance of the babA2 Genotype of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese Clinical Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAKUJI MIZUSHIMA; TOSHIRO SUGIYAMA; YOSHITO KOMATSU; JUN ISHIZUKA; MOTOTSGU KATO; MASAHIRO ASAKA

    2001-01-01

    Genotypic variation of Helicobacter pylori is speculated to associate with different clinical outcomes. In Western countries, the gene encoding blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), babA2, is of high clinical relevance and is a useful marker to identify patients who are at higher risk for peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma, as are vacA and cagA. We investigated the presence of babA2

  15. Late Holocene vegetation, fire, climate and upper forest line dynamics in the Podocarpus National Park, southeastern Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Rodríguez; Hermann Behling

    2011-01-01

    Late Holocene vegetation, fire, climate and upper forest line dynamics were studied based on detailed pollen and charcoal\\u000a analyses. Two sediment cores, from the Rabadilla de Vaca mire (RVM) and the Valle Pequeño bog (VP), with an age of about 2100\\u000a and 1630 cal yrs b.p., respectively, were taken at the modern upper forest line in the Parque Nacional Podocarpus (Podocarpus National

  16. Adherence and invasion of mouse-adapted H pylori in different epithelial cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao-Jun Zhang; Fan-Liang Meng; Xiao-Yun Ji; Li-Hua He; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the adhesion and invasion abilities of different mouse adapted H pylori strains in different cell lines in vitro and investigate their effects on the virulence factors cagA and vacA. METHODS: The adherence and invasion abilities of different H pylori strains in different epithelial cell lines were examined by the gentamycin protection assay. The null mutants of cagA

  17. Free Recombination within Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Suerbaum; John Maynard Smith; Khairun Bapumia; Giovanna Morelli; Noel H. Smith; Erdmute Kunstmann; Isabelle Dyrek; Mark Achtman

    1998-01-01

    Sequences of three gene fragments (flaA, flaB, and vacA) from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in Germany, Canada, and South Africa were analyzed for diversity and for linkage equilibrium by using the Homoplasy Test and compatibility matrices. Horizontal genetic exchange in H. pylori is so frequent that different loci and polymorphisms within each locus are all at linkage equilibrium.

  18. Cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside Reduces Helicobacter pylori VacA-Induced Cell Death of Gastric KATO III Cells through Inhibition of the SecA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sa-Hyun; Woo, Hyunjun; Park, Min; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Moon, Cheol; Lee, Dongsup; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Jong Bae

    2014-01-01

    Two key virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori are the secreted virulent proteins of vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin associated protein A (CagA) which lead to damages of gastric epithelial cells. We previously identified that the cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G) inhibits the secretion of both VacA and CagA. In the current report, we show that C3G inhibits VacA secretion in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting secretion system subunit protein A (SecA) synthesis. As SecA is involved in translocation of bacterial proteins, we predicted that inhibition of the SecA pathway by C3G should decrease H. pylori-induced cell death. To test this hypothesis, the human gastric cell line KATO III cells were co-cultured with H. pylori 60190 (VacA+/CagA+) and C3G. We found that C3G treatment caused a decrease in activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3/-8 in H. pylori-infected cells leading to a decrease in cell death. Our data suggest that consumption of foods containing anthocyanin may be beneficial in reducing cell damage due to H. pylori infection. PMID:24904230

  19. Aprendizaje Evolutivo de los Contextos de las Funciones de Pertenencia para

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    Aprendizaje Evolutivo de los Contextos de las Funciones de Pertenencia para Extraer Reglas de algoritmos de Minería de Datos que extraen reglas de asociación di- fusas asumen que las funciones de pertenen- cia se conocen previamente. Sin embargo, las funciones de pertenencia pueden tener una influencia

  20. AS PECTOS LINGÜÍSTICOS EN EL DISEÑO DE UN CONVERSOR DE TEXTO EN HABLA EN CASTELLANO Y EN CATALÁN: EL SISTEMA LOQUENDO TTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOAQUIM LLISTERRI; MARÍA M ACHUCA; NATALIA M ADRIGAL; FRANCA M; PAOLO M

    Un conversor de texto en habla es, esencialmente, un programa informático que permite leer en voz alta de forma automática cualquier texto previamente almacenado en formato electrónico. Desarrollar una aplicación de este tipo y lograr una elocución lo má s natural posible supone conjugar distintos tipos de saberes que, tradicionalmente, se han situado en ámbitos académicos y profesionales muy alejados.

  1. Los Logros y las Carencias de las Transferencias de Efectivo Condicionadass: Evaluación del Impacto del Programa Tekoporã del Paraguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Perez Ribas; Guilherme Issamu Hirata

    2008-01-01

    El Centro Internacional de Pobreza (CIP), con el apoyo del GTZ y el FNUAP, ha llevado a cabo recientemente una evaluación del impacto del programa piloto de Tekoporã, un programa de transferencias de efectivo condicionadas (CCT, en su sigla inglesa) en Paraguay. Previamente, el CIP analizó el marco lógico del programa y sus dificultades de aplicación, y se evaluaron sus

  2. PROCEDIMIENTO PARA LA REALIZACIN DE LAS FOTOGRAFAS DE LAS ORLAS

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    casos, el delegado tendrá que haber comunicado, previamente, a la Gerencia el estudio y/o fotógrafo con orla, y en el caso de que no se puedan realizar las fotografías en el estudio, el delegado de curso de1 PROCEDIMIENTO PARA LA REALIZACIÓN DE LAS FOTOGRAFÍAS DE LAS ORLAS Los estudios fotográficos o

  3. Analysis of the relationship between invasive capability of Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Yunbin; Xu, Kai; Li, Neng; Chen, Hao; She, Feifei

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may enter into host cells, maybe as a facultative intracellular pathogen. This study aims to reveal the roles of internalized H. pylori in the bacterial pathopoiesis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the invasion of H. pylori. Invasion rates of H. pylori (two standard strains and 43 clinical strains) were examined by gentamicin invasion assay. The cagA, cagE and vacA genes of H. pylori were detected by PCR. The cagA 3'region (cagA-EPIYA) of each strain was sequenced. The secretion of IL-8 from AGS cells and activity of NF-?B induced by intracellular H. pylori were tested by ELISA and the dual-luciferase reporter assay system, respectively. It was found that H. pylori could adhere to and invade AGS cells, then continue to survive and multiply in the cytoplasm. The average invasion rate of H. pylori gastric cancer plants and that of ulcer plants were both higher than that of gastritis plants (P?0.0001). In the clinical strains, cagA, vacA and cagE were all positive; cagA-EPIYA genotypes included ABD 90.7?% (39/43) and ABBD 9.3?% (4/43), all without comparability. Notably, the average invasion rate of H. pylori vacA s1c-i1-m1b plants was higher than that of vacA s1c-i1-m2 plants (P?=?0.0445). In addition, the intracellular H. pylori all could induce IL-8 secretion, which was decreased after cells were pretreated with anti-?1-integrin antibody or SN-50 (an NF-?B inhibitor). The intracellular H. pylori all activated NF-?B, which would be inhibited after cells were pretreated with anti-?1-integrin antibody. These results demonstrate that H. pylori invasive ability and disease severity have a positive correlation, and this intension of invasive ability is associated with the vacA mid-region, not with cagA, cagA-EPIYA or cagE. It is possible that cagA and cagE are essential for the bacterial invasion. Internalized H. pylori can activate NF-?B signal pathway and induce IL-8 secretion, which suggests that H. pylori invasion may be an important strategy to play a role in the development of H. pylori associated diseases. PMID:25752851

  4. Comparative Genomic Analysis of East Asian and Non-Asian Helicobacter pylori Strains Identifies Rapidly Evolving Genes

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Stacy S.; Valk, Pieter L.; McClain, Mark S.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Metcalf, Jason A.; Bordenstein, Seth R.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, a disease that has a high incidence in East Asia. Genes that are highly divergent in East Asian H. pylori strains compared to non-Asian strains are predicted to encode proteins that differ in functional activity and could represent novel determinants of virulence. To identify such proteins, we undertook a comparative analysis of sixteen H. pylori genomes, selected equally from strains classified as East Asian or non-Asian. As expected, the deduced sequences of two known virulence determinants (CagA and VacA) are highly divergent, with 77% and 87% mean amino acid sequence identities between East Asian and non-Asian groups, respectively. In total, we identified 57 protein sequences that are highly divergent between East Asian and non-Asian strains, but relatively conserved within East Asian strains. The most highly represented functional groups are hypothetical proteins, cell envelope proteins and proteins involved in DNA metabolism. Among the divergent genes with known or predicted functions, population genetic analyses indicate that 86% exhibit evidence of positive selection. McDonald-Kreitman tests further indicate that about one third of these highly divergent genes, including cagA and vacA, are under diversifying selection. We conclude that, similar to cagA and vacA, most of the divergent genes identified in this study evolved under positive selection, and represent candidate factors that may account for the disproportionately high incidence of gastric cancer associated with East Asian H. pylori strains. Moreover, these divergent genes represent robust biomarkers that can be used to differentiate East Asian and non-Asian H. pylori strains. PMID:23383074

  5. Investigation of the association between clinical outcome and the cag pathogenicity-island and other virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori isolates from patients with dyspepsia in Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozbey, Gokben; Demirel, Ulvi; Aygun, Cem; Ertas, Hasan Basri

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine the presence of the cag pathogenicity-island (cag PAI) and other virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori recovered from patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer, and to investigate the correlation of these virulence genes with clinical outcome. The presence of the cagA, the promoter regions of cagA, cagE, cagT, and the left end of cag-PAI (LEC), cag right junction (cagRJ), the plasticity region open reading frames (ORFs), vacA and oipA genes among 69 H. pylori isolates were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Intact cag PAI was detected in only one (1.4%) isolate. The cagA gene was identified in 52.1% and 76.2% of isolates from patients with dyspepsia (gastritis and peptic ulcer), respectively. The plasticity region ORFs i.e. JHP912 and JHP931 were predominantly detected in isolates from peptic ulcer. Less than 25% of the isolates carried other ORFs. Types I, II and III were the most commonly found among the isolates. None of the isolates possessed type Ib, 1c, IIIb, IV and V motifs. The most commonly vacA genotypes were s1am1a and s1m2 in isolates with peptic ulcer and gastritis, respectively. The results confirmed that the prevalence of oipA (Hp0638) gene was 75% and 85.7% in patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer, respectively. Furthermore, vacA s1am1a positivity was significantly related to peptic ulcer (p < 0.05). PMID:24688521

  6. Role of Connexin 43 in Helicobacter pylori VacA-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Jana N.; González-Rivera, Christian; Frick-Cheng, Arwen E.; Sheng, Jinsong; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Rubin, Donald H.; Algood, Holly M. Scott; McClain, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and confers an increased risk for the development of peptic ulceration, noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. A secreted H. pylori toxin, VacA, can cause multiple alterations in gastric epithelial cells, including cell death. In this study, we sought to identify host cell factors that are required for VacA-induced cell death. To do this, we analyzed gene trap and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries in AZ-521 human gastric epithelial cells and selected for VacA-resistant clones. Among the VacA-resistant clones, we identified multiple gene trap library clones and an shRNA library clone with disrupted expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) (also known as gap junction protein alpha 1 [GJA1]). Further experiments with Cx43-specific shRNAs confirmed that a reduction in Cx43 expression results in resistance to VacA-induced cell death. Immunofluorescence microscopy experiments indicated that VacA did not colocalize with Cx43. We detected production of the Cx43 protein in AZ-521 cells but not in AGS, HeLa, or RK-13 cells, and correspondingly, AZ-521 cells were the most susceptible to VacA-induced cell death. When Cx43 was expressed in HeLa cells, the cells became more susceptible to VacA. These results indicate that Cx43 is a host cell constituent that contributes to VacA-induced cell death and that variation among cell types in susceptibility to VacA-induced cell death is attributable at least in part to cell type-specific differences in Cx43 production. PMID:24191302

  7. Clinical relevance of the Helicobacter pylori gene for blood-group antigen-binding adhesin.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, M; Lehn, N; Neumayer, N; Borén, T; Rad, R; Schepp, W; Miehlke, S; Classen, M; Prinz, C

    1999-10-26

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with different human gastric diseases. Biochemical studies, in vitro adherence assays, and in vivo animal models revealed that epithelial attachment of H. pylori can be mediated by the blood-group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) targeting human Lewis(b) surface epitopes. Studies with transgenic mice expressing the Lewis(b) epitope have shown that such attachment can alter disease outcome. In the current study, the presence of the babA2 gene encoding the adhesin was investigated in clinical isolates from a German population by using PCR and reverse transcription-PCR. A positive genotype was correlated to allelic variations in the genes encoding VacA and CagA and also to the prevalence of duodenal ulcer, distal gastric adenocarcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and antral gastritis. The presence of babA2 was significantly associated with duodenal ulcer (P = 0.0002) and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.033). In contrast, type 1 strains (vacAs1- and cagA-positive) were associated with only duodenal ulcer (P = 0.004) but not adenocarcinoma (P = 0.235). Genotype presence of babA2, vacAs1, and cagA ("triple-positive" strains) showed a highly significant correlation to the prevalence of ulcer (P = 0.000002) and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.014) and discriminated significantly better between disease outcome than did the current type 1 classification. These results indicate that the babA2 gene is of high clinical relevance and would be a useful marker to identify patients who are at higher risk for specific H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:10535999

  8. Mixed Infection with cagA Positive and cagA Negative Strains of Helicobacter pylori Lowers Disease Burden in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Secka, Ousman; Antonio, Martin; Berg, Douglas E.; Tapgun, Mary; Bottomley, Christian; Thomas, Vivat; Walton, Robert; Corrah, Tumani; Thomas, Julian E.; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori including strains with putatively virulent genotypes is high, whereas the H. pylori-associated disease burden is low, in Africa compared to developed countries. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of virulence-related H. pylori genotypes and their association with gastroduodenal diseases in The Gambia. Methods and Findings DNA extracted from biopsies and H. pylori cultures from 169 subjects with abdominal pain, dyspepsia or other gastroduodenal diseases were tested by PCR for H. pylori. The H. pylori positive samples were further tested for the cagA oncogene and vacA toxin gene. One hundred and twenty one subjects (71.6%) were H. pylori positive. The cagA gene and more toxigenic s1 and m1 alleles of the vacA gene were found in 61.2%, 76.9% and 45.5% respectively of Gambian patients harbouring H. pylori. There was a high prevalence of cagA positive strains in patients with overt gastric diseases than those with non-ulcerative dyspepsia (NUD) (p?=?0.05); however, mixed infection by cagA positive and cagA negative strains was more common in patients with NUD compared to patients with gastric disease (24.5% versus 0%; p?=?0.002). Conclusion This study shows that the prevalence of H. pylori is high in dyspeptic patients in The Gambia and that many strains are of the putatively more virulent cagA+, vacAs1 and vacAm1 genotypes. This study has also shown significantly lower disease burden in Gambians infected with a mixture of cag-positive and cag-negative strains, relative to those containing only cag-positive or only cag-negative strains, which suggests that harbouring both cag-positive and cag-negative strains is protective. PMID:22140492

  9. Conquistadors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    To accompany its television program, PBS presents this Website. Designed for students in grades 8-12, Conquistadors follows the Spanish Conquistadors' exploration of the New World from 1500 to 1550 and their contact with Native Americans. There are four main sections of the site: Cortez and the Aztecs in Mexico, Peru -- the Inca Empire and Pizzaro, Amazonia and the Quest for El Dorado, and North America: Cabeza de Vaca and the American Southwest. The site also features a timeline, teaching guides, and a journal kept by the series host, Michael Wood, as he made the documentary and traveled the Conquistadors' path.

  10. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and the host immune response: implications for therapeutic vaccination.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Christian; Hafsi, Nadia; Voland, Petra

    2003-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is associated with specific gastric disease. Virulence factors, such as urease, the vacuolating toxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated antigen CagA or blood-group-antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), an adherence factor, might account for the development of different diseases. Vaccination trials exploiting the antigenic properties of some of these proteins have not been successful in preventing infection in humans. A more in-depth understanding of the immune response to H. pylori infection as well as additional information on suitable epitopes and adjuvants will be required before a successful vaccine can be developed. PMID:12648945

  11. Don Quijote on the Plains: Harnessing Enthusiasm for the "Quijote" at the Undergraduate Level

    E-print Network

    Manning, Patricia W.

    2005-03-01

    on girls' self- esteem, to a similar query: "Well, if you start a course on women's history with sexual harassment, with something that connects to the students' experience, you'll get to Susan B. Anthony even- tually. And it will mean more to them..., adarga antigua, rocin flaco X galgo corredor. Una olla XX algo m&s vaca que XXXXXXX, salpicon las mas noches, XXXXXX y quebrantos los sabados, XXXXXXXX los viernes, algun palomino XX afiadidura los domingos, consumian XXX tres partes de su XXXXXXXX. El...

