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1

Expanding Allelic Diversity of Helicobacter pylori vacA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of the gene encoding the vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA )o fHelicobacter pylori was analyzed in 98 isolates obtained from different geographic locations. The studies focused on variation in the previously defined s and m regions of vacA, as determined by PCR and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of four distinct types of s-region alleles: aside from the

LEEN-JAN VAN DOORN; C EU FIGUEIREDO; RICARDO SANNA; SALVADOR PENA; PETER MIDOLO; ENDERS K. W. NG; JOHN C. ATHERTON; MARTIN J. BLASER; WIM G. V. QUINT

1998-01-01

2

Roles of conserved residues within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase in replication and latency in mice  

PubMed Central

The catalytic subunit of the herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase (HSV-1 Pol) is essential for viral DNA synthesis and production of infectious virus in cell culture. While mutations that affect 5?–3? polymerase activity have been evaluated in animal models of HSV-1 infection, mutations that affect other functions of HSV-1 Pol have not. In a previous report, we utilized bacterial artificial chromosome technology to generate defined HSV-1 pol mutants with lesions in the previously uncharacterized pre-NH2-terminal domain. We found that the extreme N-terminal 42 residues (deletion mutant pol?N43) were dispensable for replication in cell culture, while residues 44–49 (alanine-substitution mutant polA6) were required for efficient viral DNA synthesis and production of infectious virus. In this study, we sought to address the importance of these conserved elements in viral replication in a mouse corneal infection model. Mutant virus pol?N43 exhibited no meaningful defect in acute or latent infection despite strong conservation of residues 1–42 with HSV-2 Pol. The polA6 mutation caused a modest defect in replication at the site of inoculation, and was severely impaired for ganglionic replication, even at high inocula that permitted efficient corneal replication. Additionally, the polA6 mutation resulted in reduced latency establishment and subsequent reactivation. Moreover, we found that the polA6 replication defect in cultured cells was exacerbated in resting cells as compared to dividing cells. These results reveal an important role for the conserved motif at residues 44–49 of HSV-1 Pol for ganglionic viral replication. PMID:24413420

Terrell, Shariya L.; Pesola, Jean M.

2014-01-01

3

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA different genotypes in Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: It is believed that the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) vacA gene, as a major virulence determinant (One of the major virulence determinant, not major), may be a risk factor for the development of gastroduodenal diseases. The frequency of vacA genotypes varies in different human populations. This study evaluated the prevalence of vacA alleles/genotypes among dyspeptic patients in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: One-hundred H. pylori-positive adult patients were examined in this study. After culture of gastric biopsies and DNA extraction from individual H. pylori isolates, the (all H. pylori strains harbor vacA alleles, please replace “presence” with “genotypes”) of the vacA s and m alleles were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: There were four vacA mosaicisms, including 28 for s1a/m1 (28%), 23 for s1b/m1 (23%), 26 for s1a/m2 (26%) and 23 for s1b/m2 (23%). The s2 allele was not found. The predominant vacA genotype in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and duodenal ulcer was s1a/m2, whereas in patients with adenocarcinoma was s1a/m1. Conclusion: The results showed there was no significant correlation between different genotypes of the vacA and the clinical outcomes and appears to vacA genotypes were not useful determinants for gastrointestinal diseases in our area. PMID:24627856

Havaei, S. Asghar; Mohajeri, Parviz; Khashei, Reza; Salehi, Rasoul; Tavakoli, Hamid

2014-01-01

4

[Molecular phylogeny analysis of full-length vacA and cagA genes from Helicobacter pylori].  

PubMed

All amino acid full-length sequences of VacA and CagA proteins from Helicobacter pylori strains including vacA and cagA genes were downloaded from GenBank. Molecular phylogenic trees of VacA and CagA were constructed by ClastalX 2.0 and MEGA 5.05 software to understand phylogenetic relationships of vacA and cagA genes, clinical infection effects, and genotype characteristics of different clustering groups. The results showed that the phylogenetic trees of VacA and CagA recapitulated the same three-clustering groups, i.e., East Asia group 1 and 2 and Western group, and all H. pylori strains had similar distribution. The strains of East Asia group 1 were significantly higher in patients with atrophic gastritis. Genotype vacA contained mainly s1c/m1b and s1a/m1b, while genotype cagA was mostly EPIYA-ABD. The strains of East Asia group 2 were higher in patients with duodenal ulcer. Genotype vacA was mainly s1c/m2 and s1a/m2, while genotype cagA was mostly EPIYA-AB'C. The strains of Western group were higher in patients with duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis than with atrophic gastritis. Genotype vacA was mainly s1a/m1a and s1b/m1a, while genotype cagA was mostly EPIYA-AB/B'CC. All of these results illustrated that there might be inheritant relationship of coevolution between vacA and cagA genes; East Asia group 1 and 2 and Western group had different vacA and cagA sub-genotypes, which had close rela-tionship to its clinical infection effects. It might be necessary to deeply analyze vacA and cagA sub-genotypes in the re-search of H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:22805212

Yang, Ze-Min; Chen, Wei-Wen

2012-07-01

5

The association of vacA genotypes and Helicobacter pylori -related gastroduodenal diseases in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the three regions of the Helicobacter pylori vacA gene, the signal (s1 and s2), intermediate (i1 and i2) and middle regions (m1 and m2), are known to cause the differences\\u000a in vacuolating activities. However, it was unclear whether these vacA genotypes are associated with the development of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the Middle East. The

M. Sugimoto; M. R. Zali; Y. Yamaoka

2009-01-01

6

vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to cagA status and clinical outcomes in Iranian populations.  

PubMed

Mosaicism in vacA alleles with two distinct families of vacA signal sequences (s1 and s2) and two distinct families of middle region alleles (m1 and m2) has been reported. Research suggests that the vacA s1 genotype is closely associated with duodenal ulcer disease and with high cytotoxin production. The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of vacA genotyping with respect to gastric inflammation and injury, and clinical presentation in Iranian populations. Genomic DNA of biopsy specimens from patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), or gastric cancer (GC) were characterized based on ureC (glmM), cagA, and vacA genotyping by using polymerase chain reaction. Of 167 patients including 33 with PUDs, 129 with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), and 5 with GC, 96 (57.5%) cases were infected by Helicobacter pylori. Among these patients, H. pylori were isolated from 19 (57.7%) PUD patients, 74 (68.7%) NUD patients, and 3 (60%) GC patients. The cagA was detected in 76% of H. pylori-positive cases. The vacA s1-m2 genotype was the most prevalent in 7/19 PUD (37%) and 30/74 NUD (40.5%) patients with H. pylori infection. The prevalence of vacA s2-m1 (8%) was high in Iranian isolates. A significant association was not found between H. pylori genotypes and clinical outcomes. The vacA genotypes and cagA status were not useful markers for gastroduodenal diseases in Tehran, Iran. PMID:18653971

Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Lleila; Dabiri, Hossein; Baghaei, Kaveh; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Zojaji, Homayon; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Molaei, Masha; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2008-07-01

7

vacA Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Relation to cagA Status and Clinical Outcomes in Iranian Populations  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mosaicism in vacA alleles with two distinct families of vacA signal sequences (s1 and s2) and two distinct families of middle region alleles (m1 and m2) has been reported. Research suggests that the vacA s1 genotype is closely associated with duodenal ulcer disease and with high cytotoxin production. The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of vacA genotyping with respect to gastric inflammation and injury, and clinical presentation in Iranian populations. Genomic DNA of biopsy specimens from patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), or gastric cancer (GC) were characterized based on ureC (glmM), cagA, and vacA genotyping by using polymerase chain reaction. Of 167 patients including 33 with PUDs, 129 with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), and 5 with GC, 96 (57.5%) cases were infected by Helicobacter pylori. Among these patients, H. pylori were isolated from 19 (57.7%) PUD patients, 74 (68.7%) NUD patients, and 3 (60%) GC patients. The cagA was detected in 76% of H. pylori-positive cases. The vacA s1-m2 genotype was the most prevalent in 7/19 PUD (37%) and 30/74 NUD (40.5%) patients with H. pylori infection. The prevalence of vacA s2-m1 (8%) was high in Iranian isolates. A significant association was not found between H. pylori genotypes and clinical outcomes. The vacA genotypes and cagA status were not useful markers for gastroduodenal diseases in Tehran, Iran. PMID:18653971

Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Dabiri, Hossein; Baghaei, Kaveh; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Zojaji, Homayon; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Molaei, Mahsa; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

8

Sequence and apoptotic activity of VacA cytotoxin cloned from a Helicobacter pylori Thai clinical isolate.  

PubMed

The vacuolating cytotoxin VacA produced by Helicobacter pylori induces the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles in host gastric epithelial cells as well as a release of cytochrome C from mitochondria resulting in cell apoptosis. Considerable sequence diversity in VacA relating to different degrees of disease severity is observed with clinical samples from a multitude of geographic places. In this study we describe expression in Escherichia coli, purification to homogeneity and in vitro assay of its apoptotic activity of a VacA toxin from a H. pylori isolate of a Thai patient with gastrointestinal lymphoma. Sequencing revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned Thai isolate VacA is similar to H. pylori s1/m2 type strains. The percent sequence similarity to the model strain 60190 was lower due to the presence of extra amino acids in the mid (m) region. The purified VacA toxin exhibited significant apoptotic activity on both T84 and MDCK epithelial cell lines, as revealed by DAPI staining, whereby the observed activity was significantly higher on MDCK cells. These findings could relate to a modulation of VacA activity on host cells in the Thai isolate-VacA toxin that may differ from those of the model strain. PMID:24963483

Junaid, Muhammad; Al-Gubare, Sarbast; Yousef, Muhammad; Ubol, Mathukorn Na; Leetachewa, Somphob; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Ali, Niaz; Katzenmeier, Gerd

2014-01-01

9

A Role for the Vacuolating Cytotoxin, VacA, in Colonization and Helicobacter pylori–Induced Metaplasia in the Stomach  

PubMed Central

Carriage of Helicobacter pylori strains producing more active (s1/i1) forms of VacA is strongly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, we are the first to determine effects of different polymorphic forms of VacA on inflammation and metaplasia in the mouse stomach. Bacteria producing the less active s2/i2 form of VacA colonized mice more efficiently than mutants null for VacA or producing more active forms of it, providing the first evidence of a positive role for the minimally active s2/i2 toxin. Strains producing more active toxin forms induced more severe and extensive metaplasia and inflammation in the mouse stomach than strains producing weakly active (s2/i2) toxin. We also examined the association in humans, controlling for cagPAI status. In human gastric biopsy specimens, the vacA i1 allele was strongly associated with precancerous intestinal metaplasia, with almost complete absence of intestinal metaplasia in subjects infected with i2-type strains, even in a vacA s1, cagA+ background. PMID:24625807

Winter, Jody A.; Letley, Darren P.; Cook, Katherine W.; Rhead, Joanne L.; Zaitoun, Abed A. M.; Ingram, Richard J. M.; Amilon, Karin R.; Croxall, Nicola J.; Kaye, Phillip V.; Robinson, Karen; Atherton, John C.

2014-01-01

10

Cutting Edge: VacA, a Vacuolating Cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori, Directly Activates Mast Cells for Migration and Production of Proinflammatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal mast cells strategically located at the optimal site in- teract with invading bacteria. Presence of VacA, the virulent Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin, is correlated with the severity of H. pylori-induced gastritis. To examine the mechanisms of in- flammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis, we administered VacA to the mice. Inoculation of VacA resulted in epithelium vacuolization and marked infiltrations of mast

Volaluck Supajatura; Hiroko Ushio; Akihiro Wada; Kinnosuke Yahiro; Ko Okumura; Hideoki Ogawa; Toshiya Hirayama; Chisei R

11

Characterization of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes among Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Alaska. The development of severe H. pylori disease is partially determined by the virulence of the infecting strain. Here we present vacA and cagA genotype data for H. pylori strains isolated from Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease. We enrolled patients scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy and positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and fundus were cultured. We performed PCR analysis of the H. pylori vacA gene and for the presence of the cagA gene and cagA empty site. We genotyped 515 H. pylori samples from 220 Native and 66 non-Native Alaskans. We detected the cagA gene in 242/286 (85%) persons; of 222 strains that could be subtyped, 95% (212) were non-Asian cagA and 3% (6) were East Asian cagA. After removing mixed infections (n = 17), 83% of H. pylori strains had either the vacA s1m1 (120/269) or s2m2 (103/269) genotype. Sixty-six percent (68/103) of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. Infection with an H. pylori strain having the cagA gene or vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with a decreased risk of esophagitis (P = 0.003 and 0.0003, respectively). Infection with an H. pylori strain having the vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (P = 0.003). The majority of H. pylori strains in this study carried the non-Asian cagA gene and either the vacA s1m1 or s2m2 genotype. A majority of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. There was an association of H. pylori genotype with esophagitis and PUD. PMID:21752979

Miernyk, Karen; Morris, Julie; Bruden, Dana; McMahon, Brian; Hurlburt, Debby; Sacco, Frank; Parkinson, Alan; Hennessy, Thomas; Bruce, Michael

2011-09-01

12

Clustering of Helicobacter pylori VacA in Lipid Rafts, Mediated by Its Receptor, Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ?, Is Required for Intoxication in AZ-521 Cells?  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces multiple effects on epithelial cells through different cellular events: one involves pore formation, leading to vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, and the second involves cell signaling, resulting in stimulation of proinflammatory responses and cell detachment. Our recent data demonstrated that VacA uses receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase ? (RPTP?) as a receptor, of which five residues (QTTQP) at positions 747 to 751 are involved in binding. In AZ-521 cells, which mainly express RPTP?, VacA, after binding to RPTP? in non-lipid raft microdomains on the cell surface, is localized with RPTP? in lipid rafts in a temperature- and VacA concentration-dependent process. Methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD) did not block binding to RPTP? but inhibited translocation of VacA with RPTP? to lipid rafts and all subsequent events. On the other hand, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), which disrupts anion channels, did not inhibit translocation of VacA to lipid rafts or VacA-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but inhibited VacA internalization followed by vacuolation. Thus, p38 MAP kinase activation did not appear to be required for internalization. In contrast, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibited translocation, as well as p38 MAP kinase/ATF-2 activation, internalization, and VacA-induced vacuolation. Neither NPPB nor PI-PLC affected VacA binding to cells and to its receptor, RPTP?. Thus, receptor-dependent translocation of VacA to lipid rafts is critical for signaling pathways leading to p38 MAP kinase/ATF-2 activation and vacuolation. PMID:17030583

Nakayama, Masaaki; Hisatsune, Jyunzo; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nishi, Yoshito; Wada, Akihiro; Kurazono, Hisao; Sap, Jan; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

2006-01-01

13

Prevalence and correlation with clinical diseases of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotype among gastric patients from Northeast China.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n = 169), chronic gastritis (GIs), gastric ulcer (GU), and gastric cancer (GC) were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84%) cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93%) compared with GIs (72%) and GU (84%). The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40%) and GU (36%), vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%), vacAs1bm1 (14%) and vacAs1bm2 (8%) in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%), while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2%) and GU (3%) and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%), as compared to GIs (41%) and GU (20%). The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23%) than in GU (22%) and GIs (145) patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China. PMID:24949419

Aziz, Faisal; Chen, Xin; Yang, Xuesong; Yan, Qiu

2014-01-01

14

The hero's story: typology, biblical allusion, and persona in Alvar Nu?n?ez Cabeza de Vaca's Narrative  

E-print Network

adventurers was finally reduced to four--Cabeza de Vaca, 14 4' Alonzo del Castillo, Andres Dorantes, and the Moroccan slave, Estevan or Estevanico--by starvation, disease, the elements, and Indian attacks. Bandelier goes on to admit that "it was.... The idolatrous rituals and human sacrifices of the Aztecs represented the slavery of the Jews in Egypt. The Promised Land to which Cortes led the Indians was, of course, the Church. Cortes, like Moses, depended upon interpreters. The fact that Cortes...

Bell, Glenna Gail

1991-01-01

15

An integrated sequence stratigraphy-organic geochemistry study of the Vaca Muerta petroleum systems, Neuquen Basin, Argentina  

SciTech Connect

This study shows that the Early Tithonian maximum flooding surface associated with the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation is an oil-prone marine condensed section which accumulated in the distal and shelfal parts of the basin during the maximum transgression. The overlying organic-rich sequences were deposited in a low-angle ramp setting in response to minor relative sea-level changes within an overall relative still-stand. Throughout the basin, the TOC content of the Vaca Muerta Formation decreases upward with the maximum TOC values correlating to the basal condensed section. Lateral variations in depositional setting along the Neuquen Embayment correlate to different source facies within the Vaca Muerta Formation. The distal source facies consist of multiple stacked marine condensed depositional sequences of all systems tracts. The upward decrease in TOC of the distal facies is gradual indicating that prolonged sediment starvation resulted in the accumulation of a thick organic-rich section. However, expulsion efficiency from the distal source facies was relatively low as it required high levels of thermal stress. The shelfal source facies consist of a single marine condensed section whose TOC content abruptly decreases upward due to the diluting effect of clastic highstand progradation. The low-angle shelfal setting favored widespread accumulation of the relatively thin shelfal facies, but coarser sediment interbedding increased expulsion efficiency from this facies. Kimmeridgian-incised valleys provided a regional migration pathway for hydrocarbons generated from both the distal and shelfal source facies.

Lara, M.E. [Lagoven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Wavrek, D.A. [ERSI, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Vines, R.; Laffitte, G.A. [and others

1996-08-01

16

Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cave ecosystems are considered one of the most poorly studied and fragile systems on Earth. Belize caves are no exception. This paper represents the first effort to synthesize information on both invertebrate and vertebrate observations from a Belize cave. Based on limited field research and a review of literature, we identified two ecologically sensitive areas, and developed a species inventory list containing 41 vertebrate and invertebrate morphospecies in Actun Chapat, Vaca Plateau, west-central Belize. Actun Chapat contains two ecologically sensitive areas: (1) a large multiple species bat roost, and (2) a subterranean pool containing troglobites and stygobites. The inventory list is a product of sporadic research conducted between 1973 and 2001. Ecological research in this cave system remains incomplete. An intensive systematic ecological survey of Actun Chapat with data collection over multiple seasons using a suite of survey techniques will provide a more complete inventory list. To minimize human disturbance to the ecologically sensitive areas, associated with ecotourism, we recommend limited to no access in the areas identified as "sensitive".

Wynne, J.J.; Pleytez, W.

2005-01-01

17

Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes and Correlation With Clinical Outcome in Patients With Dyspepsia in Hamadan Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Helicobacter pylori is known to be a causative agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in human. Diverse genotypes of H. pylori strains have different virulence potency and geographic distribution. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori strains and clinical outcomes in patients referred to Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, biopsy samples were collected consecutively from 153 patients with gastric cancer (GC), peptic ulcer dyspepsia (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) in the gastroenterology department of Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province, the west of Iran. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 83 patients (3 with GC, 27 with PUD, and 53 with NUD) by histology, rapid urease test (RUT) and culture. Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial isolate and was further confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing as H. pylori, and characterized based on cagA and vacA genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results: In this study, vacA genotypes s1/m2, s1/m1, s2/m2 and s2/m1 were determined in 43.4%, 19.3%, 13.2% and 6% of the isolated H. pylori, respectively. The vacAs1 genotype was detected in 52 (62.6%) isolates, of which the vacAs1a genotype was detected in 45.2, 40.7, and 66.6% of the isolates from patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype was determined in 73 (87.9%) isolates and 10 (12.1%) were negative. The frequency rates of cagA gene were 84.9, 92.6 and 100% in isolates of patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype is strongly associated with s1a/m2 and s1a/m1 vacA genotypes. Conclusions: The most predominant VacA genotypes in our areas were s1/m2 and s1/m1, which regard as the genotypes with more virulence intensity. The H. pylori vacAs1a, cagA genotypes have a significant relationship with the presence of PUD and GC in Iranian patients with dyspepsia.

Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Arebestani, Mohammad Reza; Sayedin Khorasani, Masood; Majlesi, Amir; Jaefari, Mohammad

2014-01-01

18

High Diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Patients with and without Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p?=?0.008), and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p?=?0.003). A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p?=?0.036). A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p?=?0.003). Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. Conclusion/Significance High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work. PMID:19050763

López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Barreto-Zúñiga, Rafael; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

2008-01-01

19

Characterization of virulence genes cagA and vacA in Helicobacter Pylori and their prevalence in gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using cultures of gastric biopsy samples of patients attended at the academic hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Molecular methods were used to characterize the cagA and vacA genes from bacterial isolates associated with different diseases presented by patients. Out of a total of 81, forty-two gastric biopsy samples tested were positive for H. pylori, with a prevalence of 51.9%. No significant difference was found with regard to the gender (p=0.793) and age (p=0.183) of the patients. Genotype s1m1 vacA gene was found in 67% of the cases of peptic ulcer investigated (p=1.0), despite the limited number of patients with this disease (n=3). A correlation between the presence of less virulent strains (s2m2) and reflux esophagitis was found in the majority of the cases (45%), but without statistical significance. An association between the prevalence of cagA gene, found in 92% of isolates, and peptic ulcer was not observed (p=1.0), suggesting that this gene cannot be considered a specific marker of severity in our environment. The results reinforce the importance of conducting regional studies and the need to characterize H. pylori virulence genes associated with different diseases. PMID:24031754

Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Neves, Daniel Locatelli; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

2011-01-01

20

Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype in Chilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%). The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes. Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India. CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vacA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype. Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2 recedes H Pylori strain distribution in Spain and Portugal. PMID:16419167

Díaz, MI; Valdivia, A; Martínez, P; Palacios, JL; Harris, P; Novales, J; Garrido, E; Valderrama, D; Shilling, C; Kirberg, A; Hebel, E; Fierro, J; Bravo, R; Siegel, F; Leon, G; Klapp, G; Venegas, A

2005-01-01

21

Association among H. pylori virulence markers dupA, cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients  

PubMed Central

Background Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a novel virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that is associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in some populations. The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of dupA gene and evaluate the association among dupA and other virulence factors including cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 205 dyspeptic patients (100 children and 105 adults). DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and its virulence factors using the polymerase chain reaction method. Results Patients with gastritis tested positive for H. pylori more frequently. The dupA gene was detected in 41.5% of them (85/205); cagA gene was found in 98 isolates (47.8%) and vacA genotype s1/m1 in 50.2%, s1/m2 in 8.3%, s2/m2 in 36.6%, s2/m1 in 0.5% and s1/s2/m1/m2 in 4.4%. We also verified a significant association between cagA and dupA genes [p?=?0.0003, relative risk (RR) 1.73 and confidence interval [CI]?=?1.3–2.3]. The genotypes s1/m1 were also associated with dupA gene (p?=?0.0001, RR: 1.72 and CI: 1.3–2.2). The same associations were found when analyzing pediatric and adult groups of patients individually. Conclusion Ours results suggest that dupA is highly frequent in Brazilian patients and is associated with cagA gene and vacA s1/m1 genotype, and it may be considered an important virulence factor in the development of gastric diseases in adults or children. PMID:24456629

2014-01-01

22

Relationship between Tobacco, cagA and vacA i1 Virulence Factors and Bacterial Load in Patients Infected by Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Several biological and epidemiological studies support a relationship between smoking and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to increase the risk of pathology. However, there have been few studies on the potential synergistic association between specific cagA and vacA virulence factors and smoking in patients infected by Helicobacter pylori. We studied the relationship between smoking and cagA, vacA i1 virulence factors and bacterial load in H. pylori infected patients. Methods Biopsies of the gastric corpus and antrum from 155 consecutive patients in whom there was clinical suspicion of infection by H. pylori were processed. In 106 patients H. pylori infection was detected. Molecular methods were used to quantify the number of microorganisms and presence of cagA and vacA i1 genes. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain patients’ clinical data and lifestyle variables, including tobacco and alcohol consumption. Adjusted Odds Ratios (ORadjusted) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results cagA was significantly associated with active-smoking at endoscope: ORadjusted 4.52. Evidence of association was found for vacA i1 (ORadjusted 3.15). Bacterial load was higher in active-smokers, although these differences did not yield statistical significance (median of 262.2 versus 79.4 copies of H. pylori per cell). Conclusions The association between smoking and a higher risk of being infected by a virulent bacterial population and with higher bacterial load, support a complex interaction between H. pylori infection and environmental factors. PMID:25794002

Aguirre, Estefanía; Aragones, Nuria; Saez, Jesús; Galiana, Antonio; Sola-Vera, Javier; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Paz-Zulueta, María; Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Pérez, Estefanía; Sillero, Carlos

2015-01-01

23

Molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori has elaborated a unique set of virulence factors that allow it to colonise the stomach wall. These factors include urease, helicoidal shape, flagella and adhesion molecules. Here we discuss the molecular characteristics and mechanisms of action of the vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, and the neutrophil-activating protein, HP-NAP. Their activities are discussed in terms of tissue alterations, which promote the

Cesare Montecucco; Marina de Bernard

2003-01-01

24

High Prevalence of Clarithromycin Resistance and cagA, vacA, iceA2, and babA2 Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian Children?  

PubMed Central

We isolated 45 Helicobacter pylori strains from 217 child patients. Resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, and tetracycline was detected in 27%, 13%, 4%, and 0% of strains, respectively. The A2143G mutation was the most prevalent (67%) among clarithromycin-resistant strains. In addition, strain genotyping revealed a significant association between gastritis severity and the simultaneous presence of cagA, vacA s1m1, iceA2, and babA2 genes. PMID:20826649

Garcia, Gabriella T.; Aranda, Katia R. S.; Gonçalves, Manoel E. P.; Cardoso, Silvia R.; Iriya, Kiyoshi; Silva, Neusa P.; Scaletsky, Isabel C. A.

2010-01-01

25

CagA and VacA Polymorphisms Are Associated with Distinct Pathological Features in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Adults with Peptic Ulcer and Non-Peptic Ulcer Disease?  

PubMed Central

Polymorphic variability in Helicobacter pylori factors CagA and VacA contributes to bacterial virulence. The presence of one CagA EPIYA-C site is an independent risk factor for gastroduodenal ulceration (odds ratio [OR], 4.647; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.037 to 10.602), while the presence of the vacA i1 allele is a risk factor for increased activity (OR, 5.310; 95% CI, 2.295 to 12.287) and severity of gastritis (OR, 3.862; 95% CI, 1.728 to 8.632). PMID:20392907

Panayotopoulou, Effrosini G.; Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Papadakos, Konstantinos S.; Petraki, Kalliopi; Breurec, Sébastien; Michopoulos, Spyros; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Papatheodoridis, George; Mentis, Andreas; Archimandritis, Athanasios

2010-01-01

26

CagA and VacA polymorphisms are associated with distinct pathological features in Helicobacter pylori-infected adults with peptic ulcer and non-peptic ulcer disease.  

PubMed

Polymorphic variability in Helicobacter pylori factors CagA and VacA contributes to bacterial virulence. The presence of one CagA EPIYA-C site is an independent risk factor for gastroduodenal ulceration (odds ratio [OR], 4.647; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.037 to 10.602), while the presence of the vacA i1 allele is a risk factor for increased activity (OR, 5.310; 95% CI, 2.295 to 12.287) and severity of gastritis (OR, 3.862; 95% CI, 1.728 to 8.632). PMID:20392907

Panayotopoulou, Effrosini G; Sgouras, Dionyssios N; Papadakos, Konstantinos S; Petraki, Kalliopi; Breurec, Sébastien; Michopoulos, Spyros; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Papatheodoridis, George; Mentis, Andreas; Archimandritis, Athanasios

2010-06-01

27

Genetic Analysis of cagA and vacA Genes in Helicobacter Pylori Isolates and Their Relationship with Gastroduodenal Diseases in the West of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori have different virulence factors which are associated with several gastroduodenal diseases; however, this association is variable in different geographical regions. Data of genotypes of Iranian H. pylori isolates are few. Objectives The aim of the current study was to investigate the cagA/vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates and determine the relationship between these genotypes with respect to different gastric disorders in patients of Chaharmahalo Bakhtiarian. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, gastric biopsies were taken from 200 patients with gastrodoudenal diseases. Histopathological features were recognized by specialist. The samples were subjected to PCR for detection and identification of ureC, cagA and vacA genes. Results The frequency of the vacA genotypes, sa1/m1, s1a/m1b, s1a/m2, s1b/m1a, s1b/m1b, s1b/m2, s1c/m1a, s1c/m1b, s1c/m2, s2/m1a, s2/m1b and s2/m2 were 27(6.6%), 8(4.3%), 45(28.04%), 7(3.7%), 5(2.5%), 10 (6.1%), 12 (7.4%), 4 (2.5%), 18(11%), 6(3.7%), 0 and 22(13.5%) respectively. The cagA gene was detected in 92% of strains. Based on our findings, it seemed that cagPAI and vacA s1 genotypes were associated with some gastric disorders in patients with H. pylori. In this region, the isolates carrying s1a/m2 were the most prevalent. Conclusions We found considerable relationship between s1a/m1a, s1a/m2, s2/m2 and s1c/m1a and some gastric disorders. Further studies about the role of H. pylori virulence factors and gastric disorders were recommended. PMID:24349721

Souod, Negar; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Ranjbar, Reza; Sarshar, Meysam

2013-01-01

28

The efficacy of laboratory diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections in gastric biopsy specimens is related to bacterial density and vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes.  

PubMed

A total of 500 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy were biopsied and tested for H. pylori infection by the Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test, culture, histology, and PCR. Serum samples were tested by two different serological assays. Patients were considered H. pylori positive if at least two of the four biopsy specimen-based methods yielded positive results. PCR had the highest diagnostic sensitivity (99.4%), followed by histology (92.2%), culture (89.5%), and the CLO test (89.0%). The specificities of all methods were higher than 98%. Of the organisms from the 181 PCR-positive patients, the vacA (s and m regions), cagA, and iceA genotypes were determined by reverse hybridization (line probe assay) or an allele-specific PCR. Organisms that were detected by PCR but that remained undetected by the CLO test were significantly more often vacA s1 (P = 0.006), m1 (P = 0.028), and cagA positive (P = 0.029) than vacA s2, m2, and cagA negative, respectively. Organisms that were detected by PCR but that remained undetected by culture or histology more often contained iceA1 (P = 0. 034 and P = 0.029, respectively) than iceA2. Higher H. pylori density was associated with vacA s2 (P = 0.024), vacA m2 (P = 0.050), and cagA-negative (P = 0.035) genotypes. Also, the diagnostic results of the CLO test (P = 0.001) and culture (P = 0.031) but not those of the PCR (P = 0.130) were significantly associated with the H. pylori density. The rate of detection by the four biopsy specimen-based tests was lower for patients who used proton pump inhibitors, but this was independent of the H. pylori genotypes. These observations may be explained by different bacterial densities, as established by the distinct genotypes of H. pylori, and confirm that the biologies of strains with such genotypes are considerably different. PMID:10618055

van Doorn, L J; Henskens, Y; Nouhan, N; Verschuuren, A; Vreede, R; Herbink, P; Ponjee, G; van Krimpen, K; Blankenburg, R; Scherpenisse, J; Quint, W

2000-01-01

29

Analysis of Expression of CagA and VacA Virulence Factors in 43 Strains ofHelicobacter pyloriReveals that Clinical Isolates Can Be Divided into Two Major Types and that CagA Is Not Necessary for Expression of the Vacuolating Cytotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization of the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum by Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathologies in humans. Duodenal ulcer formation strongly correlates with the expression of an antigen (CagA) that is usually coexpressed with the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), a protein that causes ulceration in the stomach of mice. However, the relationship between

ZHAOYING XIANG; STEFANO CENSINI; PIETRO F. BAYELI; JOHN L. TELFORD; NATALE FIGURA; RINO RAPPUOLI; ANDANTONELLO COVACCI

30

Previamente... Vemos a la mutacin de un alelo A a uno a  

E-print Network

letales En los gametos de forma particular los que no se recombinan sobreviven, los demás cuando se Tasa de Mutación letal espontánea en Drosophila Color de pelaje de los ratones Tasa de mutación de alozimas Tasa de mutación de polipéptidos en humanos #12;Mutación letal en Drosophila Timofeef

31

VaCAS Seminar 1030 Torgersen Hall  

E-print Network

in Virginia Tech's ChronOS real time linux kernel. About the speaker: Sonal Saha is a Masters student Engineering Department Virginia Tech Title: Real-Time Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Abstract: Dynamic. Real-Time DVFS (RT-DVFS) is a branch of DVFS, which involves reducing the CPU energy consumption

Virginia Tech

32

Ectoparasites Collected from the Common Yellowthroat on Vaca Key, Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are very few records of ectoparasites from the common yellowthroat bird, Geothlypis trichas (L.). Examination of the bodies of two recently killed common yellowthroats revealed both mite and thrips associated arthropods. All species of mites were determined to be an undescribed species of Pr...

33

ADHESION TESTING OF EPOXY COATING Enrique Vaca-Corts, Miguel A. Lorenzo, James O. Jirsa,  

E-print Network

of America or any foreign country. NOT INTENDED FOR CONSTRUCTION, BIDDING, OR PERMIT PURPOSES James O. Jirsa method, test operator, type of knife and blade, and test evaluator had little effect on the test results for adhesion evaluation, especially if a calibrated knife is not available. Another important finding

Texas at Austin, University of

34

Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...

35

The Low-Level Atmospheric Circulation near Tongoy Bay–Point Lengua de Vaca (Chilean Coast, 30°S)  

E-print Network

Experiment (VOCALS-CUpEx) during two weeks in late spring 2009. The regional topography resembles other major capes, but south of TB and east of LdV there is a low (100–300 m), dry marine terrace bounded by high elevation at the coast (~600 m) and farther...

Rahn, David A.; Garreaud, René D.; Rutllant, José A.

2011-11-01

36

Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over recent years, there have been observed in several cattle farms within the region of the Sierra de Cameros (La Rioja) mountains, reproductive alterations consisting of pre-mature births and birth of dead calves or calves of reduced viability. After laboratory examination of several cases with ne...

37

CARACTERIZACIÓN ENERGÉTICA Y PROTEICA DE MATERIAS PRIMAS DE ORIGEN ANIMAL, EMPLEADAS EN LA FORMULACIÓN DE ALIMENTOS BALANCEADOS PARA VACAS LECHERAS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energetic and proteic characterization of prime sources of animal origin used in the formulation of a balanced feed for dairy cattle. The kinetics of ruminal degradation of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract were determined for fish, meat and bone, and poultry meals. These meals of animal origin showed characteristics proper of the species of origin, not only in

Carlos Boschini Figueroa; Jorge Elizondo Salazar

38

Newly Discovered Paleocene and Eocene Rocks near Fairfield, California, and Correlation with Rocks in Vaca Valley and the So-Called Martinez Formation or Stage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discovery of a 3-foot thick sandstone bed with abundant Turritellid gastropods of late Paleocene age about 4 miles northeast of Fairfield and on the southwest flank of Cement Hill, Solano County provides an opportunity to reevaluate the relationships of lower Tertiary formations in this part of California. Cement Hill is named for travertine deposits in and on top of sandstone of Late Cretaceous age. In this report, the current study area where the Paleocene fossils were recently discovered is referred to as lower Cement Hill and is located in section 7 of the U.S. Geological Survey Fairfield North 7.5-minute quadrangle, Township 5 North, Range 1 West. Lower Cement Hill is about 23 miles north of the so-called Martinez 'formation' or stage area (Weaver and others, 1941) of late Paleocene age near Martinez. The Martinez 'formation' and stage have played a significant role in the development of early Tertiary stratigraphy in this part of California. The discovery of correlative rocks at Cement Hill was unsuspected and may be helpful in defining the extent of this so-called formation or stage. Coccolith identification and correlations are by David Bukry, foraminifer identifications and correlations by Alvin Almgren and Kristin McDougall, gastropod identification and correlation by LouElla Saul, and Radiolaria identifications and correlations are by Annika Sanfilippo.

Brabb, Earl E.; Ristau, Donn; Bukry, David; McDougall, Kristin; Almgren, Alvin A.; Saul, LouElla; Sanfilippo, Annika

2008-01-01

39

Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments (Spanish)  

E-print Network

; evite ruidos y chiflidos cuando maneje vacas de leche ya que ?stos las alteran. C?mo mover al ganado Las vacas de leche est?n acostumbradas al trato humano. Recuerde que las vacas tienen muy buena memoria y maneje adecuadamente a los animales desde j...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04

40

Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin A and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin A of Helicobacter pylori, induces apoptosis in epithelial cells of the gastic mucosa and in leukocytes. VacA is released by the bacteria as a protein of 88 kDa. At the outer surface of host cells, it binds to the sphingomyelin of lipid rafts. At least partially, binding to the cells is facilitated by different receptor proteins. VacA is internalized by a clathrin-independent mechanism and initially accumulates in GPI-anchored proteins-enriched early endosomal compartments. Together with early endosomes, VacA is distributed inside the cells. Most of the VacA is eventually contained in the membranes of vacuoles. VacA assembles in hexameric oligomers forming an anion channel of low conductivity with a preference for chloride ions. In parallel, a significant fraction of VacA can be transferred from endosomes to mitochondria in a process involving direct endosome-mitochondria juxtaposition. Inside the mitochondria, VacA accumulates in the mitochondrial inner membrane, probably forming similar chloride channels as observed in the vacuoles. Import into mitochondria is mediated by the hydrophobic N-terminus of VacA. Apoptosis is triggered by loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, recruitment of Bax and Bak, and release of cytochrome c. PMID:22044628

2011-01-01

41

Relación entre residuos de clorpirifos en leche y sangre de vacas Holstein y niveles séricos de estradiol y tiroxina - Chlorpyrifos residues in milk and blood in Holstein cows and their relation to estradiol and thyroxin serum levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias que interfieren con la síntesis, secreción, transporte, acción o eliminación hormonal. Algunos pesticidas son considerados disruptores endocrinos y su uso indiscriminado ha sido asociado con afecciones metabólicas y reproductivas. El insecticida organofosforado clorpirifos, ampliamente utilizado para el control de plagas de los pastos en zonas lecheras de Antioquia, Colombia, ha sido asociado con alteraciones

Morales Vallecilla; Rodríguez Osorio; Luis Fernando; Restrepo Betancur; López Córdoba

2010-01-01

42

Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Diaz del Castillo and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Diaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three…

Bonvillian, John D.; Ingram, Vicky L.; McCleary, Brendan M.

2009-01-01

43

LESIONES PODALES ENCONTRADAS AL REALIZAR LA QUIROPODIA FUNCIONAL AL MOMENTO DEL SECADO EN VACAS LECHERAS EN ESTABULACIÓN Foot Lesions Findings during the Functional Claw Trimming at the Dry Off Period in Confinement Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to describe the foot lesions found during the functional trimming at the dry off period of confinement dairy cows. Twenty five Brown Swiss cows were submitted to a hooves examination during the functional trim- ming at the dry off period. All the foot lesions were recorded on cards designed for this purpose. The results

Regino Villarroel; Merlis Leal

2006-01-01

44

Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 16, 48524866, October 2005  

E-print Network

is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer in humans (Blaser and Atherton, 2004- odenal ulcers and cancer. VacA associates with lipid rafts, is endocytosed, and reaches the late steps, VacA was continuously associated with detergent resistant membrane domains. From these results we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Vacuolating Cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori Induces Apoptosis in the Human Gastric Epithelial Cell Line AGS  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori induces cell death by apoptosis. However, the apoptosis-inducing factor is still unknown. The virulence factor vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is a potential candidate, and thus its role in apoptosis induction was investigated in the human gastric epithelial cell line AGS. The supernatant from the vacA wild-type strain P12 was able to induce apoptotic cell death, whereas the supernatant from its isogenic mutant strain P14 could not. That VacA was indeed the apoptosis-inducing factor was demonstrated further by substantial reduction of apoptosis upon treatment of AGS cells with a supernatant specifically depleted of native VacA. Furthermore, a recombinant VacA produced in Escherichia coli was also able to induce apoptosis in AGS cells but failed to induce cellular vacuolation. These findings demonstrate that the vacuolating cytototoxin of H. pylori is a bacterial factor capable of inducing apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. PMID:11447189

Kuck, Dirk; Kolmerer, Bernhard; Iking-Konert, Christof; Krammer, Peter H.; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Rudi, Jochen

2001-01-01

46

Modeling and Feedback Control for Subsonic Cavity Flows: A Collaborative Approach  

E-print Network

is with AFRL/VACA, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 45433. Author for correspondence. Email: serrani- Patterson AFB. The team has syn Engineering at OSU, NASA Glenn, and the Air Force Research Laboratory - Air Vehicles Directorate at Wright

Debiasi, Marco

47

Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Díaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three expeditions to lands that are part of

Vicky L. Ingram John D. Bonvillian; Brendan M. McCleary

2009-01-01

48

The role of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in interleukin production by monocytic cells.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection results in chronic gastritis, which is initiated by the release of cytokines like interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-8 from mononuclear cells, and IL-8 from gastric epithelial cells. The severity of gastritis is influenced both by host factors and by bacterial factors such as the Cag proteins and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. Amounts of IL-12 and IL-8 produced by monocytic THP-1 cells differed considerably between the eight H. pylori isolates tested, but in contrast to H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells, did not correlate to the Cag and VacA types of the strains. Apparently, in addition to Cag and VacA, other bacterial factors determine the extent in which H. pylori induced IL production in monocytes. PMID:11267785

de Jonge, R; Kusters, J G; Timmer, M S; Gimmel, V; Appelmelk, B J; Bereswill, S; van Vliet, A H; Meuwissen, S G; Kist, M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M; Kuipers, E J

2001-03-15

49

Vacuolating cytotoxin genotypes are strong markers of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori strains: a matched case-control study.  

PubMed

The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a "clean" Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P < 0.05; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 0.76 to infinity). For DU, associations were found with vacA s1 (P = 0.002; OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.52 to 27.87) and i1 (P = 0.004; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.78) status but not with cagA status. Neither condition showed independent associations with the vacA m1 allele or with more biologically active forms of cagA with longer 3' variable regions. In this Belgian population, the best markers of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. PMID:24920772

Memon, Ameer A; Hussein, Nawfal R; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C

2014-08-01

50

Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and stomach of patients from Northern Brazil  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish whether virulence factor genes vacA and cagA are present in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) retrieved from gastric mucosa and dental plaque in patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: Cumulative dental plaque specimens and gastric biopsies were submitted to histological examination, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the presence of cagA and vacA polymorphisms. RESULTS: Detection of H. pylori from dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples was greater by PCR compared to histological examination and the rapid urease test. DNA from H. pylori was detected in 96% of gastric mucosa samples and in 72% of dental plaque samples. Sixty-three (89%) of 71 dental plaque samples that were H. pylori-positive also exhibited identical vacA and cagA genotypes in gastric mucosa. The most common genotype was vacAs1bm1 and cagA positive, either in dental plaque or gastric mucosa. These virulent H. pylori isolates were involved in the severity of clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: These pathogenic strains were found simultaneously in dental plaque and gastric mucosa, which suggests that gastric infection is correlated with the presence of H. pylori in the mouth. PMID:20572307

Assumpção, Mônica Baraúna; Martins, Luisa Caricio; Melo Barbosa, Hivana Patricia; dos Santos Barile, Katarine Antonia; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina

2010-01-01

51

Late Quaternary vegetation and fire history in the northernmost Nothofagus forest region: Mallin  

E-print Network

Late Quaternary vegetation and fire history in the northernmost Nothofagus forest region: Malli vegetation and fire history in the northernmost Nothofagus forest region: Malli´n Vaca Lauquen, Neuque and limnological history are described from the steppe-forest ecotone in the northernmost Nothofagus forest region

Whitlock, Cathy L.

52

Child Labor in Texas Agriculture (Spanish)  

E-print Network

rotatorios inm?viles, abre zanjas o equipo para mover la tierra, tractores con elevadores, o sierras el?ctri- cas circulares, de banda o de cadena. 3. Trabajar en un pastizal, corral, o establo ganade- ro ocupado por un toro, cerdo, una cerda o una vaca...

Smith, David

2005-04-28

53

Cuerpo, educacin y liderazgo poltico: una mirada desde el gnero y  

E-print Network

, education and political leadership: a gender and feminist perspective #12;Sara Poggio y María Amelia Viteri Bodies, education and political leadership: a gender and feminist perspective #12;Índice Prólogo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Carolina Páez Vacas What, no tie? Political campaigns, gender, and leadership in Chile

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

54

Vicerrectorado de Docencia Ordenacin Acadmica y Ttulos  

E-print Network

_COMPLETO DOCTOR COMUNICACIÓN EFECTIVA Y NUEVOS CANALES. WEB Y REDES SOCIALES. CC. Educ., Lenguaje, Cultura y Artes Profesionales Batle Mercade, Pablo No SINERGIAS DE EQUIPOS, RESTAURACIÓN Y COMPORTAMIENTO SOCIAL Ciencias Sociales Geografía Humana Landeta Vacas, Marco Hugo No TRABAJO FIN DE MÁSTER CC. Educ., Lenguaje, Cultura y

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

55

Factores asociados con la gravedad de lesiones ocurridas en la vía pública en Cuernavaca, Morelos, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify risk factors associated with severity of injuries occurring in public streets of an urban area. Ma- terial and Methods. Between February and April 2001, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among injured peo- ple seeking emergency care at three hospitals in Cuerna- vaca, Morelos, Mexico. Information was also obtained for those who died on accident sites. Data on

Elisa del Carmen Hidalgo-Solórzano; Martha Híjar; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; María de la Luz Kageyama-Escobar

2005-01-01

56

Alto contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) en leche y productos derivados al incorporar semillas de girasol a la dieta vacuna. Implicaciones sobre el riesgo trombo\\/aterogénico  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Con la finalidad de determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos y la composición química de productos lácteos enriquecidos con ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) de manera natural, se elaboraron crema, mantequilla y grasa butírica con leche obtenida de vacas que recibieron una dieta control o suplementación con semilla de girasol en un 11.2%. El análisis químico incluyó el perfil de

Eryck R. Silva Hernández; Rosa Guadalupe; Herrera Lee; Takuo Nakano; Lech Ozimek; Iñigo Verdalet Guzmán

57

Dynamic Network Flow Optimization Models for Air Vehicle Resource Allocation Kendall E. Nygard, Professor  

E-print Network

Institute of Technology (AFIT/ENG) Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 Abstract A weapon system consisting 58105-5164 Phillip R. Chandler Flight Control Division Air Force Research Lab (AFRL/VACA) Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7531 Meir Pachter, Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Air Force

Nygard, Kendall E.

58

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-print Network

The pressure-volume- temperature relationship of cellulose. (2013) Cellulose, vol. 20 (n° 5). pp 2279 of cellulose Bastien Jallabert · Guadalupe Vaca-Medina · Sophie Cazalbou · Antoine Rouilly Abstract Pressure­volume­temperature (PVT) mea- surements of a-cellulose with different water contents, were performed at temperatures from

Mailhes, Corinne

59

76 FR 71517 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...expanded by 60 ft (18.3 m) to the south for a total of a 160 ft (48...waters from 29.4[deg] North south to the western end of Vaca Key...and a close approach of the Gulf Stream to the shoreline south of Cape Canaveral. Aerial...

2011-11-18

60

Promoter DNA Hypermethylation in Gastric Biopsies from Subjects at High and Low Risk for Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gene promoter CpG island hypermethylation is associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and may be an important initiator of gastric carcinogenesis. To examine factors influencing methylation, we utilized bisulfite Pyrosequencing® technology for quantitative analysis of promoter DNA methylation in RPRM, APC, MGMT and TWIST1 genes using DNA from 86 gastric biopsies from Colombian residents of areas with high and low incidence of gastric cancer. H. pylori colonies were cultured from the same subjects, and gastric pathology was evaluated. Virulence factors cagA (including EPIYA polymorphisms of the 3’ end) and vacA s and m regions were characterized in the H. pylori strains. Using univariate analysis, we found significantly elevated levels of RPRM and TWIST1 promoter DNA methylation in biopsies from residents of the high risk region compared to those from residents of the low risk region. The presence of cagA and vacA s1m1 alleles were independently associated with elevated levels of promoter DNA methylation of RPRM and MGMT. Using multivariate analysis, DNA methylation of RPRM was associated with location of residence, cagA and vacA s1m1 status, and methylation of TWIST1. We conclude that cagA and vacA virulence determinants are significantly associated with quantitative differences in promoter DNA methylation in these populations, but that other as yet undefined factors that differ between the populations may also contribute to variation in methylation status. PMID:20178103

Schneider, Barbara G.; Peng, Dun-Fa; Camargo, M. Constanza; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Mera, Robertino; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo; El-Rifai, Wael

2010-01-01

61

El sexo recompensado: una práctica en el centro de las vulnerabilidades (ITS\\/VIH\\/SIDA) de las jóvenes mexicanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To discuss the risks for Mexican young women who engage in sexual relations in exchange for social or economic benefits, also known as compensated sex (CS), with the objective of exploring its possible public health implications. Material and Methods. This is a qualitative study conducted in youths 15 to 25 years of age in Cuerna- vaca, Morelos, Mexico, between

Florence Lise Théodore; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez; Pilar Torres; Gabriela Luna

2004-01-01

62

Mineralogical investigations of lunar samples and meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microprobe analysis was employed to study north ray crater breccia 67015 from the Moon. The melting history of lunar troctolite 130-9 was investigated, along with the presence of Mg-26 in anorthite grains recovered from the Vaca Meurta mesosiderite. Geographic distributions of meteorites in Antarctica were plotted. The Allende meteorite was analyzed with the electron microprobe method.

Marvin, U. B.

1985-02-01

63

inside Stanford medicineNews from Stanford University Medical Center Volume 4, No. 20 November 5, 2012 Published by the Office of Communication & Public Affairs  

E-print Network

in a weight-loss program in which you were explicitly asked not to lose any weight for the first eight weeks weight can decrease the risk factors for heart disease. Yet de- spite the plethora of diet books weight-fluctuation range of about 5 pounds to account for common disruptions, such as water gain and vaca

Bogyo, Matthew

64

Ontology Assisted Crowd Mining Yael Amsterdamer1  

E-print Network

ontology Ann can post a question on a forum, which is more likely to yield detailed answers relevant to her the crowd. 1. INTRODUCTION Consider the following scenario: Ann is planning a vaca- tion in New York City immedi- ately thinks of two options: searching the web, or posting a question on some forum to receive

Milo, Tova

65

J. Phys. I1 (1991) 125-140 JANVIER 1991, PAGE 125 Classification  

E-print Network

J. Phys. I1 (1991) 125-140 JANVIER 1991, PAGE 125 Classification Physics Abstracts 64.70K 76.30P 76.50 Physical properties and phase transitions in the (tTTF)~X series of organic conductors P. Vaca (~> *), C measurements. In the case of the Cl04 salt a structural distortion, probably relaxing the Coulomb repulsions

Boyer, Edmond

66

Stalagmite evidence from Belize indicating significant droughts at the time of Preclassic Abandonment, the Maya Hiatus, and the Classic Maya collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoenvironmental data from a stalagmite from western Belize provide a 3300-year record of droughts that impacted the Maya civilization at least four times across a span of 1500 years, and the most sustained period of drought coincided with the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. The stalagmite, which comes from Macal Chasm in the Vaca Plateau, provides reliably dated reflectance, color, luminescence,

James W. Webster; George A. Brook; L. Bruce Railsback; Hai Cheng; R. Lawrence Edwards; Clark Alexander; Philip P. Reeder

2007-01-01

67

H pylori iceA alleles are disease-specific virulence factors  

PubMed Central

AIM: To characterize and compare genotype profiles of H pylori strains isolated from patients with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer in western part of Turkey. METHODS: A total of 46 patients [30 chronic gastritis (CG) and 16 duodenal ulcer (DU)] who had undergone endoscopy because of dyspeptic complaints were studied. The antral biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by rapid urease test and culture, and the genotype profiles were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The cagA gene was observed in 43 (93.5%) isolates. The vacA s1m2 genotype was the predominant subtype, found in 63.3% and 68.7% of isolates in patients with CG and DU, respectively. Twenty (66.6%) isolates from patients with CG were iceA2 positive while the iceA1 was predominant in those with DU (68.8%). In terms of the association of the iceA alleles to other genes, both alleles were significantly associated with the cagA vacA s1m2 genotype. CONCLUSION: The prevalent circulating genotypes in CG and DU were cagA vacA s1m2 iceA2 and cagA vacA s1m2 iceA1 genotype, respectively. It was found that cagA vacA s1m2 genotype seems to be common virulence factors in both CG and DU while iceA alleles show specificity for gastroduodenal pathologies in this study. PMID:17552005

Caner, Vildan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Yonetci, Nadir; Zencir, Sevil; Karagenc, Nedim; Kaleli, Ilknur; Bagci, Huseyin

2007-01-01

68

Diversity of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in Iranian patients with different gastroduodenal disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the diversity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and correlations with disease outcomes in an Iranian population with different gastroduodenal disorders. METHODS: Isolates of H. pylori from patients with different gastroduodenal disorders were analyzed after culture and identification by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted with the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). After DNA extraction, genotyping was done for cagA, vacA (s and m regions), iceA (iceA1, iceA2) and babA with specific primers for each allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All patients’ pathologic and clinical data and their relation with known genotypes were analyzed by using SPSS version 19.0 software. ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess relationships between categorical variables. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 71 isolates from 177 patients with different gastroduodenal disorders were obtained. Based on analysis of the cagA gene (positive or negative), vacA s-region (s1 or s2), vacA m-region (m1 or m2), iceA allelic type (iceA1 and iceA2) and babA gene (positive or negative), twenty different genotypic combinations were recognized. The prevalence of cagA, vacA s1, vacA s2, vacA m1, vacA m2, iceA1, iceA2, iceA1+iceA2 and babA were 62%, 78.9%, 19.7%, 21.1%, 78.9%, 15.5%, 22.5%, 40.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Interestingly, evaluation of PCR results for cagA in 6 patients showed simultaneous existence of cagA variants according to their size diversities that proposed mixed infection in these patients. The most prevalent genotype in cagA-positive isolates was cagA+/vacAs1m2/iceA1+A2/babA+ and in cagA-negative isolates was cagA-/vacAs1m2/iceA-/babA+. There were no relationships between the studied genes and histopathological findings (H. pylori density, neutrophil activity, lymphoid aggregation in lamina propria and glandular atrophy). The strains which carry cagA, vacAs1/m1, iceA2 and babA genes showed significant associations with severe active chronic gastritis (P = 0.011, 0.025, 0.020 and 0.031, respectively). The vacAs1 genotype had significant correlation with the presence of the cagA gene (P = 0.013). Also, babA genotype showed associations with cagA (P = 0.024). In the combined genotypes, only cagA+/vacAs1m1/iceA2/babA+ genotype showed correlation with severe active chronic gastritis (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: This genotyping panel can be a useful tool for detection of virulent H. pylori isolates and can provide valuable guidance for prediction of the clinical outcomes. PMID:24039362

Vaziri, Farzam; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Mirzaei, Tabassom; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Molaei, Mahsa; Maghsoudi, Nader; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

69

Susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection: results of an epidemiological investigation among gastric cancer patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the clinical, demographic, lifestyle factors and selected genetic polymorphisms that affect the susceptibility towards Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric cancer patients. Histological confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma cases that underwent curative gastrectomy between 2002 and 2012 were included. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained to determine the H. pylori status, and further cagA status and vacA m and s genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires, and blood samples were collected for EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, IL1B, IL1-RN, MTHFR and p53 genotyping. Proportions were compared in univariate analysis, while the relation between putative risk factors and H. pylori status and genotype were measured using logistic regression analysis. One hundred forty-nine gastric cancer patients were included, of which 78.5% were H. pylori positive. Among positive patients 50% were cagA+, 72.5% vacA m1 and 80.7% vacA s1. The presence of cagA was less frequent among vacA m1 (p = 0.031) and vacA s1 (p = 0.052) subtypes. The presence of father history for any cancer was a significant risk factor for H. pylori infection [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-64.55]. EPHX1 exon 3 T > C (OR = 0.35, CI 95% 0.13-0.94), IL1B-511 T > C (OR = 0.38, CI 95% 0.15-0.97) and IL1-RN VNTR (OR = 0.19, CI 95% 0.06-0.58) polymorphisms were protective towards H. pylori infection in the univariate analysis. Wine consumption was associated with higher risk of carrying the H. pylori vacA m1 virulent subtype (p = 0.034). Lastly, cardiovascular diseases were less common among cagA positive subjects (p = 0.023). Father history of any cancer is a risk factor for H. pylori infection. Polymorphisms in IL1B-511, IL1-RN and EPHX1 exon 3 genes might be protective towards H. pylori infection. PMID:24526578

Panic, Nikola; Mastrostefano, Elena; Leoncini, Emanuele; Persiani, Roberto; Arzani, Dario; Amore, Rosarita; Ricci, Riccardo; Sicoli, Federico; Sioletic, Stefano; Bulajic, Milutin; D' Ugo, Domenico; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

2014-06-01

70

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Extracellular Protein Release by Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

To investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of extracellular protein release by Helicobacter pylori, we analyzed the entry of metabolically radiolabeled bacterial proteins into broth culture supernatant. At early time points, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) constituted a major extracellular protein. Subsequently, culture supernatants accumulated many proteins that were components of intact bacterial cells. This nonselective release of proteins was associated with a decreasing turbidity of cultures and loss of bacterial viability, indicative of an autolytic process. The rates of VacA secretion and autolysis were each influenced by medium composition, and therefore these may be regulated phenomena. Extracellular release of proteins by H. pylori may be an important adaptation that facilitates the persistence of H. pylori in the human gastric mucus layer. Moreover, entry of proinflammatory proteins into the gastric mucosa may contribute to the induction of a mucosal inflammatory response. PMID:10496902

Schraw, Wayne; McClain, Mark S.; Cover, Timothy L.

1999-01-01

71

Cyclostratigraphy of an orbitally-driven Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp succession, Southern Mendoza, Argentina: Implications for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Neuquén Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed sedimentological, sequence stratigraphical and cyclostratigraphical analyses have been made from four lower Tithonian-lower Valanginian sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation, exposed in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The Vaca Muerta Formation is characterized by decimetre-scale rhythmic alternations of marls, shales and limestones, and consists of five facies associations, which reflect different paleoenvironmental conditions: basin to restricted outer ramp, outer ramp, and middle ramp. Vertical organization within the Vaca Muerta Formation shows a well-ordered hierarchy of cycles, where elementary cycles, bundles and superbundles with frequencies within the Milankovitch band have been recognized. According to biostratigraphic data, elementary cycles have a periodicity of ~ 20 ky, which correlates with the precession cycle of Earth's axis. Spectral analysis based on series of cycle thickness allows us to identify frequencies of about 400 ky and 90-120 ky, which we interpret as the modulation of the precessional cycle by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. Cycles are probably driven by variations in carbonate exportation, as fluctuations in shallow-water carbonate production involve modifications in carbonate basinward exportation. Cyclostratigraphic data allowed us to build a floating orbital scale for the Tithonian-lower Valanginian interval in the Neuquén Basin. Correlation between studied sections allowed us to recognize a discontinuity between the Substeueroceras koeneni and Argentiniceras noduliferum ammonite zones in the Malargüe Anticline area. Orbital calibration of these sections is consistent with Riccardi's biostratigraphic scheme, wich place the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary within the Substeueroceras koeneni ammonite Zone. On the other hand, the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Virgatosphinctes mendozanus ammonite Zone) would be probably placed in the base of the middle Tithonian rather than the lower Tithonian, which is also consistent with our preliminary palaeomagnetic data.

Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Iglesia Llanos, Maria Paula

2015-01-01

72

Helicobacter pylori genotypes and types of gastritis in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients.  

PubMed

The frequency of Helicobacter pylori vacA alleles, cagA, and jhp0947 and their association with types and advanced forms of gastritis in 143 first-degree relatives of gastric cancer (GC) patients was assessed. The subjects included 64/143 with antral-predominant gastritis, 68/143 with pangastritis, and 11/143 with corpus-predominant gastritis, with or without atrophy or intestinal metaplasia (IM). Further classification included the severity of atrophy or IM. Group I (40/143) included the subjects with moderate-marked atrophy or IM, group II (58/143) those with no atrophy or IM, and group III (45/143) with mild atrophy or IM. The frequency of vacA s1 was 79.7%, vacA s2 20.3%, m1 49.7%, m2 50.3%, cagA 76.2%, and jhp0947 58%. The most prevalent combination was vacAs1 cagA (+) (65.7%) (P=0.001). Of the 143 subjects, 85 (59.4%) showed atrophy or IM, and 40/85 (47%) developed the moderate-marked atrophy or IM. No significant correlation was found between genotypes and the types of gastritis, non-atrophy, atrophy, or IM and severe forms of atrophy or IM (P>0.05). It is proposed that H. pylori genotype status might not be considered as an important determinant of the types and advanced forms of gastritis in the first-degree relatives of GC patients. PMID:21641279

Siavoshi, F; Asgharzadeh, A; Ghadiri, H; Massarrat, S; Latifi-Navid, S; Zamani, M

2011-08-01

73

Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Afghani and Iranian Isolates  

PubMed Central

The geographical variation in Helicobacter pylori genotypes is an observed phenomenon. Cytotoxin associated genes A (cagA) and E (cagE), and vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori are associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study compared the distribution of these genotypes in Iranian and Afghani isolates and their association with clinical outcomes. H. pylori infected patients, as proven by positive culture, were recruited prospectively. A total of 70 patients, 55 Iranian (26 men and 29 women, mean age 48±18 years) and 15 Afghani immigrants (13 men and 2 women, mean age 34.8±11 years) living in Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from isolated H. pylori and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the cagA and cagE status and vacA alleles. The number of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer and gastritis cases was 11, 23 and 36, respectively. The cagA positive isolates were more common in Iranian (67%) than Afghani isolates (60%). cagE was positive in 53% of Afghani compared to 51% of Iranian isolates. The most common vacA s-region genotype was s1; 80% in Afghani and 67% in Iranian. The s1m1 was a frequently observed genotype in Afghani strains (53%) while s1m2 (47%) was more common in strains isolated from Iranian patients. There is a difference in the H. pylori strains between Iranian and Afghani groups, for instance Iranian isolates were similar to European isolates while Afghani isolates were similar to isolates from India. However, there was no significant association between cagA, cagE and vacA genotypes and clinical outcomes in Iranian and Afghani patients. PMID:20568532

Dabrii, Hossein; Bolfion, Mehdi; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Zojaji, Homayon; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mirsattari, Darioush; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

74

The role of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in interleukin production by monocytic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection results in chronic gastritis, which is initiated by the release of cytokines like interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-8 from mononuclear cells, and IL-8 from gastric epithelial cells. The severity of gastritis is influenced both by host factors and by bacterial factors such as the Cag proteins and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. Amounts of IL-12 and IL-8 produced by

Ramon de Jonge; Johannes G Kusters; Marieke S Timmer; Verena Gimmel; Ben J Appelmelk; Stefan Bereswill; Arnoud H. M van Vliet; Stefan G. M Meuwissen; Manfred Kist; Christina M. J. E Vandenbroucke-Grauls; Ernst J Kuipers

2001-01-01

75

Black/brown cooperation and conflict in the education policymaking process  

E-print Network

). 5 Despite this, inter-minority relations remain heavily influenced by a variety of other factors. de la Garza (1997, 453) suggests that several points are likely responsible for the inability of Latinos and African-Americans to form numerous... have been characterized as tenuous within recent years (de la Garza 1997; Hero and Clarke 2003; Meier and Stewart 1991a, 1991b; Meier, McClain, Wrinkle, and Polinard 2004; Sidney 2002; Vaca 2004). In other policy arenas both Latinos and African...