  12. Una obra uruguaya en Madrid

    E-print Network

    Blaylock, Curtis

    1986-04-01

    SPRING 1986 103 Una obra uruguaya en Madrid Entre el 12 y el 15 de septiembre se ofrecieron al publico madrileño en el Centro Cultural de la Villa seis representaciones de Retrato de señora, con espejo (Vida y pasión de Margarita Xirgu). Este... sido una de las alumnas predilectas de Margarita Xirgu. Esta obra, previamente montada con éxito en Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Asunción y Barcelona, en Madrid ha sido un verdadero fracaso de taquilla, probablemente en gran medida porque ha coincidido...

  13. That earlier plague

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josiah C. Russell

    1968-01-01

    \\u000a Resumen  La plaga que apareció alrededor del ano 542 de nuestra era, continuó como una serie de epidemias durante la séptima centuria\\u000a y siguió un modelo muy parecido al de la Peste Negra del siglo XIV. Previamente el emperador Bizantino Justiniano (527–565)\\u000a habia recapturado el norte de Africa anteriormente controlado por los Vandalos y la mayor parte de Italia de manos

  14. The significance of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    SHIOTA, Seiji; SUZUKI, Rumiko; YAMAOKA, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only a small fraction of these patients develop associated diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than those in other countries. The incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors in addition to the host and environmental factors. Virulence factors of H. pylori, such as cagA, vacA, dupA, iceA, oipA and babA, have been demonstrated to be predictors of severe clinical outcomes. Interestingly, meta-analysis showed that CagA seropositivity was associated with gastric cancer compared with gastritis even in East Asian countries where almost of the strains possessing cagA. Meta-analysis also confirmed the significance of vacA, dupA and iceA. However, there remains the possibility that additional important pathogenic genes can be existed because H. pylori consists of approximately 1 600 genes. Despite advances in our understanding of the development of H. pylori-related diseases, further work is required to clarify the roles of H. pylori virulence factors. PMID:23452293

  15. Isotopic, Chemical and Mineralogical Investigation's of Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.

    2003-01-01

    During the grant period we have concentrated on the following main topics: 1. Enstatite meteorites and original heterogeneity of Mn-53 distribution in the solar nebula. We have completed our studies of the enstatite chondrites. 2. Processes of planetary differentiation. We have completed our study of silicate clasts from the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta and found that the global Mn/Cr fractionation event that established mantle source reservoirs on the parent body of the Vaca Muerta silicate clasts occurred approx. 2 Ma after a similar event on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) parent body. 3. Carbonaceous chondrites. Much effort has been devoted during the last three years to the investigation of this important class of meteorites. 4. Early solar system timescales. Based on the studies of the Mn-53 - Cr-53 isotope system in various meteorites and using results obtained with other isotope chronometers we constructed an absolute time-scale for events in the early solar system. 5.Unusual meteorites. We have studied the anomalous pallasite Eagle Station. 6. The chromium isotopic composition as a tracer for extraterrestrial material on Earth. Based on the observed difference in the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratios between Earth and the other solar system objects we developed a method for detecting cosmic materials on Earth using the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratio as a tracer.

  16. PCR assay targeting virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori isolated from drinking water and clinical samples in Lahore metropolitan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Samra, Zahoor Qadir; Javaid, Umber; Ghafoor, Sadia; Batool, Aleeza; Dar, Nadia; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylorus is considered for chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and adenocarcinoma and its high infection rate is observed in overcrowded and lower socioeconomic groups in developing countries. This study was designed to identify the role of drinking water in the transmission and prevalence of H. pylori (HP). Selective HP medium was developed for enrichment and presumptive identification of H. pylori by urease, catalase and species specific 16S rRNA tests. The virulence genes (vacA 's' and 'm' regions and cagA) of H. pylori in 90 out of 225 H. pylori positive drinking water samples were present (40%). Ten out of 18 biopsies (55.55%) and 15 out of 50 vomiting fluids of gastric disease patients (30%) were also positive for virulence genes. Anti-H. pylori antibodies were also detected in 31 out of 50 patients' sera. The presence of virulence genes was also directly confirmed by hybridization studies using non-radioactive DNA probes of 16S rRNA, vacA and cagA genes. The presence of H. pylori in water is due to poor sanitary conditions, improper waste disposal and lack of public health education. PCR-based analysis and colony hybridization can be used for detection of H. pylori in clinical and environmental samples. PMID:21301128

  17. Plausible parent bodies for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites: Implications for Lutetia's fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2009-08-01

    We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ˜400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho (both Xc types in the new Bus-DeMeo taxonomy) have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa (all three are Xk types in the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy) are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

  18. Plausible asteroidal analogs for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ~400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

  19. Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

  20. Detection of H pylori infection by ELISA and Western blot techniques and evaluation of anti CagA seropositivity in adult Turkish dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Özlem; ?en, Nazime; Küpelio?lu, Ahmet Ali; ?im?ek, ?lkay

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect H pylori infection and to evaluate the anti CagA seropositivity in adult Turkish dyspeptic patients. METHODS: We evaluated anti-H pylori IgA, IgG and anti-CagA antibodies using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and Western blot in dyspeptic Turkish patients. H pylori status was determined by histology and rapid urease testing. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were entered. Forty-eight (85.7%) out of the 56 patients were positive for H pylori. H pylori IgG seropositivity was 82.1%, IgA seropositivity 48.2%. CagA ELISA showed that IgG was positive in 50% and IgA in 30.4% of those with H pylori infections. Western blot showed that IgG seropositivity was 80.4% and IgA seropositivity 33.9%. Western blot detected IgG antibodies with reactivity to CagA in 50%, VacA in 62.5%, UreB in 87.5%, UreA in 80.4%, and OMP in 57.1%. None of the tests had a sensitivity and specificity above 80%. CONCLUSION: None of these commercial tests seems clinically useful for H pylori detection in adult dyspeptic patients, while Western blot can give seropositivity and determine anti-CagA, VacA virulence factor status of Turkish dyspeptic patients in the Izmir region. PMID:16981271

  1. Serum Antibodies Positivity to 12 Helicobacter pylori Virulence Antigens in Patients with Benign or Malignant Gastroduodenal Diseases – Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Filipec Kanižaj, Tajana; Kati?i?, Miroslava; Prese?ki, Vladimir; Gašparov, Slavko; Coli? Cvrlje, Vesna; Kolari?, Branko; Mrzljak, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association of gastric histological and endoscopic findings in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), according to presence of seropositivity to 12 bacterial virulence antigens. Methods This is a cross-sectional single-center study of 360 consecutive outpatients referred in the period of one year to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspeptic complaints. Patients sera were tested by Western blot method to determine the presence of serum antibodies to bacterial virulence antigens – p120 (CagA – cytotoxin-associated antigen), p95 (VacA – vacuolating cytotoxin), p67 (FSH – flagellar sheath protein), p66 (UreB – urease enzyme heavy subunit), p57 (HSP homologue – heath shock protein homologue), p54 (flagellin), p33, p30 (OMP – outer membrane protein), p29 (UreA – urease enzyme light subunit), p26, p19, and p17. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed, endoscopic diagnosis recorded, and 4 mucosal biopsy samples were obtained and assessed according to Updated Sydney protocol. Results The sera of 207 patients were analyzed. Thirty patients had gastric adenocarcinoma, 126 peptic ulcers, and 51 normal finding. p120 (CagA) seropositivity was significantly more often present in patients with higher activity grade in the antrum (P?=?0.025), p30 in patients with greater inflammation in the antrum (P?=?0.025) and the corpus (P?=?0.010), p33 in patients with greater inflammation in the corpus (P?=?0.050), and p19 (OMP) in patients with lower intestinal metaplasia grades in the corpus (P?=?0.025). Seroreactivity to all other bacterial proteins showed no association with the histological status of the stomach mucosa. Except for the seropositivity to protein p95 (VacA), which was more often present in patients with duodenal ulcer (P?=?0.006), there was no difference in seroreactivity to other bacterial proteins and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings. Conclusions p120 (CagA), p33, p 30 (OMP), and p19 (OMP) seropositivity was more often present in patients with higher grades of the histological parameters of gastritis and seropositivity to protein p95 (VacA) with endoscopic presence of duodenal ulcer. Histological parameters of gastritis are more associated with bacterial virulence than endoscopic findings. PMID:19399945

  2. [Evaluation of Western Blot method for the detection of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori antigens in patients with gastric carcinoma and cases with epigastric complaints].

    PubMed

    Güdücüo?lu, Hüseyin; Berkta?, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Hamza; Toka Ozer, Türkan; Bulut, Gülay; Oztürk, Oznur; Ilhan, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori proteins CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) and VacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) are among the virulence factors of this species. CagA gene carrying H. pylori strains are particularly associated with gastric adenocarsinoma. This study was conducted to evaluate Western Blot (WB) method to determine specific H. pylori antibodies in a group of patients with gastric cancer and in a control group with no malignancy. A total of 99 patients with gastric cancer (94 adenocarcinoma, 2 adenosquamous cell carcinoma, 3 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and 150 control cases with epigastric complaints such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gastroesophageal reflux and abdominal pain, were included to the study. H. pylori IgG-ELISA was positive in all study (mean age: 56.7 +/- 1.2 years, 62 male) and control (mean age: 24.2 +/- 1.3 years, 64 male) patients. Specific antibodies against CagA, VacA, OMP (outer membrane protein)-67, urease-A, urease-B, HSP (heat shock protein) and flagellin antigens determined by a commercial WB-based kit (RIDA Blot Helicobacter, R-Biopharm GmbH, Germany). Interestingly, no anti-VacA positivity was detected in none of the patient and control groups. The positivity rates for H. pylori CagA, OMP-67, urease A, urease-B, flagellin and HSP specific antibodies were as 78%, 54%, 37%, 60%, 53% and 82% in the gastric cancer group and 85%, 71%, 55%, 43%, 61% and 75% in the control group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between gastric carcinoma and control groups in terms of CagA, HSP and flagellin antibodies (p > 0.05). On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups in terms of urease-A, urease-B and OMP-67 (p < 0.01). These results suggested that this test should be assessed again by the manufacturer for its detection power directed towards specific H. pylori antibodies, especially for Vac-A. Further molecular and clinical studies are necessary to determine the factors that affect H. pylori virulence and disease prognosis. PMID:20455395

  3. Faulting evidence of isostatic uplift in the Rincon Mountains metamorphic core complex: An image processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Guerra, Edna Patricia

    This study focuses on the applications of remote sensing techniques and digital analysis to characterizing of tectonic features of the Rincon Mountains metamorphic core complex. Data included Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, digital elevation models (DEM), and digital orthophoto quadrangle quads (DOQQ). The main findings in this study are two nearly orthogonal systems of structures that have never been reported in the Rincon Mountains. The first system, a penetrative faulting system of the footwall rocks, trends N10--30°W. Similar structures identified in other metamorphic core complexes. The second system trends N60--70°E, and has only been alluded indirectly in the literature of metamorphic core complexes. The structures pervade mylonites in Tanque Verde Mountain, Mica Mountain, and the Rincon Peak area. As measured on the imagery, spacing between the N10--30°W lineaments ranges from ˜0.5 to 2 km, and from 0.25 to 1 km for the N60--70°E system. Field inspection reveals that the N10--30°W trending system, are high-angle normal faults dipping mainly to the west. One of the main faults, named here the Cabeza de Vaca fault, has a polished, planar, striated and grooved surface with slickenlines indicating pure normal dip-slip movement (N10°W, 83°SW; slickensides rake 85°SW). The Cabeza de Vaca fault is the eastern boundary of a 2 km-wide graben, with displacement as great as 400 meters. The N10--30°W faults are syn- to post-mylonitic, high-angle normal faults that formed during isostatic uplift of the Rincon core complex during mid-Tertiary time. This interpretation is based on previous works, which report similar fault patterns in other metamorphic core complexes. Faults trending N20--30°W, shape the east flank of Mica Mountain. These faults, on the back dipping mylonitic zone, dip east and may represent late-stage antithetic shear zones. The Cabeza de Vaca fault and the back dipping antithetic faults accommodate as much as 65% of the extension due to doming of the core complex. The N60--70°E structures, not verified as a fault system, are a joint system pervading the footwall rocks of the metamorphic core complex. This system is less systematic. Spacing varies from 0.25 to 1 km. Both systems control the drainage of the mountains.

  4. Helicobacter pylori induced transactivation of SRE and AP-1 through the ERK signalling pathway in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuno, Y; Yoshida, H; Maeda, S; Ogura, K; Hirata, Y; Kawabe, T; Shiratori, Y; Omata, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Helicobacter pylori infection induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-8 and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in gastric mucosa, and their genes have AP-1 binding sites in the promoter region. c-Fos is important for transactivation of AP-1 which has SRE in the promoter region. We conducted this study to confirm H pylori induced transactivation of these binding sites.?METHODS—Transactivation of SRE and AP-1 was evaluated in human gastric cancer cells TMK1 and MKN45 by luciferase reporter assay in transient transfection. We compared the effects of coculture with four H pylori strains, a cag pathogenicity island (PAI) positive strain TN2, its isogenic vacA negative (TN2-?vacA) or cagE negative (TN2-?cagE) mutants, and a cag PAI negative clinical isolate T68. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and c-Jun was measured by immunoblot, induction of IL-8 secretion by ELISA, and the effects of MEK by inhibitor U0126.?RESULTS—Both SRE and AP-1 were transactivated by coculture with TN2. Although TN2-?vacA induced comparable transactivation, TN2-?cagE and T68 showed decreased transactivation of SRE (65% and 51%) and AP-1 (71% and 54%, respectively, of TN2). Heat killed TN2 or indirect contact using a permeable membrane inhibited transactivation. Levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, JNK, and c-Jun were increased by coculture with TN2. MEK inhibitor U0126 reduced TN2 induced transactivation of SRE and AP1, as well as secretion of IL-8, by 83%, 87%, and 53%, respectively, of TN2.?CONCLUSIONS—Transactivation of SRE and AP-1, through ERK/MAPK and JNK/SAPK cascades, respectively, was found in gastric cancer cells cocultured with H pylori. Direct contact with viable bacteria possessing intact cag PAI is a prerequisite for the onset of intracellular signalling leading to AP-1 transactivation.???Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; SRE; AP-1; cag pathogenicity island PAI; gastric cancer PMID:11413105

  5. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Alternative Collection Systems (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2002-04-22

    ?gicamente delicadas, y a19 Pueden ahorrar cantidades considerables de dinero y, a la vez, recargar los acu?feros locales y ofrecer otras oportunidades de reutilizaci?n del agua cerca de donde se producen las aguas negras. De hecho, en 1997 en un informe al Congreso de..., tener en cuenta futuras necesidades de vivienda y facilitar el crecimiento. M?todo centralizado preferido previamente Gracias a una gran inyecci?n de financiaci?n federal durante los a?os 70 y 80, la mayor?a de las comunida- des urbanas de Texas instal...

  6. Cooking with Applesauce (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    gusta) Manera de preparase 1. L?vese las manos y aseg?rese de que el ?rea en la que va a cocinar est? limpia. 2. Bata la mantequilla o margarina con el az?car hasta formar una pasta. 3. A?ada el pur? de manzana y mezcle todo muy bien. 4.... Revuelva en la mezcla la harina, el bicarbonato, la canela y los clavos. 5. A?ada las nueces y pasitas. La pasta se har? espesa. 6. Vierta la pasta en un molde que ha sido previamente engrasado y enharinado. 7. Hornee a una temperatura de 350 grados F...