Rocha, Rene Rolando

2006-10-30

76

Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR.  

PubMed

Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country. PMID:23691338

Essawi, Tamer; Hammoudeh, Wail; Sabri, Israr; Sweidan, Walid; Farraj, Mohammad A

2013-01-01

77

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Escuela Politecnica Superior  

E-print Network

dise~no bio-inspirado para la locomoci´on de robots, puede ser muy ´util emplear CPGs simulados, pues (con la sinapsis qu´imica era necesario simular el CPG previamente en un PC). Se deber´a buscar un

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

78

INFLUENCIA DE LA FEMINIZACIÓN DE LA ENFERMERÍA EN SU DESARROLLO PROFESIONAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Palabras clave: Abstract: INFLUENCE OF THE FEMINIZATION OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NURSING Nos preguntamos sobre la coherencia entre los discursos de los distintos actores del sistema sanitario sobre el rol enfermero y si es posible para las enfermeras un papel independiente previamente definido y aceptado por todos los miembros del equipo sanitario, así como cuáles son las claves

Matilde Celma Vicente; Ángel Acuña Delgado

79

CONSIDERACIONES PARA EL USO DE LA LAPAROSCOPIA DURANTE EL EMBARAZO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Los avances en laparoscopia tanto tecnológicos como médicos han hecho posible ampliar el espectro de patologías ginecológicas susceptibles de ser manejados por esta vía. Condiciones médicas considera- das previamente como una contraindicación a esta vía, como el embarazo, son susceptibles de ser manejadas con seguridad y eficacia manteniendo los beneficios que esta técnica ofrece. El presente artículo revisa las

Demetrio Larraín de la C; Guillermo Durruty V; Cristian Pomés C; Mauricio Cuello F

2007-01-01

80

UNIVERSIDAD SIMN BOLVAR DIRECCIN DE ADMISIN Y CONTROL DE ESTUDIOS  

E-print Network

cualquier técnica manual o por computadora, así como ensayos sobre Teoría e Historia de la Arquitectura y a los requeridos deberá ser previamente consultada a la Coordinación de Arquitectura. Es admisible la, deberá ser consultado a la Coordinación de Arquitectura al (212) 906 30 81 #12;

Vásquez, Carlos

81

Determinantes financieros y operativos del nivel de inventarios en el sector de la producción de papel en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se trata de establecer la influencia que el nivel de inventarios mantenido por las empresas del sector de producción del papel en Colombia tiene de factores investigados previamente en otros países; factores correspondientes a la Teoría Clásica como el nivel de ventas, y otros propios de la Teoría de la Agencia, como el flujo de caja, el nivel de la

Guillermo Buenaventura Vera; Elver Alfonso Bermeo; Jorge Santiago Rosillo

2001-01-01

82

2003. The Journal of Arachnology 31:2027 FIRST SPECIES OF AUSTROPSOPILIO  

E-print Network

those from Australia and Tasmania but lacks the elongate ocular tubercle previously regarded parece bastante a las de Australia y Tasmania, pero no posee el tube´rculo ocular previamente indicado en 1925 (syn. Oonopsopilio Lawrence 1931) in having an anteriorly elon- gated eye tubercle ending

Shultz, Jeffrey W.

83

Ambiente para la Captura y Administración de Versiones de Modelos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El proceso de desarrollo de modelos para la gestión, investigación, producción, etc., en general involucra actividades creativas, que frecuentemente son poco estructuradas, es decir, no existe un flujo de trabajo definido previamente. Durante este proceso se genera un gran número de modelos de distinto nivel de abstracción del objeto que se desarrolla, el cual puede consistir en un sistema de

Diego Sánchez Schenone; Silvio Gonnet; Horacio Leone

84

Helicobacter pylori Perturbs Iron Trafficking in the Epithelium to Grow on the Cell Surface  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) injects the CagA effector protein into host epithelial cells and induces growth factor-like signaling, perturbs cell-cell junctions, and alters host cell polarity. This enables Hp to grow as microcolonies adhered to the host cell surface even in conditions that do not support growth of free-swimming bacteria. We hypothesized that CagA alters host cell physiology to allow Hp to obtain specific nutrients from or across the epithelial barrier. Using a polarized epithelium model system, we find that isogenic ?cagA mutants are defective in cell surface microcolony formation, but exogenous addition of iron to the apical medium partially rescues this defect, suggesting that one of CagA's effects on host cells is to facilitate iron acquisition from the host. Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. Both CagA and VacA contribute to the perturbation of transferrin recycling, since VacA is involved in apical mislocalization of the transferrin receptor to sites of bacterial attachment. To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. This resulted in a reduced ability of Hp to colonize the polarized epithelium. To test whether CagA is important in promoting iron acquisition in vivo, we compared colonization of Hp in iron-replete vs. iron-deficient Mongolian gerbils. While wild type Hp and ?cagA mutants colonized iron-replete gerbils at similar levels, ?cagA mutants are markedly impaired in colonizing iron-deficient gerbils. Our study indicates that CagA and VacA act in concert to usurp the polarized process of host cell iron uptake, allowing Hp to use the cell surface as a replicative niche. PMID:21589900

Tan, Shumin; Noto, Jennifer M.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Amieva, Manuel R.

2011-01-01

85

Signaling perturbations induced by invading H. pylori proteins in the host epithelial cells: a mathematical modeling approach.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a gram-negative bacterium, infects the stomach of approximately 50% of the world population. H. pylori infection is a risk factor for developing chronic gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The bacteria produce two main cytotoxic proteins: Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and Cytotoxin-Associated gene A (CagA). When these proteins enter the host cell they interfere with the host MAP Kinase and Apoptosis signaling pathways leading to aberrant cell growth and premature apoptosis. The present study expanded existing quantitative models of the MAP Kinase and Apoptosis signaling pathways to take into account the protein interactions across species using the CellDesigner tool. The resulting network contained hundreds of differential equations in which the coefficients for the biochemical rate constants were estimated from previously published studies. The effect of VacA and CagA on the function of this network were simulated by increasing levels of bacterial load. Simulations showed that increasing bacterial load affected the MAP Kinase signaling in a dose dependant manner. The introduction of CagA decreased the activation time of mapK signaling and extended activation indefinitely despite normal cellular activity to deactivate the protein. Introduction of VacA produced a similar response in the apoptosis pathway. Bacterial load activated both pathways even in the absence of external stimulation. Time course of emergence of transcription factors associated with cell division and cell death predicted by our simulation showed close agreement with that determined from a publicly accessible microarray data set of H. pylori infected stomach epithelium. The quantitative model presented in this study lays the foundation for investigating the affects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the efficiency of drug treatment. PMID:17559886

Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin

2007-09-01

86

Life in the human stomach: persistence strategies of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori has co-evolved with humans and colonizes roughly one half of the human population, but only causes overt gastric disease in a subset of infected hosts. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis of this bacterium and the mechanisms it uses to promote persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa, with a focus on recent insights into the role of the virulence factors VacA, CagA and CagL. We also describe the immunobiology of H. pylori infection and highlight how this bacterium manipulates the innate and adaptive immune systems of the host to promote its own persistence. PMID:23652324

Salama, Nina R.; Hartung, Mara L.; Müller, Anne

2013-01-01

87

Una recapitulación de la renovación teatral en Hispanoamerica.  

E-print Network

no podía quedar igual. Un índice del conocimiento argentino de los nuevos avances mundiales en este campo es un escrito anónimo en Anuario Teatral Argentino de 1926, en que se registran los más importantes experimentos en la arquitectura y en la mecánica... años más tarde vuelve a preocuparse por el mismo tema escribiendo una continuación a la obra de 1940, con el título Vaca ciones II. De hecho, son "comedietas" de tono risueño, que no pasan de ser meros experimentos teatrales. Con todo, son índice de...

Neglia, Erminio G.

1974-10-01

88

Diagnostico de Prenez en Ganado Vacuno.  

E-print Network

poco despues de nacer debido a accidentes y enfei-inedades. HabrA una pequefia diferencia entre este porcentaje de becerros logrados y aquel calculado con el numero de l~ecerros nacidos. La tabla 1 indica el costo por libra de res pro- clucida... li~teo tanll,ii.n puetle ser p:ulp:ttlo en el ov:urio por una person;i con experienci;~. Un foliculo gr;uitle en el ovario indica que el animal se aproxim;~ it1 pcriodo de celo. Un cuerpo luteo en el ovxio indica que la vaca esti cerca del punto...

Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.; Arias, A. A.

1975-01-01

89

Conquistadors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To accompany its television program, PBS presents this Website. Designed for students in grades 8-12, Conquistadors follows the Spanish Conquistadors' exploration of the New World from 1500 to 1550 and their contact with Native Americans. There are four main sections of the site: Cortez and the Aztecs in Mexico, Peru -- the Inca Empire and Pizzaro, Amazonia and the Quest for El Dorado, and North America: Cabeza de Vaca and the American Southwest. The site also features a timeline, teaching guides, and a journal kept by the series host, Michael Wood, as he made the documentary and traveled the Conquistadors' path.

2001-01-01

90

Ethics and practicalities of cooperative fieldwork and analysis  

E-print Network

construir una relación de confianza ?y, por lo tanto, provechosa? con el equipo de colaboradores de la comunidad. En suma, explicitar las premisas legales y éticas permite anticipar y evitar problemas. Un investigador de campo media entre los hablantes... prescribir los mejores principios de conducta para situaciones de campo. Un equipo de investigación podría tomar la decisión normativa de ceñirse a un conjunto detallado de principios éticos determinados previamente preguntándose: ¿nuestra meta sólo es...

Dwyer, Arienne M.

2006-01-01

91

Bienvenida del Decano Como decano de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, me complace darte la  

E-print Network

consultar previamente la sección de horarios y aulas publicada en esta misma web. En ella, teniendo en (resaltadas en amarillo) no se imparten en el mismo lugar. El desglose de las aulas teóricas y prácticas, que podrás descargar o imprimir, además de la posibilidad de realizar una visita virtual por el mismo

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

92

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and regulatory cytokines as predictors of clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in Chile (73%). Usually a minority of infected patients develops complications such as ulcers and gastric cancer that have been associated with the presence of virulence factors (cagA, vacA) and host T helper response (Th1/Th2). Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between strain virulence and host immune response, using a multiple regression approach for the development of a model based on data collected from H. pylori infected patients in Chile. We analyzed levels of selected cytokines determined by ELISA (IL-12, IL-10, IFN-? and IL-4) and the presence of cagA and vacA alleles polymorphisms determined by PCR in antral biopsies of 41 patients referred to endoscopy. By multiple regression analysis we established a correlation between bacterial and host factors using clinical outcome (gastritis and duodenal ulcer) as dependent variables. The selected model was described by: clinical outcome = 0.867491 (cagA) + 0.0131847 (IL-12/IL-10) + 0.0103503 (IFN-?/IL-4) and it was able to explain over 90% of clinical outcomes observations (R2=96.4). This model considers that clinical outcomes are better explained by the interaction of host immune factors and strain virulence as a complex and interdependent mechanism. PMID:17336120

Serrano, Carolina; Diaz, Maria Ines; Valdivia, Alejandra; Godoy, Alex; Peña, Alfredo; Rollan, Antonio; Kirberg, Arturo; Hebel, Eduardo; Fierro, Jaqueline; Klapp, Gerardo; Venegas, Alejandro; Harris, Paul R.

2013-01-01

93

Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori express lipopolysaccharides and flagellin that do not activate efficiently Toll-like receptors and express dedicated effectors, such as ?-glutamyl transpeptidase, vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), arginase, that actively induce tolerogenic signals. In this perspective, H. pylori can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, when present in the stomach, H. pylori reduce the overall diversity of the gastric microbiota and promote gastric inflammation by inducing Nod1-dependent pro-inflammatory program and by activating neutrophils through the production of a neutrophil activating protein. The maintenance of a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors (vacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A) confer pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries. PMID:24914318

Moyat, Mati; Velin, Dominique

2014-05-21

94

Variable-aperture calorimeter for an unstable resonator.  

PubMed

A new technique for measuring the output power from a cw edge-coupled unstable resonator has been developed and applied to a cw DF laser. An internal-cavity calorimeter was used that permits measurement of output power with a variable rectangular mode geometry while containing the radiation inside the resonator. The variable aperture calorimeter absorbing scraper (VACAS) device consists of an absorbing copper plate calorimeter assembly, which replaces the 45 degrees output coupling mirror of a conventional edge-coupled unstable cavity. A rectangular hole in the plate of variable width w and height h defines a rectangular mode of variable width Mw and height Mh within the geometric optics approximation, where M is the magnification. Two important applications of VACAS are (1) the determination of the optimum mode geometry for a cw diffusion-type chemical laser where there is significant variation in gain across the unstable resonator mode and (2) the determination of the power tradeoff between mode width and the number of folds in a folded unstable resonator configuration. PMID:20165402

Chodzko, R A; Mason, S B; Giedt, R R; Durran, D A

1976-10-01

95

Detection of H pylori infection by ELISA and Western blot techniques and evaluation of anti CagA seropositivity in adult Turkish dyspeptic patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To detect H pylori infection and to evaluate the anti CagA seropositivity in adult Turkish dyspeptic patients. METHODS: We evaluated anti-H pylori IgA, IgG and anti-CagA antibodies using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and Western blot in dyspeptic Turkish patients. H pylori status was determined by histology and rapid urease testing. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were entered. Forty-eight (85.7%) out of the 56 patients were positive for H pylori. H pylori IgG seropositivity was 82.1%, IgA seropositivity 48.2%. CagA ELISA showed that IgG was positive in 50% and IgA in 30.4% of those with H pylori infections. Western blot showed that IgG seropositivity was 80.4% and IgA seropositivity 33.9%. Western blot detected IgG antibodies with reactivity to CagA in 50%, VacA in 62.5%, UreB in 87.5%, UreA in 80.4%, and OMP in 57.1%. None of the tests had a sensitivity and specificity above 80%. CONCLUSION: None of these commercial tests seems clinically useful for H pylori detection in adult dyspeptic patients, while Western blot can give seropositivity and determine anti-CagA, VacA virulence factor status of Turkish dyspeptic patients in the Izmir region. PMID:16981271

Yilmaz, Özlem; ?en, Nazime; Küpelio?lu, Ahmet Ali; ?im?ek, ?lkay

2006-01-01

96

Plausible asteroidal analogs for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ~400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

2009-04-01

97

Plausible parent bodies for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites: Implications for Lutetia's fly-by  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ˜400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho (both Xc types in the new Bus-DeMeo taxonomy) have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa (all three are Xk types in the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy) are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

2009-08-01

98

Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field  

SciTech Connect

The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

Not Available

1993-12-31

99

The Wittliff Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded at Texas State University-San Marcos by Austin screenwriter and photographer Bill Wittliff and his wife Sally, the Wittliff Collections bring together "the Southwest's literature, film, and music." Visitors to the website can share in all of these cultural wonders, including materials from the Southwestern Writers Collection and several extensive photography collections. First-time visitors should head on over to "The Collections" area to take in the travel narrative of Cabeza de Vaca, found in the Southwestern Writers Collection "Research and Archives", and a wonderful tribute to the TV series and book, "Lonesome Dove". Moving on, the "Exhibitions & Events" area contains information about their various traveling exhibits, events, and writer talks. The site is rounded out by an online gift store and more details about their book series and anthologies of Southwestern writers.

100

Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites - Implications for endogenous igneous processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an analysis of 13 igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites, using electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation techniques. These data, combined with literature data on compositions of 43 mesosiderite clasts were used to compile a classification scheme for the various types of mafic silicate clasts that occur in mesosiderites. These clasts were classified into five principal groups: (1) polygenic and monogenic cumulates (30 percent); (2) polygenic basalts (30 percent); (3) quench-textured rocks, comprising two compositional subgroups (those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5 percent), and those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2 percent)); (4) monogenic basalts (11 percent); and (5) ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9 percent) or olivine (4 percent). The conditions under which these clasts were formed are discussed.

Rubin, Alan E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

1992-01-01

101

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-01-01

102

The Costa Rican Central Valley Lavina Formation: Lahar or Debris Avalanche?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lavina Formation of the Central Valley of Costa Rica consists of lava blocks floating in a volcanic mud matrix. Different authors have interpreted this deposit genetically as a lahar or debris flow deposit. Based on geomorphologic, textural, and morphometric evidence, we conclude that the origin of this deposit is a debris avalanche event that transformed into a debris flow on its path down the valley. Using aerial photographs, many debris avalanche amphitheaters are found in the western sector of the Irazu volcanic complex. However, textural and morphometric characteristics of the deposit are consistent with the source of the sector collapse being located on the west flank of the Cabeza de Vaca volcano. Three-dimensional modeling of the Lavina Formation was done using data from 213 drill cores distributed along the Central Valley area. Maps of isopaches and isohipses of the roof and floor of this stratum were created. These allowed for qualification of morphometry of the stratigraphic surfaces, characterization of the paleoslopes, and quantification of the compacted deposit volume. The data derived form the isopach and isohipse contour maps indicate that abrupt changes in the thickness of the stratum are common. Also, it illustrates the morphological differences between the roof, elongated hills in the direction of the flux, and the floor of the stratum, smooth and uniform. The morphometric, geomorphologic, and textural evidence, were used to conclude that the Lavina deposit originated as a debris avalanche event in the Cabeza de Vaca Volcano. The debris avalanche was eventually fluidized into a debris flow that spread extensively (130 km2) along the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

Hidalgo, P. J.; Alvarado Induni, G. E.; Linkimer, L.

2005-12-01

103

Geographic diversity of Helicobacter pylori in cadavers: forensic estimation of geographical origin.  

PubMed

A method for determining the geographical origin of unidentified cadavers by determining the genotype of Helicobacter pylori, which is latent in one-half of the world's population, was developed. In the first stage, DNA was extracted from samplings at 5 points in the gastric mucosa of 177 individuals randomly selected from cadavers undergoing medico-legal autopsy. 16S-rDNA of H. pylori DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 101 cadavers (57.0%); by sex, 74 of 123 (60.1%) males and 28 of 54 (46.4%) females were positive. There were no significant differences in H. pylori detection rate among the 5 sampling points of the gastric mucosa, cause of death, or age. In the second stage, amplified fragments of H. pylori vacA regions s and m from 17 individuals with the following ethnic backgrounds were sequenced: Japanese, 10; Chinese, 2; South Korean, 1; Taiwanese, 1; Thai, 1; Afghan, 1; and Filipino, 1. A phylogenetic tree constructed with these and 28 previously reported H. pylori strain sequences revealed 3 major gene clusters consisting of East Asian type I (Japanese, South Korean and Chinese), Western type II, and Southeast Asia type III. The Taiwanese and Filipino samples deviated from the clusters type III to which they typically belong. The ultimate aim of the present study was to develop a more accurate method of determining of geographic origin of unidentified cadavers through the combination of the present method with other, virus-based methods H. pylori DNA was detected from over half of the cadavers tested and vacA genotypes showed specificity to geographical origin. Therefore, these results suggest that the H. pylori genome provides valuable additional information for tracing the geographical origin of unidentified cadavers. PMID:23683903

Nagasawa, Sayaka; Motani-Saitoh, Hisako; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Iwase, Hirotaro

2013-06-10

104

Helicobacter pylori HopE and HopV porins present scarce expression among clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate how widely Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) HopE and HopV porins are expressed among Chilean isolates and how seroprevalent they are among infected patients in Chile. METHODS: H. pylori hopE and hopV genes derived from strain CHCTX-1 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli AD494 (DE3). Gel-purified porins were used to prepare polyclonal antibodies. The presence of both genes was tested by PCR in a collection of H. pylori clinical isolates and their expression was detected in lysates by immunoblotting. Immune responses against HopE, HopV and other H. pylori antigens in sera from infected and non-infected patients were tested by Western blotting using these sera as first antibody on recombinant H. pylori antigens. RESULTS: PCR and Western blotting assays revealed that 60 and 82 out of 130 Chilean isolates carried hopE and hopV genes, respectively, but only 16 and 9, respectively, expressed these porins. IgG serum immunoreactivity evaluation of 69 H. pylori-infected patients revealed that HopE and HopV were infrequently recognized (8.7% and 10.1% respectively) compared to H. pylori VacA (68.1%) and CagA (59.5%) antigens. Similar values were detected for IgA serum immunoreactivity against HopE (11.6%) and HopV (10.5%) although lower values for VacA (42%) and CagA (17.4%) were obtained when compared to the IgG response. CONCLUSION: A scarce expression of HopE and HopV among Chilean isolates was found, in agreement with the infrequent seroconversion against these antigens when tested in infected Chilean patients. PMID:20082477

Lienlaf, Maritza; Morales, Juan Pablo; Díaz, María Inés; Díaz, Rodrigo; Bruce, Elsa; Siegel, Freddy; León, Gloria; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

2010-01-01

105

Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on TLR2 and TLR4 Expression in Patients with Gastric Lesions  

PubMed Central

Objective. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is recognized by TLR4 and TLR2 receptors, which trigger the activation of genes involved in the host immune response. Thus, we evaluated the effect of eradication therapy on TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in H. pylori-infected chronic gastritis patients (CG-Hp+) and 3 months after treatment. Methods. A total of 37 patients CG-Hp+ were evaluated. The relative quantification (RQ) of mRNA was assessed by TaqMan assay and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results. Before treatment both TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in CG-Hp+ patients were slightly increased (TLR2 = 1.32; TLR4 = 1.26) in relation to Hp-negative normal gastric mucosa (P ? 0.05). After successful eradication therapy no significant change was observed (TLR2 = 1.47; TLR4 = 1.53; P > 0.05). In addition, the cagA and vacA bacterial genotypes did not influence the gene expression levels, and we observed a positive correlation between the RQ values of TLR2 and TLR4, both before and after treatment. Immunoexpression of the TLR2 and TLR4 proteins confirmed the gene expression results. Conclusion. In conclusion, the expression of both TLR2 and TLR4 is increased in CG-Hp+ patients regardless of cagA and vacA status and this expression pattern is not significantly changed after eradication of bacteria, at least for the short period of time evaluated. PMID:25873761

Rossi, Ana Flávia Teixeira; Matos Biselli-Périco, Joice; Fucuta Pereira, Patrícia; Do Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin; Acayaba, Ricardo; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

2015-01-01

106

Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori is one of the most controversial bacteria in the world causing diverse gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission way of this bacterium still remains unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been suggested, but is not proven in nonprimate reservoirs. In the current survey, we investigate the presence of H. pylori in cow, sheep and goat stomach, determine the bacterium virulence factors and finally compare the human H. pylori virulence factors and animals in order to examine whether H. pylori might be transmitted from these animals to human beings. Methods This cross- sectional study was performed on 800 gastric biopsy specimens of cows, sheep, goats and human beings. The PCR assays was performed to detection of H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. The PCR products of Ruminant’s samples with positive H. pylori were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results Overall 6 (3%) cows, 32 (16%) sheep and 164 (82%) human beings specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive; however we were not able to detect this bacterium in all 200 goat samples. The vacA s1a/m1a was the predominant H. pylori genotype in all three kinds of studied population. There was 3.4–8.4% variability and 92.9-98.5% homology between sheep and human samples. Conclusions Considering the high sequence homology among DNA of H. pylori isolated from sheep and human, our data suggest that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and in the some extent share the ancestral host for the bacteria with human. PMID:24708464

2014-01-01

107

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.  

PubMed

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-08-14

108

Sequence Divergence and Conservation in Genomes of Helicobacter cetorum Strains from a Dolphin and a Whale  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Strains of Helicobacter cetorum have been cultured from several marine mammals and have been found to be closely related in 16 S rDNA sequence to the human gastric pathogen H. pylori, but their genomes were not characterized further. Methods The genomes of H. cetorum strains from a dolphin and a whale were sequenced completely using 454 technology and PCR and capillary sequencing. Results These genomes are 1.8 and 1.95 mb in size, some 7–26% larger than H. pylori genomes, and differ markedly from one another in gene content, and sequences and arrangements of shared genes. However, each strain is more related overall to H. pylori and its descendant H. acinonychis than to other known species. These H. cetorum strains lack cag pathogenicity islands, but contain novel alleles of the virulence-associated vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Of particular note are (i) an extra triplet of vacA genes with ?50% protein-level identity to each other in the 5? two-thirds of the gene needed for host factor interaction; (ii) divergent sets of outer membrane protein genes; (iii) several metabolic genes distinct from those of H. pylori; (iv) genes for an iron-cofactored urease related to those of Helicobacter species from terrestrial carnivores, in addition to genes for a nickel co-factored urease; and (v) members of the slr multigene family, some of which modulate host responses to infection and improve Helicobacter growth with mammalian cells. Conclusions Our genome sequence data provide a glimpse into the novelty and great genetic diversity of marine helicobacters. These data should aid further analyses of microbial genome diversity and evolution and infection and disease mechanisms in vast and often fragile ocean ecosystems. PMID:24358262

Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Rossi, Mirko; Berg, Douglas E.

2013-01-01

109

Virulence of infecting Helicobacter pyloristrains and intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration are associated with levels of DNA hypermethylation in gastric mucosae  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation changes are known to occur in gastric cancers and in premalignant lesions of the gastric mucosae. In order to examine variables associated with methylation levels, we quantitatively evaluated DNA methylation in tumors, non-tumor gastric mucosae, and in gastric biopsies at promoters of 5 genes with methylation alterations that discriminate gastric cancers from non-tumor epithelia (EN1, PCDH10, RSPO2, ZIC1, and ZNF610). Among Colombian subjects at high and low risk for gastric cancer, biopsies from subjects from the high-risk region had significantly higher levels of methylation at these 5 genes than samples from subjects in the low risk region (p ? 0.003). When results were stratified by Helicobacter pylori infection status, infection with a cagA positive, vacA s1m1 strain was significantly associated with highest methylation levels, compared with other strains (p = 0.024 to 0.001). More severe gastric inflammation and more advanced precancerous lesions were also associated with higher levels of DNA methylation (p ? 0.001). In a multivariate model, location of residence of the subject and the presence of cagA and vacA s1m1 in the H. pylori strain were independent variables associated with higher methylation in all 5 genes. High levels of mononuclear cell infiltration were significantly related to methylation in PCDH10, RSPO2, and ZIC1 genes. These results indicate that for these genes, levels of methylation in precancerous lesions are related to H. pylori virulence, geographic region and measures of chronic inflammation. These genes seem predisposed to sustain significant quantitative changes in DNA methylation at early stages of the gastric precancerous process. PMID:24128875

Schneider, Barbara G; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Sicinschi, Liviu A; Mera, Robertino; Peng, Dun-Fa; Roa, Juan Carlos; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G; de Sablet, Thibaut; Bravo, Luis E; Wilson, Keith T; El-Rifai, Wael; Peek Jr, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo

2013-01-01

110

Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer Show Same Phylogeographic Origin in the Andean Region in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants. PMID:25121764

Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

111

Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: An idea for how to live in peace  

PubMed Central

In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the “persistence mechanisms” of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria “invisible” to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts. PMID:25110419

Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

2014-01-01

112

Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: an idea for how to live in peace.  

PubMed

In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the "persistence mechanisms" of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria "invisible" to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts. PMID:25110419

Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

2014-08-01

113

Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

Soler-López, Luis R.

2008-01-01

114

Influence of Helicobacter pylori on reactive oxygen-induced gastric epithelial cell injury.  

PubMed

Risk factors for gastric cancer are receiving renewed attention in light of the recent positive association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastric cancer. The effect of H.pylori on the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in the stomach is not well known. In this study, we investigated if exposure of gastric cells to H. pylori increases oxidant-associated gastric epithelial cell injury. A human gastric epithelial cell line (AGS) was grown on 96-well clusters, then exposed overnight to either live H.pylori (four cagA(+) and four cagA(-)) or broth culture supernatant from an isogenic H.pylori cagA(+) strain with and without vacA activity. Incubation of AGS cells with cagA(+) and cagA(-) H.pylori strains before exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduced cell viability on average to 73.7% and 39.5% of controls, respectively. The percent viability of cells exposed to ROS after incubation with control broth, vacA(-) broth and vacA(+) broth was 97.7%, 70.5% and 63.5%, respectively. Experiments were then performed to evaluate the effects of H.pylori exposure on the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes [catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and formation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts in AGS cells. Overnight exposure to cagA(-) strains reduced catalase activity by 42%; in contrast, exposure to cagA(+) H.pylori strains increased catalase activity by 51%. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased with exposure to both cagA(-) and cagA(+) strains by 95% and 240%, respectively. Total SOD activity increased 156% after exposure to cagA(+) strains and was marginally increased (52%) with exposure to cagA(-) strains. CuZn-SOD protein levels, assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were not significantly altered by exposure to H.pylori strains; however, Mn-SOD concentrations were significantly increased (P: < 0.02) after exposure to both cagA(-) and cagA(+) H.pylori strains. Exposure of AGS cells to cagA(+) and cagA(-) H.pylori was associated with, on average, 44.5 and 99.0 8-OH-dG/10(6) dG, respectively. The increase in catalase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD activity is associated with fewer 8-OH-dG DNA adducts and reduced susceptibility of AGS cells to lethal injury from ROS after exposure to cagA(+) H.pylori strains when compared with exposure to cagA(-) H.pylori strains. Alteration in the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes by the presence of H. pylori may in part be responsible for the increased risk of gastric cancer in persons infected with H.pylori. PMID:11062173

Smoot, D T; Elliott, T B; Verspaget, H W; Jones, D; Allen, C R; Vernon, K G; Bremner, T; Kidd, L C; Kim, K S; Groupman, J D; Ashktorab, H

2000-11-01

115

Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

116

Uma forma bidimensional que maximiza a resistência aerodinâmica newtoniana  

E-print Network

(English) In a previous work [Nonlinearity, 20:2271-2287, 2007; arXiv:math/0703895] it is investigated, by means of computational simulations, shapes of nonconvex bodies that maximize resistance to its motion on a rarefied medium, considering that bodies are moving forward and at the same time slowly rotating. Here the previous results are improved: we obtain a two-dimensional geometric shape that confers to the body a resistance very close to the supremum value (R=1.4965novas investiga\\c{c}\\~oes que culminam num resultado que representa um grande avan\\c{c}o qualitativo relativamente aos previamente alcan\\c{c}ados. Esse resultado, que agora se apresenta, consiste numa forma bidimensional que confere ao corpo uma resist\\^encia muito pr\\'oxima do seu limite te\\'orico.

Paulo D. F. Gouveia; Alexander Plakhov; Delfim F. M. Torres

2007-09-21

117

Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

2005-12-01

118

Helicobacter pylori antibody patterns in Germany: a cross-sectional population study  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori infection that is usually acquired in childhood and lasts for lifetime is mostly asymptomatic but associated with severe gastrointestinal disease including cancer. During chronic infection, the gastric mucosa is histologically changing. This forces H. pylori to permanent adaptation in its gastric habitat by expression of different proteins which might be reflected in distinctive antibody patterns. Methods To characterize dynamics of the immune response to H. pylori we analysed 1797 sera of a cross-sectional study representative for the German population (age range 1–82 years) with multiplex serology, a fluorescent bead-based antibody binding assay that allows simultaneous and quantitative detection of antibodies. Fifteen recombinant, affinity-purified H. pylori proteins (UreA, GroEL, Catalase, NapA, CagA, CagM, Cag?, HP0231, VacA, HpaA, Cad, HyuA, Omp, HcpC and HP0305) were used as antigens. Results H. pylori seroprevalence (positivity for at least three antigens) was 48% and increased with age from 12% in children <15 years to 69% in females and 90% in males >65 years. Prevalences were highest (>83%) for Omp, VacA and GroEL. For 11 proteins, seroprevalence was higher in males than females (P?65 years stronger in females (P?=?0.02). Antibody reactivities to GroEL, HyuA, CagM, Catalase, NapA and UreA also increased stronger in females (average 1.7-fold/decade, SD 0.5) than in males (1.5-fold/decade, SD 0.4). Conclusion H. pylori antibody response accumulates qualitatively and quantitatively with age. This may reflect a lifelong stimulation of the immune response by chronically active infection. PMID:24782915

2014-01-01

119

Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is geochemically of low grade. In contrast, a large crosscutting bitumen dyke is of higher grade and formed later. At other localities, near basement faults, bitumen dykes have cap-rocks of hydrothermal calcrete. Other dykes or their wall rocks contain hydrothermal minerals. Finally, some dykes splay upward towards the current land surface. We conclude that (1) the bitumen dykes formed during volcanic activity in Pliocene-Pleistocene times, and that (2) heat advection by hydrothermal fluids helped to generate oil, which migrated upwards or downwards from the source rock and filled intrusive veins, before solidifying to bitumen, by loss of volatile elements. This unconventional hydrocarbon system may have significant implications for regional exploration in the foothills of the Andes.

Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain

2014-12-01

120

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and migraine: sonography study.  

PubMed

RCVS is characterized by severe headaches with or without focal neurologic deficits and segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves within 3 months. The primary clinical manifestation is recurrent sudden-onset and thunderclap headache. Diagnosis requires cerebral or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) confirmation and ultrasound monitoring. Our purpose is to discover the difference of ultrasound data between RCVS and migraine. 61 patients (age range 17-60y., 41-female, 20-male) underwent sonography examination using Transcranial Dopplerography (TCD) and Transcranial Color-Coded Duplex Sonography (TCCD) methods. In 29 patients MRA examinations were performed. Group I- 27 patients with RCVS with typical acute-onset of severe headaches. Group II-34 patients- migraine in anamnesis, with 1-2 attacks monthly, control group -15 healthy persons. Ultrasound examinations were performed during 2 months with time intervals of 1-20, 21-40, and 41-60 days. Markedly in migraine group examinations were performed in interictal periods also. Group I-the mean maximum (MM) V(CS)-77,8 ± 14,7 cm/sec, V(MCA)- 127,5 ± 22.8 cm/sec, V(ACA) -115.7 ± 18.4, V(BA)- 74.7 ± 20.1. Lindegaard Index (LI) -3.1 ± 0.5. MRA revealed segmental cerebral artery vasoconstriction. The MCA was involved in 62.9%, the ACA- in 51.8%, the PCA- in 37% and the BAS- in 40.7% of patients. Group II- the MM V (CS)-72.8 ± 12.5 cm/sec, V (MCA)- 118,4 ± 26.7 cm/sec, V(ACA) -105.8 ± 17.6, V(BA)- 74.5 ± 18.1, averaged LI -2,9 ± 0.7. In the majority (61.7%) of this group revealed increased MM V in several cerebral arteries with different combination of involving vessels. No correlation was found between incidence side of pain and /or pain intensity. Both groups exceeded of controls -V (MCA) (63.2 ± 9.5 cm/sec), LI (2.1 ± 0.2), p<0.001) and revealed vasospasm. All data were calculated by nonparametric Binomial test. Obtained data showed no significant difference regarding the vasospasm degree between typical RCVS and migraine, whereas revealed that vasospasm in migraine is more determined to posterior circulation but in RCVS vasospasm has the more diffuse character. Despite the extensive knowledge concerning RCVS and migraine, many uncertainties still exist and further randomized controlled trials are needed for understanding the underlying pathophysiology factors. PMID:24743119

Alpaidze, M; Beridze, M

2014-03-01

121

Evolution in an oncogenic bacterial species with extreme genome plasticity: Helicobacter pylori East Asian genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of Helicobacter pylori, an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, rapidly evolves and shows wide geographical divergence. The high incidence of stomach cancer in East Asia might be related to bacterial genotype. We used newly developed comparative methods to follow the evolution of East Asian H. pylori genomes using 20 complete genome sequences from Japanese, Korean, Amerind, European, and West African strains. Results A phylogenetic tree of concatenated well-defined core genes supported divergence of the East Asian lineage (hspEAsia; Japanese and Korean) from the European lineage ancestor, and then from the Amerind lineage ancestor. Phylogenetic profiling revealed a large difference in the repertoire of outer membrane proteins (including oipA, hopMN, babABC, sabAB and vacA-2) through gene loss, gain, and mutation. All known functions associated with molybdenum, a rare element essential to nearly all organisms that catalyzes two-electron-transfer oxidation-reduction reactions, appeared to be inactivated. Two pathways linking acetyl~CoA and acetate appeared intact in some Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater divergence between the East Asian (hspEAsia) and the European (hpEurope) genomes in proteins in host interaction, specifically virulence factors (tip?), outer membrane proteins, and lipopolysaccharide synthesis (human Lewis antigen mimicry) enzymes. Divergence was also seen in proteins in electron transfer and translation fidelity (miaA, tilS), a DNA recombinase/exonuclease that recognizes genome identity (addA), and DNA/RNA hybrid nucleases (rnhAB). Positively selected amino acid changes between hspEAsia and hpEurope were mapped to products of cagA, vacA, homC (outer membrane protein), sotB (sugar transport), and a translation fidelity factor (miaA). Large divergence was seen in genes related to antibiotics: frxA (metronidazole resistance), def (peptide deformylase, drug target), and ftsA (actin-like, drug target). Conclusions These results demonstrate dramatic genome evolution within a species, especially in likely host interaction genes. The East Asian strains appear to differ greatly from the European strains in electron transfer and redox reactions. These findings also suggest a model of adaptive evolution through proteome diversification and selection through modulation of translational fidelity. The results define H. pylori East Asian lineages and provide essential information for understanding their pathogenesis and designing drugs and therapies that target them. PMID:21575176

2011-01-01

122

A review of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata  

SciTech Connect

The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

1990-12-01

123

V-ATPase and osmotic imbalances activate endolysosomal LC3 lipidation.  

PubMed

Recently a noncanonical activity of autophagy proteins has been discovered that targets lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) onto macroendocytic vacuoles, including macropinosomes, phagosomes, and entotic vacuoles. While this pathway is distinct from canonical autophagy, the mechanism of how these nonautophagic membranes are targeted for LC3 lipidation remains unclear. Here we present evidence that this pathway requires activity of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and is induced by osmotic imbalances within endolysosomal compartments. LC3 lipidation by this mechanism is induced by treatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, and through exposure to the Heliobacter pylori pore-forming toxin VacA. These data add novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of noncanonical LC3 lipidation and its associated processes, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), and demonstrate that the widely and therapeutically used drug chloroquine, which is conventionally used to inhibit autophagy flux, is an inducer of LC3 lipidation. PMID:25484071

Florey, Oliver; Gammoh, Noor; Kim, Sung Eun; Jiang, Xuejun; Overholtzer, Michael

2015-01-01

124

Salt glands in the Jurassic metriorhynchid Geosaurus: implications for the evolution of osmoregulation in Mesozoic marine crocodyliforms.  