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  8. Clarithromycin Resistance, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene Polymorphism and Mucosal Inflammation Affect H. pylori Eradication Success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo-Federico Zambon; Michela Fasolo; Daniela Basso; Anna D’Odorico; Alessia Stranges; Filippo Navaglia; Paola Fogar; Eliana Greco; Stefania Schiavon; Andrea Padoan; Elisa Fadi; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo; Mario Plebani; Sergio Pedrazzoli

    2007-01-01

    Several bacterial and host-related factors concur in causing Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We ascertained the role of bacterial virulence genes (cagA, vacA), clarithromycin resistance [ClaR, 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mutations], host polymorphism of CYP2C19 (polyphosphoinositide, PPI, metabolism) and of the cytokines\\u000a IL-1B-31C>T, IL-1RN VNTR, IFN-?+874A>T, TNF-?-1031T>C, TNF-?-857C>T, TNF-?-376G>A, TNF-?-308G>A, TNF-?-238G>A, IL-10-1082A>G,\\u000a IL-10-819C>T, IL-10-592C>A, IL-12A+6686G>A, IL-12B+15485A>C. Two groups of H. pylori-infected

  9. Cytotoxic Action of Serratia marcescens Hemolysin on Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Hilger, Martina; Weingardt-Kocher, Sandra; Walev, Iwan

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of human epithelial cells with nanomolar concentrations of chromatographically purified Serratia marcescens hemolysin (ShlA) caused irreversible vacuolation and subsequent lysis of the cells. Vacuolation differed from vacuole formation by Helicobacter pylori VacA. Sublytic doses of ShlA led to a reversible depletion of intracellular ATP. Restoration to the initial ATP level was presumably due to the repair of the toxin damage and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Pores formed in epithelial cells and fibroblasts without disruption of the plasma membrane, and the pores appeared to be considerably smaller than those observed in artificial lipid membranes and in erythrocytes and did not allow the influx of propidium iodide or trypan blue. All cytotoxic effects induced by isolated recombinant ShlA were also obtained with exponentially growing S. marcescens cells. The previously suggested role of the hemolysin in the pathogenicity of S. marcescens is supported by these data. PMID:9916096

  10. Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites - Implications for endogenous igneous processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of 13 igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites, using electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation techniques. These data, combined with literature data on compositions of 43 mesosiderite clasts were used to compile a classification scheme for the various types of mafic silicate clasts that occur in mesosiderites. These clasts were classified into five principal groups: (1) polygenic and monogenic cumulates (30 percent); (2) polygenic basalts (30 percent); (3) quench-textured rocks, comprising two compositional subgroups (those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5 percent), and those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2 percent)); (4) monogenic basalts (11 percent); and (5) ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9 percent) or olivine (4 percent). The conditions under which these clasts were formed are discussed.

  11. Diet, microbial virulence, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cover, Timothy L; Peek, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the strongest known risk factors for this malignancy. H. pylori strains exhibit a high level of genetic diversity, and the risk of gastric cancer is higher in persons carrying certain strain types (for example, those that contain a cag pathogenicity island or type s1 vacA alleles) than in persons carrying other strain types. Additional risk factors for gastric cancer include specific human genetic polymorphisms and specific dietary preferences (for example, a high-salt diet or a diet deficient in fruits and vegetables). Finally, iron-deficiency anemia is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Recent studies have provided evidence that several dietary risk factors for gastric cancer directly impact H. pylori virulence. In this review article, we discuss mechanisms by which diet can modulate H. pylori virulence and thereby influence gastric cancer risk. PMID:23989802

  12. Historical descriptions of some soils and landscapes of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Darrell G.

    Europeans explorers, immigrants, and travelers have been crisscrossing Texas for almost 5 centuries, recording their observations of soils and landscapes through the lens of their own times. In the early 16th century, Cabeza de Vaca was struck by how the natives among whom he lived used soil as a part of their diet. In the 17th century, as a member of the La Salle expedition to Texas, Henri Joutel described the soils and landscapes he saw in considerable detail, perhaps with an eye to possible future French settlement. To 19th century immigrants, the soil was the source of their future wealth, but also, so they thought, of the source of the various illnesses that inflicted them. With their distinctive micro-topography and large cracks when dry, Vertisols have elicited some of the most interesting early descriptions of Texas soils.

  13. [The influence of bacterial toxins on the carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, Anna M; ?aniewski, Pawe?; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infections may constitute an important risk factor of developing cancer disease. Molecular mechanisms by which bacteria contribute to cancer are extremely complex and still remain not fully understood. So far, it is generally accepted that Helicobacter pylori infections are associated with induction of gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Two H. pylori toxins which modulate many cellular functions are VacA and CagA. So far, CagA is the only one known bacterial oncoprotein. However, many other bacteria produce toxins or effector proteins perturbing host cell homeostasis or/and evoking chronic inflammation. Both processes may be associated with tumour formation. Bacterial toxins which interfere, with various host signal transduction pathways, deregulate processes of cell division, proliferation and differentiation and modulate apoptosis. Some toxins cause even direct DNA damage. This review discuss the potential links between action of bacterial toxins and cancer. PMID:21473043

  14. Two Different Families of hopQ Alleles in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping; Cover, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori genomes contain about 30 different hop genes, which encode outer membrane proteins. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity in the H. pylori hopQ (omp27) locus, which corresponds to HP1177 in the genome of H. pylori reference strain 26695. hopQ and its flanking genes were PCR amplified from multiple H. pylori strains, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. This analysis revealed the existence of two different families of hopQ alleles. Type I hopQ alleles are present in the genomes of two fully sequenced H. pylori strains, whereas the existence of type II hopQ alleles has not previously been recognized. Type I and type II hopQ alleles are 75 to 80% identical in nucleotide sequences and encode predicted outer membrane proteins that are 68 to 72% identical in amino acid sequences. PCR-based methods were developed to enable rapid differentiation between type I and type II hopQ alleles. Type I hopQ alleles were found significantly more commonly in cag+/type s1-vacA strains from patients with peptic ulcer disease than in cag-negative/s2-vacA strains from patients without ulcer disease (P < 0.001). Determination of hopQ allelic types provides a new method for classification of H. pylori strains. Further studies in multiple populations of patients are indicated to evaluate the usefulness of this approach for distinguishing potentially ulcerogenic H. pylori strains from less virulent strains. PMID:12454143

  15. Conservation and microdiversity of the phospholipase A (pldA) gene of Helicobacter pylori infecting dyspeptics from different countries.

    PubMed

    Xerry, J; Owen, R J

    2001-12-01

    Phospholipase activity is important in bacterial pathogenicity and could contribute to the pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori by degradation of the gastric mucus, and in maintaining long-term colonisation. Our aim was to determine the degree of variation in the phospholipase A gene (pldA) of H. pylori from different geographic locations, and to investigate links between pldA genotype and clinical disease severity, as well as with variation in cagA status and vacA genotypes. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with MboI and HaeIII was used to study 124 isolates from 10 countries that included the two genome-sequenced strains (26695 and J99), as well as Tx30a and NCTC 11637 (type strain). The 925-bp pldA fragment was amplified with a frequency of 90%. The presence of pldA was confirmed in the other strains using an alternative forward primer. Isolates were distinguished by PCR-RFLP analysis with 10 MboI and four HaeIII restriction patterns that combined to give 25 distinct pldA RFLP types. The pldA M2H2 strain genotype was most common (20%) in the UK but similar strains came from several other countries. Microdiversity was evident in pldA sequences of strains representing different RFLP types, and five M2H2 strains each had a distinct pldA sequence type. Intragenic variation was independent of gastric disease severity as well as strain cagA status and vacA genotype, with the exception of eight geographically diverse strains all with the pldA M4H3/cagA+/vacA s1m1 genotype predominantly from peptic ulcer patients. The study indicated a spectrum of genotypic variants and was supportive of a pldA function in H. pylori colonisation and persistence rather than in chronicity of infection. PMID:11750217

  16. Sequence Divergence and Conservation in Genomes of Helicobacter cetorum Strains from a Dolphin and a Whale

    PubMed Central

    Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Rossi, Mirko; Berg, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Strains of Helicobacter cetorum have been cultured from several marine mammals and have been found to be closely related in 16 S rDNA sequence to the human gastric pathogen H. pylori, but their genomes were not characterized further. Methods The genomes of H. cetorum strains from a dolphin and a whale were sequenced completely using 454 technology and PCR and capillary sequencing. Results These genomes are 1.8 and 1.95 mb in size, some 7–26% larger than H. pylori genomes, and differ markedly from one another in gene content, and sequences and arrangements of shared genes. However, each strain is more related overall to H. pylori and its descendant H. acinonychis than to other known species. These H. cetorum strains lack cag pathogenicity islands, but contain novel alleles of the virulence-associated vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Of particular note are (i) an extra triplet of vacA genes with ?50% protein-level identity to each other in the 5? two-thirds of the gene needed for host factor interaction; (ii) divergent sets of outer membrane protein genes; (iii) several metabolic genes distinct from those of H. pylori; (iv) genes for an iron-cofactored urease related to those of Helicobacter species from terrestrial carnivores, in addition to genes for a nickel co-factored urease; and (v) members of the slr multigene family, some of which modulate host responses to infection and improve Helicobacter growth with mammalian cells. Conclusions Our genome sequence data provide a glimpse into the novelty and great genetic diversity of marine helicobacters. These data should aid further analyses of microbial genome diversity and evolution and infection and disease mechanisms in vast and often fragile ocean ecosystems. PMID:24358262

  17. Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Pakistan Reveals High Degrees of Pathogenicity and High Frequencies of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Faisal; Campbell, Barry James; Alfizah, Hanafiah; Varro, Andrea; Zahra, Rabaab; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Pritchard, David Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori contributes to failure in eradicating the infection and is most often due to point and missense mutations in a few key genes. Methods The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates from 46 Pakistani patients were determined by Etest. Resistance and pathogenicity genes were amplified, and sequences were analyzed to determine the presence of mutations. Results A high percentage of isolates (73.9%) were resistant to metronidazole (MTZ), with considerable resistance to clarithromycin (CLR; 47.8%) and amoxicillin (AML; 54.3%) also observed. Relatively few isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TET; 4.3%) or to ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13%). However, most isolates (n = 43) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. MTZ-resistant isolates contained missense mutations in oxygen-independent NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA; 8 mutations found) and NADH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA; 4 mutations found). In the 23S rRNA gene, responsible for CLR resistance, a new point mutation (A2181G) and 4 previously reported mutations were identified. Pathogenicity genes cagA, dupA, and vacA s1a/m1 were detected frequently in isolates which were also found to be resistant to MTZ, CLR, and AML. A high percentage of CagA and VacA seropositivity was also observed in these patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences showed uniform distribution of the 3? region of cagA throughout the tree. Conclusions We have identified H. pylori isolates in Pakistan which harbor pathogenicity genes and worrying antibiotic resistance profiles as a result of having acquired multiple point and missense mutations. H. pylori eradication regimens should therefore be reevaluated in this setting. PMID:24827414

  18. Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Full Genome of Helicobacter pylori Isolate Sahul64 Identifies Genes of High Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Wise, Michael J.; Tay, Chin Yen; Windsor, Helen M.; Marshall, Barry J.; Peacock, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Isolates of Helicobacter pylori can be classified phylogeographically. High genetic diversity and rapid microevolution are a hallmark of H. pylori genomes, a phenomenon that is proposed to play a functional role in persistence and colonization of diverse human populations. To provide further genomic evidence in the lineage of H. pylori and to further characterize diverse strains of this pathogen in different human populations, we report the finished genome sequence of Sahul64, an H. pylori strain isolated from an indigenous Australian. Our analysis identified genes that were highly divergent compared to the 38 publically available genomes, which include genes involved in the biosynthesis and modification of lipopolysaccharide, putative prophage genes, restriction modification components, and hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the virulence-associated vacA locus is a pseudogene and the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is not present. However, the genome does contain a gene cluster associated with pathogenicity, including dupA. Our analysis found that with the addition of Sahul64 to the 38 genomes, the core genome content of H. pylori is reduced by approximately 14% (?170 genes) and the pan-genome has expanded from 2,070 to 2,238 genes. We have identified three putative horizontally acquired regions, including one that is likely to have been acquired from the closely related Helicobacter cetorum prior to speciation. Our results suggest that Sahul64, with the absence of cagPAI, highly divergent cell envelope proteins, and a predicted nontransportable VacA protein, could be more highly adapted to ancient indigenous Australian people but with lower virulence potential compared to other sequenced and cagPAI-positive H. pylori strains. PMID:24375107

  20. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on TLR2 and TLR4 Expression in Patients with Gastric Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ana Flávia Teixeira; Matos Biselli-Périco, Joice; Fucuta Pereira, Patrícia; Do Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin; Acayaba, Ricardo; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is recognized by TLR4 and TLR2 receptors, which trigger the activation of genes involved in the host immune response. Thus, we evaluated the effect of eradication therapy on TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in H. pylori-infected chronic gastritis patients (CG-Hp+) and 3 months after treatment. Methods. A total of 37 patients CG-Hp+ were evaluated. The relative quantification (RQ) of mRNA was assessed by TaqMan assay and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results. Before treatment both TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in CG-Hp+ patients were slightly increased (TLR2 = 1.32; TLR4 = 1.26) in relation to Hp-negative normal gastric mucosa (P ? 0.05). After successful eradication therapy no significant change was observed (TLR2 = 1.47; TLR4 = 1.53; P > 0.05). In addition, the cagA and vacA bacterial genotypes did not influence the gene expression levels, and we observed a positive correlation between the RQ values of TLR2 and TLR4, both before and after treatment. Immunoexpression of the TLR2 and TLR4 proteins confirmed the gene expression results. Conclusion. In conclusion, the expression of both TLR2 and TLR4 is increased in CG-Hp+ patients regardless of cagA and vacA status and this expression pattern is not significantly changed after eradication of bacteria, at least for the short period of time evaluated. PMID:25873761

  1. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  2. Instrumental Role of Helicobacter pylori ?-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in VacA-Dependent Vacuolation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Khoo, Lawrence Han Boon; Hwang, Le-Ann; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Ho, Bow

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes cellular vacuolation in host cells, a cytotoxic event attributed to vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the presence of permeant weak bases such as ammonia. We report here the role of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a constitutively expressed secretory enzyme of H. pylori, in potentiating VacA-dependent vacuolation formation in H. pylori-infected AGS and primary gastric cells. The enhancement is brought about by GGT hydrolysing glutamine present in the extracellular medium, thereby releasing ammonia which accentuates the VacA-induced vacuolation. The events of vacuolation in H. pylori wild type (WT)- and ?ggt-infected AGS cells were first captured and visualized by real-time phase-contrast microscopy where WT was observed to induce more vacuoles than ?ggt. By using semi-quantitative neutral red uptake assay, we next showed that ?ggt induced significantly less vacuolation in AGS and primary gastric epithelial cells as compared to the parental strain (P<0.05) indicating that GGT potentiates the vacuolating effect of VacA. Notably, vacuolation induced by WT was significantly reduced in the absence of GGT substrate, glutamine (P<0.05) or in the presence of a competitive GGT inhibitor, serine-borate complex. Furthermore, the vacuolating ability of ?ggt was markedly restored when co-incubated with purified recombinant GGT (rGGT), although rGGT itself did not induce vacuolation independently. Similarly, the addition of exogenous ammonium chloride as a source of ammonia also rescued the ability of ?ggt to induce vacuolation. Additionally, we also show that monoclonal antibodies against GGT effectively inhibited GGT activity and successfully suppressed H. pylori-induced vacuolation. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that generation of ammonia by GGT through glutamine hydrolysis is responsible for enhancing VacA-dependent vacuolation. Our findings provide a new perspective on GGT as an important virulence factor and a promising target in the management of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. PMID:26111186

  3. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU) and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ?40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh. PMID:20920280

  5. Instrumental Role of Helicobacter pylori ?-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in VacA-Dependent Vacuolation in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Khoo, Lawrence Han Boon; Hwang, Le-Ann; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Ho, Bow

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes cellular vacuolation in host cells, a cytotoxic event attributed to vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the presence of permeant weak bases such as ammonia. We report here the role of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a constitutively expressed secretory enzyme of H. pylori, in potentiating VacA-dependent vacuolation formation in H. pylori-infected AGS and primary gastric cells. The enhancement is brought about by GGT hydrolysing glutamine present in the extracellular medium, thereby releasing ammonia which accentuates the VacA-induced vacuolation. The events of vacuolation in H. pylori wild type (WT)- and ?ggt-infected AGS cells were first captured and visualized by real-time phase-contrast microscopy where WT was observed to induce more vacuoles than ?ggt. By using semi-quantitative neutral red uptake assay, we next showed that ?ggt induced significantly less vacuolation in AGS and primary gastric epithelial cells as compared to the parental strain (P<0.05) indicating that GGT potentiates the vacuolating effect of VacA. Notably, vacuolation induced by WT was significantly reduced in the absence of GGT substrate, glutamine (P<0.05) or in the presence of a competitive GGT inhibitor, serine-borate complex. Furthermore, the vacuolating ability of ?ggt was markedly restored when co-incubated with purified recombinant GGT (rGGT), although rGGT itself did not induce vacuolation independently. Similarly, the addition of exogenous ammonium chloride as a source of ammonia also rescued the ability of ?ggt to induce vacuolation. Additionally, we also show that monoclonal antibodies against GGT effectively inhibited GGT activity and successfully suppressed H. pylori-induced vacuolation. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that generation of ammonia by GGT through glutamine hydrolysis is responsible for enhancing VacA-dependent vacuolation. Our findings provide a new perspective on GGT as an important virulence factor and a promising target in the management of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. PMID:26111186