PubMed

The presence of salt-excreting glands in extinct marine sauropsids has been long suspected based on skull morphology. Previously, we described for the first time the natural casts of salt-excreting glands in the head of the Jurassic metriorhynchid crocodyliform Geosaurus araucanensis from the Tithonian of the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquén Basin (Argentina). In the present study, salt-excreting glands are identified in three new individuals (adult, a sub-adult and a juvenile) referable to the same species. New material provides significant information on the salt glands form and function and permit integration of evolutionary scenarios proposed on a physiological basis in extant taxa with evidence from the fossil record. G. araucanensis represents an advanced stage of the basic physiological model to marine adaptations in reptiles. G. araucanensis salt glands were hypertrophied. On this basis, it can be hypothesized that these glands had a high excretory capability. This stage implies that G. araucanensis (like extant pelagic reptiles, e.g. cheloniids) could have maintained constant plasma osmolality even when seawater or osmoconforming prey were ingested. A gradual model of marine adaptation in crocodyliforms based on physiology (freshwater to coastal/estuarine to estuarine /marine to pelagic life) is congruent with the phylogeny of crocodyliforms based on skeletal morphology. The fossil record suggests that the stage of marine pelagic adaptation was achieved by the Early Middle Jurassic. Salt gland size in the juvenile suggests that juveniles were, like adults, pelagic. PMID:17712540

Fernández, Marta; Gasparini, Zulma

2008-01-01

125

Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution  

PubMed Central

The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host–pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J.; Ahmed, Niyaz

2015-01-01

126

Identification of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients in Surabaya, Indonesia, using five diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11·5% in all patients studied, and 2·3% of Javanese patients and 18·0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0·01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA 'on' and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia. PMID:25034254

Miftahussurur, M; Shiota, S; Suzuki, R; Matsuda, M; Uchida, T; Kido, Y; Kawamoto, F; Maimunah, U; Adi, P; Rezkitha, Y; Nasronudin; Nusi, I; Yamaoka, Y

2015-04-01

127

Fine resolution chronology based on initial Sr-87/Sr-86  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recognized that small variations in initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (Sr(sub I)), can provide a fine scale relative chronology for the chemical fractionation of materials with low Rb/Sr from parent reservoirs with high Rb/Sr. Similarly, Sr(sub I), as determined for low Rb/Sr phases in meteorites, may permit a fine resolution chronology of the recrystallization or metamorphism of planetary materials. For the establishment of a primitive Sr-87/Sr-86 chronology, it is important to search for samples with extremely low Rb/Sr for which the measured Sr-87/Sr-86 is below BABI, in which case the primitive nature of the Sr can be directly established. Using the measured Rb/Sr to calculate an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 can introduce substantial uncertainty if the Rb-Sr are disturbed. We report Sr-87/Sr-86 in plagioclase from silicate pebbles from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite on which we have reported Sm-147-Nd-143 and Ne-142 correlations. For the purpose of cross-calibration with our previous work we have performed extensive new measurements on Angra dos Reis and on anorthite from Moore County, which have very low Rb/Sr and primitive Sr-87/Sr-86.

Stewart, B. W.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Capo, R. C.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1993-01-01

128

Identification of cagA Tyrosine Phosphorylation DNA Motifs in Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Peptic Ulcer Patients by Novel PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Real-Time Fluorescence PCR Assays  

PubMed Central

Cag pathogenicity island-containing Helicobacter pylori (type I) induces signal transduction pathways resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins adjacent to the site of bacterial adhesion on host gastric epithelial cells. Conventional block PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and real-time LightCycler (LC) PCR hybridization assays, validated by direct sequencing, were designed to test for the presence of three nucleotide sequences corresponding to tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) A, B, and C in 84 isolates of H. pylori type I from patients in England. Overall, the PCR assays demonstrated that one or more TPMs were present in 62 strains (75%). Motif A was common (71% of strains), whereas motifs B and C were rarer (8% of strains). Strains lacking a TPM were typically vacuolating cytotoxin genotype vacA m2. Motif A was widely distributed in relation to disease severity and was more commonly (but not significantly [P = 0.071]) associated with gastric ulcer than with duodenal ulcer (86 versus 56%). The LC hybridization assay provided a rapid means of detecting all three motifs, but RFLP analysis was more specific for TPM-A. TPMs provide novel additional strain markers for defining cagA variation, including identification of RFLP types within TPM-A. The presence of a particular TPM was not of direct diagnostic value, either singly or in combination, but the higher proportion of TPM-A strains in gastric ulcer patients merits further investigation. PMID:12843050

Owen, Robert J.; Sharp, Sally I.; Chisholm, Stephanie A.; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

2003-01-01

129

NMR-based Molecular Rheology of Entangled Polymers in Bulk and in Nanoscopic Confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the use of simple proton low-field NMR to probe the validity of the tube model of polymer dynamics. The method yields a time-domain measure of the segmental orientation autocorrelation function C(t), which in turn is directly related to the stress relaxation modulus G(t), thus providing a true molecular measure of rheologically relevant quantities. The fixed-tube model does not describe actual data well, and current work focuses on deuteron labeling schemes to investigate the relevance of contour-length fluctuation (CLF) or constraint release (CR) effects. As first results, we found that unexpectedly, CR processes are responsible for modified chain modes faster than actual reptation [1], and also that the dynamics is inhomogeneous along a given chain, stressing also the significance of CLF. We also present recent results for melt dynamics in nanoscopic confinement of long cylindrical channels of 20-400 nm diameter [2]. We consistently observe a fraction of chains whose dynamics is less isotropic on long time scales, i.e., in the Doi-Edwards regimes III (reptation) and IV (disentangled dynamics)[0pt] [1] F. Vaca Ch'avez, K. Saalw"achter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 198305 (2010), [2] S. Ok et al., Macromolecules 43, 4429 (2010)

Saalwachter, Kay; Trutschel, Marie-Luise; Vaca Chavez, Fabian

2012-02-01

130

Differences in Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori from Different Human Populations  

PubMed Central

DNA motifs at several informative loci in more than 500 strains of Helicobacter pylori from five continents were studied by PCR and sequencing to gain insights into the evolution of this gastric pathogen. Five types of deletion, insertion, and substitution motifs were found at the right end of the H. pylori cag pathogenicity island. Of the three most common motifs, type I predominated in Spaniards, native Peruvians, and Guatemalan Ladinos (mixed Amerindian-European ancestry) and also in native Africans and U.S. residents; type II predominated among Japanese and Chinese; and type III predominated in Indians from Calcutta. Sequences in the cagA gene and in vacAm1 type alleles of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) of strains from native Peruvians were also more like those from Spaniards than those from Asians. These indications of relatedness of Latin American and Spanish strains, despite the closer genetic relatedness of Amerindian and Asian people themselves, lead us to suggest that H. pylori may have been brought to the New World by European conquerors and colonists about 500 years ago. This thinking, in turn, suggests that H. pylori infection might have become widespread in people quite recently in human evolution. PMID:10809702

Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Velapatiño, Billie; Su, WanWen; Pan, ZhiJun; Garcia, Claudia; Hernandez, Virginia; Valdez, Yanet; Mistry, Rajesh S.; Gilman, Robert H.; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Hua; Alarcón, Teresa; López-Brea, Manuel; Balakrish Nair, G.; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Datta, Simanti; Shirai, Mutsunori; Nakazawa, Teruko; Ally, Reidwaan; Segal, Isidore; Wong, Benjamin C. Y.; Lam, S. K.; Olfat, Farzad O.; Borén, Thomas; Engstrand, Lars; Torres, Olga; Schneider, Roberto; Thomas, Julian E.; Czinn, Steven; Berg, Douglas E.

2000-01-01

131

Helicobacter pylori Genotypes Associated with Gastric Histo-Pathological Damages in a Moroccan Population  

PubMed Central

H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human’s genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU) of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults’ patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology. PMID:24349327

Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Amarti, Afaf; El Rhazi, Karima; El Khadir, Mounia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Souleimani, Abdellah; Bennani, Bahia

2013-01-01

132

The functional interplay of Helicobacter pylori factors with gastric epithelial cells induces a multi-step process in pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Infections with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can lead to severe gastric diseases ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to neoplastic changes in the stomach. Development and progress of H. pylori-associated disorders are determined by multifarious bacterial factors. Many of them interact directly with host cells or require specific receptors, while others enter the host cytoplasm to derail cellular functions. Several adhesins (e.g. BabA, SabA, AlpA/B, or OipA) establish close contact with the gastric epithelium as an important first step in persistent colonization. Soluble H. pylori factors (e.g. urease, VacA, or HtrA) have been suggested to alter cell survival and intercellular adhesions. Via a type IV secretion system (T4SS), H. pylori also translocates the effector cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and peptidoglycan directly into the host cytoplasm, where cancer- and inflammation-associated signal transduction pathways can be deregulated. Through these manifold possibilities of interaction with host cells, H. pylori interferes with the complex signal transduction networks in its host and mediates a multi-step pathogenesis. PMID:24099599

2013-01-01

133

Signal transduction of Helicobacter pylori during interaction with host cell protein receptors of epithelial and immune cells  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori infections can induce pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration to gastric cancer. Bacterial isolates harbor numerous well-known adhesins, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, protease HtrA, urease, peptidoglycan, and type IV secretion systems (T4SS). It appears that H. pylori targets more than 40 known host protein receptors on epithelial or immune cells. A series of T4SS components such as CagL, CagI, CagY, and CagA can bind to the integrin ?5?1 receptor. Other targeted membrane-based receptors include the integrins ?v?3, ?v?5, and ?2 (CD18), RPTP-?/?, GP130, E-cadherin, fibronectin, laminin, CD46, CD74, ICAM1/LFA1, T-cell receptor, Toll-like receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and c-Met. In addition, H. pylori is able to activate the intracellular receptors NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 with important roles in innate immunity. Here we review the interplay of various bacterial factors with host protein receptors. The contribution of these interactions to signal transduction and pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:24280762

Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Backert, Steffen

2013-01-01

134

The immunogenetics and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Highlights of the First Sino-European Workshop on the Immunogenetics and Pathogenesis of Gastric Cancer.  

PubMed

Clinical scientists from eight European countries and China gathered in the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an on April 26-28, 2001 to discuss collaboration on a modern approach to gastric cancer prevention. Participants at the First Sino-European Workshop on Immunogenetics and Pathogenesis of Gastric Cancer presented their most up-to-date research results on topics ranging from epidemiology and immune mechanisms to Helicobacter pylori and vaccine development. Researchers then formed groups with their Chinese or European counterparts to plan future research endeavors which will benefit Chinese and European populations alike. After 3 years of organization between the Institute of Digestive Diseases of the Fourth Medical University in Xi'an, China and the Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the first workshop came into being under the joint sponsorship of the Commission of the European Union, National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xi'an, China. As gastric cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor in China, the workshop was of special significance to the Chinese researchers and to the Chinese population in general. During the workshop, presentations on the epidemiology of gastric cancer showed that this disease is in fact common the world over: it is the second most common cancer next to lung cancer and about 1 million new cases were diagnosed in 2000. Three-quarters of the cases of gastric cancer occur in Asia, and approximately 80% of these cases are in China and Japan. Genetic factors and environmental factors such as diet and H. pylori infection play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. As a recognized cause of gastric cancer, H. pylori was the subject of various presentations ranging from immunological studies, molecular analysis of strains and pathogenesis to vaccine development. Specific areas of discussion included bacterial-epithelial interactions in H. pylori infection, epidemiology in China, global distribution of vacA and cagA genotypes, new evidence for host factors, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and H. pylori as independent risk factor for gastric cancer, new diagnostic techniques for H. pylori using serum levels of pepsinogen I, and autoimmune processes in corpus atrophy. Vaccine development using a variety of strategies against H. pylori was the subject of an entire session of talks. Oral immunization with urease with Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin was shown to be safe and immunogenic in humans as a mucosal adjuvant. Results of a study using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as a vehicle for DNA-mediated immunization in mice were also presented. A final presentation discussed an ongoing trial comparing strain variability in the vacA and cagA gene sequences and disease expression between H. pylori infection in Europe and China. Researchers also discussed the role of IL1 gene family and TNF gene polymorphisms in gastric pathology and various immune mechanisms involved in gastric cancer, such as down-regulation of NF kappa B, IL-1 and IL-1RA, cyclooxygenase signalling, and identification of MGAg antibodies. An interactive discussion followed each presentation and ideas and suggestions were provided. According to specialty, the presenters were then assigned to groups of four or five to make plans for joint research projects. A number of international and Chinese observers were present, including representatives from the European Commission, the World Health Organization and the Chinese National Center for Biotechnology Development, and offered input on the financial feasibility of such projects. PMID:12532177

Wu, K; Crusius, J B A; Fan, D; Peña, A S

2002-06-01

135

Comparative Genomics of a Helicobacter pylori Isolate from a Chinese Yunnan Naxi Ethnic Aborigine Suggests High Genetic Divergence and Phage Insertion  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen correlated with several severe digestive diseases. It has been reported that isolates associated with different geographic areas, different diseases and different individuals might have variable genomic features. Here, we describe draft genomic sequences of H. pylori strains YN4-84 and YN1-91 isolated from patients with gastritis from the Naxi and Han populations of Yunnan, China, respectively. The draft sequences were compared to 45 other publically available genomes, and a total of 1059 core genes were identified. Genes involved in restriction modification systems, type four secretion system three (TFS3) and type four secretion system four (TFS4), were identified as highly divergent. Both YN4-84 and YN1-91 harbor intact cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and have EPIYA-A/B/D type at the carboxyl terminal of cagA. The vacA gene type is s1m2i1. Another major finding was a 32.5-kb prophage integrated in the YN4-84 genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (30/33) with Helicobacter pylori prophage KHP30. Moreover, a 1,886 bp transposable sequence (IS605) was found in the prophage. Our results imply that the Naxi ethnic minority isolate YN4-84 and Han isolate YN1-91 belong to the hspEAsia subgroup and have diverse genome structure. The genome has been extensively modified in several regions involved in horizontal DNA transfer. The important roles played by phages in the ecology and microevolution of H. pylori were further emphasized. The current data will provide valuable information regarding the H. pylori genome based on historic human migrations and population structure. PMID:25799515

You, Yuanhai; He, Lihua; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

2015-01-01

136

Association between Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Gastroduodenal Diseases in Okinawa, Japan  

PubMed Central

The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori

2012-01-01

137

Bitumen veins and Eocene transpression, Neuquén Basin, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northwestern part of the petroleum-rich Neuquén Basin, veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) have been reported from over 150 localities. The bitumen veins are mostly steeply-dipping and show intrusive relationships with their wall rocks. The largest are some 8 m wide, 8 km long and probably several kilometres deep. The bitumen probably formed in the earliest stages of thermal maturation of organically-rich source rocks. The most likely source rocks for the bitumen, as well as for most of the oil and gas in the Neuquén Basin, are black marine shales of the Vaca Muerta and Agrio formations. These were deposited in a rift setting during the late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. According to subsidence models, the source rocks should have reached thermal maturity in the latest Cretaceous or Paleocene and should have remained in the oil window ever since. Although the bitumen has not been dated directly, the veins probably formed soon after maturation of the source rocks, in other words, in the Paleocene or Eocene. The wall rocks of the veins are mostly the source rocks themselves. Other veins have been emplaced into overlying strata of Early Cretaceous to Paleocene ages or into underlying sediments of Jurassic age. The bitumen veins have preferred orientations. The dominant trend is 060° and subsidiary trends are either 000° to 020° or 100°. As in other basins worldwide, the majority of bitumen veins in the Neuquén Basin probably formed by tensile failure, in orientations perpendicular to the least compressive stress, under the combined effects of regional tectonics and fluid overpressures. The orientations of the veins are compatible with the direction of oblique convergence between continental South America and the oceanic Nazca plate in the Eocene. Many major structures in the Neuquén Basin are also of Eocene age and may have formed under right-lateral transpression.

Cobbold, P. R.; Diraison, M.; Rossello, E. A.

1999-12-01

138

Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677. PMID:21039971

Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J

2010-01-01

139

Volatile (sulphur and chlorine), major, and trace element geochemistry of mafic to intermediate tephras from the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (33-43°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the first systematic investigation of volatile geochemistry along the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of Chile. Holocene olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the most mafic tephras sampled from 16 volcanoes along the volcanic front of the SVZ between 33°S and 43°S were analysed for pre-eruptive sulphur, chlorine, and major element contents. These results are combined with trace element compositions of the host whole rocks. The highest fractionation-corrected gas contents occur in the least-degassed melt inclusions from small monogenetic cones of Los Hornitos, Cabeza de Vaca, and Apagado from both the transitional and the southern-central SVZ, reaching ~3,000 ?g/g S and 1,400 ?g/g Cl, while the lowest abundances of ~1,100 ?g/g S and ~600 ?g/g Cl were found in the central SVZ at Volcán Lonquimay, Volcán Llaima, and Volcán Villarrica. Chlorine co-varies with trace element indicators for the degree of melting and/or source enrichment, such that the lowest Cl contents are found in high-degree melts from the most depleted mantle sources. The size of the volcanic edifices correlates inversely with Cl abundances in the melt. This could reflect more extensive degassing during ascent through the complex magma plumbing systems beneath the stratovolcanoes or greater dilution during larger degrees of melting of more depleted sources, or a combination of these factors. Compared to other subduction zones, the SVZ melt inclusions exhibit Cl and S abundances in the same range as most of those from the Central American and those from the Marianas arcs.

Wehrmann, Heidi; Hoernle, Kaj; Jacques, Guillaume; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Schumann, Kai; Mahlke, Julia; Lara, Luis E.

2014-10-01

140

Association between Virulence Factors and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL Expression in Gastric Mucosa Infected with Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Objective. CagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ Helicobacter pylori upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 1 (TRAF1), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (4-1BB), and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) in human gastric epithelial cells. We investigated the correlation between cagA/vacAs1/vacAm1 and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in gastric mucosal tissue of patients with gastric disorders. Methods. We collected gastric mucosa samples from 35 chronic, nonatrophic gastritis (CG) patients, 41 atrophic gastritis patients, 44 intestinal metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia (IM) patients, and 28 gastric carcinoma (Ca) patients. The expression of??TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was determined using western blotting. The expression of cagA, vacAs1, and vacAm1 in H. pylori was examined with polymerase chain reaction. Results. The expression of TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was significantly upregulated in IM and Ca patients (P < 0.05 compared with CG). There were more cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection in samples with elevated TRAF1, 4-1BB, or Bcl-xL expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, there were a remarkably large number of samples with upregulated TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection (44 cases, 67.7%; P < 0.05). Conclusions. The pathogenesis of IM and Ca may be promoted by cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori, possibly via upregulated TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL in gastric mucosal tissue. PMID:25737718

Wang, Fen; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Zhiying; Bu, Guangkui; Li, Xiayu; Qu, Nanfang; Peng, Jin; Xu, Canxia; Shen, Shourong; Yuan, Yi

2015-01-01

141

Infection by Helicobacter pylori expressing the BabA adhesin is influenced by the secretor phenotype.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infects half the world's population and causes diverse gastric lesions, from gastritis to gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the significance of secretor and Lewis status in infection and in vitro adherence by Hp expressing BabA adhesin. We enrolled 304 Hp-infected individuals from Northern Portugal. Gastric biopsies, blood and saliva were collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to detect BabA+ Hp in gastric biopsies. In vitro adherence by a BabA expressing Hp strain to gastric biopsies was performed. Secretor status was identified by Ulex, a lectin that recognizes secretor-dependent glycan structures in saliva and in gastric mucosa, and by Lewis(a/b) antibodies, and indirectly by identification of an inactivating mutation in the FUT2 gene (G428A). BabA status of infecting Hp was associated with CagA and VacAs1 (p < 0.05), intercellular localization of Hp (p < 0.01) and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.05) and degenerative alterations (p < 0.005) in the biopsies. BabA was associated (p < 0.05) with Ulex staining of gastric biopsies and, although not significantly, to absence of homozygosity for FUT2 G428A inactivating polymorphism. In vitro Hp adherence was higher in cases wild-type or heterozygous for FUT2 G428A mutation (p < 0.0001), cases staining for Ulex (p < 0.0001) and a(-)b+ and a(-)b(-) secretor phenotypes (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BabA+ Hp infection/adhesion is secretor-dependent and associated with the severity of gastric lesions. PMID:18498114

Azevedo, M; Eriksson, S; Mendes, N; Serpa, J; Figueiredo, C; Resende, L P; Ruvoën-Clouet, N; Haas, R; Borén, T; Le Pendu, J; David, L

2008-07-01

142

Clarithromycin resistance, tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism and mucosal inflammation affect H. pylori eradication success.  

PubMed

Several bacterial and host-related factors concur in causing Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We ascertained the role of bacterial virulence genes (cagA, vacA), clarithromycin resistance [Cla(R), 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mutations], host polymorphism of CYP2C19 (polyphosphoinositide, PPI, metabolism) and of the cytokines IL-1B-31C>T, IL-1RN VNTR, IFN-gamma+874A>T, TNF-alpha-1031T>C, TNF-alpha-857C>T, TNF-alpha-376G>A, TNF-alpha-308G>A, TNF-alpha-238G>A, IL-10-1082A>G, IL-10-819C>T, IL-10-592C>A, IL-12A+6686G>A, IL-12B+15485A>C. Two groups of H. pylori-infected and H. pylori-treated patients were retrospectively identified: 45 not eradicated and 57 eradicated. Treatment failure was significantly correlated with Cla(R) (all resistant strains in non-eradicated patients); with TNF-alpha-238, IL10-819, IL10-592, IL-12B+15485 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); with IL10 ATA/ATA haplotype; and with antral inflammatory grade. On considering Cla(S)-infected patients only, logistic regression analysis (eradication = dependent; TNF-alpha-238, IL12B + 15485 genotypes, IL10 ATA/ATA as present or absent, antral gastritis grade = covariates) confirmed as significantly correlated with eradication antral gastritis grade only (Exp(B) = 6.48; 95% CI, 1.2-35.01). In conclusion, the bacterial determinant causing triple therapy failure is clarithromycin resistant, being virulence genes not involved. The host related factors that favor eradication are those linked to inflammation: a higher inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa, possibly favored by genotypes able to down regulate the anti-inflammatory cytokine response, enhance the chance of eradication success. PMID:17846855

Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Fasolo, Michela; Basso, Daniela; D'Odorico, Anna; Stranges, Alessia; Navaglia, Filippo; Fogar, Paola; Greco, Eliana; Schiavon, Stefania; Padoan, Andrea; Fadi, Elisa; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Plebani, Mario; Pedrazzoli, Sergio

2007-11-01

143

Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties  

PubMed Central

From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14%) salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68%) vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%). The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44%) and cagA (57.625). VacA s1a (37.28%) and iceA1 (47.45%) were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%), s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%), and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81%) were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%), amoxicillin (67.79%), and ampicillin (61.01%). High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria. PMID:25184146

Yahaghi, Emad; Khamesipour, Faham; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Sakhaei, Mohammad Hossein; Masoudimanesh, Mojtaba; Khameneie, Maryam Khayyat

2014-01-01

144

The dynamics of heat shock system activation in Monomac-6 cells upon Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Immune system cells, particularly phagocytes, are exposed to direct contact with pathogens. Because of its nature - elimination of pathogenes - their cytoprotective systems supposed to be quick and forceful. Physiological consequence of phagocytosis for the phagocyte is the apoptotic death to prevent the eventual survival of bacteria as intracellular parasites. However, in some cases, defense systems used by the bacteria force the immune cells to prolong the contact with the pathogen for its effective elimination. Experiments were performed on Monomac-6 cells exposed to live CagA, VacA expressing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) over different period of time. Total cellular RNA, cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were isolated for polymerase chain reaction, Western-blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. We found that Monomac-6 cells infection with H. pylori resulted in the translocation of the entire cellular content of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the cytoplasm, where its presence could protect cell against toxic products of engulfed bacteria and premature apoptosis. At the same time the nuclear translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and activation of HSP70 gene transcription was noticed. Action of HSP70 might to postpone monocyte apoptosis through protecting cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins from damaging effect of bacterial products, what could be the defending mechanism against the toxic stress caused by engulfed bacteria and provide the immune cell with the sufficient amount of time required for neutralization of the bacteria from phagosomes, even at the expense of temporary lack of the protection of nuclear proteins. PMID:25554983

Pierzchalski, P; Jastrzebska, M; Link-Lenczowski, P; Leja-Szpak, A; Bonior, J; Jaworek, J; Okon, K; Wojcik, P

2014-12-01

145

Analysis of Surface-Exposed Outer Membrane Proteins in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

More than 50 Helicobacter pylori genes are predicted to encode outer membrane proteins (OMPs), but there has been relatively little experimental investigation of the H. pylori cell surface proteome. In this study, we used selective biotinylation to label proteins localized to the surface of H. pylori, along with differential detergent extraction procedures to isolate proteins localized to the outer membrane. Proteins that met multiple criteria for surface-exposed outer membrane localization included known adhesins, as well as Cag proteins required for activity of the cag type IV secretion system, putative lipoproteins, and other proteins not previously recognized as cell surface components. We identified sites of nontryptic cleavage consistent with signal sequence cleavage, as well as C-terminal motifs that may be important for protein localization. A subset of surface-exposed proteins were highly susceptible to proteolysis when intact bacteria were treated with proteinase K. Most Hop and Hom OMPs were susceptible to proteolysis, whereas Hor and Hof proteins were relatively resistant. Most of the protease-susceptible OMPs contain a large protease-susceptible extracellular domain exported beyond the outer membrane and a protease-resistant domain at the C terminus with a predicted ?-barrel structure. These features suggest that, similar to the secretion of the VacA passenger domain, the N-terminal domains of protease-susceptible OMPs are exported through an autotransporter pathway. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the repertoire of surface-exposed H. pylori proteins that may mediate bacterium-host interactions, as well as the cell surface topology of these proteins. PMID:24769695

Voss, Bradley J.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; McDonald, W. Hayes

2014-01-01

146

Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger  

PubMed Central

Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5–6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, ?-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Berg, Douglas E.; Backert, Steffen

2013-01-01

147

Phylogeographic Origin of Helicobacter pylori Is a Determinant of Gastric Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Helicobacter pylori colonises the stomach in half of all humans, and is the principal cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While gastric cancer rates correlate with H. pylori prevalence in some areas, there are regions where infection is nearly universal, but rates of gastric cancer are low. In the case of Colombia, there is a 25-fold increase in gastric cancer rate in the Andean mountain (high risk) region compared to the coastal (low risk) region, despite similarly high (~90%) H. pylori prevalence in the two locations. Our aim was to investigate the ancestral origin of H. pylori strains isolated from subjects in these high and low risk regions and to determine whether this is a predictive determinant of precancerous lesions. Methods Multi-locus sequence typing was used to investigate phylogeographic origins of infecting H. pylori strains isolated from subjects in the Pacific coast and Andean mountains in the state of Nariño, Colombia. We analysed 64 subjects infected with cagA+ vacA s1m1 strains. Gastric biopsy slides from each individual were scored for histologic lesions and evaluated for DNA damage by immunohistochemistry. Results We show that strains from the high risk region were all of European phylogeographic origin, whereas those from the low risk region were of either European (34%) or African origin (66%). European strain origin was strongly predictive of increased premalignant histologic lesions and epithelial DNA damage, even in the low risk region; African strain origin was associated with reduced severity of these parameters. Conclusion The phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains provides an explanation for geographic differences in cancer risk deriving from this infection. PMID:21357593

de Sablet, Thibaut; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Schneider, Barbara G.; Asim, Mohammad; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Bravo, Luis E.; Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Mera, Robertino M.; Israel, Dawn A.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Cover, Timothy L.; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T.

2011-01-01

148

Association between Virulence Factors and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL Expression in Gastric Mucosa Infected with Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Objective. CagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ Helicobacter pylori upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (4-1BB), and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) in human gastric epithelial cells. We investigated the correlation between cagA/vacAs1/vacAm1 and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in gastric mucosal tissue of patients with gastric disorders. Methods. We collected gastric mucosa samples from 35 chronic, nonatrophic gastritis (CG) patients, 41 atrophic gastritis patients, 44 intestinal metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia (IM) patients, and 28 gastric carcinoma (Ca) patients. The expression of??TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was determined using western blotting. The expression of cagA, vacAs1, and vacAm1 in H. pylori was examined with polymerase chain reaction. Results. The expression of TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was significantly upregulated in IM and Ca patients (P < 0.05 compared with CG). There were more cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection in samples with elevated TRAF1, 4-1BB, or Bcl-xL expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, there were a remarkably large number of samples with upregulated TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection (44 cases, 67.7%; P < 0.05). Conclusions. The pathogenesis of IM and Ca may be promoted by cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori, possibly via upregulated TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL in gastric mucosal tissue. PMID:25737718

Wang, Fen; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Zhiying; Bu, Guangkui; Li, Xiayu; Qu, Nanfang; Peng, Jin; Xu, Canxia; Shen, Shourong; Yuan, Yi

2015-01-01

149

Phase Variation in the Helicobacter pylori Phospholipase A Gene and Its Role in Acid Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that Helicobacter pylori can spontaneously and reversibly change its membrane lipid composition, producing variants with low or high content of lysophospholipids. The “lyso” variant contains a high percentage of lysophospholipids, adheres better to epithelial cells, and releases more proteins such as urease and VacA, compared to the “normal” variant, which has a low content of lysophospholipids. Prolonged growth of the normal variant at pH 3.5, but not under neutral conditions, leads to enrichment of lyso variant colonies, suggesting that the colony switch is relevant to acid adaptation. In this study we show that the change in membrane lipid composition is due to phase variation in the pldA gene. A change in the (C) tract length of this gene results in reversible frameshifts, translation of a full-length or truncated pldA, and the production of active or inactive outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA). The role of OMPLA in determining the colony morphology was confirmed by the construction of an OMPLA-negative mutant. Furthermore, variants with an active OMPLA were able to survive acidic conditions better than variants with the inactive form. This explains why the lyso variant is selected at low pH. Our studies demonstrate that phase variation in the pldA gene, resulting in an active form of OMPLA, is important for survival under acidic conditions. We also demonstrated the active OMPLA genotype in fresh isolates of H. pylori from patients referred to gastroscopy for dyspepsia. PMID:11705905

Tannæs, Tone; Dekker, Niek; Bukholm, Geir; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Appelmelk, Ben J.

2001-01-01

150

The design of vaccines against Helicobacter pylori and their development.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative, spiral, microaerophylic bacterium that infects the stomach of more than 50% of the human population worldwide. It is mostly acquired during childhood and, if not treated, persists chronically, causing chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and in some individuals, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric B cell lymphoma. The current therapy, based on the use of a proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotics, is efficacious but faces problems such as patient compliance, antibiotic resistance, and possible recurrence of infection. The development of an efficacious vaccine against H. pylori would thus offer several advantages. Various approaches have been followed in the development of vaccines against H. pylori, most of which have been based on the use of selected antigens known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the infection, such as urease, the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA), the neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), and others, and intended to confer protection prophylactically and/or therapeutically in animal models of infection. However, very little is known of the natural history of H. pylori infection and of the kinetics of the induced immune responses. Several lines of evidence suggest that H. pylori infection is accompanied by a pronounced Th1-type CD4(+) T cell response. It appears, however, that after immunization, the antigen-specific response is predominantly polarized toward a Th2-type response, with production of cytokines that can inhibit the activation of Th1 cells and of macrophages, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The exact effector mechanisms of protection induced after immunization are still poorly understood. The next couple of years will be crucial for the development of vaccines against H. pylori. Several trials are foreseen in humans, and expectations are that most of the questions being asked now on the host-microbe interactions will be answered. PMID:11244046

Del Giudice, G; Covacci, A; Telford, J L; Montecucco, C; Rappuoli, R

2001-01-01

151

Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the association of genotypes and gastroduodenal diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known as a major etiologic factor for a variety of gastroduodenal diseases. In Iran, with a high rate of H. pylori infection close to 90%, numerous studies have revealed many aspects of interaction between the bacterium, mucosal surface and induction of disease outcome. The organism is genetically diverse and several virulence factors are attributed to the more virulent strains. The well-characterized virulence factors of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin gene A. The distribution pattern of H. pylori genotypes and its association with disease status varies geographically. The present review focused on the virulence factors and genotyping of H. pylori in relation to gastroduodenal disorders in different regions of Iran. Methods: In total, 398 studies were reported on different aspects related to H. pylori in our electronic search from 1995-2011. H. pylori infection and its virulence factors in association with disease status were investigated in 159 reports. Looking specifically at the gastrointestinal tract disorders, the most relevant reports including 37 papers were selected. Results: We found no correlation of cagA genotype and disease status in the majority of studies, whereas vacA was demonstrated as a useful marker in predicting the disease outcome. The results of reports on other virulence factors of H. pylori such as blood group antigen-binding adhesion gene A, the induced by contact with epithelium gene A, the outer inflammatory protein A, the duodenal ulcer promoting gene A, and Helicobacter outer membrane gene and their relation with disease status were contradictory. Conclusions: Although different markers of H. pylori were emphasized as useful when predicting disease outcomes in some studies, the inconsistent researches and the scarcity of data made any conclusion or even comparison impossible. Considering the gap of information observed during our search relating to genotyping and other aspects of H. pylori infection, further investigations are suggested. PMID:23267382

Hosseini, Elham; Poursina, Farkhondeh; de Wiele, Tom Van; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian; Adibi, Peyman

2012-01-01

152

A Novel Line Immunoassay Based on Recombinant Virulence Factors Enables Highly Specific and Sensitive Serologic Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world's population, and infection can lead to ulcers, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Serology is the only test applicable for large-scale, population-based screening, but current tests are hampered by a lack of sensitivity and/or specificity. Also, no serologic test allows the differentiation of type I and type II strains, which is important for predicting the clinical outcome. H. pylori virulence factors have been associated with disease, but direct assessment of virulence factors requires invasive methods to obtain gastric biopsy specimens. Our work aimed at the development of a highly sensitive and specific, noninvasive serologic test to detect immune responses to important H. pylori virulence factors. This line immunoassay system (recomLine) is based on recombinant proteins. For this assay, six highly immunogenic virulence factors (CagA, VacA, GroEL, gGT, HcpC, and UreA) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and immobilized to nitrocellulose membranes to detect serological immune responses in patient's sera. For the validation of the line assay, a cohort of 500 patients was screened, of which 290 (58.0%) were H. pylori negative and 210 (42.0%) were positive by histology. The assay showed sensitivity and specificity of 97.6% and 96.2%, respectively, compared to histology. In direct comparison to lysate blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the recomLine assay had increased discriminatory power. For the assessment of individual risk for gastrointestinal disease, the test must be validated in a larger and defined patient cohort. Taking the data together, the recomLine assay provides a valuable tool for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. PMID:24006137

Formichella, Luca; Romberg, Laura; Bolz, Christian; Vieth, Michael; Geppert, Michael; Göttner, Gereon; Nölting, Christina; Walter, Dirk; Schepp, Wolfgang; Schneider, Arne; Ulm, Kurt; Wolf, Petra; Busch, Dirk H.; Soutschek, Erwin

2013-01-01

153

Helicobacter hepaticus, a new pathogenic species of the Helicobacter genus: Similarities and differences with H. pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter hepaticus was discovered in 1992 as a cause of liver cancer in the A/JCr mouse model. In susceptible mice, infection by H. hepaticus causes chronic gastrointestinal inflammation leading to neoplasia. It can also cause morphological changes in breast-glands leading to neoplasm and adenocarcinoma in mouse models. Studies performed on humans have revealed that H. hepaticus may also be a human pathogen since infection by H. hepaticus can be associated with cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer. H. hepaticus is a close relative of H. pylori, but it lacks the major virulence factors of H. pylori including vacoulating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin associated gene (cagA). Moreover, SabA, AlpA, and BabA, three important adhesin proteins of H. pylori, are absent in its genome. In contrast, the genome of H. hepaticus contains genes encoding some orthologus virulence factors of Campylobacter jejuni such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), and PebI adhesin factor. Other genes including 16S rRNA, 18 KDa immunogenic protein, and urease structural subunits are related to H. pylori. Its genome contains a small island consisting of 71 Kbp named HHGI1, which probably encodes a secretion system type IV (T4SS), and some other virulence factors. As far as the immunogenic antigens are concerned, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin of H. hepaticus are weak stimulants of the immune system, while pro-inflammatory responses are mainly induced by its lipoproteins and most likely by the peptidoglycan. Concerning the multidrug efflux pumps, a homologue of H. pylori TolC, HefA, has been observed in H. hepaticus which contributes to resistance to amoxicillin and bile acids. PMID:24475322

Falsafi, Tahereh; Mahboubi, Mohaddese

2013-01-01

154

Analysis of surface-exposed outer membrane proteins in Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

More than 50 Helicobacter pylori genes are predicted to encode outer membrane proteins (OMPs), but there has been relatively little experimental investigation of the H. pylori cell surface proteome. In this study, we used selective biotinylation to label proteins localized to the surface of H. pylori, along with differential detergent extraction procedures to isolate proteins localized to the outer membrane. Proteins that met multiple criteria for surface-exposed outer membrane localization included known adhesins, as well as Cag proteins required for activity of the cag type IV secretion system, putative lipoproteins, and other proteins not previously recognized as cell surface components. We identified sites of nontryptic cleavage consistent with signal sequence cleavage, as well as C-terminal motifs that may be important for protein localization. A subset of surface-exposed proteins were highly susceptible to proteolysis when intact bacteria were treated with proteinase K. Most Hop and Hom OMPs were susceptible to proteolysis, whereas Hor and Hof proteins were relatively resistant. Most of the protease-susceptible OMPs contain a large protease-susceptible extracellular domain exported beyond the outer membrane and a protease-resistant domain at the C terminus with a predicted ?-barrel structure. These features suggest that, similar to the secretion of the VacA passenger domain, the N-terminal domains of protease-susceptible OMPs are exported through an autotransporter pathway. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the repertoire of surface-exposed H. pylori proteins that may mediate bacterium-host interactions, as well as the cell surface topology of these proteins. PMID:24769695

Voss, Bradley J; Gaddy, Jennifer A; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

2014-07-01

155

Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

Soler-Lopez, L.R.

2012-01-01

156

Proteasome Particle-Rich Structures Are Widely Present in Human Epithelial Neoplasms: Correlative Light, Confocal and Electron Microscopy Study  

PubMed Central

A novel cytoplasmic structure has been recently characterized by confocal and electron microscopy in H. pylori-infected human gastric epithelium, as an accumulation of barrel-like proteasome reactive particles colocalized with polyubiquitinated proteins, H. pylori toxins and the NOD1 receptor. This proteasome particle-rich cytoplasmic structure (PaCS), a sort of focal proteasome hyperplasia, was also detected in dysplastic cells and was found to be enriched in SHP2 and ERK proteins, known to play a role in H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. However, no information is available on its occurrence in neoplastic growths. In this study, surgical specimens of gastric cancer and various other human epithelial neoplasms have been investigated for PaCSs by light, confocal and electron microscopy including correlative confocal and electron microscopy (CCEM). PaCSs were detected in gastric cohesive, pulmonary large cell and bronchioloalveolar, thyroid papillary, parotid gland, hepatocellular, ovarian serous papillary, uterine cervix and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as in pancreatic serous microcystic adenoma. H. pylori bodies, their virulence factors (VacA, CagA, urease, and outer membrane proteins) and the NOD1 bacterial proteoglycan receptor were selectively concentrated inside gastric cancer PaCSs, but not in PaCSs from other neoplasms which did, however, retain proteasome and polyubiquitinated proteins reactivity. No evidence of actual microbial infection was obtained in most PaCS-positive neoplasms, except for H. pylori in gastric cancer and capsulated bacteria in a colon cancer case. Particle lysis and loss of proteasome distinctive immunoreactivities were seen in some tumour cell PaCSs, possibly ending in sequestosomes or autophagic bodies. It is concluded that PaCSs are widely represented in human neoplasms and that both non-infectious and infectious factors activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system are likely to be involved in their origin. PaCS detection might help clarify the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in carcinogenesis. PMID:21695063

Vanoli, Alessandro; Manca, Rachele; Ricci, Vittorio; Solcia, Enrico

2011-01-01

157

Proteasome particle-rich structures are widely present in human epithelial neoplasms: correlative light, confocal and electron microscopy study.  

PubMed

A novel cytoplasmic structure has been recently characterized by confocal and electron microscopy in H. pylori-infected human gastric epithelium, as an accumulation of barrel-like proteasome reactive particles colocalized with polyubiquitinated proteins, H. pylori toxins and the NOD1 receptor. This proteasome particle-rich cytoplasmic structure (PaCS), a sort of focal proteasome hyperplasia, was also detected in dysplastic cells and was found to be enriched in SHP2 and ERK proteins, known to play a role in H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. However, no information is available on its occurrence in neoplastic growths. In this study, surgical specimens of gastric cancer and various other human epithelial neoplasms have been investigated for PaCSs by light, confocal and electron microscopy including correlative confocal and electron microscopy (CCEM). PaCSs were detected in gastric cohesive, pulmonary large cell and bronchioloalveolar, thyroid papillary, parotid gland, hepatocellular, ovarian serous papillary, uterine cervix and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as in pancreatic serous microcystic adenoma. H. pylori bodies, their virulence factors (VacA, CagA, urease, and outer membrane proteins) and the NOD1 bacterial proteoglycan receptor were selectively concentrated inside gastric cancer PaCSs, but not in PaCSs from other neoplasms which did, however, retain proteasome and polyubiquitinated proteins reactivity. No evidence of actual microbial infection was obtained in most PaCS-positive neoplasms, except for H. pylori in gastric cancer and capsulated bacteria in a colon cancer case. Particle lysis and loss of proteasome distinctive immunoreactivities were seen in some tumour cell PaCSs, possibly ending in sequestosomes or autophagic bodies. It is concluded that PaCSs are widely represented in human neoplasms and that both non-infectious and infectious factors activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system are likely to be involved in their origin. PaCS detection might help clarify the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in carcinogenesis. PMID:21695063

Necchi, Vittorio; Sommi, Patrizia; Vanoli, Alessandro; Manca, Rachele; Ricci, Vittorio; Solcia, Enrico

2011-01-01

158

Comparative Genomics of a Helicobacter pylori Isolate from a Chinese Yunnan Naxi Ethnic Aborigine Suggests High Genetic Divergence and Phage Insertion.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen correlated with several severe digestive diseases. It has been reported that isolates associated with different geographic areas, different diseases and different individuals might have variable genomic features. Here, we describe draft genomic sequences of H. pylori strains YN4-84 and YN1-91 isolated from patients with gastritis from the Naxi and Han populations of Yunnan, China, respectively. The draft sequences were compared to 45 other publically available genomes, and a total of 1059 core genes were identified. Genes involved in restriction modification systems, type four secretion system three (TFS3) and type four secretion system four (TFS4), were identified as highly divergent. Both YN4-84 and YN1-91 harbor intact cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and have EPIYA-A/B/D type at the carboxyl terminal of cagA. The vacA gene type is s1m2i1. Another major finding was a 32.5-kb prophage integrated in the YN4-84 genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (30/33) with Helicobacter pylori prophage KHP30. Moreover, a 1,886 bp transposable sequence (IS605) was found in the prophage. Our results imply that the Naxi ethnic minority isolate YN4-84 and Han isolate YN1-91 belong to the hspEAsia subgroup and have diverse genome structure. The genome has been extensively modified in several regions involved in horizontal DNA transfer. The important roles played by phages in the ecology and microevolution of H. pylori were further emphasized. The current data will provide valuable information regarding the H. pylori genome based on historic human migrations and population structure. PMID:25799515

You, Yuanhai; He, Lihua; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

2015-01-01

159

Phase variation in the Helicobacter pylori phospholipase A gene and its role in acid adaptation.  