  6. The Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer promoting gene, dupA in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Zheng, Qing; Chen, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Shudong; Liu, Wenzhong; Lu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of H. pylori is as high as 60–70% in Chinese population. Although duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer are both caused by H. pylori, they are at opposite ends of the spectrum and as such are considered mutually exclusive. Duodenal ulcer promoting (dupA) gene was reported to be associated with duodenal ulcer development. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases and to explore the association between the gene and other virulence factors. Methods H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric ulcer (GU), or non-cardia gastric carcinoma. The dupA, cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Histological features of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were graded based on the scoring system proposed by the updated Sydney system. IL-1? polymorphism was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results Isolates from 360 patients including 133 with chronic gastritis, 101 with DU, 47 with GU, and 79 with non-cardia gastric carcinoma were examined. The dupA gene was detected in 35.3% (127/360) and the prevalence DU patients was significantly greater than that in gastric cancer or GU patients (45.5% vs. 24.1% and 23.4%, P < 0.05). Patients infected with dupA-positive strains had higher scores for chronic inflammation compared to those with dupA-negative strains (2.36 vs. 2.24, p = 0.058). The presence of dupA was not associated with the cagA, vacA, iceA and babA 2 genotypes or with IL-1? polymorphisms. Conclusion In China the prevalence of dupA gene was highest in DU and inversely related to GU and gastric cancer. PMID:18950522

  7. Helicobacter pylori antibody patterns in Germany: a cross-sectional population study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection that is usually acquired in childhood and lasts for lifetime is mostly asymptomatic but associated with severe gastrointestinal disease including cancer. During chronic infection, the gastric mucosa is histologically changing. This forces H. pylori to permanent adaptation in its gastric habitat by expression of different proteins which might be reflected in distinctive antibody patterns. Methods To characterize dynamics of the immune response to H. pylori we analysed 1797 sera of a cross-sectional study representative for the German population (age range 1–82 years) with multiplex serology, a fluorescent bead-based antibody binding assay that allows simultaneous and quantitative detection of antibodies. Fifteen recombinant, affinity-purified H. pylori proteins (UreA, GroEL, Catalase, NapA, CagA, CagM, Cag?, HP0231, VacA, HpaA, Cad, HyuA, Omp, HcpC and HP0305) were used as antigens. Results H. pylori seroprevalence (positivity for at least three antigens) was 48% and increased with age from 12% in children <15 years to 69% in females and 90% in males >65 years. Prevalences were highest (>83%) for Omp, VacA and GroEL. For 11 proteins, seroprevalence was higher in males than females (P?65 years stronger in females (P?=?0.02). Antibody reactivities to GroEL, HyuA, CagM, Catalase, NapA and UreA also increased stronger in females (average 1.7-fold/decade, SD 0.5) than in males (1.5-fold/decade, SD 0.4). Conclusion H. pylori antibody response accumulates qualitatively and quantitatively with age. This may reflect a lifelong stimulation of the immune response by chronically active infection. PMID:24782915

  8. Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is geochemically of low grade. In contrast, a large crosscutting bitumen dyke is of higher grade and formed later. At other localities, near basement faults, bitumen dykes have cap-rocks of hydrothermal calcrete. Other dykes or their wall rocks contain hydrothermal minerals. Finally, some dykes splay upward towards the current land surface. We conclude that (1) the bitumen dykes formed during volcanic activity in Pliocene-Pleistocene times, and that (2) heat advection by hydrothermal fluids helped to generate oil, which migrated upwards or downwards from the source rock and filled intrusive veins, before solidifying to bitumen, by loss of volatile elements. This unconventional hydrocarbon system may have significant implications for regional exploration in the foothills of the Andes.

  9. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  10. Astronomía Mocoví

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

  11. The engineering and geological constraints of the intraslope basins and submarine canyons of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, W.R.; Yuh Liu, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ponthier, J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    It is well realized that future hydrocarbon discoveries on the upper and lower continental slope and rise off Texas and Louisiana necessitate innovative methods for the construction of platforms and pipelines in a very difficult engineering and complex geological environment. There are 105 intraslope basins and 5 major submarine canyons on the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, many of which may be prime targets for hydrocarbon production. Examination of the physiographic, geophysical and geotechnical characteristics of the intraslope basins of Pigmy and Vaca basins and the Alaminos submarine canyon are used as examples to typify the various engineering and geological constraints that are most likely to be encountered on the continental slope and rise and along the Sigsbee Escarpment in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. High-resolution bathymetry identifies such constraints as high-angle intraslope basin walls, walls that exceed 40 degrees are not uncommon. Sediment slumps and other instabilities, such as long-term sediment creep and other affects of halokenesis and contemporaneous faulting, are illustrated and evaluated from high-resolution geophysics. The small canyons and large gullies that dissect the parameter flanks of Alaminos Canyon, that may be the results of both recent and old turbidity currents and debris flows, are structures that require engineering consideration in the implement of seafloor structures in, near or down slope of these features.

  12. Helicobacter pylori and mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate activator protein-1 (AP-1) subcomponent protein expression and DNA-binding activity in gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Song-Ze; Olekhnovich, Igor N.; Cover, Timothy L.; Peek, Richard M.; Smith, Michael F.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a critical role for activator protein (AP)-1 in regulating various cellular functions. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of H. pylori and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) on AP-1 subcomponents expression and AP-1 DNA binding activity in gastric epithelial cells. We found that H. pylori infection resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in the expression of the proteins c-Jun, JunB, JunD, Fra-1, and c-Fos, which make up the major AP-1 DNA binding proteins in AGS and MKN45 cells, while the expression levels of Fra-2 and FosB remained unchanged. H. pylori infection and MAPK inhibition altered AP-1 subcomponent protein expression and AP-1 DNA-binding activity, but did not change the overall subcomponent composition. Different clinical isolates of H. pylori showed various abilities to induce AP-1 DNA binding. Mutation of cagA, cagPAI, or vacA, and the nonphosphorylateable CagA mutant (cagAEPISA) showed less H. pylori-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity, while mutation of the H. pylori flagella had no effect. ERK, p38, and JNK each selectively regulated AP-1 subcomponent expression and DNA binding activity. These results provide more insight into how H. pylori and MAPK modulate AP-1 subcomponents in gastric epithelial cells to alter the expression of downstream target genes and affect cellular functions. PMID:18625013

  13. Helicobacter pylori-induced loss of survivin and gastric cell viability is attributable to secreted bacterial gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Manuel; Bravo, Denisse; Canales, Jimena; Sanhueza, Carlos; Díaz, Natalia; Almarza, Oscar; Toledo, Héctor; Quest, Andrew F G

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of a series of gastric pathologies that may culminate in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. An initial step in this process is the loss of glandular structures in the gastric mucosa, presumably as the consequence of increased apoptosis and reduced cellular regeneration, which may be attributed to the combination of several bacterial and host factors and to an unfavorable proinflammatory environment. In a previous study, we showed that survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is expressed in the normal human gastric mucosa and that its levels decrease in the mucosa of infected patients and in gastric cells exposed in culture to the bacteria, coincident with increased cell death in the latter case. We investigated the bacterial factors responsible for loss of survivin in gastric cells exposed to H. pylori. The results of this study indicated that the loss of survivin due to H. pylori infection involves proteasome-mediated degradation of the protein. Studies with isogenic mutants deficient in either CagA, VacA, lipopolysaccharide, or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) implicated the latter in H. pylori-induced loss of survivin and cell viability. Moreover, experiments with the GGT inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine and purified recombinant GGT protein indicated that secreted bacterial GGT activity was required and sufficient to induce these effects. PMID:23847060

  14. Microevolution of Virulence-Related Genes in Helicobacter pylori Familial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Yoshikazu; Konno, Mutsuko; Osaki, Takako; Yonezawa, Hideo; Ishige, Taichiro; Imai, Misaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that can infect human stomach causing gastritis, ulcers and cancer, is known to have a high degree of genome/epigenome diversity as the result of mutation and recombination. The bacteria often infect in childhood and persist for the life of the host. One of the reasons of the rapid evolution of H. pylori is that it changes its genome drastically for adaptation to a new host. To investigate microevolution and adaptation of the H. pylori genome, we undertook whole genome sequencing of the same or very similar sequence type in multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with seven genes in members of the same family consisting of parents and children in Japan. Detection of nucleotide substitutions revealed likely transmission pathways involving children. Nonsynonymous (amino acid changing) mutations were found in virulence-related genes (cag genes, vacA, hcpDX, tnf?, ggt, htrA and the collagenase gene), outer membrane protein (OMP) genes and other cell surface-related protein genes, signal transduction genes and restriction-modification genes. We reconstructed various pathways by which H. pylori can adapt to a new human host, and our results raised the possibility that the mutational changes in virulence-related genes have a role in adaptation to a child host. Changes in restriction-modification genes might remodel the methylome and transcriptome to help adaptation. This study has provided insights into H. pylori transmission and virulence and has implications for basic research as well as clinical practice. PMID:25978460

  15. Flagellar Localization of a Helicobacter pylori Autotransporter Protein

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Jana N.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; González-Rivera, Christian; Loh, John T.; Algood, Holly M. Scott; Cover, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori contains four genes that are predicted to encode proteins secreted by the autotransporter (type V) pathway. One of these, the pore-forming toxin VacA, has been studied in great detail, but thus far there has been very little investigation of three VacA-like proteins. We show here that all three VacA-like proteins are >250 kDa in mass and localized on the surface of H. pylori. The expression of the three vacA-like genes is upregulated during H. pylori colonization of the mouse stomach compared to H. pylori growth in vitro, and a wild-type H. pylori strain outcompeted each of the three corresponding isogenic mutant strains in its ability to colonize the mouse stomach. One of the VacA-like proteins localizes to a sheath that overlies the flagellar filament and bulb, and therefore, we designate it FaaA (flagella-associated autotransporter A). In comparison to a wild-type H. pylori strain, an isogenic faaA mutant strain exhibits decreased motility, decreased flagellar stability, and an increased proportion of flagella in a nonpolar site. The flagellar localization of FaaA differs markedly from the localization of other known autotransporters, and the current results reveal an important role of FaaA in flagellar localization and motility. PMID:23572556

  16. High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori hopQ II Genotype Isolated from Iranian Patients with Gastroduodenal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Mohabbati Mobarez, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and noncardia gastric cancer. Several putative virulence factors for H. pylori have been identified including vacA, babA, and iceA. HopQ is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. Due to the substantial geographic differences in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors reported, the main purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQ alleles (types I and II) and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. The presence of H. pylori and hopQ alleles in gastric biopsy specimens was identified by specific PCR assays. H. pylori type II hopQ was found to be significantly associated with gastric cancer patients (odds ratio: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.56–5.89). Information about the prevalence of H. pylori hopQ type II can be used for determining the high-risk diseases type which is actually colonized by H. pylori hopQ type II positive strains. The presence of H. pylori hopQ type II should be investigated in different geographical regions as confirmatory findings may provide a definite biomarker attributed to the pathogenesis of certain severe digestive diseases. PMID:24672729

  17. Phylogeographic Origin of Helicobacter pylori Determines Host-Adaptive Responses upon Coculture with Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheh, Alexander; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Merrell, D. Scott; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T.

    2013-01-01

    While Helicobacter pylori infects over 50% of the world's population, the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric disease are not fully understood. Bacterial, host, and environmental factors play a role in disease outcome. To investigate the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori pathogenesis, global gene expression of six H. pylori isolates was analyzed during coculture with gastric epithelial cells. Clustering analysis of six Colombian clinical isolates from a region with low gastric cancer risk and a region with high gastric cancer risk segregated strains based on their phylogeographic origin. One hundred forty-six genes had increased expression in European strains, while 350 genes had increased expression in African strains. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with motility, pathogenicity, and other adaptations to the host environment. European strains had greater expression of the virulence factors cagA, vacA, and babB and were associated with increased gastric histologic lesions in patients. In AGS cells, European strains promoted significantly higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression than did African strains. African strains significantly induced apoptosis, whereas only one European strain significantly induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that gene expression profiles of clinical isolates can discriminate strains by phylogeographic origin and that these profiles are associated with changes in expression of the proinflammatory and protumorigenic cytokine IL-8 and levels of apoptosis in host epithelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that bacterial factors determined by the phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains may promote increased gastric disease. PMID:23630959

  18. A review of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Helicobacter pylori Induction of the Gastrin Promoter Through GC-Rich DNA Elements

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tamara P.; Gray, Brian M.; Eaton, Kathyrn A.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection has been linked to the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori- infected patients and animal models develop hypergastrinemia, chronic gastritis, and gastric atrophy. Since gastrin is an important regulator of gastric acid secretion and cell growth, H. pylori regulation of this hormone has been implicated in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on gastrin gene expression in mice and the effect of human isolates of the bacteria on gastrin transcription in a cell line. In addition to an increase in gastrin mRNA in H. pylori-infected mice, we found that the bacteria induced the endogenous human gastrin gene through MAP kinase-dependent signaling but not NF?B-dependent signaling. Moreover, activation of gastrin through MAPK signaling did not require CagA or VacA virulence factors. In transfection studies, we demonstrated that H. pylori-induction of the gastrin promoter thorough a GC-rich motif was mediated by inducible binding of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors. In conclusion, co-culturing live H. pylori bacteria with human cells is sufficient to induce gastrin gene expression. PMID:21083750

  20. The complete genome sequence of the carcinogenic bacterium Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed

    Suerbaum, Sebastian; Josenhans, Christine; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Drescher, Bernd; Brandt, Petra; Bell, Monica; Droge, Marcus; Fartmann, Berthold; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Ge, Zhongming; Horster, Andrea; Holland, Rudi; Klein, Kerstin; Konig, Jochen; Macko, Ludwig; Mendz, George L; Nyakatura, Gerald; Schauer, David B; Shen, Zeli; Weber, Jacqueline; Frosch, Matthias; Fox, James G

    2003-06-24

    Helicobacter hepaticus causes chronic hepatitis and liver cancer in mice. It is the prototype enterohepatic Helicobacter species and a close relative of Helicobacter pylori, also a recognized carcinogen. Here we report the complete genome sequence of H. hepaticus ATCC51449. H. hepaticus has a circular chromosome of 1,799,146 base pairs, predicted to encode 1,875 proteins. A total of 938, 953, and 821 proteins have orthologs in H. pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, and both pathogens, respectively. H. hepaticus lacks orthologs of most known H. pylori virulence factors, including adhesins, the VacA cytotoxin, and almost all cag pathogenicity island proteins, but has orthologs of the C. jejuni adhesin PEB1 and the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The genome contains a 71-kb genomic island (HHGI1) and several genomic islets whose G+C content differs from the rest of the genome. HHGI1 encodes three basic components of a type IV secretion system and other virulence protein homologs, suggesting a role of HHGI1 in pathogenicity. The genomic variability of H. hepaticus was assessed by comparing the genomes of 12 H. hepaticus strains with the sequenced genome by microarray hybridization. Although five strains, including all those known to have caused liver disease, were indistinguishable from ATCC51449, other strains lacked between 85 and 229 genes, including large parts of HHGI1, demonstrating extensive variation of genome content within the species. PMID:12810954

  1. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: a new enigma?

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-07-14

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/10(5)) to low in Israel (12.5/10(5)) and very low in Egypt (3.4/10(5)). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  2. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  3. Efficacy of the antimicrobial peptide TP4 against Helicobacter pylori infection: in vitro membrane perturbation via micellization and in vivo suppression of host immune responses in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Jayaram Lakshmaiah; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-05-30

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancer. Antibiotic treatment regimens have low success rates due to the rapid occurrence of resistant H. pylori strains, necessitating the development of novel anti-H. pylori strategies. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of a novel peptide, Tilapia Piscidin 4 (TP4), against multidrug resistant gastric pathogen H. pylori, based on its in vitro and in vivo efficacy.TP4 inhibited the growth of both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant H. pylori (CagA+, VacA+) via membrane micelle formation, which led to membrane depolarization and extravasation of cellular constituents. During colonization of gastric tissue, H. pylori infection maintains high T regulatorysubsets and a low Th17/Treg ratio, and results in expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment with TP4 suppressed Treg subset populations and pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines. TP4 restored the Th17/Treg balance, which resulted in early clearance of H. pylori density and recovery of gastric morphology. Toxicity studies demonstrated that TP4 treatment has no adverse effects in mice or rabbits. The results of this study indicate that TP4 may be an effective and safe monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multidrug resistant H. pylori infections. PMID:26002554

  4. Multiple Infection and Microdiversity among Helicobacter pylori Isolates in a Single Host in India

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Rajashree; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; De, Ronita; Ghosh, Prachetash; Ganguly, Mou; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most diverse bacterial species that chronically infects more than 70% of Indian population. Interestingly, data showing microdiversity of the H. pylori strains within a particular gastric niche remained scarce. To understand the extent of genetic diversity among H. pylori strains within a given host, 30 patients with gastro-duodenal problems were subjected to endoscopy and from each patient 10 single colonies were isolated. Characterization of each of these 10 single colonies by DNA fingerprinting as well as genotyping of several important genetic markers viz. cagA, vacA, iceA, vapD, cag PAI empty site, IS605, RFLP and two other genetic segments within cag PAI revealed that all of the 30 patients were infected with more than one strain and sometimes strains with 5 to 6 types of genetic variants. Analyses of certain genetic loci showed the microdiversity among the colonies from single patient, which may be due to the recombination events during long-term carriage of the pathogen. These results suggest that most of the patients have acquired H. pylori due to repeated exposure to this pathogen with different genetic make-up, which may increase the possibility of super infections. Genetic exchanges between these unrelated H. pylori strains may support certain H. pylori variant to grow better in a given host than the parental strain and thereby increasing the possibility for the severity of the infection. PMID:22952670

  5. Helicobacter acinonychis: Genetic and Rodent Infection Studies of a Helicobacter pylori-Like Gastric Pathogen of Cheetahs and Other Big Cats

    PubMed Central

    Dailidiene, Daiva; Dailide, Giedrius; Ogura, Keiji; Zhang, Maojun; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Kusters, Johannes G.; Berg, Douglas E.

    2004-01-01

    Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a U.S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that each strain lacked the cag pathogenicity island and contained a degenerate vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Analyses of nine other genes (glmM, recA, hp519, glr, cysS, ppa, flaB, flaA, and atpA) revealed a ?2% base substitution difference, on average, between the two H. acinonychis groups and a ?8% difference between these genes and their homologs in H. pylori reference strains such as 26695. H. acinonychis derivatives that could chronically infect mice were selected and were found to be capable of persistent mixed infection with certain H. pylori strains. Several variants, due variously to recombination or new mutation, were found after 2 months of mixed infection. H. acinonychis ' modest genetic distance from H. pylori, its ability to infect mice, and its ability to coexist and recombine with certain H. pylori strains in vivo should be useful in studies of Helicobacter infection and virulence mechanisms and studies of genome evolution. PMID:14702304

  6. Helicobacter pylori Genotypes Associated with Gastric Histo-Pathological Damages in a Moroccan Population

    PubMed Central

    Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Amarti, Afaf; El Rhazi, Karima; El Khadir, Mounia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Souleimani, Abdellah; Bennani, Bahia

    2013-01-01

    H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human’s genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU) of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults’ patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology. PMID:24349327

  7. Helicobacter pylori genotypes associated with gastric histo-pathological damages in a Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Amarti, Afaf; El Rhazi, Karima; El Khadir, Mounia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Souleimani, Abdellah; Bennani, Bahia

    2013-01-01

    H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human's genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU) of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults' patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology. PMID:24349327

  8. Fine resolution chronology based on initial Sr-87/Sr-86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, B. W.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Capo, R. C.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    It has been recognized that small variations in initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (Sr(sub I)), can provide a fine scale relative chronology for the chemical fractionation of materials with low Rb/Sr from parent reservoirs with high Rb/Sr. Similarly, Sr(sub I), as determined for low Rb/Sr phases in meteorites, may permit a fine resolution chronology of the recrystallization or metamorphism of planetary materials. For the establishment of a primitive Sr-87/Sr-86 chronology, it is important to search for samples with extremely low Rb/Sr for which the measured Sr-87/Sr-86 is below BABI, in which case the primitive nature of the Sr can be directly established. Using the measured Rb/Sr to calculate an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 can introduce substantial uncertainty if the Rb-Sr are disturbed. We report Sr-87/Sr-86 in plagioclase from silicate pebbles from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite on which we have reported Sm-147-Nd-143 and Ne-142 correlations. For the purpose of cross-calibration with our previous work we have performed extensive new measurements on Angra dos Reis and on anorthite from Moore County, which have very low Rb/Sr and primitive Sr-87/Sr-86.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J.; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2015-01-01

    The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host–pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

  10. Upper Jurassic ramp carbonate and associated evaporite, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.

  11. Stimulation of pepsinogen release from chief cells by Helicobacter pylori: evidence for a role of calcium and calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Beil, W; Wagner, S; Piller, M; Heim, H K; Sewing, K F

    1998-10-01

    To define the mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori stimulates pepsinogen secretion, the in vitro release of pepsinogen was studied using a preparation of pig chief cell monolayers. Helicobacter pylori induced a time- and concentration-dependent release of pepsinogen into the medium, with about a three-fold increase in pepsinogen secretion over controls found after 45 min of incubation. 3x10(7) H. pylori produced 50% of the maximal response found at a H. pylori count of 2x10(8). The action of H. pylori did not depend on the presence of the vacuolating toxin (vacA) and the cytotoxin-associated protein (cagA). Dibutyryl-cAMP and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate also markedly stimulated pepsinogen secretion and enhanced the stimulatory effect of H. pylori. Helicobacter pylori-stimulated pepsinogen release was inhibited by lanthanum and the calmodulin antagonist W-7, but not by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, TMB-8, an agent that blocks the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine and the protein kinase A inhibitor H-8. It is suggested that H. pylori directly stimulates pepsinogen release from gastric chief cells and that this effect is mediated via the calcium/calmodulin messenger branch. PMID:9817821

  12. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Upper Jurassic open-marine microbialites (Neuquén Basin, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Palma, Ricardo M.; López-Gómez, José; Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2011-04-01

    Penecontemporaneous decimetre-scale soft-sediment deformation structures are reported from the basal part of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, in the Malargüe-Las Leñas area of the back-arc Neuquén Basin (Mendoza Province, Central Andes). The deformed interval (Amarillas bed) is only 0.3 to 0.9 m thick but occurs in a wide area, larger than 1500 km 2. Its age, determined by ammonite biostratigraphy, is Early Tithonian. The soft-sediment deformation structures were generated in finely laminated, partially consolidated, organic-rich, carbonate microbialites that were deposited in open-marine, poorly oxygenated settings, apparently devoid of any significant slope. Those structures include boudins of different sizes and complexity, a variety of folds, normal (listric) dm-scale faults, sub-horizontal detachment surfaces and other features, which are part of several larger-scale, complex slump structures. Deformation was dominantly plastic but near to the ductile-brittle field transition. On the basis of the observed soft-deformation structures, their geographic distribution, their lateral homogeneity, and the geodynamic framework of the basin in which it was generated, the Amarillas bed can be tentatively attributed to a large, intermediate-depth earthquake that occurred within the plate that subducted beneath the Andean continental margin and the Neuquén back-arc basin.

  13. Role of virulence factors, cell components and adhesion in Helicobacter pylori-mediated iNOS induction in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Assmann, I A; Enders, G A; Püls, J; Rieder, G; Haas, R; Hatz, R A

    2001-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms involved in Helicobacter pylori-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) upregulation in mononuclear cells we cocultivated human THP-1 acute monocytic leukemia cells and murine J774A.1 professional macrophages with different H. pylori wild-type strains and mutants. We have shown that H. pylori-mediated iNOS induction in J774A.1 is independent of established virulence factors but dependent on direct interaction between bacteria and cells. In J774A.1, iNOS was equally upregulated by the wild-type strains J99, 26695, P12, and P1 as well as by mutants lacking the cag pathogenicity island, vacA, katA, alpAB genes and the hp0043 gene taking part in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis when direct cell contact was allowed but not when bacteria and cells were separated by protein-permeable filter membranes. In contrast, iNOS was not induced in THP-1. This indicates that H. pylori-mediated iNOS induction in J774A.1 is independent of important virulence factors whereas cell contact is crucial which suggests a role of adhesion or phagocytosis. PMID:11267846

  14. Antibacterial activities of almond skins on cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is known to be a gastric pathogen of humans. Eradication regimens for H. pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the need for alternative therapies for H. pylori infections is of special interest. We have previously shown that polyphenols from almond skins are active against a range of food-borne pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of natural almond skins before and after simulated human digestion and the pure flavonoid compounds epicatechin, naringenin and protocatechuic acid against H. pylori. Results H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsy samples following standard microbiology procedures. Also, cagA and vacA genes were identified using PCR. Susceptibility studies on 34 strains of H. pylori, including two reference strains (ATCC 43504, ATCC 49503), were performed by the standard agar dilution method. Natural almond skin was the most effective compound against H. pylori (MIC range, 64 to 128 ?g/ml), followed by natural skin post gastric digestion (MIC range, 128 to 512 ?g/ml), and natural almond skin post gastric plus duodenal digestion (MIC range, 256 to 512 ?g/ml). Amongst the pure flavonoid compounds, protocatechuic acid showed the greatest activity (MIC range, 128 to 512 ?g/ml) against H. pylori strains. Conclusions Polyphenols from almond skins were effective in vitro against H. pylori, irrespective of genotype status and could therefore be used in combination with antibiotics as a novel strategy for antibiotic resistance. PMID:23659287

  15. Diphenyleneiodonium Inhibits Apoptotic Cell Death of Gastric Epithelial Cells Infected with Helicobacter pylori in a Korean Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soon Ok; Lim, Joo Weon

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidase produces a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric epithelial cells. Even though ROS mediate apoptotic cell death, direct involvement of NADPH oxidase on H. pylori-induced apoptosis remains unclear. Besides, H. pylori isolates show a high degree of genetic variability. The predominant genotype of H. pylori in Korea has been reported as cagA+, vacA s1b, m2, iceA genotype. Present study aims to investigate whether NADPH oxidase-generated ROS mediate apoptosis in human gastric epithelial AGS cells infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate. AGS cells were pretreated with or without an NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and cultured in the presence of H. pylori at a bacterium/cell ratio of 300:1. Cell viability, hydrogen peroxide level, DNA fragmentation, and protein levels of p53, Bcl-2, and Bax were determined. Results showed that H. pylori inhibited cell viability with the density of H. pylori added to the cells. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase by DPI suppressed H. pylori-induced cell death, increased hydrogen peroxide, DNA fragmentation, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and p53 induction in AGS cells dose-dependently. The results suggest that targeting NADPH oxidase may prevent the development of gastric inflammation associated with H. pylori infection by suppressing abnormal apoptotic cell death of gastric epithelial cells. PMID:26069142

  16. J-Western Forms of Helicobacter pylori cagA Constitute a Distinct Phylogenetic Group with a Widespread Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Stacy S.; Valk, Pieter L.; Shaffer, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori strains expressing the bacterial oncoprotein CagA confers an increased risk of gastric cancer. While much is known about the ancestry and molecular evolution of Western, East Asian, and Amerindian cagA sequences, relatively little is understood about a fourth group, known as “J-Western,” which has been detected mainly in strains from Okinawa, Japan. We show here that J-Western cagA sequences have a more widespread global distribution than previously recognized, occur in strains with multiple different ancestral origins (based on multilocus sequence typing [MLST] analysis), and did not arise recently. As shown by comparisons of Western and J-Western forms of CagA, there are 45 fixed or nearly fixed amino acid differences, and J-Western forms contain a unique 4-amino-acid insertion. The mean nucleotide diversity of synonymous sites (?s) is slightly lower in the J-Western group than in the Western and East Asian groups (0.066, 0.086, and 0.083, respectively), which suggests that the three groups have comparable, but not equivalent, effective population sizes. The reduced ?s of the J-Western group is attributable to ancestral recombination events within the 5? region of cagA. Population genetic analyses suggest that within the cagA region encoding EPIYA motifs, the East Asian group underwent a marked reduction in effective population size compared to the Western and J-Western groups, in association with positive selection. Finally, we show that J-Western cagA sequences are found mainly in strains producing m2 forms of the secreted VacA toxin and propose that these functionally interacting proteins coevolved to optimize the gastric colonization capacity of H. pylori. PMID:22247512

  17. Genome sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with gastric ulceration and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Mark S; Shaffer, Carrie L; Israel, Dawn A; Peek, Richard M; Cover, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is associated with asymptomatic gastric inflammation (gastritis) and an increased risk of duodenal ulceration, gastric ulceration, and non-cardia gastric cancer. In previous studies, the genome sequences of H. pylori strains from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease have been analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of an H. pylori strain (98-10) isolated from a patient with gastric cancer and an H. pylori strain (B128) isolated from a patient with gastric ulcer disease. Results Based on multilocus sequence typing, strain 98-10 was most closely related to H. pylori strains of East Asian origin and strain B128 was most closely related to strains of European origin. Strain 98-10 contained multiple features characteristic of East Asian strains, including a type s1c vacA allele and a cagA allele encoding an EPIYA-D tyrosine phosphorylation motif. A core genome of 1237 genes was present in all five strains for which genome sequences were available. Among the 1237 core genes, a subset of alleles was highly divergent in the East Asian strain 98-10, encoding proteins that exhibited <90% amino acid sequence identity compared to corresponding proteins in the other four strains. Unique strain-specific genes were identified in each of the newly sequenced strains, and a set of strain-specific genes was shared among H. pylori strains associated with gastric cancer or premalignant gastric lesions. Conclusion These data provide insight into the diversity that exists among H. pylori strains from diverse clinical and geographic origins. Highly divergent alleles and strain-specific genes identified in this study may represent useful biomarkers for analyzing geographic partitioning of H. pylori and for identifying strains capable of inducing malignant or premalignant gastric lesions. PMID:19123947

  18. Analysis of Genomic Diversity among Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Children by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Feizabadi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mahjoub, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Presence of genomic diversity among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains have been suggested by numerous investigators. Little is known about diversity of H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian children and their association with virulence of the strains. Our purpose was to assess the degree of genomic diversity among H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian-children, on the basis of vacA genotype, cagA status of the strains, sex, age as well as the pathological status of the patients. Methods: Genomic DNA from 44 unrelated H. pylori strains isolated during 1997–2009, was examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Pathological status of the patients was performed according to the modified Sydney-system and genotype/status of vacA/cagA genes was determined by PCR. PFGE was performed using XbaI restriction-endonuclease and the field inversion-gel electrophoresis system. Findings: No significant relationship was observed between the patterns of PFGE and the cagA/vacA status/genotype. Also no relationship was observed between age, sex, and pathological status of the children and the PFGE patterns of their isolates. Similar conclusion was obtained by Total Lab software. However, more relationship was observed between the strains isolated in the close period (1997–2009, 2001–2003, 2005–2007, and 2007–2009) and more difference was observed among those obtained in the distant periods (1997 and 2009). Conclusion: H. pylori strains isolated from children in Iran are extremely diverse and this diversity is not related to their virulence characteristics. Occurrence of this extreme diversity may be related to adaptation of H. pylori strains to variable living conditions during transmission between various host individuals. PMID:26019775

  19. Analysis of Surface-Exposed Outer Membrane Proteins in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Bradley J.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; McDonald, W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    More than 50 Helicobacter pylori genes are predicted to encode outer membrane proteins (OMPs), but there has been relatively little experimental investigation of the H. pylori cell surface proteome. In this study, we used selective biotinylation to label proteins localized to the surface of H. pylori, along with differential detergent extraction procedures to isolate proteins localized to the outer membrane. Proteins that met multiple criteria for surface-exposed outer membrane localization included known adhesins, as well as Cag proteins required for activity of the cag type IV secretion system, putative lipoproteins, and other proteins not previously recognized as cell surface components. We identified sites of nontryptic cleavage consistent with signal sequence cleavage, as well as C-terminal motifs that may be important for protein localization. A subset of surface-exposed proteins were highly susceptible to proteolysis when intact bacteria were treated with proteinase K. Most Hop and Hom OMPs were susceptible to proteolysis, whereas Hor and Hof proteins were relatively resistant. Most of the protease-susceptible OMPs contain a large protease-susceptible extracellular domain exported beyond the outer membrane and a protease-resistant domain at the C terminus with a predicted ?-barrel structure. These features suggest that, similar to the secretion of the VacA passenger domain, the N-terminal domains of protease-susceptible OMPs are exported through an autotransporter pathway. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the repertoire of surface-exposed H. pylori proteins that may mediate bacterium-host interactions, as well as the cell surface topology of these proteins. PMID:24769695

  20. Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yahaghi, Emad; Khamesipour, Faham; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Sakhaei, Mohammad Hossein; Masoudimanesh, Mojtaba; Khameneie, Maryam Khayyat

    2014-01-01

    From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14%) salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68%) vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%). The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44%) and cagA (57.625). VacA s1a (37.28%) and iceA1 (47.45%) were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%), s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%), and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81%) were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%), amoxicillin (67.79%), and ampicillin (61.01%). High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria. PMID:25184146

  1. Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Berg, Douglas E.; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5–6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, ?-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

  2. Rapid genetic analysis of Helicobacter pylori gastric mucosal colonization in suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Betty P; Mekalanos, John J

    2002-06-11

    Previously described animal models for Helicobacter pylori infection have been limited by cumbersome host requirements (e.g., germ-free conditions or unusual species) or are applicable to only special subsets of H. pylori strains (e.g., fresh clinical isolates or animal-adapted derivatives). Here, we report that 5- to 6-day-old outbred CD-1 (ICR) suckling mice support 24-h colonization of all H. pylori strains tested (SS1, 26695 SmR-1, 43504 SmR-1, and G27 SmR-1), including lab-passaged strains that cannot be adapted for colonization of adult animals. Total colony-forming units (cfu) recovered from infection with lab-passaged strains did not differ from those with mouse-adapted SS1. We also tested this model's ability to detect colonization defects in strains carrying mutations in known virulence genes by coinfecting with wild-type H. pylori and measuring differential recovery. This competition assay identified colonization defects in several classes of known attenuated mutants, including those defective in acid resistance (ureA), metabolism (frdA), motility (motB), and chemotaxis (cheY). A mutant defective in copA (copper transporting P-type ATPase) is nonattenuated in adult and infant mice. Possibly because of the limited duration of infection, our model did not identify defects in vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) or gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (ggt) as attenuating, in contrast to results from other animal models. We also identified a new virulence gene (HP0507) encoding a conserved hypothetical protein, which is important for colonization in our model. The suckling mouse model offers a rapid method to identify colonization defects in any H. pylori strain and may have utility as a new tool for studying immunity to primary infection. PMID:12060779

  3. The Cag Pathogenicity Island and Cooperative Interaction between TLR2/NOD2 and NLRP3 Regulate IL-1? Production in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Franchi, Luigi; Backert, Steffen; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Colonization of the stomach by Helicobacter pylori affects about half of the world population and is associated with the development of gastritis, ulcers and cancer. Polymorphisms in the IL1B gene are linked to an increased risk of H. pylori-associated cancer, but the bacterial and host factors that regulate IL-1? production in response to H. pylori infection remain largely unknown. Using murine bone marrow-derived DCs, we show that the virulence bacterial factors cagPAI and CagL, but not VacA or CagA, regulate the induction of pro-IL-1? and secondarily the production of mature IL-1? in response to H. pylori infection. We further show that the host receptors, TLR2 and NOD2, but not NOD1, are required for induction of pro-IL-1? and NLRP3 in DCs infected with H. pylori. In contrast, NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC, were essential for the activation of Caspase-1, processing of pro-IL-1? into mature IL-1? and secretion of IL-1?. Finally, we provide evidence that mutant mice deficient in Caspase-1, IL-1? and IL-1 receptor, but not NLRP3, are impaired in the clearance of the CagA-positive SPM326 H. pylori strain in the stomach when compared to wild-type mice. These studies identify bacterial cagPAI and the cooperative interaction among the host innate receptors TLR2, NOD2 and NLRP3 as important regulators of IL-1? production in H. pylori-infected DCs. PMID:23818043

  4. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  5. Comparative whole genome sequence analysis of the carcinogenic bacterial model pathogen Helicobacter felis.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Isabelle C; Zigova, Zuzana; Holden, Matthew; Lawley, Trevor D; Rad, Roland; Dougan, Gordon; Falkow, Stanley; Bentley, Stephen D; Müller, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter felis naturally colonizes the gastric mucosa of dogs and cats. Due to its ability to persistently infect laboratory mice, H. felis has been used extensively to experimentally model gastric disorders induced in humans by H. pylori. We determined the 1.67 Mb genome sequence of H. felis using combined Solexa and 454 pyrosequencing, annotated the genome, and compared it with multiple previously published Helicobacter genomes. About 1,063 (63.6%) of the 1,671 genes identified in the H. felis genome have orthologues in H. pylori, its closest relative among the fully sequenced Helicobacter species. Many H. pylori virulence factors are shared by H. felis: these include the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT, the immunomodulator NapA, and the secreted enzymes collagenase and HtrA. Helicobacter felis lacks a Cag pathogenicity island and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA but possesses a complete comB system conferring natural competence. Remarkable features of the H. felis genome include its paucity of transcriptional regulators and an extraordinary abundance of chemotaxis sensors and restriction/modification systems. Helicobacter felis possesses an episomally replicating 6.7-kb plasmid and harbors three chromosomal regions with deviating GC content. These putative horizontally acquired regions show homology and synteny with the recently isolated H. pylori plasmid pHPPC4 and homology to Campylobacter bacteriophage genes (transposases, structural, and lytic genes), respectively. In summary, the H. felis genome harbors a variety of putative mobile elements that are unique among Helicobacter species and may contribute to this pathogen's carcinogenic properties. PMID:21402865

  6. Finding the smoking gun: protein tyrosine phosphatases as tools and targets of unicellular microorganisms and viruses.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, P

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. Since Guan and Dixon reported in 1990 that phosphatase YopH serves as an essential virulence determinant of Yersinia, the field shifted significantly forward, and dozens of PTPs were identified in various microorganisms and even in viruses. The discovery of extensive tyrosine signaling networks in non-metazoan organisms refuted the moth-eaten paradigm claiming that these organisms rely exclusively on phosphoserine/phosphothreonine signaling. Similarly to humans, phosphotyrosine signaling is thought to comprise a small fraction of total protein phosphorylation, but plays a disproportionately important role in cell-cycle control, differentiation, and invasiveness. Here we summarize the state-of-art knowledge on PTPs of important non-metazoan pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Caulobacter crescentus, Yersinia, Synechocystis, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica, etc.), and focus also at the microbial proteins affecting directly or indirectly the PTPs of the host (Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTSA-10, Bacillus anthracis anthrax toxin, streptococcal ? protein, Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA, Leishmania GP63 and EF-1?, Plasmodium hemozoin, etc.). This is the first review summarizing the knowledge on biological activity and pharmacological inhibition of non-metazoan PTPs, with the emphasis of those important in host-pathogen interactions. Targeting of numerous non-metazoan PTPs is simplified by the fact that they act either as ectophosphatases or are secreted outside of the pathogen. Interfering with tyrosine phosphorylation represents a powerful pharmacologic approach, and even though the PTP inhibitors are difficult to develop, lifting the fog of phosphatase inhibition is of the great market potential and further clinical impact. PMID:22360485

  7. Recombinant human lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of triple therapy in mice infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuping; Wu, Qinyi; Cheng, Guoxiang; Liu, Xuefang; Liu, Siguo; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Aimin; Bian, Li; Chen, Jianquan; Lv, Jiajun; Dong, Xiangqian; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Yunzhen; Ma, Lanqing

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a life-threatening pathogen which causes chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and even stomach cancer. Treatment normally involves bacterial eradication; however, this type of treatment only has a rate of effectiveness of <80%. Thus, it is a matter of some urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies. Lactoferrin, a member of the transferrin family of iron?binding proteins, has been proven to be effective in removing a vast range of pathogens, including H. pylori. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) isolated from transgenic goats as a treatment for H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo experiments, BALB/c mice received an intragastric administration of 0.1 ml of a suspension of H. pylori. The mice were then divided into 4 groups: group A, treated with saline; group B, treated with 1.5 g of rhLF; group C, treated with the standard triple therapy regimen; and group D, treated with the standard triple therapy regimen plus.5 g of rhLF. Following sacrifice, the stomach tissues of the mice were histologically examined for the presence of bacteria. For the in vitro experiments, the bacteria were cultured in BHI broth and RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were carried out to determine the mRNA and protein levels of virulence factors (CagA and VacA) in the cultures. Our results revealed that rhLf not only inhibited the growth of H. pylori, but also suppressed the expression of two major virulence factors. Moreover, rhLf markedly increased bacterial eradication and effectively reduced the inflammatory response when combined with the standard triple therapy regimen. These results provide evidence supporting the use of rhLF as an adjuvant to traditional therapeutic strategies in the treatment of H. pylori. PMID:26080893

  8. Comparative Genomics of a Helicobacter pylori Isolate from a Chinese Yunnan Naxi Ethnic Aborigine Suggests High Genetic Divergence and Phage Insertion

    PubMed Central

    You, Yuanhai; He, Lihua; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen correlated with several severe digestive diseases. It has been reported that isolates associated with different geographic areas, different diseases and different individuals might have variable genomic features. Here, we describe draft genomic sequences of H. pylori strains YN4-84 and YN1-91 isolated from patients with gastritis from the Naxi and Han populations of Yunnan, China, respectively. The draft sequences were compared to 45 other publically available genomes, and a total of 1059 core genes were identified. Genes involved in restriction modification systems, type four secretion system three (TFS3) and type four secretion system four (TFS4), were identified as highly divergent. Both YN4-84 and YN1-91 harbor intact cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and have EPIYA-A/B/D type at the carboxyl terminal of cagA. The vacA gene type is s1m2i1. Another major finding was a 32.5-kb prophage integrated in the YN4-84 genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (30/33) with Helicobacter pylori prophage KHP30. Moreover, a 1,886 bp transposable sequence (IS605) was found in the prophage. Our results imply that the Naxi ethnic minority isolate YN4-84 and Han isolate YN1-91 belong to the hspEAsia subgroup and have diverse genome structure. The genome has been extensively modified in several regions involved in horizontal DNA transfer. The important roles played by phages in the ecology and microevolution of H. pylori were further emphasized. The current data will provide valuable information regarding the H. pylori genome based on historic human migrations and population structure. PMID:25799515

  9. Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites: Implications for endogenous igneous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Mittlefehldt, D.W. (Lockheed Engineering and Science Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The authors have analyzed thirteen igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation and combined these data with literature data for forty-three analyzed mesosiderite clasts. They classify these well-characterized clasts into the following five principal groups: (1) Polygenic and monogenic cumulates (39%) are coarse-grained gabbros that are highly depleted in incompatible elements (relative to H chondrites); they formed at moderate depth either as residues of low-degree partial melting of pre-existing cumulate eucrites or as cumulates from parent melts similar to cumulate eucrites. (2) Polygenic basalts (30%) are finer-grained rocks with positive europium anomalies, La/Lu ratios < 1, and lower rare earth element abundances than basaltic eucrites. It seems likely that these rocks were formed near their parent body surface by remelting mixtures of major amounts of basaltic eucrites and lesser amounts of cumulate eucrites. (3) Quench-textured rocks comprise two compositional groups, (a) those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5%), and (b) those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2%). The quench-textured rocks are probably monogenic; they formed most likely when small-scale impacts at their parent body surface totally melted small amounts of basaltic or cumulate eucrite material. (4) Monogenic basalts (11%) resemble basaltic eucrites and formed by endogenous igneous processes on the mesosiderite parent body (MPB). (5) Ultramafic rocks are cumulates consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9%) or olivine (4%). Orthopyroxenite clasts closely resemble diogenites and were formed most likely by endogenous igneous processes.

  10. Phase Variation in the Helicobacter pylori Phospholipase A Gene and Its Role in Acid Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tannæs, Tone; Dekker, Niek; Bukholm, Geir; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Appelmelk, Ben J.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that Helicobacter pylori can spontaneously and reversibly change its membrane lipid composition, producing variants with low or high content of lysophospholipids. The “lyso” variant contains a high percentage of lysophospholipids, adheres better to epithelial cells, and releases more proteins such as urease and VacA, compared to the “normal” variant, which has a low content of lysophospholipids. Prolonged growth of the normal variant at pH 3.5, but not under neutral conditions, leads to enrichment of lyso variant colonies, suggesting that the colony switch is relevant to acid adaptation. In this study we show that the change in membrane lipid composition is due to phase variation in the pldA gene. A change in the (C) tract length of this gene results in reversible frameshifts, translation of a full-length or truncated pldA, and the production of active or inactive outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA). The role of OMPLA in determining the colony morphology was confirmed by the construction of an OMPLA-negative mutant. Furthermore, variants with an active OMPLA were able to survive acidic conditions better than variants with the inactive form. This explains why the lyso variant is selected at low pH. Our studies demonstrate that phase variation in the pldA gene, resulting in an active form of OMPLA, is important for survival under acidic conditions. We also demonstrated the active OMPLA genotype in fresh isolates of H. pylori from patients referred to gastroscopy for dyspepsia. PMID:11705905

  11. Expression of the human cell surface glycoconjugates Lewis x and Lewis y by Helicobacter pylori isolates is related to cagA status.

    PubMed

    Wirth, H P; Yang, M; Karita, M; Blaser, M J

    1996-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of human Lewis immunodeterminants in the lipopolysaccharide of Helicobacter pylori. In 94 H. pylori isolates, expression of Lewis(x) (Le(x)) and Le(y) was a stable phenotypic marker independent of the growth medium and cell age; 46 (49%) of the isolates expressed both and 34 (36%) of the isolates expressed either Le(x) or Le(y); 14 (15%) were negative for both determinants. Twelve (13%) isolates expressed Le(b), 3 (3%) expressed Le(a), and 2 (2%) expressed sialyl-Le(x). H. pylori isolates positive for both Le(x) and Le(y) were predominantly cagA+ (P < 0.001) and possessed the s1 signal sequence (P < 0.05) and the m1 midregion type (P = 0.033) of vacA. Isogenic mutants of H. pylori CPY3401 were created by interruption of the cagA, picB, or ureA gene. The cagA-ablated strain (but not the picB- and ureA-ablated mutant strains) had significantly (P < 0.01) diminished expression of Le(y) compared with that of the wild-type strain; for all four strains, expression of Le(x) was similar. In conclusion, 89% of H. pylori isolates express Le determinants in their lipopolysaccharide, mimicking human cell surface glycoconjugates. Strong expression of Le(x) and Le(y) by cagA+ isolates could counterbalance their enhanced proinflammatory activities and thereby facilitate persistence. PMID:8890213

  12. Helicobacter pylori isolates from Greek children express type 2 and type 1 Lewis and ?1,6-glucan antigens in conjunction with a functional type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Altman, Eleonora; Chandan, Vandana; Harrison, Blair A; Panayotopoulou, Effrosini G; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria; Li, Jianjun; Sgouras, Dionyssios N

    2012-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is often acquired in childhood and can persist for life. Previous studies in adult patients have shown that H. pylori isolates from North American and European hosts express predominantly type 2 Lewis x (Le(x)) and Le(y) epitopes, while Asian strains have the capacity to express type 1 Le(a) and Le(b) structures. In order to understand the influence of environmental and host factors on the expression of Le antigens, we analysed 50 Greek H. pylori isolates from symptomatic children. Both CagA-positive and -negative strains were evaluated. The expression of Le antigens was determined by whole-cell indirect ELISA (WCE), and LPS profiles were assessed by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Occurrence of Le(x) and/or Le(y) antigens was confirmed in 35 of the isolates (70?%) while 15 of the isolates were non-typable. It was found that 11 of the paediatric isolates had the propensity to express type 1 Le(b) blood-group antigen (22?%), a feature relatively uncommon in H. pylori isolates from adults. One strain expressed both Le(b) and Le(a) antigens. The majority of the isolates (49/50, 98?%) expressed ?1,6-glucan, an antigenic non-Le determinant present in the outer core region of H. pylori LPS. All Le(x)- and Le(y)-expressing strains also carried a functional cag pathogenicity island-encoding a type IV secretion system, capable of translocating CagA protein, as well as the vacAs1 allele, suggesting that Le(x) and Le(y) epitopes may aid the persistence of more aggressive strains. No association between bacterial virulence characteristics and the histopathological observations was evident. PMID:22160312

  13. A CagA-independent cluster of antigens related to the risk of noncardia gastric cancer: associations between Helicobacter pylori antibodies and gastric adenocarcinoma explored by multiplex serology.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; Michel, Angelika; Nyrén, Olof; Ekström, Anna-Mia; Pawlita, Michael; Ye, Weimin

    2014-06-15

    Because of the differences in bacterial epitopes and host characteristics, infections with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induce different immune responses. We explored the possibility that certain antibody response patterns are more closely linked to gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) than others. In a Swedish population-based case-control study, serum samples were obtained from 268 cases and 222 controls, aged 40-79 years and frequency-matched according to age and sex. We measured antibodies against 17 H. pylori proteins using multiplex serology. Associations were estimated with multivariably adjusted logistic regression models, using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) as measures of relative risk. Associations were essentially confined to non-cardia GAC but did not differ significantly between intestinal and diffuse subtypes. Point estimates for all antibodies were above unity, 15 significant with top three being CagA (OR?=?9.2), GroEL (6.6), HyuA (3.6). ORs were substantially attenuated in individuals with chronic atrophic gastritis. Principal component analysis identified two significant factors: a CagA-dominant factor (antibodies against CagA, VacA and Omp as prominent markers), and a non-CagA factor (antibodies against NapA and Catalase as prominent markers). Both factors showed dose-dependent associations with non-cardia GAC risk (CagA-dominant factor, highest vs. lowest quartiles, OR?=?16.2 [95% CI 4.8-54.9]; non-CagA factor OR?=?5.3 [95% CI 2.1-13.3]). Overall, our results confirm that serum antibodies against different H. pylori proteins are associated with the presence of non-cardia GAC. Although strongest association is detected by antibodies against CagA and covarying proteins, a pattern of antibodies unrelated to CagA is also significantly linked to the risk of non-cardia GAC. PMID:24259284

  14. Different cytokine profile and antigen-specificity repertoire in Helicobacter pylori-specific T cell clones from the antrum of chronic gastritis patients with or without peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    D'Elios, M M; Manghetti, M; Almerigogna, F; Amedei, A; Costa, F; Burroni, D; Baldari, C T; Romagnani, S; Telford, J L; Del Prete, G

    1997-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection almost invariably results in chronic antral gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develop peptic ulcer. Some Hp strains may be more ulcerogenic than others, but some ulcerogenic mechanisms may also depend on the type of the host immune response. In this study, the antigen specificity and the cytokine profile of 53 Hp-specific CD4+ T cell clones derived from the antral mucosa of five patients with Hp-induced uncomplicated chronic gastritis (CG) were assessed and compared with those of 34 Hp-specific CD4+ T cell clones derived from six Hp-infected patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer (CG-PU). The majority (28/34; 82%) of gastric Hp-specific T cell clones from CG-PU patients expressed the Th1 profile and 17 (all Th1) of the 34 clones were specific for cytotoxin-associated protein (CagA). In contrast, 34 (64%) of the 53 Hp-specific gastric T cell clones derived from CG patients were able to secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines (Th0 profile) and only 36% expressed a polarized Th1 profile. The majority (85%) of Hp-specific clones from CG patients recognized Hp antigens other than CagA, since 13/53 (25%) were specific for urease, 6 (11%) for VacA, 6 (11%) for HSP and 20 (38%) for other undefined Hp antigens. Results provide evidence that the type of T helper cell response against Hp may vary according to the antigen involved and suggest that a polarized Th1 response may play a role in the genesis of peptic ulcer, whereas a local Th0 response, including interleukin-4 production, may represent an individual host factor which contributes to lower the degree of gastric inflammation and prevent ulcer complication. PMID:9247587

  15. Proteasome Particle-Rich Structures Are Widely Present in Human Epithelial Neoplasms: Correlative Light, Confocal and Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanoli, Alessandro; Manca, Rachele; Ricci, Vittorio; Solcia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A novel cytoplasmic structure has been recently characterized by confocal and electron microscopy in H. pylori-infected human gastric epithelium, as an accumulation of barrel-like proteasome reactive particles colocalized with polyubiquitinated proteins, H. pylori toxins and the NOD1 receptor. This proteasome particle-rich cytoplasmic structure (PaCS), a sort of focal proteasome hyperplasia, was also detected in dysplastic cells and was found to be enriched in SHP2 and ERK proteins, known to play a role in H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. However, no information is available on its occurrence in neoplastic growths. In this study, surgical specimens of gastric cancer and various other human epithelial neoplasms have been investigated for PaCSs by light, confocal and electron microscopy including correlative confocal and electron microscopy (CCEM). PaCSs were detected in gastric cohesive, pulmonary large cell and bronchioloalveolar, thyroid papillary, parotid gland, hepatocellular, ovarian serous papillary, uterine cervix and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as in pancreatic serous microcystic adenoma. H. pylori bodies, their virulence factors (VacA, CagA, urease, and outer membrane proteins) and the NOD1 bacterial proteoglycan receptor were selectively concentrated inside gastric cancer PaCSs, but not in PaCSs from other neoplasms which did, however, retain proteasome and polyubiquitinated proteins reactivity. No evidence of actual microbial infection was obtained in most PaCS-positive neoplasms, except for H. pylori in gastric cancer and capsulated bacteria in a colon cancer case. Particle lysis and loss of proteasome distinctive immunoreactivities were seen in some tumour cell PaCSs, possibly ending in sequestosomes or autophagic bodies. It is concluded that PaCSs are widely represented in human neoplasms and that both non-infectious and infectious factors activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system are likely to be involved in their origin. PaCS detection might help clarify the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in carcinogenesis. PMID:21695063

  16. Proteasome particle-rich structures are widely present in human epithelial neoplasms: correlative light, confocal and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Necchi, Vittorio; Sommi, Patrizia; Vanoli, Alessandro; Manca, Rachele; Ricci, Vittorio; Solcia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A novel cytoplasmic structure has been recently characterized by confocal and electron microscopy in H. pylori-infected human gastric epithelium, as an accumulation of barrel-like proteasome reactive particles colocalized with polyubiquitinated proteins, H. pylori toxins and the NOD1 receptor. This proteasome particle-rich cytoplasmic structure (PaCS), a sort of focal proteasome hyperplasia, was also detected in dysplastic cells and was found to be enriched in SHP2 and ERK proteins, known to play a role in H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. However, no information is available on its occurrence in neoplastic growths. In this study, surgical specimens of gastric cancer and various other human epithelial neoplasms have been investigated for PaCSs by light, confocal and electron microscopy including correlative confocal and electron microscopy (CCEM). PaCSs were detected in gastric cohesive, pulmonary large cell and bronchioloalveolar, thyroid papillary, parotid gland, hepatocellular, ovarian serous papillary, uterine cervix and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as in pancreatic serous microcystic adenoma. H. pylori bodies, their virulence factors (VacA, CagA, urease, and outer membrane proteins) and the NOD1 bacterial proteoglycan receptor were selectively concentrated inside gastric cancer PaCSs, but not in PaCSs from other neoplasms which did, however, retain proteasome and polyubiquitinated proteins reactivity. No evidence of actual microbial infection was obtained in most PaCS-positive neoplasms, except for H. pylori in gastric cancer and capsulated bacteria in a colon cancer case. Particle lysis and loss of proteasome distinctive immunoreactivities were seen in some tumour cell PaCSs, possibly ending in sequestosomes or autophagic bodies. It is concluded that PaCSs are widely represented in human neoplasms and that both non-infectious and infectious factors activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system are likely to be involved in their origin. PaCS detection might help clarify the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in carcinogenesis. PMID:21695063

  17. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was deposited in EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ under accession number FN555004. PMID:20219135

  18. Helicobacter pylori antibody responses and evolution of precancerous gastric lesions in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kai-Feng; Formichella, Luca; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jun-Ling; Li, Zhe-Xuan; Liu, Cong; Wang, Yu-Mei; Goettner, Gereon; Ulm, Kurt; Classen, Meinhard; You, Wei-Cheng; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori-specific proteins are involved in gastric carcinogenesis. To investigate the seroprevalence of six H. pylori-specific antibodies in patients with different gastric histology, and the impact of seropositivities on the evolution of precancerous gastric lesions, a follow-up study was conducted in Linqu County, China. The seropositivities for CagA, VacA, GroEL, UreA, HcpC and gGT were assessed by recomLine analysis in 573 H. pylori-positive subjects and correlated with evolution of precancerous gastric lesions. We found that the score of H. pylori recomLine test was significantly increased in subjects with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG, p < 0.0001) or intestinal metaplasia (IM, p = 0.0125), and CagA was an independent predictor of advanced gastric lesions, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 2.54 (95% CI = 1.42-4.55) for IM and 2.38 (95% CI = 1.05-5.37) for dysplasia (DYS). Moreover, seropositivities for CagA and GroEL were identified as independent predictors for progression of gastric lesions in a longitudinal study, and ORs were 2.89 (95% CI = 1.27-6.59) and 2.20 (95% CI = 1.33-3.64), respectively. Furthermore, the risk of progression was more pronounced in subjects with more than three positive antigens (p(for) trend = 0.0003). This population-based study revealed that seropositivities for CagA and GroEL might be potential markers to identify patients infected with high-risk H. pylori strains, which are related to the development of GC in a Chinese high-risk population, and recomLine test might serve as a tool for risk stratification. PMID:24155048

  19. Comparative genomics of a Helicobacter pylori isolate from a Chinese Yunnan Naxi ethnic aborigine suggests high genetic divergence and phage insertion.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; He, Lihua; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen correlated with several severe digestive diseases. It has been reported that isolates associated with different geographic areas, different diseases and different individuals might have variable genomic features. Here, we describe draft genomic sequences of H. pylori strains YN4-84 and YN1-91 isolated from patients with gastritis from the Naxi and Han populations of Yunnan, China, respectively. The draft sequences were compared to 45 other publically available genomes, and a total of 1059 core genes were identified. Genes involved in restriction modification systems, type four secretion system three (TFS3) and type four secretion system four (TFS4), were identified as highly divergent. Both YN4-84 and YN1-91 harbor intact cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and have EPIYA-A/B/D type at the carboxyl terminal of cagA. The vacA gene type is s1m2i1. Another major finding was a 32.5-kb prophage integrated in the YN4-84 genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (30/33) with Helicobacter pylori prophage KHP30. Moreover, a 1,886 bp transposable sequence (IS605) was found in the prophage. Our results imply that the Naxi ethnic minority isolate YN4-84 and Han isolate YN1-91 belong to the hspEAsia subgroup and have diverse genome structure. The genome has been extensively modified in several regions involved in horizontal DNA transfer. The important roles played by phages in the ecology and microevolution of H. pylori were further emphasized. The current data will provide valuable information regarding the H. pylori genome based on historic human migrations and population structure. PMID:25799515

  20. Helicobacter acinonychis: genetic and rodent infection studies of a Helicobacter pylori-like gastric pathogen of cheetahs and other big cats.

    PubMed

    Dailidiene, Daiva; Dailide, Giedrius; Ogura, Keiji; Zhang, Maojun; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Eaton, Kathryn A; Cattoli, Giovanni; Kusters, Johannes G; Berg, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a U.S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that each strain lacked the cag pathogenicity island and contained a degenerate vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Analyses of nine other genes (glmM, recA, hp519, glr, cysS, ppa, flaB, flaA, and atpA) revealed a approximately 2% base substitution difference, on average, between the two H. acinonychis groups and a approximately 8% difference between these genes and their homologs in H. pylori reference strains such as 26695. H. acinonychis derivatives that could chronically infect mice were selected and were found to be capable of persistent mixed infection with certain H. pylori strains. Several variants, due variously to recombination or new mutation, were found after 2 months of mixed infection. H. acinonychis ' modest genetic distance from H. pylori, its ability to infect mice, and its ability to coexist and recombine with certain H. pylori strains in vivo should be useful in studies of Helicobacter infection and virulence mechanisms and studies of genome evolution. PMID:14702304

  1. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

  2. Electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis strains from a Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L; Fox, James G; Berg, Douglas E; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5-6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, ?-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

  3. Mucosal interleukin-21 mRNA expression level is high in patients with Helicobacter pylori and is associated with the severity of gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Zamanzad, Benham; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Taghikhani, Afshin; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with gastritis and marked infiltration of the gastric mucosa by several cytokines secreting inflammatory cells. Different clinical forms of the infection may reflect distinctive patterns of cytokine expression. Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 have been reported to be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammation, but the details and relationship to different patterns of inflammation and virulence factors remain unclear. The present study was launched to analyse IL-6 expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric patients and to investigate its correlation with chronic gastritis among H. pylori-infected patients. Total RNA was extracted from the gastric antrum biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori uninfected patients. Mucosal IL-21 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsy was determined by real-time PCR. The presence of vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin associated gene A) virulence factors were evaluated using PCR. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression was significantly high in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori uninfected patients, and the mucosal IL-21 mRNA level was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation. There was no association between virulence factors and IL-21 mRNA expression. We believe that IL-21 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and might be an index of the severity of chronic gastritis. PMID:26155185

  4. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Cruz, Modesto; Abreu, José A Jiménez; Mitsui, Takahiro; Terao, Hideo; Disla, Mildre; Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9?%. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17-91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5?%. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5?%, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2?%). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy. PMID:24965801

  5. Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the association of genotypes and gastroduodenal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Elham; Poursina, Farkhondeh; de Wiele, Tom Van; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known as a major etiologic factor for a variety of gastroduodenal diseases. In Iran, with a high rate of H. pylori infection close to 90%, numerous studies have revealed many aspects of interaction between the bacterium, mucosal surface and induction of disease outcome. The organism is genetically diverse and several virulence factors are attributed to the more virulent strains. The well-characterized virulence factors of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin gene A. The distribution pattern of H. pylori genotypes and its association with disease status varies geographically. The present review focused on the virulence factors and genotyping of H. pylori in relation to gastroduodenal disorders in different regions of Iran. Methods: In total, 398 studies were reported on different aspects related to H. pylori in our electronic search from 1995-2011. H. pylori infection and its virulence factors in association with disease status were investigated in 159 reports. Looking specifically at the gastrointestinal tract disorders, the most relevant reports including 37 papers were selected. Results: We found no correlation of cagA genotype and disease status in the majority of studies, whereas vacA was demonstrated as a useful marker in predicting the disease outcome. The results of reports on other virulence factors of H. pylori such as blood group antigen-binding adhesion gene A, the induced by contact with epithelium gene A, the outer inflammatory protein A, the duodenal ulcer promoting gene A, and Helicobacter outer membrane gene and their relation with disease status were contradictory. Conclusions: Although different markers of H. pylori were emphasized as useful when predicting disease outcomes in some studies, the inconsistent researches and the scarcity of data made any conclusion or even comparison impossible. Considering the gap of information observed during our search relating to genotyping and other aspects of H. pylori infection, further investigations are suggested. PMID:23267382

  6. Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beavan, John; Gilbert, Lewis E.; Scholz, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A geodetic network which spans the region between San Francisco and Lake Tahoe has been measured 5 times completely with triangulation in 1880, 1922, 1929, 1943, 1963. A resurvey with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in 1991 allows the formation of 1 coseismic and 4 interseismic epochs. The data from this network provide a unique opportunity to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the strain field associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake in particular and with the Pacific-North American plate boundary in general. Calculations of strain rate from the network data lead to the following conclusions. (1) There is no resolvable (greater than 0.05 microradians/yr) strain in between Sutter Buttes and the Sierra Nevada. (2) Throughout the time since the 1906 earthquake, a region extending at least as far east as the westernmost Great Valley has been undergoing deformation related to Pac:Nam interaction and the associated earthquake cycle. (3) In the time and space of overlap, our results agree with those from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) trilateration data. Both data sets indicate that strain must be accumulating to the east of Vaca. (4) The San Andreas discrepancy cannot be accommodated in the Great Valley at the 1 sigma level of our results. It is possible to absorb it in that region at the 2 sigma level. (5) Strain rate is elevated in the years following the earthquake and decays slowly with time. It is possible that the rate in the Coast Ranges increases until around 1950 and then decays. With the exception of one epoch, strain rate in the Coast Ranges is consistently fault parallel, shows no sign changes, and is consistent with monotonic strain accumulation.

  7. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  8. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

  9. Intercellular Communication in Helicobacter pylori: luxS Is Essential for the Production of an Extracellular Signaling Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Mark H.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Individual bacteria of numerous species can communicate and coordinate their actions via the production, release, and detection of extracellular signaling molecules. In this study, we used the Vibrio harveyi luminescence bioassay to determine whether Helicobacter pylori produces such a factor. Cell-free conditioned media from H. pylori strains 60190 and 26695 each induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in V. harveyi than did sterile culture medium. The H. pylori signaling molecule had a molecular mass of <10 kDa, and its activity was unaffected by heating to 80°C for 5 min or protease treatment. The genome sequence of H. pylori 26695 does not contain any gene predicted to encode an acyl homoserine lactone synthase but does contain an orthologue of luxS, which is required for production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in V. harveyi. To evaluate the role of luxS in H. pylori, we constructed luxS null mutants derived from H. pylori 60190 and 26695. Conditioned media from the wild-type H. pylori strains induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in the V. harveyi bioassay than did conditioned medium from either mutant strain. Production of the signaling molecule was restored in an H. pylori luxS null mutant strain by complementation with a single intact copy of luxS placed in a heterologous site on the chromosome. In addition, Escherichia coli DH5? produced autoinducer activity following the introduction of an intact copy of luxS from H. pylori. Production of the signaling molecule by H. pylori was growth phase dependent, with maximal production occurring in the mid-exponential phase of growth. Transcription of H. pylori vacA also was growth phase dependent, but this phenomenon was not dependent on luxS activity. These data indicate that H. pylori produces an extracellular signaling molecule related to AI-2 from V. harveyi. We speculate that this signaling molecule may play a role in regulating H. pylori gene expression. PMID:10816463

  10. Intercellular communication in Helicobacter pylori: luxS is essential for the production of an extracellular signaling molecule.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, M H; Cover, T L

    2000-06-01

    Individual bacteria of numerous species can communicate and coordinate their actions via the production, release, and detection of extracellular signaling molecules. In this study, we used the Vibrio harveyi luminescence bioassay to determine whether Helicobacter pylori produces such a factor. Cell-free conditioned media from H. pylori strains 60190 and 26695 each induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in V. harveyi than did sterile culture medium. The H. pylori signaling molecule had a molecular mass of <10 kDa, and its activity was unaffected by heating to 80 degrees C for 5 min or protease treatment. The genome sequence of H. pylori 26695 does not contain any gene predicted to encode an acyl homoserine lactone synthase but does contain an orthologue of luxS, which is required for production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in V. harveyi. To evaluate the role of luxS in H. pylori, we constructed luxS null mutants derived from H. pylori 60190 and 26695. Conditioned media from the wild-type H. pylori strains induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in the V. harveyi bioassay than did conditioned medium from either mutant strain. Production of the signaling molecule was restored in an H. pylori luxS null mutant strain by complementation with a single intact copy of luxS placed in a heterologous site on the chromosome. In addition, Escherichia coli DH5alpha produced autoinducer activity following the introduction of an intact copy of luxS from H. pylori. Production of the signaling molecule by H. pylori was growth phase dependent, with maximal production occurring in the mid-exponential phase of growth. Transcription of H. pylori vacA also was growth phase dependent, but this phenomenon was not dependent on luxS activity. These data indicate that H. pylori produces an extracellular signaling molecule related to AI-2 from V. harveyi. We speculate that this signaling molecule may play a role in regulating H. pylori gene expression. PMID:10816463

  11. Are sills really elastic hydraulic fractures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spacapan, Juán B.; Galland, Olivier; Leanza, Héctor A.; Planke, Sverre

    2015-04-01

    Seismic reflection data and field observations have over the past few decades revealed the presence of voluminous igneous sill complexes in sedimentary basins worldwide. The implications of sill emplacement in sedimentary basins are numerous: they trigger maturation of organic-rich formations, they produce large quantities of greenhouse gases that trigger dramatic climate change and mass extinctions, and they produce small- and large-scale structures that affect fluid flow. Therefore, a proper understanding of their emplacement mechanism is essential. Most models of sill and laccolith emplacement account for purely elastic host rock, and their propagation mechanism is dominantly assumed to be according to the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) theory. Recent field and seismic observations, however, demonstrated that part, if not all, sill- and laccolith-induced deformation is accommodated by inelastic deformation, strongly questioning the relevance of the LEFM theory applied for igneous intrusions. In this contribution, we present detailed structural observations from spectacularly well-exposed sills in the northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina. We studied a 50-m outcrop that exhibits very clearly three sills of different sizes, the shapes of their tips, and the associated structures in their sedimentary host rock, i.e. the calcareous pelites of the organic-rich Vaca Muerta Fm. This formation is adequate to map the structures at the outcrop scale, as it consists in fine layers of mudstone inter-bedded with weak shale, such that it is possible to map each layer along the entire outcrop. Detailed structural mapping evidence that the sedimentary layers have not been opened, i.e. pushed away by the emplacement of the sills, as expected from the LEFM theory. Indeed, some of the sedimentary layers are not present at the location of the sills, but they appear duplicated several times ahead of the tips of the three observed sills; the relative movements between the duplicated segments are clearly associated with shortening. Therefore, our field observations show that the host rock is pushed and shortened ahead of the sill tips, in total contradiction with the extensional features predicted by the LEFM theory. The structures described above strongly suggest instead that these sills were emplaced according to the viscous indenter model, in good agreement with recent laboratory models (Abdelmalak et al., 2012). These detailed observations strongly question the geological relevance of the LEFM theory applied to igneous sheet intrusions, and call for more field observations to better constrain the dynamics of sill and dyke emplacement mechanisms. Abdelmalak, M.M., Mourgues, R., Galland, O., Bureau, D., 2012. Fracture mode analysis and related surface deformation during dyke intrusion: Results from 2D experimental modelling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 359-360, 93-105.

  12. In vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the 3’ region of cagA gene in Helicobacter pylori isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andrés; Matta, Andrés Januer; Pazos, Alvaro; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the in vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cultured from gastric biopsies from 206 Colombian patients with dyspeptic symptoms from a high-risk area for gastric cancer were included as study material. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. Resistant isolates at baseline and in amoxicillin and clarithromycin serial dilutions were subjected to genotyping (cagA, vacA alleles s and m), Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Images of the RAPD amplicons were analyzed by Gel-Pro Analyzer 4.5 program. Cluster analyses was done using SPSS 15.0 statistical package, where each of the fingerprint bands were denoted as variables. Dendrograms were designed by following Ward’s clustering method and the estimation of distances between each pair of H. pylori isolates was calculated with the squared Euclidean distance. RESULTS: Resistance rates were 4% for amoxicillin and 2.7% for clarithromycin with 2% double resistances. Genotyping evidenced a high prevalence of the genotype cagA-positive/vacA s1m1. The 3’ region of cagA gene was successfully amplified in 92.3% (12/13) of the baseline resistant isolates and in 60% (36/60) of the resistant isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. Upon observing the distribution of the number of EPIYA repetitions in each dilution with respect to baseline isolates, it was found that in 61.5% (8/13) of the baseline isolates, a change in the number of EPIYA repetitions lowered antibiotic pressure. The gain and loss of EPIYA motifs resulted in a diversity of H. pylori subclones after bacterial adjustment to changing conditions product of antibiotic pressure. RAPD PCR evidenced the close clonal relationship between baseline isolates and isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic pressure does not induce loss of the cag pathogenicity island, but it can lead - in most cases - to genetic rearrangements within the 3’ region cagA of the founding bacteria that can affect the level of tyrosine phosphorylation impacting on its cellular effects and lead to divergence of cagA-positive subclones. PMID:24106405

  13. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30-31°S. PMID:25334020

  14. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Majed, H S; Yousif, S T; Aswad, S I; Assafi, M S

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure. PMID:26042186

  15. Helicobacter pylori with the Intact dupA Cluster is more Virulent than the Strains with the Incomplete dupA Cluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Yi; Shao, Chen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ya-Chao; Wang, Shao-Bo; Hao, Jun-Ling; Wu, Chun-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Zhong; Shao, Shi-He

    2015-07-01

    The duodenal ulcer promoting gene (dupA), located in the plasticity region of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), is predicted to form a type IV secretory system (T4SS) with vir genes around dupA. In the study, we investigated the association between the dupA cluster status and the virulence of H. pylori in a littoral region of Northeast China. Two hundred and sixty-two H. pylori strains isolated from the chronic gastritis were examined to evaluate the dupA cluster status, cag PAI genes and vacA genotype using PCR and Western blot. Histopathologic evaluations of biopsy specimens were performed to analysis the association between the dupA cluster and the inflammatory response. IL-8 productions in gastric mucosa and from GES-1 cells co-cultured with H. pylori were measured, respectively, to analysis the association between the dupA cluster status and IL-8 production. We found that gastric mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher in patients with dupA-positive H. pylori, including H. pylori with complete dupA cluster (2.71 ± 0.79) and incomplete dupA cluster (2.09 ± 0.61) than in patients with dupA-negative strain (1.73 ± 0.60, p < 0.01), whereas no significant difference in the gastric mucosal atrophy was found according to the status of dupA cluster. Gastric mucosal IL-8 levels were higher in the complete dupA cluster group than in other groups (p < 0.01), and IL-8 production from GES-1 cells was also significantly higher in strains with a complete dupA cluster (1527.9 ± 180.0 pg/ml) than in those with an incomplete dupA cluster (1229.4 ± 75.3 pg/ml, p < 0.01) or those with dupA negative (1201.9 ± 92.3 pg/ml, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the complete dupA cluster in H. pylori is associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and IL-8 secretion, and H. pylori strain with a complete dupA cluster seems to be more virulent than other strains with the incomplete dupA cluster or dupA negative. PMID:25847580

  16. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, N.R.; Tunjel, I.; Majed, H.S.; Yousif, S.T.; Aswad, S.I.; Assafi, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  17. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  18. Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, H.G., Jr.; Olmsted, F.H.; LeRoux, E.F.

    1960-01-01

    The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

  19. Delineation of the High Enthalpy Reservoirs of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Geothermal System, South-Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.; Muñoz, M.; Parada, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geothermal system associated with the Pleistocene-Holocene Sierra Nevada volcano (SNVGS) in the Araucanía Region of Chile has surface manifestations from the north-western flank of the volcano, up to Manzanar and Malalcahuello. Baños del Toro, located on the northwestern flank of the volcano, has numerous fumaroles and acid pools (acid sulfate waters, T=~90°C, pH=2.1, TDS=3080 mg/L); while Aguas de la Vaca, near the base of the volcano, has a bubbling spring (chloride-sulfate waters, T=~60°C, pH=7.0, TDS=950 mg/L). Five shallow (<120m) wells (2 at Manzanar and 3 at Malalcahuello) dug and drilled in the Cautín River Valley discharge alkaline (pH= 9-10) waters with relatively low TDS (130-210mg/L). The main heat source of the geothermal system is apparently the magmatic system of the Sierra Nevada volcano. Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) that transects the area forms excellent conduits for the flow of the geothermal waters. The geothermal reservoirs are hosted in the volcanic rocks interceded with glacial deposits over the North Patagonian Batholith that forms an impermeable barrier, and thus constitutes the lower boundary of the geothermal system and also controls the lateral flow of the fluids. An equilibrium temperature of ~210°C is derived from gas geothermometry (CO2/Ar-H2/Ar) of the discharges at Baños del Toro. Geothermal fluids from the upflow area on the northwestern flank of the volcano migrate northwards to the Cautín River Valley. The geothermal system has a high enthalpy reservoir(s) on the northwestern flank of the Sierra Nevada volcano and low-enthalpy reservoirs in the Cautín River Valley that have been tapped to form spas at Manzanar and Malalcahuello. While sub-vertical fractures of LOFZ facilitate the recharge of the system, lateral flow of the geothermal fluids is apparently controlled by lithology; Melipueclo Pluton in particular prevents the westward flow from the upflow zone, causing the flow only northwards to Malalcahuello and subsequently westward on meeting poorly permeable Guapitrío Member of the Cura-Mallín Formation. This change in the flow direction from northwestward up to Malalcahuello to westward towards Manzanar is supported by topographic and hydrographic conditions as well, besides available geological and geophysical data. SNVGS is perhaps the most promising geothermal system in the area, considering the presence of high enthalpy reservoir and stable heat source, ideal for its development as geothermal resource. Acknowledgments: Authors would like to acknowledge the funding for this work through the PBCT PDA-07 project of CONICYT and Geothermal Program (Cátedra de Geotermia) of the Ministry of Energy and Mining, Government of Chile.

  20. Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2000-08-01

    An improved mathematical hydrodynamic quasi-two-dimensional model of cells, CELSUB3, is presented for simulating drainage systems that consist of pumping well fields or subsurface drains. The CELSUB3 model is composed of an assemblage of algorithms that have been developed and tested previously and that simulate saturated flow in porous media, closed conduit flow, and flow through pumping stations. A new type of link between aquifer cells and drainage conduits is proposed. This link is verified in simple problems with well known analytical solutions. The correlation between results from analytical and mathematical solutions was considered satisfactory in all cases. To simulate more complex situations, the new proposed version, CELSUB3, was applied in a project designed to control the water-table level within a sewer system in Chañar Ladeado Town, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Alternative drainage designs, which were evaluated under conditions of dynamic recharge caused by rainfall in a critical year (wettest year for the period of record) and a typical year, are briefly described. After analyzing ten alternative designs, the best technical-economic solution is a subsurface drainage system of closed conduits with pumping stations and evacuation channels. Résumé. Un modèle hydrodynamique perfectionné de cellules en quasi 2D, CELSUB3, est présenté dans le but de simuler des systèmes de drainage qui consistent en des champs de puits de pompage ou de drains souterrains. Le modèle CELSUB3 est composé d'un assemblage d'algorithmes développés et testés précédemment et qui simulent des écoulements en milieu poreux saturé, en conduites et dans des stations de pompage. Un nouveau type de lien entre des cellules d'aquifères et des drains est proposé. Ce lien est vérifié dans des problèmes simples dont les solutions analytiques sont bien connues. La corrélation entre les résultats des solutions analytiques et des solutions mathématiques a été considérée comme satisfaisante dans tous les cas. Afin de simuler des situations plus complexes, la nouvelle version proposée, CELSUB3, a été mise en œuvre dans un projet destiné à contrôler le niveau de la nappe à l'intérieur d'un système d'égouts, dans la ville de Chaar Ladeado (province de Santa Fe, Argentine). Différentes organisations du projet de drainage, qui ont été testées pour des conditions de recharge dynamique causées par la pluie au cours d'une année critique (la plus humide de la chronique disponible) et une année typique, sont brièvement décrites. Après analyse de dix organisations différentes, la meilleure solution technico-économique retenue est un système de drainage souterrain de conduites avec des stations de pompage et des canaux d'évacuation. Resumen. Se presenta un modelo matemático hidrodinámico cuasi-bidimensional de celdas, CELSUB3, apto para la simulación integral de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo basados en campos de bombeo o drenes subsuperficiales. El modelo de simulación presenta un ensamble de algoritmos, previamente desarrollados y testeados, que representan al escurrimiento a través del medio poroso saturado, escurrimiento en conducciones cerradas, estaciones de bombeo, etc. En la estructura del modelo se propone un nuevo tipo de vinculación entre celdas acuíferas y conductos de drenaje, la cual es verificada en problemas simples con solución analítica conocida arrojando, en todos los casos, resultados satisfactorios. Abordando situaciones más complejas, la nueva versión propuesta fue aplicada en un proyecto de control de niveles freáticos que acompaña un sistema de conductos cloacales, en la localidad de Chañar Ladeado, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen las alternativas de drenaje consideradas las cuales fueron evaluadas bajo recargas dinámicas provocadas por años críticamente lluviosos y en situaciones típicas. Los resultados derivados permitieron definir, tras analizar una decena de proyectos alternativos, la mejor solución técnico-económica consistente en un sistema de drenes subte

  1. Using operational data to estimate the reliable yields of water-supply wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misstear, Bruce D. R.; Beeson, Sarah

    The reliable yield of a water-supply well depends on many different factors, including the properties of the well and the aquifer; the capacities of the pumps, raw-water mains, and treatment works; the interference effects from other wells; and the constraints imposed by ion licences, water quality, and environmental issues. A relatively simple methodology for estimating reliable yields has been developed that takes into account all of these factors. The methodology is based mainly on an analysis of water-level and source-output data, where such data are available. Good operational data are especially important when dealing with wells in shallow, unconfined, fissure-flow aquifers, where actual well performance may vary considerably from that predicted using a more analytical approach. Key issues in the yield-assessment process are the identification of a deepest advisable pumping water level, and the collection of the appropriate well, aquifer, and operational data. Although developed for water-supply operators in the United Kingdom, this approach to estimating the reliable yields of water-supply wells using operational data should be applicable to a wide range of hydrogeological conditions elsewhere. Résumé La productivité d'un puits capté pour l'adduction d'eau potable dépend de différents facteurs, parmi lesquels les propriétés du puits et de l'aquifère, la puissance des pompes, le traitement des eaux brutes, les effets d'interférences avec d'autres puits et les contraintes imposées par les autorisations d'exploitation, par la qualité des eaux et par les conditions environnementales. Une méthodologie relativement simple d'estimation de la productivité qui prenne en compte tous ces facteurs a été mise au point. Cette méthodologie est basée surtout sur une analyse des données concernant le niveau piézométrique et le débit de prélèvement, quand ces données sont disponibles. De bonnes données opérationnelles sont particulièrement importantes quand il s'agit de puits dans des aquifères fissurés, libres et peu profonds, dans lesquels la performance réelle d'un puits peut varier considérablement de celle prédite à partir d'une approche plus analytique. Des données essentielles dans les processus d'estimation de la productivité sont l'identification d'un niveau piézométrique de pompage le plus profond possible et le recueil de données opérationnelles appropriées concernant le puits et l'aquifère. Bien qu'elle ait été développée pour des opérateurs gérant des captages en Grande-Bretagne, cette approche de l'estimation de la productivité des puits de captage d'eau potable à partir de données opérationnelles peut être appliquée à une large gamme de conditions hydrogéologiques en d'autres lieux. Resumen La productividad de un pozo de abastecimiento depende de varios factores, entre los que se incluyen las propiedades del pozo y del acuífero, la capacidad de la bomba, las obras de mantenimiento, la interferencia de otras captaciones y las restricciones impuestas por permisos legales, calidad del agua y aspectos ambientales. Se ha desarrollado una metodología relativamente simple para estimar la productividad de un pozo teniendo en cuenta todos los factores previamente mencionados. Esta metodología se basa principalmente en el análisis de niveles y caudales cuando estos datos están disponibles. Se requieren buenos datos de operación, principalmente cuando el pozo está situado en un acuífero de poco espesor, no confinado y en medio fracturado, donde la respuesta del sistema puede diferir enormemente de la predicción analítica. Un punto destacado en el estudio de productividad es la identificación del descenso máximo admisible. Aunque desarrollada para el Reino Unido, la metodología puede ser utilizada a un amplio rango de condiciones hidrogeológicas en otras zonas del mundo.

  2. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.