PubMed

Previously, we have shown that Helicobacter pylori can spontaneously and reversibly change its membrane lipid composition, producing variants with low or high content of lysophospholipids. The "lyso" variant contains a high percentage of lysophospholipids, adheres better to epithelial cells, and releases more proteins such as urease and VacA, compared to the "normal" variant, which has a low content of lysophospholipids. Prolonged growth of the normal variant at pH 3.5, but not under neutral conditions, leads to enrichment of lyso variant colonies, suggesting that the colony switch is relevant to acid adaptation. In this study we show that the change in membrane lipid composition is due to phase variation in the pldA gene. A change in the (C) tract length of this gene results in reversible frameshifts, translation of a full-length or truncated pldA, and the production of active or inactive outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA). The role of OMPLA in determining the colony morphology was confirmed by the construction of an OMPLA-negative mutant. Furthermore, variants with an active OMPLA were able to survive acidic conditions better than variants with the inactive form. This explains why the lyso variant is selected at low pH. Our studies demonstrate that phase variation in the pldA gene, resulting in an active form of OMPLA, is important for survival under acidic conditions. We also demonstrated the active OMPLA genotype in fresh isolates of H. pylori from patients referred to gastroscopy for dyspepsia. PMID:11705905

Tannaes, T; Dekker, N; Bukholm, G; Bijlsma, J J; Appelmelk, B J

2001-12-01

160

Review: Prospects for the Use of Extracts and Polysaccharides from Marine Algae to Prevent and Treat the Diseases Caused by Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H. pylori. In recent years, fucoidans have been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes the data on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H. pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H. pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H. pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H. pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of H. pylori infection. PMID:25660579

Besednova, Natalya N; Zaporozhets, Tatyana S; Somova, Larisa M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A

2015-04-01

161

Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geodetic network which spans the region between San Francisco and Lake Tahoe has been measured 5 times completely with triangulation in 1880, 1922, 1929, 1943, 1963. A resurvey with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in 1991 allows the formation of 1 coseismic and 4 interseismic epochs. The data from this network provide a unique opportunity to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the strain field associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake in particular and with the Pacific-North American plate boundary in general. Calculations of strain rate from the network data lead to the following conclusions. (1) There is no resolvable (greater than 0.05 microradians/yr) strain in between Sutter Buttes and the Sierra Nevada. (2) Throughout the time since the 1906 earthquake, a region extending at least as far east as the westernmost Great Valley has been undergoing deformation related to Pac:Nam interaction and the associated earthquake cycle. (3) In the time and space of overlap, our results agree with those from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) trilateration data. Both data sets indicate that strain must be accumulating to the east of Vaca. (4) The San Andreas discrepancy cannot be accommodated in the Great Valley at the 1 sigma level of our results. It is possible to absorb it in that region at the 2 sigma level. (5) Strain rate is elevated in the years following the earthquake and decays slowly with time. It is possible that the rate in the Coast Ranges increases until around 1950 and then decays. With the exception of one epoch, strain rate in the Coast Ranges is consistently fault parallel, shows no sign changes, and is consistent with monotonic strain accumulation.

Beavan, John; Gilbert, Lewis E.; Scholz, Chris

1992-01-01

162

Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites: Implications for endogenous igneous processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have analyzed thirteen igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation and combined these data with literature data for forty-three analyzed mesosiderite clasts. They classify these well-characterized clasts into the following five principal groups: (1) Polygenic and monogenic cumulates (39%) are coarse-grained gabbros that are highly depleted in incompatible elements (relative to H chondrites); they formed at moderate depth either as residues of low-degree partial melting of pre-existing cumulate eucrites or as cumulates from parent melts similar to cumulate eucrites. (2) Polygenic basalts (30%) are finer-grained rocks with positive europium anomalies, La/Lu ratios < 1, and lower rare earth element abundances than basaltic eucrites. It seems likely that these rocks were formed near their parent body surface by remelting mixtures of major amounts of basaltic eucrites and lesser amounts of cumulate eucrites. (3) Quench-textured rocks comprise two compositional groups, (a) those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5%), and (b) those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2%). The quench-textured rocks are probably monogenic; they formed most likely when small-scale impacts at their parent body surface totally melted small amounts of basaltic or cumulate eucrite material. (4) Monogenic basalts (11%) resemble basaltic eucrites and formed by endogenous igneous processes on the mesosiderite parent body (MPB). (5) Ultramafic rocks are cumulates consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9%) or olivine (4%). Orthopyroxenite clasts closely resemble diogenites and were formed most likely by endogenous igneous processes.

Rubin, A.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Mittlefehldt, D.W. (Lockheed Engineering and Science Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-02-01

163

Abundâncias químicas de estrelas T Tauri fracas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos resultados do estudo de 44 estrelas pré-seqüência principal, para as quais buscamos realizar uma classificação espectroscópica e determinar parâmetros estelares e abundâncias químicas. A amostra foi escolhida da seguinte maneira : 21 objetos selecionados a partir de catálogos de objetos jovens, como o Pico dos Dias Survey e o Herbig Bell Catalogue, e 23 objetos selecionados a partir de contrapartidas ópticas de fontes de raios X detectadas pelo satélite ROSAT. Dentre 24 objetos previamente classificados como estrelas T Tauri Fracas, apenas 7 revelaram ser realmente pertencentes à essa classe, sendo os demais objetos T Tauri Clássicas ou estrelas evoluídas da pré-seqüência principal. Esse resultado demonstra que o critério mais utilizado para distinguir as T Tauri Clássicas das T Tauri Fracas, baseado na largura equivelente da emissão Ha, não é suficiente para determinar o estágio evolutivo desses objetos. Para o cálculo de parâmetros estelares e abundâncias, foram escolhidas as estrelas que apresentam características ideais para esse tipo de estudo, como ausência de velamento, baixa velocidade de rotação e espectros com razão sinal-ruído adequada. Os parâmetros estelares como temperatura efetiva e gravidade foram determinados através do equilíbrio de excitação e ionização das linhas de Ferro, e as abundâncias químicas foram calculadas utilizando o método de síntese espectral. Serão apresentados os parâmetros estelares e as abundâncias de Lítio para toda a amostra, e abundâncias de vários elementos quimicos para 7 estrelas estudadas em maior detalhe

Rojas, G. A.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.

2003-08-01

164

Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30–31°S. PMID:25334020

Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

2014-01-01

165

Genetic diversity in the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island and effect on expression of anti-CagA serum antibody in UK patients with dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Aims—To investigate variation within the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients with dyspepsia in mid-Essex, and to evaluate the effect on expression of anti-CagA antibody. Methods—Sixty two isolates of H pylori cultured from gastric biopsies were screened by specific PCR assays for the presence of cagA and other gene markers (cagD and cagE, and virD4) in the cag PAI. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Viva Diagnostica helicobacter p120) was used to test for anti-CagA IgG antibody in matching sera. Isolates were also genotyped by vacuolating cytotoxin polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and tested for absence of the complete cag PAI (empty site PCR assay). Results—Forty one of the H pylori isolates had a cag PAI containing cagA. One strain had no cagA but other cag PAI loci were present, whereas the remaining 20 strains had no detectable cag PAI markers. Anti-CagA IgG antibody was detected in 34 sera by the ELISA assay, and when compared with the cag PAI genotype of the infecting strain, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 92%, 87%, and 100%, respectively. The seven discrepant or borderline strains in the ELISA were all vacA s1 but differed in other genotypic markers. Conclusions—The cag PAI was widely distributed in H pylori from patients with dyspepsia in mid-Essex who had different gastric pathologies. Infection with a strain having an uninterrupted cag PAI was associated with the presence of anti-CagA antibody in most patients. Discrepant ELISA results, mostly for elderly patients with duodenal ulcers, were attributed to cagA associated variation, particularly to the presence of mixed cagA+/cagA- cell variants in the infecting strain population. Tests for anti-CagA serum antibody were unreliable for predicting severity of clinical disease associated with H pylori infection in this series of patients. Key Words: Helicobacter pylori • cagA • cag pathogenicity island • CagA antibody assay PMID:11253135

Peters, T; Owen, R; Slater, E; Varea, R; Teare, E; Saverymuttu, S

2001-01-01

166

Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility: a petrofrabric tool for understanding mechanisms of fold and thrust belt evolution. Application in Malargüe FTB, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fold and thrust belts (FTB), sedimentary beds are folded and faulted but rocks do not always show evidence of strong internal deformation. Nevertheless, several studies have demonstrated that a weak internal deformation (layer parallel shortening) can be recorded at the matrix scale before any macroscopic deformation. The Anisotropy of Magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides information about the preferred orientation of billions of magnetic minerals. It enables the definition of a magnetic fabric, which may be visualized as an ellipsoid with principal axes K1 ? K2 ? K3. Basic elements of a magnetic fabric are the magnetic foliation (K1-K2 plane) and the magnetic lineation (K1 axe), when they are statistically defined. Both are related to strain-controlled petrofrabric. The Neuquén Basin is a wide intracratonic sag basin with complex and polyphased/diachronic evolution. The Pacific subduction and south Atlantic opening were the mechanisms controlling the large scale geodynamic framework. By late Triassic times, continental scale extension initiated fault-related narrow rift depocenters which later evolved toward a sag basin from middle Jurassic to upper Cretaceous. At that time, the basin started to record the compressive stress regime from the Pacific subduction. Three pulses of compressive deformation (Cretaceous, Paleogene and Miocene) are recorded in this retro-arc foreland setting. Approximately 300 samples have been collected from 30 sites in terrigenous rocks located along three cross sections from foothills to uplifted foreland area in Malargüe FTB. We mainly sample Kimmeridgian red beds of the Tordillo formation, Tithonian shales from the Vaca Muerta Fm, and late cretaceous red beds of the Neuquén Group. AMS fabrics are used as a proxy to measure accumulated microscopic finite strain and compares it with mesoscale (fractures) and macroscale structures (faults, folds…). This multi-scaled approach helps in defining a kinematic scenario for Malargüe FTB evolution by classifying magnetic fabrics related either to (1) sedimentary processes or (2) pre-folding layer parallel shortening (LPS) or (3) syn-folding kinematics depending on folding mode. Propagation of deformation in this case is neither uniform nor gradual. Therefore Malargüe FTB cannot be defined as a classical critical wedge; On the contrary extensional inheritance exerts a strong influence in localization of compressive deformation (LPS).

Branellec, Matthieu; Callot, Jean Paul; Aubourg, Charles; Nivière, Bertrand; Ringenbach, Jean Claude

2013-04-01

167

Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30-31°S. PMID:25334020

Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

2014-01-01

168

Paleogene and Neogene magmatism in the Valle del Cura region: New perspective on the evolution of the Pampean flat slab, San Juan province, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Valle del Cura region is characterized by a thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence that records the Tertiary arc and backarc magmatic evolution of the Argentine Main Cordillera over the modern Pampean flatslab at 29.5-30°S. During the Eocene, a retroarc basin developed, represented by the Valle del Cura Formation synorogenic volcanosedimentary sequence, which includes rhyolites and dacitic tuffs. These silicic volcanic rocks have weak arc chemical signatures and high lithophile element concentrations and are isotopically enriched relative to the late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks that followed them. Their chemical characteristics fit with eruption through a thin crust. The Valle de Cura Formation was followed by the Oligocene-early Miocene Doña Ana Group volcanic sequence, which erupted at and near the arc front west of the border with Chile. The Doña Ana Group volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline chemical characteristics consistent with parental magmas forming in a mantle wedge and erupting through a normal thickness crust (35 km). Subsequent shallowing of the downgoing Nazca plate caused the volcanic front to migrate eastward. The volcanic sequences of the middle Miocene Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation erupted at this new arc front, essentially at the Argentine border. Two stages are recognized: an older one (16-14 Ma) in which magmas appear to have erupted through a normal thickness crust (30-35 km) and a younger one (13-10 Ma) in which the steeper REE pattern suggests the magmas last equilibrated with higher pressure residual mineral assemblages in a thicker crust. Isotopic ratios in the younger group are consistent with an increase in original crustal components and crust introduced into the mantle source by forearc subduction erosion. A peak in forearc subduction erosion near 12-10 Ma is consistent with when the main part of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct beneath the region. In addition to late Miocene Tambo Formation dacitic ignimbrites, the younger Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation volcanic rocks erupted at the height of contractional deformation in the Valle del Cura and to the east. The last important volcanic sequence to erupt in the Valle del Cura is the late Miocene Vacas Heladas Ignimbrite, the most isotopically enriched Tertiary magmas in the Valle del Cura that contain the highest proportion of crustal components. Subsequently volcanism ceased in the region in response to shallowing of the subduction zone.

Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

2007-09-01

169

Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix  

PubMed Central

Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

2014-01-01

170

Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de corriente no circulares perturba significativamente el movimiento de las partículas alrededor del Sol e incrementa su vida media en la Nebulosa. El flujo medio del gas se modela de forma simple, analizándose la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas mediante simulaciones numéricas. Al incrementarse la vida media y la densidad superficial de las partículas sólidas, los mecanismos de confinamiento derivados de la presencia de vórtices y ondas espirales actuan sobre el material sólido de la Nebulosa (mediante agregación colisional o inestabilidades gravitacionales) de manera mucho más eficiente que la previamente considerada. Esto ofrece nuevas posibilidades para la formación de planetesimales y núcleos de planetas gigantes, y puede explicar la formación rápida de planetas extrasolares gigantes. Además, esta Tesis analiza la respuesta de las partículas, en un disco protoplanetario con un radio de 100 UA en torno a una estrella de tipo solar, al campo gravitatorio derivado de la presencia de dos estrellas compañeras ligadas en una órbita relativamente elongada (300-1600 UA). Para llevar a cabo este análisis, se han realizado una serie de simulaciones numéricas de configuraciones jerárquicas coplanares utilizando un programa FORTRAN que integra directamente las ecuaciones del movimiento con el objeto de modelar la presencia de las fuerzas gravitacionales y viscosas. El disco protoplanetario masivo se encuentra en torno a una de las componentes de la binaria. La evolución temporal del subdisco de polvo depende directamente de la naturaleza (directa o retrógrada) de la revolución relativa de la compañera estelar, y de la temperatura y la masa del disco circunestelar.

de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

2001-06-01

171

Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved mathematical hydrodynamic quasi-two-dimensional model of cells, CELSUB3, is presented for simulating drainage systems that consist of pumping well fields or subsurface drains. The CELSUB3 model is composed of an assemblage of algorithms that have been developed and tested previously and that simulate saturated flow in porous media, closed conduit flow, and flow through pumping stations. A new type of link between aquifer cells and drainage conduits is proposed. This link is verified in simple problems with well known analytical solutions. The correlation between results from analytical and mathematical solutions was considered satisfactory in all cases. To simulate more complex situations, the new proposed version, CELSUB3, was applied in a project designed to control the water-table level within a sewer system in Chañar Ladeado Town, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Alternative drainage designs, which were evaluated under conditions of dynamic recharge caused by rainfall in a critical year (wettest year for the period of record) and a typical year, are briefly described. After analyzing ten alternative designs, the best technical-economic solution is a subsurface drainage system of closed conduits with pumping stations and evacuation channels. Résumé. Un modèle hydrodynamique perfectionné de cellules en quasi 2D, CELSUB3, est présenté dans le but de simuler des systèmes de drainage qui consistent en des champs de puits de pompage ou de drains souterrains. Le modèle CELSUB3 est composé d'un assemblage d'algorithmes développés et testés précédemment et qui simulent des écoulements en milieu poreux saturé, en conduites et dans des stations de pompage. Un nouveau type de lien entre des cellules d'aquifères et des drains est proposé. Ce lien est vérifié dans des problèmes simples dont les solutions analytiques sont bien connues. La corrélation entre les résultats des solutions analytiques et des solutions mathématiques a été considérée comme satisfaisante dans tous les cas. Afin de simuler des situations plus complexes, la nouvelle version proposée, CELSUB3, a été mise en œuvre dans un projet destiné à contrôler le niveau de la nappe à l'intérieur d'un système d'égouts, dans la ville de Chaar Ladeado (province de Santa Fe, Argentine). Différentes organisations du projet de drainage, qui ont été testées pour des conditions de recharge dynamique causées par la pluie au cours d'une année critique (la plus humide de la chronique disponible) et une année typique, sont brièvement décrites. Après analyse de dix organisations différentes, la meilleure solution technico-économique retenue est un système de drainage souterrain de conduites avec des stations de pompage et des canaux d'évacuation. Resumen. Se presenta un modelo matemático hidrodinámico cuasi-bidimensional de celdas, CELSUB3, apto para la simulación integral de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo basados en campos de bombeo o drenes subsuperficiales. El modelo de simulación presenta un ensamble de algoritmos, previamente desarrollados y testeados, que representan al escurrimiento a través del medio poroso saturado, escurrimiento en conducciones cerradas, estaciones de bombeo, etc. En la estructura del modelo se propone un nuevo tipo de vinculación entre celdas acuíferas y conductos de drenaje, la cual es verificada en problemas simples con solución analítica conocida arrojando, en todos los casos, resultados satisfactorios. Abordando situaciones más complejas, la nueva versión propuesta fue aplicada en un proyecto de control de niveles freáticos que acompaña un sistema de conductos cloacales, en la localidad de Chañar Ladeado, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen las alternativas de drenaje consideradas las cuales fueron evaluadas bajo recargas dinámicas provocadas por años críticamente lluviosos y en situaciones típicas. Los resultados derivados permitieron definir, tras analizar una decena de proyectos alternativos, la mejor solución técnico-económica consistente en un sistema de drenes subte

Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo

2000-08-01

172

Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux sont grossièrement caractérisés par des différentes gammes de résistivitéélectrique se recouvrant, dépendant surtout de la teneur en argiles et du degré de cimentation. Les résistivités près de la côte diminuent du fait de l'intrusion marine. Ces variations de résistivité ont été cartographiées à partir de 400km de profils électromagnétiques, dans le domaine temporel ; trois zones ont été distinguées dans l'aquifère alluvial. Le biseau salé a aussi été délimité, jusqu'à 10km de la côte. L'épaisseur de la partie saturée des graviers va de 20-160m sur une étendue supérieure à 600km2. Resumen Un tercio de la población de Omán depende de las aguas subterráneas extraídas del aluvial de la Llanura de Batinah, en la costa del Golfo de Omán. Para determinar la profundidad y naturaleza del aluvial, así como los límites del acuífero, se han usado técnicas de exploración geofísica profunda. El basamento y los límites estructurales del aluvial en su contacto con los sedimentos marinos del Terciario y la ofiolita cretácica se obtuvieron mediante sísmica de reflexión, registrada previamente en campañas de exploración petrolífera. La base del aluvial buza hacia el norte desde el pie de las Montañas del Norte de Omán, alcanzando una profundidad máxima de 2000m en la costa. Las distintas facies del aluvial están caracterizadas por rangos distintos, pero superpuestos, de resistividad eléctrica, dependiendo del contenido en arcillas y del grado de cementación. Las resistividades cerca de la costa se reducen por la intrusión salina. Estas variaciones de resistividad se obtuvieron con registros electromagnéticos a lo largo de un perfil de 400km, con el objetivo de distinguir las tres zonas del acuífero aluvial. También se pudo obtener la geometría de la cuña de intrusión, que llega hasta 10km de la costa. El espesor de las gravas saturadas que forman el acuífero oscila entre los 20-160m en un área superior a 600km2.

Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim