Science.gov

Sample records for vacas prenhes previamente

  1. Vaca Muerta mesosiderite strewnfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Holger; Canut de Bon, Claudio; Lindgren, Harri

    1992-06-01

    A field investigation is presented of the strewnfield of the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta, originally found in 1861. The area, 11.5 km long, 2.1 km wide, is located about 60 km southeast of Taltal, Chile, in the Atacama Desert. It has yielded 80 meteorites with a total mass exceeding 3782 kg. Most fragments were found in an undisturbed state, but some had been broken by prospectors. The present studies, in connection with historical records, indicate that the original mass of Vaca Muerta exceeded 6 metric tons. One impact feature, somewhat modified by man, consists of a 10.5-m diameter, 1.7-m deep hole, without an uplifted rim. Small masses were scattered up to 85 m from the hole.

  2. [Helicobacter pylori VacA up-regulates secretion of macrophages by transfection of VacA eukaryotic expression vector].

    PubMed

    Li, Cunyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zhijie; Yu, Minjun; Yu, Wen

    2008-03-01

    We constructed a recombinant plasmid containing the N-terminus gene of vacA gene of Helicobacter pylori and studied the effect of VacA on the secretion of macrophages as an individual virulence determinant. VacA gene amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from Helicobacter pylori was cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pDsRed-Monomer-C1. The recombinant plasmids were verified by restriction endonucleases analysis and nucleotide sequencing. Then the recombinant plasmids pDsRed-Monomer-C1/vacA were transfected into macrophages. Their expression in macrophages was examined by Western blot and fluorescence microscope. Vacuolated phenotype in macrophages was observed by electron microscopy and neutral red uptake. The cytokine content of TNF-alpha or IL-1beta in the culture medium was tested quantitatively with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, respectively. The effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, on the secretion of macrophages transfected with the recombinant plasmids, was also studied. Restriction endonucleases analysis and nucleotide sequencing showed that the eukaryotic expression recombinant pDsRed-Monomer-C1/vacA was successfully constructed. A clear vacuolated phenotype developed in some of macrophages transfected with the recombinant plasmids. VacA over-expressed increased the level of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. PDTC decreased the production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta induced by VacA. In conclusion, we have successfully constructed the eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding VacA. The over-expression of VacA fusion protein can up-regulate secretion of macrophages. Activation of NF-kappaB is probably involved in VacA induced cytokines production. PMID:18479062

  3. Isotopically Heavy and Heterogeneous C in Graphite of the Vaca Muerta Mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruoka, T.; Varela, M. E.; Kurat, G.; Zinner, E.

    2006-03-01

    We report on C-bearing Fe-Ni metal objects of Vaca Muerta and C isotopic ratios of graphite associated with the metal. Our results severely constrain the conditions prevailing during formation of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite.

  4. Diverse eucritic pebbles in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Jerde, Eric A.

    1987-01-01

    Seven 5-cm basaltic pebbles from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite were studied by neutron activation and electron microprobe analysis, and three additional pebbles were studied petrographically. The cumulate pebbles had low REE concentrations and high Eu/Sm ratios, indicating the absence of intercumulus liquid. Siderophile interelement ratios were similar to those found in Vaca Muerta metal except for anomalously low Ir concentrations. The presence of 20 percent impact-melt breccias among the pebbles and 35-40 percent melt breccias among the mesosiderite whole-rocks suggests that the mesosiderites were more extensively impact melted than the howardites. Three alternative models to explain this greater proportion of impact-melted material among the mesosiderites are proposed.

  5. Diverse eucritic pebbles in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Jerde, E. A.

    1987-06-01

    Seven 5-cm basaltic pebbles from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite were studied by neutron activation and electron microprobe analysis, and three additional pebbles were studied petrographically. The cumulate pebbles had low REE concentrations and high Eu/Sm ratios, indicating the absence of intercumulus liquid. Siderophile interelement ratios were similar to those found in Vaca Muerta metal except for anomalously low Ir concentrations. The presence of 20 percent impact-melt breccias among the pebbles and 35-40 percent melt breccias among the mesosiderite whole-rocks suggests that the mesosiderites were more extensively impact melted than the howardites. Three alternative models to explain this greater proportion of impact-melted material among the mesosiderites are proposed.

  6. Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes in Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma Patients from Macau, China.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Ferreira, Rui M; Batalha, Sellma; Hlaing, Thazin; Wong, Sio In; Carneiro, Fatima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major triggering factor for gastric carcinoma, but only a small proportion of infected patients develop this disease. Differences in virulence observed among H. pylori strains, namely in the vacuolating cytotoxin vacA gene, may contribute to this discrepancy. Infection with vacA s1, i1 and m1 strains increases the risk for progression of gastric premalignant lesions and for gastric carcinoma. However, in East Asian countries most of the H. pylori strains are vacA s1, regardless of the patients' clinical status, and the significance of the vacA i1 and m1 genotypes for gastric carcinoma in this geographic area remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in 290 patients from Macau, China. Using very sensitive and accurate genotyping methods, we detected infection with vacA i1 and with vacA m1 strains in, respectively, 85.2% and 52.6% of the patients that were infected with single genotypes. The prevalence of cagA-positive strains was 87.5%. No significant associations were observed between vacA genotypes or cagA and gastric carcinoma. It is worth noting that 37.5% of the infected patients had coexistence of H. pylori strains with different vacA genotypes. Additional studies directed to other H. pylori virulence factors should be performed to identify high risk patients in East Asia. PMID:27164143

  7. New Insights into VacA Intoxication Mediated through Its Cell Surface Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Hirayama, Toshiya; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces VacA, a vacuolating cytotoxin associated with gastric inflammation and ulceration. The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three proteins (i.e., RPTPα, RPTPβ, and LRP1) that serve as VacA receptors. These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-mediated disease. In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage. PMID:27187473

  8. Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes in Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma Patients from Macau, China

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Ferreira, Rui M.; Batalha, Sellma; Hlaing, Thazin; Wong, Sio In; Carneiro, Fatima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major triggering factor for gastric carcinoma, but only a small proportion of infected patients develop this disease. Differences in virulence observed among H. pylori strains, namely in the vacuolating cytotoxin vacA gene, may contribute to this discrepancy. Infection with vacA s1, i1 and m1 strains increases the risk for progression of gastric premalignant lesions and for gastric carcinoma. However, in East Asian countries most of the H. pylori strains are vacA s1, regardless of the patients’ clinical status, and the significance of the vacA i1 and m1 genotypes for gastric carcinoma in this geographic area remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in 290 patients from Macau, China. Using very sensitive and accurate genotyping methods, we detected infection with vacA i1 and with vacA m1 strains in, respectively, 85.2% and 52.6% of the patients that were infected with single genotypes. The prevalence of cagA-positive strains was 87.5%. No significant associations were observed between vacA genotypes or cagA and gastric carcinoma. It is worth noting that 37.5% of the infected patients had coexistence of H. pylori strains with different vacA genotypes. Additional studies directed to other H. pylori virulence factors should be performed to identify high risk patients in East Asia. PMID:27164143

  9. Helicobacter pylori VacA Subdomain Required for Intracellular Toxin Activity and Assembly of Functional Oligomeric Complexes▿

    PubMed Central

    Ivie, Susan E.; McClain, Mark S.; Torres, Victor J.; Algood, Holly M. Scott; Lacy, D. Borden; Yang, Rong; Blanke, Steven R.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA is a secreted pore-forming toxin that is comprised of two domains, designated p33 and p55. The p55 domain has an important role in the binding of VacA to eukaryotic cell surfaces. A total of 111 residues at the amino terminus of p55 (residues 312 to 422) are essential for the intracellular activity of VacA, which suggests that this region may constitute a subdomain with an activity distinct from cell binding. To investigate the properties of this subdomain, a small deletion mutation (targeting aspartic acid 346 and glycine 347) was introduced into the H. pylori chromosomal vacA gene. Similar to wild-type VacA, the VacA Δ346-347 mutant protein was proteolytically processed, secreted, and bound to eukaryotic cells. However, VacA Δ346-347 did not cause cell vacuolation or membrane depolarization, and it was impaired in the ability to assemble into large water-soluble oligomeric structures. Interestingly, VacA Δ346-347 was able to physically interact with wild-type VacA to form mixed oligomeric complexes, and VacA Δ346-347 inhibited wild-type vacuolating activity in a dominant-negative manner. These data indicate that the assembly of functional oligomeric VacA complexes is dependent on specific sequences, including amino acids 346 and 347, within the p55 amino-terminal subdomain. PMID:18443094

  10. Sphingomyelin Functions as a Novel Receptor for Helicobacter pylori VacA

    PubMed Central

    Kostolansky, Sean S.; Ballivian, Roberto A.; Eichberg, Joseph; Blanke, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori binds and enters epithelial cells, ultimately resulting in cellular vacuolation. Several host factors have been reported to be important for VacA function, but none of these have been demonstrated to be essential for toxin binding to the plasma membrane. Thus, the identity of cell surface receptors critical for both toxin binding and function has remained elusive. Here, we identify VacA as the first bacterial virulence factor that exploits the important plasma membrane sphingolipid, sphingomyelin (SM), as a cellular receptor. Depletion of plasma membrane SM with sphingomyelinase inhibited VacA-mediated vacuolation and significantly reduced the sensitivity of HeLa cells, as well as several other cell lines, to VacA. Further analysis revealed that SM is critical for VacA interactions with the plasma membrane. Restoring plasma membrane SM in cells previously depleted of SM was sufficient to rescue both toxin vacuolation activity and plasma membrane binding. VacA association with detergent-resistant membranes was inhibited in cells pretreated with SMase C, indicating the importance of SM for VacA association with lipid raft microdomains. Finally, VacA bound to SM in an in vitro ELISA assay in a manner competitively inhibited by lysenin, a known SM-binding protein. Our results suggest a model where VacA may exploit the capacity of SM to preferentially partition into lipid rafts in order to access the raft-associated cellular machinery previously shown to be required for toxin entry into host cells. PMID:18497859

  11. Structural Analysis of the Oligomeric States of Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Melissa G.; Pyburn, Tasia M.; González-Rivera, Christian; Collier, Scott E.; Eli, Ilyas; Yip, Calvin K.; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Lacy, D. Borden; Cover, Timothy L.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and contributes to peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori secretes a pore-forming exotoxin known as vacuolating toxin (VacA). VacA contains two distinct domains, designated p33 and p55, and assembles into large “snowflake”-shaped oligomers. Thus far, no structural data are available for the p33 domain, which is essential for membrane channel formation. Using single-particle electron microscopy and the random conical tilt approach, we have determined the three-dimensional structures of six VacA oligomeric conformations at ~15-Å resolution. The p55 domain, composed primarily of β-helical structures, localizes to the peripheral arms, while the p33 domain consists of two globular densities that localize within the center of the complexes. By fitting the VacA p55 crystal structure into the electron microscopy densities, we have mapped inter-VacA interactions that support oligomerization. In addition, we have examined VacA variants/mutants that differ from wild-type (WT) VacA in toxin activity and/or oligomeric structural features. Oligomers formed by VacAΔ6–27, a mutant that fails to form membrane channels, lack an organized p33 central core. Mixed oligomers containing both WT and VacAΔ6–27 subunits also lack an organized core. Oligomers formed by a VacA s2m1 chimera (which lacks cell-vacuolating activity) and VacAΔ301–328 (which retains vacuolating activity) each contain p33 central cores similar to those of WT oligomers. By providing the most detailed view of the VacA structure to date, these data offer new insights into the toxin's channel-forming component and the intermolecular interactions that underlie oligomeric assembly. PMID:23178866

  12. Sphingomyelin is Important for the Cellular Entry and Intracellular Localization of Helicobacter pylori VacA

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vijay R.; Wilson, Brenda A.; Blanke, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Plasma membrane sphingomyelin (SM) binds the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) to the surface of epithelial cells. To evaluate the importance of SM for VacA cellular entry, we characterized toxin uptake and trafficking within cells enriched with synthetic variants of SM, whose intracellular trafficking properties are strictly dependent on the acyl chain lengths of their sphingolipid backbones. While toxin binding to the surface of cells was independent of acyl chain length, cells enriched with 12- or 18-carbon acyl chain variants of SM (e.g. C12-SM or C18-SM) were more sensitive to VacA, as indicated by toxin-induced cellular vacuolation, than those enriched with shorter 2- or 6-carbon variants (e.g. C2-SM or C6-SM). In C18-SM enriched cells, VacA was taken into cells by a previously described Cdc42-dependent pinocytic mechanism, localized initially to GPI-enriched vesicles, and ultimately trafficked to Rab7/Lamp1 compartments. In contrast, within C2-SM enriched cells, VacA was taken up at a slower rate by a Cdc42-independent mechanism and trafficked to Rab11 compartments. VacA associated predominantly with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) in cells enriched with C18-SM, but predominantly with non-DRMs in C2-SM enriched cells. These results suggest that SM is required for targeting VacA to membrane rafts important for subsequent Cdc42-dependent pinocytic cellular entry. PMID:20545942

  13. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90%) and 105 (26.25%) were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%), m1a (79.18%), s1b (69.54%), and m1b (63.45%) and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%), m1as1b (60.40%), m1bs1b (55.83%), and m1bs1a (53.29%). High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human. PMID:27088092

  14. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Elnaz; Sheikhshahrokh, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90%) and 105 (26.25%) were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%), m1a (79.18%), s1b (69.54%), and m1b (63.45%) and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%), m1as1b (60.40%), m1bs1b (55.83%), and m1bs1a (53.29%). High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human. PMID:27088092

  15. Petroleum systems charged by the Vaca Muerta (Tithonian) Formation: Neuquen basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrek, D.A.; Collister, J.W.; Quick, J.C.; Allen, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    Tithonian (Upper Jurassic) source rock sequences are responsible for a significant volume of petroleum reserves on a global basis. This research defines the petroleum systems within the Neuquon basin that are charged from the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation, a unit deposited in a low angle ramp setting that is characterized in seismic and geochemical terms to contain three distinct organic facies. The oil types that correlate to the different organic facies are used to define effective migration pathways. The results indicate that the distal condensed sections are volumetrically significant but physical constraints related to hydrocarbon expulsion and migration contribute to decreased system efficiency. In contrast, the hydrocarbon potential of the shelfal condensed sections have less volumetric significance but exhibit higher efficiency due to the shorter distance required for fracture propagation (i.e., related to the expulsion event) and the effective juxtaposition of migration conduits and/or potential reservoirs. Organic facies are also identified within the Picun Leufu subbasin (South Embayment) that generate a hydrocarbon charge at relatively low levels of thermal stress. The sequence of events required for effective hydrocarbon entrapment is demonstrated by time-slice analysis for the Vaca Muerta-Lajas(!), Vaca Muerta-Sierras Blancas/Tordillo/Catriel/Qda. del Sapo (!), and Vaca Muerta-Quintuco/Mulichinco/Loma Montosa(!) Petroleum Systems.

  16. Stratigraphic correlations of the Vaca Muerta formation in the southern Neuquén basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesma, Krim; Patrice, Imbert; Cedric, Bonnel; Charles, Aubourg

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum Neuquén basin, south west Argentina, contains a continuous late Triassic to Cenozoic succession including continental and marine sediments, deposited under a variety of tectonic regimes. The Vaca Muerta formation is one of the major source rocks of the Neuquén basin and was deposited during the Andic cycle. This formation consists of organic-rich dark brown to black shales and mudstones deposited during a major transgression, in euxinic conditions on a shelf and slope during the Tithonian. Over most of the basin, the Vaca Muerta formation overlies the continental deposits of the Tordillo formation. The contact between the two formations is isochronous throughout the basin and marks the Tithonian transgression (Leanza, 1981). After this transgression, prograding bodies were deposited and the Vaca Muerta corresponds to the distal part of this latest. It includes stages from Middle Tithonian in the south to Valanginian in the north (Leanza & Hugo, 1977). The Vaca Muerta formation is well exposed in the southern part of the Neuquén basin, from the Picun Leufu Anticline to the north of the town of Las Lajas. It corresponds in these two areas to a succession of dark to brown shales and carbonate beds. In details, we can divide it into two parts: the Lower Vaca Muerta and the Upper Vaca Muerta. Above, the Picun Leufu formation overlies the Vaca Muerta formation and consists of carbonaceous and siliciclastics prograditional bodies. This unit is absent in the "North Zapala Zone" and its lateral equivalent is less carbonaceous. In this poster; we propose eight detailed sedimentological logs, which are correlated along 120 km north-south trend (from the Picun Leufu Anticline to the south west to the Agrio thrust Belt (ATB) to the north). This correlation will be used to assess the vertical and lateral variability of the Vaca Muerta deposits and to define the palaeogeographic evolution of that region. This allowed us to identify two major prograding sequences during this period. The sedimentary response in the distal (central?) part of the basin (ATB) is characterized by an undifferentiated deposits of organic-rich dark brown to black shales and mudstones (Vaca Muerta facies ), while in the proximal part we can identified two prograding sequences, the first one mainly siliciclastic and the second one mainly carbonated. The transition between these two sequences is characterized by a relief inversion of the southern part of the Neuquen basin related to the uplift of the Huincul Ridge (close to Zapala city). This tectonic movement involves the establishment on the southern edge of the basin of a blue marls deposits (lower part of Picun Leufu formation) which corresponds laterally to a carbonate platform (member Los Catutos of Vaca Muerta) on the structural high.

  17. What exists beyond cagA and vacA? Helicobacter pylori genes in gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Dbora Menezes; Pereira, Eliane dos Santos; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is present in more than half the worlds population and has been associated with several gastric disorders, such as gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The clinical outcome of this infection depends on host and bacterial factors where H. pylori virulence genes seem to play a relevant role. Studies of cagA and vacA genes established that they were determining factors in gastric pathogenesis. However, there are gastric cancer cases that are cagA-negative. Several other virulence genes have been searched for, but these genes remain less well known that cagA and vacA. Thus, this review aimed to establish which genes have been suggested as potentially relevant virulence factors for H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal diseases. We focused on the cag-pathogenicity island, genes with adherence and motility functions, and iceA based on the relevance shown in several studies in the literature. PMID:26457016

  18. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotypes among Alaskans and Their Correlation with Clinical Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Miernyk, Karen; Morris, Julie; Bruden, Dana; McMahon, Brian; Hurlburt, Debby; Sacco, Frank; Parkinson, Alan; Hennessy, Thomas; Bruce, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Alaska. The development of severe H. pylori disease is partially determined by the virulence of the infecting strain. Here we present vacA and cagA genotype data for H. pylori strains isolated from Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease. We enrolled patients scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy and positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and fundus were cultured. We performed PCR analysis of the H. pylori vacA gene and for the presence of the cagA gene and cagA empty site. We genotyped 515 H. pylori samples from 220 Native and 66 non-Native Alaskans. We detected the cagA gene in 242/286 (85%) persons; of 222 strains that could be subtyped, 95% (212) were non-Asian cagA and 3% (6) were East Asian cagA. After removing mixed infections (n = 17), 83% of H. pylori strains had either the vacA s1m1 (120/269) or s2m2 (103/269) genotype. Sixty-six percent (68/103) of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. Infection with an H. pylori strain having the cagA gene or vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with a decreased risk of esophagitis (P = 0.003 and 0.0003, respectively). Infection with an H. pylori strain having the vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (P = 0.003). The majority of H. pylori strains in this study carried the non-Asian cagA gene and either the vacA s1m1 or s2m2 genotype. A majority of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. There was an association of H. pylori genotype with esophagitis and PUD. PMID:21752979

  19. Pathogenicity island cag, vacA and IS605 genotypes in Mexican strains of Helicobacter pylori associated with peptic ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the pathogenicity island cag (cag PAI) and the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA). Virtually all strains have a copy of vacA, but its genotype varies. The cag PAI is a region of 32 genes in which the insertion of IS605 elements in its middle region has been associated with partial or total deletions of it that have generated strains with varying virulence. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the cag PAI integrity, vacA genotype and IS605 status in groups of isolates from Mexican patients with non-peptic ulcers (NPU), non-bleeding peptic ulcers (NBPU), and bleeding peptic ulcers (BPU). Methods The cag PAI integrity was performed by detection of eleven targeted genes along this locus using dot blot hybridization and PCR assays. The vacA allelic, cag PAI genotype 1 and IS605 status were determined by PCR analysis. Results Groups of 16-17 isolates (n = 50) from two patients with NPU, NBPU, and BPU, respectively, were studied. 90% (45/50) of the isolates harbored a complete cag PAI. Three BPU isolates lacked the cag PAI, and two of the NBPU had an incomplete cag PAI: the first isolate was negative for three of its genes, including deletion of the cagA gene, whereas the second did not have the cagM gene. Most of the strains (76%) had the vacA s1b/m1 genotype; meanwhile the IS605 was not present within the cag PAI of any strain but was detected elsewhere in the genome of 8% (4/50). Conclusion The patients had highly virulent strains since the most of them possessed a complete cag PAI and had a vacA s1b/m1 genotype. All the isolates presented the cag PAI without any IS605 insertion (genotype 1). Combined vacA genotypes showed that 1 NPU, 2 NBPU, and 1 BPU patients (66.6%) had a mixed infection; coexistence of H. pylori strains with different cag PAI status was observed in 1 NBPU and 2 BPU (50%) of the patients, but only two of these patients (NBPU and BPU) had different vacA genotypes. PMID:21569518

  20. Non-invasive Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, and hopQ from Asymptomatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Correa, Pelayo; Bravo, Luis E.; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Loh, John T.; Yepez, Maria C.; Gold, Benjamin D.; Thompson, Dexter T.; Cover, Timothy L.; Schneider, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    Background H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood, but little is known about its natural history in asymptomatic children, primarily due to the paucity of non-invasive diagnostic methods. H. pylori strains harboring cagA and specific alleles of hopQ and vacA are associated with increased risk for gastric cancer. Many studies of H. pylori virulence markers in children have the bias that symptomatic subjects are selected for endoscopy, and these children may harbor the most virulent strains. Our aim: to genotype cagA, hopQ and vacA alleles in stool DNA samples of healthy Colombian children residing in an area with high incidence of gastric cancer, in order to avoid selection bias resulting from endoscopy. Methods H. pylori status of 86 asymptomatic children was assessed by 13C-Urea Breath Test (UBT) and PCR. H. pylori 16S rRNA, cagA, hopQ and vacA genes were amplified from stool DNA samples and sequenced. Results UBT was positive in 69 (80.2%) of 86 children; in stool DNA analysis, 78.3% were positive by 16S rRNA PCR. cagA, vacA and hopQ were detected in 66.1%, 84.6%, and 72.3% of stool DNA samples from 16S rRNA positive children. Of the children's DNA samples which revealed vacA and hopQ alleles, 91.7% showed vacA s1 and 73.7% showed type I hopQ. Type I hopQ alleles were associated with cagA-positivity and vacA s1 genotypes (P<0.0001). Conclusions Using stool DNA samples, virulence markers of H. pylori were successfully genotyped in a high percentage of the asymptomatic infected children, revealing a high prevalence of genotypes associated with virulence. Type I hopQ alleles were associated with the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. PMID:22404439

  1. Fossil Particle Tracks and Uranium Distributions in Minerals of the Vaca Muerta Meteorite.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R L; Naeser, C W; Price, P B; Walker, R M; Marvin, U B

    1965-04-30

    Fossil tracks of charged particles have been observed in minerals separated from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. Irradiation of samples of the meteorite with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, together with measurements of track-length distribution, indicate that some of the tracks result from the spontaneous fission of uranium impurities; others, however, are of different origin. Uranium concentrations, which ranged from about 4000 parts per million in a zircon grain to less than 10(-3) parts per million in hypersthene and anorthite, were also measured by irradiating samples with thermal neutrons. PMID:17801934

  2. Early endosomes associated with dynamic F-actin structures are required for late trafficking of H. pylori VacA toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Nils C.; Monzo, Pascale; Gonzalez, Teresa; Doye, Anne; Oldani, Amanda; Gounon, Pierre; Ricci, Vittorio; Cormont, Mireille; Boquet, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are endocytosed by a clathrin- independent pathway into vesicles named GPI-AP–enriched early endosomal compartments (GEECs). We recently showed that the vacuolating toxin VacA secreted by Helicobacter pylori is endocytosed into the GEECs (Gauthier, N.C., P. Monzo, V. Kaddai, A. Doye, V. Ricci, and P. Boquet. 2005. Mol. Biol. Cell. 16:4852–4866). Unlike GPI-APs that are mostly recycled back to the plasma membrane, VacA reaches early endosomes (EEs) and then late endosomes (LEs), where vacuolation occurs. In this study, we used VacA to study the trafficking pathway between GEECs and LEs. We found that VacA routing from GEECs to LEs required polymerized actin. During this trafficking, VacA was transferred from GEECs to EEs associated with polymerized actin structures. The CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), a docking protein implicated in intracellular trafficking, bridged the filamentous actin (F-actin) structures with EEs containing VacA. CD2AP regulated those F-actin structures and was required to transfer VacA from GEECs to LEs. These results demonstrate that sorting from GEECs to LEs requires dynamic F-actin structures on EEs. PMID:17438076

  3. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  4. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Dacie R; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  5. Frequency of vacA Genotypes and Cytotoxin Activity in Helicobacter pylori Associated with Low-Grade Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miehlke, Stephan; Meining, Alexander; Morgner, Andrea; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Lehn, Norbert; Stolte, Manfred; Graham, David Y.; Go, Mae F.

    1998-01-01

    The vacA genotypes s1,m1 and s1,m2 were detected in 44 and 30% of Helicobacter pylori isolates, respectively, from patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, compared to 26 and 56% of isolates, respectively, from individuals with gastritis. The vacA s1 genotype was significantly associated with, but not predictive of, the presence of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. PMID:9666027

  6. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs), VacA intracellular trafficking and interference with calcium signalling in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kern, Beate; Jain, Utkarsh; Utsch, Ciara; Otto, Andreas; Busch, Benjamin; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa; Becher, Dörte; Haas, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the global population. Residing at the stomach epithelium, it contributes to the development of diseases such as gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. A major factor is the secreted vacuolating toxin VacA, which forms anion-selective channels in the endosome membrane that cause the compartment to swell, but the composition and purpose of the resulting VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs) are still unknown. VacA exerts influence on the host immune response in various ways, including inhibition of T-cell activation and proliferation and suppression of the host immune response. In this study, for the first time the composition of VCVs from T cells was comprehensively analysed to investigate VCV function. VCVs were successfully isolated via immunomagnetic separation, and the purified vacuoles were analysed by mass spectrometry. We detected a set of 122 VCV-specific proteins implicated among others in immune response, cell death and cellular signalling processes, all of which VacA is known to influence. One of the individual proteins studied further was stromal interaction molecule (STIM1), a calcium sensor residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is important in store-operated calcium entry. Live cell imaging microscopy data demonstrated colocalization of VacA with STIM1 in the ER and indicated that VacA may interfere with the movement of STIM1 towards the plasma membrane-localized calcium release activated calcium channel protein ORAI1 in response to Ca(2+) store depletion. Furthermore, VacA inhibited the increase of cytosolic-free Ca(2+) in the Jurkat E6-1 T-cell line and human CD4(+) T cells. The presence of VacA in the ER and its trafficking to the Golgi apparatus was confirmed in HeLa cells, identifying these two cellular compartments as novel VacA target structures. PMID:26078003

  7. Role of vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and cytotoxin-associated antigen CagA of Helicobacter pylori in the progression of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ki, Mi-Ran; Hwang, Meeyul; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Sung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Lee, Hye Seung; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2014-11-01

    Helicobacter (H.) pylori strains that express the cagA and s1a vacA genes are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. Here, we examined the association between the products of these virulence genes with the development of gastric cancer by immunohistochemical staining of gastric biopsy specimens taken from 208 routine gastroscopies and 43 gastric cancer patients. The correlation was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. CagA and VacA expressions in gastric mucosa were significantly associated with chronic gastritis (CG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM), respectively, accompanying CG independent of age. The association of CagA expression with IM accompanying CG was increased in patients over 50-year old (p < 0.01) and that of VacA with CG was significant in patients younger than 50 year (p < 0.05). VacA and CagA were associated with mild IM incidence (p = 0.025 and p = 0.076, respectively) but not advanced IM. In the 43 gastric cancer patients, positivity for VacA was significantly higher in cases of CG and IM than carcinoma (p = 0.042), while that for CagA was slightly higher for individuals with carcinoma than those with CG and IM. These results indicate that CagA and VacA are critical factors for inducing CG and the subsequent progression of IM from CG with an increasing age. PMID:25038872

  8. Studies of Cosmic-Ray-produced Carbon-14 in the Vaca Muerta Mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Wasson, J. T.

    1993-07-01

    We have studied the production of 5730-yr ^14C in samples of the VM10 mass of the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. This ~165-kg mass was buried with only one surface exposed at ground level. Because of heavy corrosion, it could only be excavated in pieces ranging in size up to 4 kg. Our samples ranged from the exposed surface to about 25 cm depth. These samples were analyzed for ^14C content at the University of Arizona by accelerator mass spectrometry, and their elemental compositions were measured. The results are compared to calculations of ^14C in Vaca Muerta produced by cosmic rays, and constraints on the recent exposure record of Vaca Muerta, such as terrestrial age and preatmospheric size, are obtained. Five of the samples were fairly pure silicate, and three other samples were about 40-50% silicate. The major target for ^14C, oxygen, is ~43% by weight in the silicate. The results of surface silicate inclusions give ^14C of 37-43 dpm/kg. Samples of mesosiderite, ~45% metal, are about 23 dpm/kg ^14C at the same surface. Production rates of ^14C were calculated using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo LAHET Code System (LCS). LCS has yielded calculated production rates for ^14C and other nuclides that are in good agreement with cosmogenic-nuclide measurements in meteorites [1,2]. Earlier calculations showed that the bulk composition of a meteorite affects production rates of cosmogenic nuclides [1]. In the calculations done for Vaca Muerta, spherical objects with radii of 50 and 70 cm, a density of 5 g/cm^3, and typical bulk mesosiderite compositions were irradiated with galactic-cosmic-ray protons. Layers 2.5 cm thick were used. The calculated fluxes for each layer were then multiplied by the relevant cross sections and integrated over energy to get ^14C production rates for pure silicate and for the other samples. The calculated production profiles increased from the surface to depths of ~20-30 cm. In the 50-cm object, the profile was fairly flat to the center, but the profile dropped slightly for depths >30 cm in the 70-cm object. Production rates for ^14C were about 60 atoms/(min kg) in pure silicate but only a few atoms/(min kg) (not well determined because of the lack of cross sections) in metal. The rates for a 50-cm radius were ~10% higher than for the 70-cm radius. The ^14C measurements and the calculated production rates are only consistent with a meteoroid of short terrestrial age, as practically none of the ^14C can have decayed. The ^14C must have been produced in a body not substantially larger than a radius of 70 cm and probably not more than ~100 cm. This indicates a lack of significant erosion of the meteoroid in the last 20,000 years. If the current sampled surface were actually at some depth in the preatmospheric meteoroid, then some terrestrial age of up to about 2500 years is possible using these data. However, data from deeper samples argue against any significant terrestrial age. With some additional studies of samples at additional depths and other cosmic-ray-produced isotopes, particularly ^36Cl and Ne isotopes to constrain shielding, we may be able to derive a better model for the preatmospheric irradiation history. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA, and the work at Los Alamos was done under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy. References: [1] Masarik J. and Reedy R. C. (1993) LPS XXIV, 937. [2] Reedy R. C. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 1195.

  9. New fossil record of a Jurassic pterosaur from Neuquen Basin, Vaca Muerta Formation, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniú, Laura; Garrido, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Discoveries of Jurassic pterosaurs in the Southern Hemisphere are extremely unusual. In Argentina, pterosaurs from the Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) have only been found in the Northwest of Patagonia (Neuquén Basin). These come from marine deposits and three specimens have been discovered up to the present. In this paper, we report a new finding from the Neuquén Basin. This material is identified as a tibiotarsus, which probably belonged to an osteologically adult individual and represents a new species of a pterodactyloid pterosaur of medium size. This discovery provides new evidence that at least two different species of pterodactyloid pterosaurs may have coexisted in Los Catutos Member, Vaca Muerta Formation, from the shallow marine deposits of the Neuquén Basin.

  10. Source rock characteristics, Los Molles and Vaca Muerta shales, Neuquen basin, west-central Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.

    1985-02-01

    Major hydrocarbon-producing trends of the Neuquen basin occur along its northeastern margin (Eastern Shelf) and along an east-west-trending structural high in the southern half of the basin (Neuquen Dorsal). Sediment thickness increases northward from the Neuquen Dorsal and westward from the Eastern Shelf into the Neuquen Embayment, a region that has been relatively unproductive for hydrocarbons. Major source rocks are the Lower to Middle Jurassic Los Molles Formation and the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation. Los Molles shales are immature to moderately mature on the Neuquen Dorsal: vitrinite reflectance (R/sub o/) = 0.3-0.8%; thermal alteration index (TAI) = 1+ to 2; total organic carbon (TOC) = 2.0-5.0%. However, they are severely altered in the deepest part of the Neuquen Embayment (R/sub o/ = 2.5-3.0%; TAI = 3+ to 4; TOC = 1.1%). Organic matter is woody on the Neuquen Dorsal but is coaly in the Neuquen Embayment. Clay minerals are smectite and mixed layer illite-smectite on the Neuquen Dorsal whereas illite and chlorite are present in the Neuquen Embayment. Similarly, Vaca Muerta shales are immature on the Neuquen Dorsal and along much of the Eastern Shelf (R/sub o/ = 0.3-0.5%; TAI = 1 to 2-), but are mature throughout the Neuquen Embayment (R/sub o/ = 0.7-1.3%; TAI = 2-3). The lower part of the unit is a bituminous black shale (TOC = 2.5-6.5%). The dominant visual kerogen type is amorphous (Al). Clay minerals change from smectite to mixed layer illite-smectite with decreasing expandability toward the deepest part of the Neuquen Embayment. The lack of correlation between areas of source rock maturity and major hydrocarbon production suggests long-distance fluid transport out of deep portions of the basin.

  11. Recent variation of the Las Vacas Glacier Mt. Aconcagua region, Central Andes, Argentina, based on ASTER stereoscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Leiva, J. C.; Lenzano, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the ASTER stereoscopic image processing to calculate the volume changes of Las Vacas Glacier. The processing of medium resolution satellite images (ASTER level 1A - pixel 15 m) from February 2001 and 2007 was performed applying the satellite digital photogrammetry method (Kääb, 2005). The comparison of the two generated DTM returns results that are acceptable within the parameters and precisions that can be obtained with this kind of sensor and the processing methodology.

  12. An integrated sequence stratigraphy-organic geochemistry study of the Vaca Muerta petroleum systems, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lara, M.E.; Wavrek, D.A.; Vines, R.; Laffitte, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    This study shows that the Early Tithonian maximum flooding surface associated with the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation is an oil-prone marine condensed section which accumulated in the distal and shelfal parts of the basin during the maximum transgression. The overlying organic-rich sequences were deposited in a low-angle ramp setting in response to minor relative sea-level changes within an overall relative still-stand. Throughout the basin, the TOC content of the Vaca Muerta Formation decreases upward with the maximum TOC values correlating to the basal condensed section. Lateral variations in depositional setting along the Neuquen Embayment correlate to different source facies within the Vaca Muerta Formation. The distal source facies consist of multiple stacked marine condensed depositional sequences of all systems tracts. The upward decrease in TOC of the distal facies is gradual indicating that prolonged sediment starvation resulted in the accumulation of a thick organic-rich section. However, expulsion efficiency from the distal source facies was relatively low as it required high levels of thermal stress. The shelfal source facies consist of a single marine condensed section whose TOC content abruptly decreases upward due to the diluting effect of clastic highstand progradation. The low-angle shelfal setting favored widespread accumulation of the relatively thin shelfal facies, but coarser sediment interbedding increased expulsion efficiency from this facies. Kimmeridgian-incised valleys provided a regional migration pathway for hydrocarbons generated from both the distal and shelfal source facies.

  13. Evaluation of Clarithromycin Resistance and cagA and vacA Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori Strains from the West of Ireland Using Line Probe Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kieran A.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Moran, Anthony P.; Glennon, Maura; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance-associated mutations, the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes was determined in 50 gastric biopsy specimens from Helicobacter pylori-infected patients, using line probe assays. The clarithromycin resistance-associated mutation A2143G was detected in H. pylori strains from 26% of the specimens, which suggested that the high rate of H. pylori treatment failure in Ireland may be partly attributable to the presence of these mutations. All strains examined carried the vacA s1 genotype, and 76% were cagA positive. Of these 50 specimens, 13 (26%) carried H. pylori strains with vacA midregion genotype m1, 29 (58%) carried strains that were m2, 1 (2%) was infected by a strain that was positive for both m1 and m2, and 7 (14%) carried strains that could not be typed. PMID:11326028

  14. High Frequency of vacA s1m2 Genotypes Among Helicobacter pylori Isolates From Patients With Gastroduodenal Disorders in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pajavand, Hamid; Alvandi, Amirhooshang; Mohajeri, Parviz; Bakhtyari, Somaye; Bashiri, Homayoon; Kalali, Behnam; Gerhard, Markus; Najafi, Farid; Abiri, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection and related diseases outcome are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial, host and environmental factors. Several distinct virulence factors of H. pylori have been shown to be associated with different clinical outcomes. Here we focused on vacA and cagA genotypes of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric disorder. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of two toxins and genotypes of VacA toxin in patients referred to a central hospital in the west of Iran (Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah) during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods: Samples were collected from patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and corpus were cultured. PCR analysis was performed for genotyping H. pylori vacA and cagA genes. Results: Helicobacter pylori was isolated from 48% (96/200) of patients with gastroduodenal disorders. In 81/96 (84%) cases, the cagA gene was present. Among different genotypes of vacA, two s1m2 and s2m2 genotypes were dominant with frequency of 39.5% and 50%, respectively. The frequency of the s1m1 genotype was 7.2% (7/96), which is much lower than elsewhere. H. pylori isolates with positive results for cagA gene and vacA s1m2 genotypes showed statistically significant correlation with peptic ulcer (s1m2 13/34 [38.2%] P = 0.003). However, isolates of H. pylori infection with cagA gene and vacA s2m2 genotypes were significantly associated with development of gastritis (s2m2 41/42 [97.6%] P = 0.000). Conclusions: About 90% of H. pylori strains potentially contained vacA s2m2 and s1m2 genotypes. Infection with H. pylori strain containing the cagA gene or the vacA s1m1 and s1m2 genotypes was associated with increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). PMID:26862378

  15. 81Kr-Kr age and multiple cosmic-ray exposure history of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, Ken-Ichi; Nagao, Keisuke

    2011-04-01

    Noble gas isotopic compositions were measured for a eucritic pebble and bulk material of a silicate-metal mixture from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite as well as pyroxene and plagioclase separated from the eucritic pebble by total melting and stepwise heating methods. Trapped noble gases were degassed completely by a high-temperature thermal event, probably at the formation of the Vaca Muerta parent body (VMPB). The presence of fissiogenic Xe isotopes from extinct 244Pu in the bulk samples might be a result of rapid cooling from an early high-temperature metamorphism. High concentrations of cosmogenic noble gases enabled us to determine precise isotopic ratios of cosmogenic Kr and Xe. Spallogenic Ne from Na and unique Ar isotopic compositions were observed. The 81Kr-Kr exposure age of 168 ± 8 Myr for the silicate pebble is distinctly longer than the age of 139 ± 8 Myr for the bulk samples. The precursor of the pebble had been irradiated on the surface of the VMPB for more than 60 Myr (first stage irradiation), with subsequent incorporation into bulk materials approximately 4 Gyr ago. The Vaca Muerta meteorite was excavated from the VMPB 140 Myr ago (second stage irradiation). Relative diffusion rates among the cosmogenic Ar, Kr, and Xe based on data obtained by stepwise heating indicate that Kr and Xe can be partially retained in pyroxene and plagioclase under the condition that resets the K-Ar system. This result supports the presence of fission Xe and of excess concentration of cosmogenic Kr, which could have survived the thermal event approximately 3.8 Gyr ago.

  16. High Diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Patients with and without Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Barreto-Zúñiga, Rafael; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p = 0.008), and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p = 0.003). A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p = 0.036). A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p = 0.003). Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. Conclusion/Significance High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work. PMID:19050763

  17. Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin/Subunit p34: Targeting of an Anion Channel to the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Harsman, Anke; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Reljic, Boris; Dian-Lothrop, Elke A.; Galmiche, Antoine; Kepp, Oliver; Becker, Lars; Günnewig, Kathrin; Wagner, Richard; Rassow, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The vacuolating toxin VacA, released by Helicobacter pylori, is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. VacA contains two subunits: The p58 subunit mediates entry into target cells, and the p34 subunit mediates targeting to mitochondria and is essential for toxicity. In this study we found that targeting to mitochondria is dependent on a unique signal sequence of 32 uncharged amino acid residues at the p34 N-terminus. Mitochondrial import of p34 is mediated by the import receptor Tom20 and the import channel of the outer membrane TOM complex, leading to insertion of p34 into the mitochondrial inner membrane. p34 assembles in homo-hexamers of extraordinary high stability. CD spectra of the purified protein indicate a content of >40% β-strands, similar to pore-forming β-barrel proteins. p34 forms an anion channel with a conductivity of about 12 pS in 1.5 M KCl buffer. Oligomerization and channel formation are independent both of the 32 uncharged N-terminal residues and of the p58 subunit of the toxin. The conductivity is efficiently blocked by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), a reagent known to inhibit VacA-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that p34 essentially acts as a small pore-forming toxin, targeted to the mitochondrial inner membrane by a special hydrophobic N-terminal signal. PMID:20442789

  18. Characterization of virulence genes cagA and vacA in Helicobacter Pylori and their prevalence in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Neves, Daniel Locatelli; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using cultures of gastric biopsy samples of patients attended at the academic hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Molecular methods were used to characterize the cagA and vacA genes from bacterial isolates associated with different diseases presented by patients. Out of a total of 81, forty-two gastric biopsy samples tested were positive for H. pylori, with a prevalence of 51.9%. No significant difference was found with regard to the gender (p=0.793) and age (p=0.183) of the patients. Genotype s1m1 vacA gene was found in 67% of the cases of peptic ulcer investigated (p=1.0), despite the limited number of patients with this disease (n=3). A correlation between the presence of less virulent strains (s2m2) and reflux esophagitis was found in the majority of the cases (45%), but without statistical significance. An association between the prevalence of cagA gene, found in 92% of isolates, and peptic ulcer was not observed (p=1.0), suggesting that this gene cannot be considered a specific marker of severity in our environment. The results reinforce the importance of conducting regional studies and the need to characterize H. pylori virulence genes associated with different diseases. PMID:24031754

  19. Expression of cagA, virB/D Complex and/or vacA Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains Originating from Patients with Gastric Diseases.

    PubMed

    Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Karpiński, Tomasz M; Linke, Krzysztof; Majewski, Przemysław; Rożkiewicz, Dorota; Goślińska-Kuźniarek, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori, particularly in the context of its carcinogenic activity, we analysed expression of virulence genes: cagA, virB/D complex (virB4, virB7, virB8, virB9, virB10, virB11, virD4) and vacA in strains of the pathogen originating from persons with gastric diseases. The studies were conducted on 42 strains of H. pylori isolated from patients with histological diagnosis of non-atrophic gastritis-NAG (group 1, including subgroup 1 containing cagA+ isolates and subgroup 2 containing cagA- strains), multifocal atrophic gastritis-MAG (group 2) and gastric adenocarcinoma-GC (group 3). Expression of H. pylori genes was studied using microarray technology. In group 1, in all strains of H. pylori cagA+ (subgroup 1) high expression of the gene as well as of virB/D was disclosed, accompanied by moderate expression of vacA. In strains of subgroup 2 a moderate expression of vacA was detected. All strains in groups 2 and 3 carried cagA gene but they differed in its expression: a high expression was detected in isolates of group 2 and its hyperexpression in strains of group 3 (hypervirulent strains). In both groups high expression of virB/D and vacA was disclosed. Our results indicate that chronic active gastritis may be induced by both cagA+ strains of H. pylori, manifesting high expression of virB/D complex but moderate activity of vacA, and cagA- strains with moderate expression of vacA gene. On the other hand, in progression of gastric pathology and carcinogenesis linked to H. pylori a significant role was played by hypervirulent strains, manifesting a very high expression of cagA and high activity of virB/D and vacA genes. PMID:26866365

  20. Expression of cagA, virB/D Complex and/or vacA Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains Originating from Patients with Gastric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Karpiński, Tomasz M.; Linke, Krzysztof; Majewski, Przemysław; Rożkiewicz, Dorota; Goślińska-Kuźniarek, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori, particularly in the context of its carcinogenic activity, we analysed expression of virulence genes: cagA, virB/D complex (virB4, virB7, virB8, virB9, virB10, virB11, virD4) and vacA in strains of the pathogen originating from persons with gastric diseases. The studies were conducted on 42 strains of H. pylori isolated from patients with histological diagnosis of non-atrophic gastritis—NAG (group 1, including subgroup 1 containing cagA+ isolates and subgroup 2 containing cagA- strains), multifocal atrophic gastritis—MAG (group 2) and gastric adenocarcinoma—GC (group 3). Expression of H. pylori genes was studied using microarray technology. In group 1, in all strains of H. pylori cagA+ (subgroup 1) high expression of the gene as well as of virB/D was disclosed, accompanied by moderate expression of vacA. In strains of subgroup 2 a moderate expression of vacA was detected. All strains in groups 2 and 3 carried cagA gene but they differed in its expression: a high expression was detected in isolates of group 2 and its hyperexpression in strains of group 3 (hypervirulent strains). In both groups high expression of virB/D and vacA was disclosed. Our results indicate that chronic active gastritis may be induced by both cagA+ strains of H. pylori, manifesting high expression of virB/D complex but moderate activity of vacA, and cagA- strains with moderate expression of vacA gene. On the other hand, in progression of gastric pathology and carcinogenesis linked to H. pylori a significant role was played by hypervirulent strains, manifesting a very high expression of cagA and high activity of virB/D and vacA genes. PMID:26866365

  1. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes in Tunisian patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Distinct virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vaculating cytotoxin (vacA), the cytotoxin associated gene (cagA), the induced by contact with epithelium factor Antigen (iceA gene) and the outer membrane protein oipA. In Tunisia, there are no data regarding the pattern of H. pylori genotypes; therefore, this prospective and multicentre study was the first to be done in Tunisia and aimed to investigate the prevalence of the vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes of H. pylori isolates from Tunisian patients with peptic ulceration, gastric cancer, MALT lymphoma and gastritis. Methods H. pylori was cultured from endoscopic biopsies obtained from 281 Tunisian patients. The vacA alleles, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes were determined by PCR. Results The vacA s1m1, s1m2 and s2m2 were respectively found in 10.7%, 12.5% and 45.6% of strains. The s2m1 genotype was not detected in our study. The cagA was found in 61.6% of isolates. The iceA1 and the iceA2 genotypes were respectively isolated in 60.2% and in 16% of strains. The oipA genotype was detected in 90.8% of strains. Considering the vacA and iceA genotypes, the presence of multiple H. pylori strains in a single biopsy specimen was found respectively in 31.4% and 23.8%. The comparison between strains isolated from antrum and fundus showed that Tunisian patients were infected with two or more strains of different cagA, vacA, iceA and oipA genotypes and the discordance was respectively in 9.6%, 4.6%, 8.9% and 8.5% of strains. Conclusion Our results showed that in 46% (131 strains among 281), the H. pylori strains were highly virulent in relation of the three or four virulent factors they could carry. These finding were described before in the literature. Tunisian patients were colonized by one or multiple strains of H. pylori in the same time in relation of presence of vacA m1/m2 and iceA1/iceA2 in the same biopsy. The discordance between strains isolated from antrum and fundus was high, and it is in favour of multicolonization. PMID:20302630

  2. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, MI; Valdivia, A; Martínez, P; Palacios, JL; Harris, P; Novales, J; Garrido, E; Valderrama, D; Shilling, C; Kirberg, A; Hebel, E; Fierro, J; Bravo, R; Siegel, F; Leon, G; Klapp, G; Venegas, A

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype in Chilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%). The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes. Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India. CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vacA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype. Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2 recedes H Pylori strain distribution in Spain and Portugal. PMID:16419167

  3. Association among H. pylori virulence markers dupA, cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a novel virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that is associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in some populations. The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of dupA gene and evaluate the association among dupA and other virulence factors including cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 205 dyspeptic patients (100 children and 105 adults). DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and its virulence factors using the polymerase chain reaction method. Results Patients with gastritis tested positive for H. pylori more frequently. The dupA gene was detected in 41.5% of them (85/205); cagA gene was found in 98 isolates (47.8%) and vacA genotype s1/m1 in 50.2%, s1/m2 in 8.3%, s2/m2 in 36.6%, s2/m1 in 0.5% and s1/s2/m1/m2 in 4.4%. We also verified a significant association between cagA and dupA genes [p = 0.0003, relative risk (RR) 1.73 and confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–2.3]. The genotypes s1/m1 were also associated with dupA gene (p = 0.0001, RR: 1.72 and CI: 1.3–2.2). The same associations were found when analyzing pediatric and adult groups of patients individually. Conclusion Ours results suggest that dupA is highly frequent in Brazilian patients and is associated with cagA gene and vacA s1/m1 genotype, and it may be considered an important virulence factor in the development of gastric diseases in adults or children. PMID:24456629

  4. Association of IL1B -511C/-31T haplotype and Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes with gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori varies by population and geographic area. Our objective was to determine if the IL-1B -511 T>C and -31 C>T polymorphisms and H. pylori vacA genotypes are associated with risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer in a Mexican population. Methods We conducted endoscopic studies in 128 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. We took two biopsies from the body, antrum, or ulcer edge from each patient, and classified our histopathological findings according to the Sydney System. H. pylori infection and vacA genotyping were accomplished via PCR from total DNA of the gastric biopsies. We confirmed the presence of anti-H. pylori serum IgG and IgM in 102 control subjects. In both case subjects and control subjects, the IL-1B -511 T>C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLPs and the IL-1B -31 C>T polymorphism was genotyped by pyrosequencing. Results Sixty-two point seven (62.7%) of the 102 control subjects were H. pylori-seropositive. Among the case subjects, 100 were diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 28 with gastric ulcer. We found that 77% of the patients with chronic gastritis and 85.7% of the patients with gastric ulcer were H. pylori-positive. The predominant H. pylori genotype was vacA s1m1 (58.4%) and the most frequent subtype was vacA s1. The -511 TC, (rs16944 -511 T>C) genotype and the -511C allele were associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8 and OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.0, respectively). The subjects carrying -31T (rs1143627 -31 C>T) were found to be at a higher risk of having chronic gastritis (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-5.8). The IL-1B -511C/-31T haplotype was associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.8) but not with gastric ulcer. Conclusions The H. pylori vacA genotypes identified herein were similar to those reported for other regions of Mexico. The vacA s1m1 genotype was not associated with gastric ulcer. In the southern Mexican population, the IL-1B -511C and -31T alleles and the -511C/-31T and -511T/-31T haplotypes are associated with increased risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:20979650

  5. Helicobacter pylori vacA i region polymorphism but not babA2 status associated to gastric cancer risk in northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Batool; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Somi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori-specific genotypes have been strongly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present work was to study the associations of H. pylori virulence factors, vacA i region polymorphisms and babA2 status with GC risk in Azerbaijan patients. The DNA extracted from gastric biopsy specimens was used to access the babA2 and vacA genotypes. Overall, babA2 was present in 85.39 % (76/89) of H. pylori strains: 19 out of 24 (79.16 %) strains from GC, 16 out of 17 (94.14 %) strains from peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 41 out of 48 (85.14 %) strains from chronic gastritis. No significant association was found between babA2 genotype and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). i1 vacA polymorphism was detected in 46/89 (51.68 %) strains: in 21/24 (87.5 %), 6/17 (35.29 %) and 19/48 (39.58 %) patients with GC, PUD and chronic gastritis, respectively. i2 allele was detected in 43 (48.31 %) out of all 89 strains examined: 3 (14.28 %) of 24 strains from GC, 11 (64.71 %) of 17 from PUD, and 29 (60.42 %) of 48 strains from chronic gastritis. In this study, multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the strong association of i1 allele with GC (partial regression correlation 0.455 ± 0.101; P = 0). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with GC compared with a control group (gastritis) (odds ratio 13.142, 95 % CI 3.116-55.430; P = 0). Findings from the measurement of H. pylori babA2 and vacA genotypes indicate a strong correlation between the vacA i1 allele and GC risk in the Azerbaijan area of Iran. PMID:25472424

  6. Relationship between Tobacco, cagA and vacA i1 Virulence Factors and Bacterial Load in Patients Infected by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Estefanía; Aragones, Nuria; Saez, Jesús; Galiana, Antonio; Sola-Vera, Javier; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Paz-Zulueta, María; Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Pérez, Estefanía; Sillero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Several biological and epidemiological studies support a relationship between smoking and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to increase the risk of pathology. However, there have been few studies on the potential synergistic association between specific cagA and vacA virulence factors and smoking in patients infected by Helicobacter pylori. We studied the relationship between smoking and cagA, vacA i1 virulence factors and bacterial load in H. pylori infected patients. Methods Biopsies of the gastric corpus and antrum from 155 consecutive patients in whom there was clinical suspicion of infection by H. pylori were processed. In 106 patients H. pylori infection was detected. Molecular methods were used to quantify the number of microorganisms and presence of cagA and vacA i1 genes. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain patients’ clinical data and lifestyle variables, including tobacco and alcohol consumption. Adjusted Odds Ratios (ORadjusted) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results cagA was significantly associated with active-smoking at endoscope: ORadjusted 4.52. Evidence of association was found for vacA i1 (ORadjusted 3.15). Bacterial load was higher in active-smokers, although these differences did not yield statistical significance (median of 262.2 versus 79.4 copies of H. pylori per cell). Conclusions The association between smoking and a higher risk of being infected by a virulent bacterial population and with higher bacterial load, support a complex interaction between H. pylori infection and environmental factors. PMID:25794002

  7. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  8. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Cha, Ho Jin; Lee, Wan Jin; Kim, June; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Merrell, D. Scott; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH) and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH). Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH), but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%); locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%), no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001) and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001) were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002). En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the vacA genotype, an association was observed. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of H. pylori mediated disease and the importance of considering how the specific combinations of H. pylori virulence genes and their multiple interactions with the host will collectively impact disease progression. PMID:26317221

  9. Differentiation history of the mesosiderite parent body: constraints from trace elements and manganese-chromium isotope systematics in Vaca Muerta silicate clasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, M.; Shukolyukov, A.; Davis, A. M.; Lugmair, G. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    We report here the results of a study of trace element microdistributions and 53Mn- 53Cr systematics in several basaltic and orthopyroxenitic clasts from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. Ion microprobe analyses of selected trace and minor element abundances in minerals of the silicate clasts indicate that, following igneous crystallization, these clasts underwent extensive metamorphic equilibration that resulted in intra- and inter-grain redistribution of elements. There is also evidence in the elemental microdistributions that these clasts were subsequently affected to varying degrees by alteration resulting from redox reactions involving the indigenous silicates and externally derived reducing agents (such as phosphorus, derived from the mesosiderite metal) at the time of metal-silicate mixing. Furthermore, our results suggest that the varying degrees of alteration by redox reactions recorded in the different clasts were most likely facilitated by different degrees of remelting induced by heating during the metal-silicate mixing event. After taking into account the effects of these postmagmatic secondary processes, comparison of the trace and minor element concentrations and distributions in minerals of basaltic and orthopyroxenitic clasts with those of noncumulate eucrites and diogenites, respectively, suggests that the primary igneous petrogenesis, including parent magma and source compositions, of Vaca Muerta silicates were similar to those of achondritic meteorites of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) association. Internal 53Mn- 53Cr isochrons obtained for two basaltic (pebble 16 and 4679) and two orthopyroxenitic (4659 and 4670) clasts show that chromium isotopes are equilibrated within each clast. Nevertheless, just as for noncumulate eucrites and diogenites, 53Cr excesses in whole-rock samples of the basaltic clasts (˜1.01 ɛ in pebble 16; ˜1.07 ɛ in 4679) are significantly higher than in the orthopyroxene-rich clasts (˜0.62 ɛ in 4659; ˜0.53 ɛ in 4670). As in the case of the HED parent body, this suggests that Mn/Cr fractionation in the parent body of the Vaca Muerta silicate clasts occurred very early in the history of the solar system, when 53Mn was still extant. However, the slope of the 53Mn- 53Cr isochron defined by the whole-rock samples of Vaca Muerta clasts (corresponding to a 53Mn/ 55Mn ratio of 3.3 ± 0.6 × 10 -6) is distinctly lower than that defined by the HED whole-rock samples (corresponding to a 53Mn/ 55Mn ratio of 4.7 ± 0.5 × 10 -6), indicating that the global Mn/Cr fractionation event that established mantle source reservoirs on the parent body of the Vaca Muerta silicate clasts occurred ˜2 Ma after a similar event on the HED parent body.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Genotyping from American Indigenous Groups Shows Novel Amerindian vacA and cagA Alleles and Asian, African and European Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E.; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America. PMID:22073291

  11. CagA phosphorylation EPIYA-C motifs and the vacA i genotype in Helicobacter pylori strains of asymptomatic children from a high-risk gastric cancer area in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Lucia Libanez Bessa Campelo; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Alves; Gonçalves, Maria Helane Rocha Batista; Chaves, Fernando Kennedy; Benigno, Tiago Gomes da Silva; Gomes, Adriana Dias; Silva, Cícero Igor Simões Moura; Anacleto, Charles; Batista, Sérgio de Assis; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric diseases. Virulence factors such as VacA and CagA have been shown to increase the risk of these diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role of CagA EPIYA-C in gastric carcinogenesis and this factor has been shown to be geographically diverse. We investigated the number of CagA EPIYA motifs and the vacA i genotypes in H. pylori strains from asymptomatic children. We included samples from 40 infected children (18 females and 22 males), extracted DNA directly from the gastric mucus/juice (obtained using the string procedure) and analysed the DNA using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The vacA i1 genotype was present in 30 (75%) samples, the i2 allele was present in nine (22.5%) samples and both alleles were present in one (2.5%) sample. The cagA-positive samples showed distinct patterns in the 3’ variable region of cagA and 18 of the 30 (60%) strains contained 1 EPIYA-C motif, whereas 12 (40%) strains contained two EPIYA-C motifs. We confirmed that the studied population was colonised early by the most virulent H. pylori strains, as demonstrated by the high frequency of the vacA i1 allele and the high number of EPIYA-C motifs. Therefore, asymptomatic children from an urban community in Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil are frequently colonised with the most virulent H. pylori strains. PMID:25494468

  12. Multilayer adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) over Brazilian Orchid Tree (Pata-de-vaca) and its adsorptive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de O.; da Silva, Adrielli C. P.; Wondracek, Marcos H. P.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Velini, Edivaldo D.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Pedrosa, Valber A.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2015-08-01

    Through very simple and inexpensive processes, pata-de-vaca leaves were turned into a powder and applied as an adsorbent for the uptake of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from water. The material was characterized through SEM, EDX, FTIR and surface area measurement. The material had its point of zero charge determined (5.24), and its adsorption capacity was evaluated as a function of time, pH and metal concentration. The material presented fast adsorption kinetics, reaching adsorption equilibrium in less than 5 min and it had a good correlation with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Optimum pH for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were found to be in the range from 4 to 5, approximately. In the experiment as a function of the analyte concentration, analogously to gas adsorption, the material presented a type II isotherm, indicating the formation of multilayers for both species. Such behavior was explained with basis in the alternation between cations and anions over the material's surface, and the maximum adsorption capacity, considering the formation of the multilayers were found to be 0.238 mmol L-1 for Cu(II) and 0.113 mmol L-1 for Cd(II).

  13. Characterizing an unconventional reservoir with conventional seismic data: A case study using seismic inversion for the Vaca Muerta Formation, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Concheso, Jorge E.

    Reservoir characterization for unconventional shale plays ideally requires multi-component, wide-azimuth, long-offset surface seismic data. These data are generally not available, especially in exploration or pre-development stages. Furthermore, it is common to have only a few wells over a large area, along with non-existent or scarce microseismic, engineering and production data. This thesis presents a methodology and workflow to deal with these circumstances of limited data availability. By using a narrow-azimuth, regional P-wave seismic volume and integrating it with wireline logs, cuttings and PLT data, the variability in the geomechanical properties of the Vaca Muerta Formation in Argentina's Neuquen Basin, and their relationships with lithology, stress state and total organic content, were analyzed. Post-stack and pre-stack inversions were performed on the seismic volume. The un- certainties inherent from limited well control in the estimation of elastic properties were investigated using blind well testing. Sensitivity and error analysis was conducted on post-stack vs pre-stack derived P-impedance, the choice of the inversion algorithm (model-based vs sparse-spike) and the definition of the low frequency model (simple kriging model vs complex model derived from multi-attribute stepwise regression) were examined. Also, the use of isotropic AVA equations to approximate the anisotropic (VTI) behaviour of the reservoir was evaluated, using estimates of Thomsen parameters and simple AVA modelling. The integration of the inversion results with the petrophysical analysis and the mechanical stratigraphy work by Bishop (2015), suggests that the rock composition has the largest influence on the geomechanical behaviour of the reservoir. Overpressure is also a major driving factor in that it controls changes in elastic properties. Bishop's cluster analysis was used to identify good quality rock classes. The probabilistic interpretation of these rock classes from seismic inversion provides a quantitative measure of uncertainty and guides the selection of potential drilling targets.

  14. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of a Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp (Vaca Muerta Formation): A misunderstood exceptional source rock in the Southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Riccardi, Alberto C.; Martín-Chivelet, Javier; López-Gómez, José

    2014-04-01

    The Vaca Muerta Formation (early Tithonian-early Valanginian) is a rhythmic succession of marls and limestones, cropping out in the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina. This lithostratigraphic unit was traditionally interpreted as basinal to slope deposits. Detailed facies analysis allows to differentiate seven facies associations, representing basinal to middle ramp facies of a homoclinal ramp system prograding westward from the eastern margin, and slope facies attributed to a distally steepened ramp system that progrades eastward from the Andean volcanic arc in the west. Two sequence hierarchies are recognized: five third order depositional sequences, and fifteen fourth order high-frequency sequences. Fluctuations in organic matter content within the Vaca Muerta Formation suggest relationship with depositional sequences, finding the highest values associated with transgressive system tracts. This work represents an important advance in the understanding of the sedimentary and stratigraphic evolution of this exceptional unconventional reservoir. Our sequence stratigraphic approach contributes to the understanding of the relationship between organic matter, facies, and sea-level changes.

  15. Ectoparasites Collected from the Common Yellowthroat on Vaca Key, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are very few records of ectoparasites from the common yellowthroat bird, Geothlypis trichas (L.). Examination of the bodies of two recently killed common yellowthroats revealed both mite and thrips associated arthropods. All species of mites were determined to be an undescribed species of Pr...

  16. MEJORANDO LA UTILIZACION DE LA PROTEINA EN LA VACA LECHERA EN LACTANCIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed CP with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Maximizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the most effective way...

  17. ESTRATEGIAS PARA HACER EL MEJOR USO DE LA PROTEINA EN RACIONES PARA VACAS LECHERAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed CP with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the most effective way...

  18. Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...

  19. Field evaluation of three plant-based insect repellents against malaria vectors in Vaca Diez Province, the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Lenglet, Annick; Hill, Nigel

    2002-06-01

    The efficacy of repellents against Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in Bolivia, was evaluated. This mosquito has a peak in biting activity early in the evening. Three natural repellents (1 eucalyptus based, 1 neem based, and 1 containing several repellent essential oils) were tested in comparison with 15% deet in human landing catches in Bolivia. The eucalyptus-based repellent containing 30% p-menthane-diol applied at a dose similar to those used in practice gave 96.89% protection for 4 h. Deet gave 84.81% protection. The other 2 products did not provide significant protection from mosquito bites. PMID:12083351

  20. Newly Discovered Paleocene and Eocene Rocks near Fairfield, California, and Correlation with Rocks in Vaca Valley and the So-Called Martinez Formation or Stage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Ristau, Donn; Bukry, David; McDougall, Kristin; Almgren, Alvin A.; Saul, LouElla; Sanfilippo, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Discovery of a 3-foot thick sandstone bed with abundant Turritellid gastropods of late Paleocene age about 4 miles northeast of Fairfield and on the southwest flank of Cement Hill, Solano County provides an opportunity to reevaluate the relationships of lower Tertiary formations in this part of California. Cement Hill is named for travertine deposits in and on top of sandstone of Late Cretaceous age. In this report, the current study area where the Paleocene fossils were recently discovered is referred to as lower Cement Hill and is located in section 7 of the U.S. Geological Survey Fairfield North 7.5-minute quadrangle, Township 5 North, Range 1 West. Lower Cement Hill is about 23 miles north of the so-called Martinez 'formation' or stage area (Weaver and others, 1941) of late Paleocene age near Martinez. The Martinez 'formation' and stage have played a significant role in the development of early Tertiary stratigraphy in this part of California. The discovery of correlative rocks at Cement Hill was unsuspected and may be helpful in defining the extent of this so-called formation or stage. Coccolith identification and correlations are by David Bukry, foraminifer identifications and correlations by Alvin Almgren and Kristin McDougall, gastropod identification and correlation by LouElla Saul, and Radiolaria identifications and correlations are by Annika Sanfilippo.

  1. Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over recent years, there have been observed in several cattle farms within the region of the Sierra de Cameros (La Rioja) mountains, reproductive alterations consisting of pre-mature births and birth of dead calves or calves of reduced viability. After laboratory examination of several cases with ne...

  2. Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Diaz del Castillo and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillian, John D.; Ingram, Vicky L.; McCleary, Brendan M.

    2009-01-01

    The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Diaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three…

  3. Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Diaz del Castillo and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillian, John D.; Ingram, Vicky L.; McCleary, Brendan M.

    2009-01-01

    The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Diaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three

  4. Reciprocal impact of host factors and Helicobacter pylori genotypes on gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand-Jahromy, Sahar; Siavoshi, Farideh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Nejad Sattari, Taher; Latifi-Navid, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and patient age and sex on the development of gastric diseases. METHODS: H. pylori-infected patients (n = 233) referred to the endoscopy unit at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) were diagnosed with chronic gastritis (CG), gastric ulcer (GU), or duodenal ulcer (DU). Brucella blood agar was used for biopsy cultures and H. pylori isolation under microaerobic conditions. H. pylori isolates were confirmed with biochemical tests and through amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from fresh cultures of the H. pylori isolates and used for amplification of vacA alleles and the cagA gene. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between H. pylori genotypes, age (< 40 years vs > 40 years) and sex of the patient, and gastric diseases. RESULTS: CG was the most prevalent gastric disease (113/233; 48.5%), compared to GU (64/233; 27.5%) and DU (56/233; 24%). More patients were male, and gastric diseases were more frequent in patients > 40 years (P < 0.05). The percentage of CG and GU patients that were male and female did not show a significant difference; however DU was more common in males (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a diagnosis of CG in patients > 40 years was more common in females (18.5%) than males (11.6%) (P = 0.05), whereas a diagnosis of GU or DU in patients > 40 years was more frequent in males (14.6% vs 10.7% and 12.4% vs 4.3%, respectively). Overall, genotyping of the H. pylori isolates revealed that the vacA s1 (82%), vacA m2 (70%), and cagA+ (72.5%) alleles were more frequent than vacA s2 (18%), vacA m1 (29.2%), and cagA- (all P < 0.05). The vacA s1m2cagA+ genotype was the most prevalent within the three disease groups. vacA s1m2 frequency was 56.2% with a similar occurrence in all diagnoses, while vacA s1m1 appeared more often in DU patients (33.9%). A genotype of vacA s2m2 occurred in 15% of isolates and was more common in CG patients (21.2%); vacA s2m1 was the least common genotype (3%). The vacA s1 allele was found to be a risk factor for DU, vacA s2 for CG, and vacA s1 and vacA s2 for GU (all P < 0.05). The vacA s2m2 genotype was associated with the development of CG and GU compared to DU (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between vacA m or cagA and gastric diseases. CONCLUSION: The outcome of H. pylori infection is the result of interaction between bacterial genotypes and the age and sex of infected individuals. PMID:26309357

  5. Clarithromycin Resistance Mutations in Helicobacter pylori in Association with Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of the Strains.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Markovska, Rumyana; Yordanov, Daniel; Gergova, Galina; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic resistance is the major cause for Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. H. pylori clarithromycin resistance mutations were evaluated in 84 (82 phenotypically clarithromycin resistant and 2 intermediately susceptible) strains by allele-specific PCR and 3'-mismatched PCR. Many (57.1%) of these strains were metronidazole resistant. Prevalence of cagA(+), cagE(+), vacA s1a, m1, i1, and i2 strains was 76.2%, 58.0%, 82.1%, 35.7%, 50.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. A2143G, A2142G, A2142C, and A2143G+A2142G mutation rates were 64.3%, 23.8%, 1.2%, and 10.7%, respectively. Strains harboring the A2142G mutation showed 5.3-fold higher clarithromycin MIC50 than those harboring the A2143G mutation. The A2143G mutation alone was 1.7-fold more common in vacA i2 strains compared with vacA i1 strains, while the A2142G mutation alone was 3-fold more frequent in vacA i1 strains than vacA i2 strains and 3.1-fold more common in metronidazole-susceptible compared with metronidazole-resistant strains. Briefly, clarithromycin resistance mutations were significantly linked to vacA i allele and metronidazole susceptibility. This is the first report about associations between the A2143G mutation and less virulent vacA i2 strains, and between the A2142G mutation and more virulent vacA i1 strains. As the 2143G mutation often predicts eradication failure by clarithromycin-based regimens, the results may be linked to the better eradication of more virulent strains compared with the less virulent strains. PMID:26618567

  6. Meteoritic Zircon.

    PubMed

    Marvin, U B; Klein, C

    1964-11-13

    Zircon (ZrSiO(5)) has been identified as an accessory mineral in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite and in the troilite nodules of the Toluca iron meteorite. The occurrence in Vaca Muerta is a new discovery confirmned by electron-probe nmicroanalysis of a grain in a polished section of the meteorite. Our identification of zircon in Toluca substantiates an occurrence in this meteorite reported in 1895 by Laspeyres and Kaiser. PMID:17777058

  7. A Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin Mutant That Fails To Oligomerize Has a Dominant Negative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Genisset, Christophe; Galeotti, Cesira L.; Lupetti, Pietro; Mercati, David; Skibinski, David A. G.; Barone, Silvia; Battistutta, Roberto; de Bernard, Marina; Telford, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Most Helicobacter pylori strains secrete a toxin (VacA) that causes massive vacuolization of target cells and which is a major virulence factor of H. pylori. The VacA amino-terminal region is required for the induction of vacuolization. The aim of the present study was a deeper understanding of the critical role of the N-terminal regions that are protected from proteolysis when VacA interacts with artificial membranes. Using a counterselection system, we constructed an H. pylori strain, SPM 326-Δ49-57, that produces a mutant toxin with a deletion of eight amino acids in one of these protected regions. VacA Δ49-57 was correctly secreted by H. pylori but failed to oligomerize and did not have any detectable vacuolating cytotoxic activity. However, the mutant toxin was internalized normally and stained the perinuclear region of HeLa cells. Moreover, the mutant toxin exhibited a dominant negative effect, completely inhibiting the vacuolating activity of wild-type VacA. This loss of activity was correlated with the disappearance of oligomers in electron microscopy. These findings indicate that the deletion in VacA Δ49-57 disrupts the intermolecular interactions required for the oligomerization of the toxin. PMID:16495552

  8. Analysis of the genotypic diversity of strains of Helicobacter pylori isolated from pediatric patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Elizalde, S; Cortés-Márquez, A C; Giono-Cerezo, S; Zuñiga, G; Consuelo-Sánchez, A; Valencia-Mayoral, P; Vigueras-Galindo, J C; Escalona-Venegas, G; Arellano-Galindo, J; Velázquez-Guadarrama, N

    2015-01-01

    Genotypic differences in Helicobacter pylori play an important role in infection. We characterized the diversity of the cagA, cagE, babA2, and vacA genes in H. pylori strains isolated from pediatric patients and the relationship between these genes and clinical disease. Additionally, we employed the Neighbor-net algorithm to predict the behavior of the genotypes of the strains isolated from patients. Of 93 patients analyzed, 32 were positive for infection. A total of 160 H. pylori strains (five isolates per positive patient) were analyzed. A total of 91% and 83% of strains possessed the cagA and cagE genes, respectively. For the vacA gene, 84% of strains possessed the s1 allele, 15% the s2 allele, 81% the m1 allele and 13.8% the m2 allele. The babA2 gene was present in 79% of strains. Infection with H. pylori strains with the vacA (s1m1) genotype was associated with risk of esophagitis and gastritis (p=0.0001). The combination of cagA and vacA (s1m1) was significantly associated with abdominal pain (p=0.002); however, EPIYA type was not significantly associated with abdominal pain. A total of 16 different genotypes were identified; the most common genotype was vacAs1m1cagA+cagE+babA2+ (47.5%). A total of 84% of pediatric patients were infected by at least two and up to five different genotypes. The network recovered two genotype groups (A: strains with vacAs1 and B: strains with vacAs2). The presence of multiple paths in the network suggests that reticulate events, such as recombination or reinfection, have contributed to the observed genotypic diversity. PMID:25445660

  9. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Shiota, Seiji; Matsuda, Miyuki; Binh, Tran Thanh; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Tshering, Lotay; Dung, Ho D. Q.; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsunari, Osamu; Myint, Thein; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3)galT(jhp0563) was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer. PMID:26090448

  10. Neutron capture records of mesosiderites and an iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2011-10-01

    The Sm and Gd isotopic compositions of silicates from six mesosiderites (Dalgaranga, Estherville, Morristown, Northwest Africa (NWA) 1242, NWA 2932, and Vaca Muerta) and one iron meteorite (Udei Station) were determined to elucidate the cosmic-ray exposure records. All seven samples showed significant 150Sm/ 149Sm and 158Gd/ 157Gd isotopic shifts from neutron capture reactions corresponding to neutron fluences of (1.3-21.8) × 10 15 n cm -2. In particular, Vaca Muerta showed a significantly higher neutron fluences than the other six samples. The parameter for the degree of neutron thermalization ( ɛSm/ ɛGd) also showed a significant difference between Vaca Muerta (0.76) and the other samples (0.93-1.20). These results suggest a two-stage irradiation of the Vaca Muerta silicates in the parent body (>50 Ma) before formation of the mesosiderite and during its transit to Earth (138 Ma). This is consistent with the 81Kr-Kr cosmic-ray exposure age data of a Vaca Muerta pebble from a previous noble gas isotopic study.

  11. Mimicry of a host anion channel by a Helicobacter pylori pore-forming toxin.

    PubMed

    Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Iwamoto, Hideki; Szabo, Gabor; Cover, Timothy L; Shao, Zhifeng

    2005-11-01

    Bacterial pore-forming toxins have traditionally been thought to function either by causing an essentially unrestricted flux of ions and molecules across a membrane or by effecting the transmembrane transport of an enzymatically active bacterial peptide. However, the Helicobacter pylori pore-forming toxin, VacA, does not appear to function by either of these mechanisms, even though at least some of its effects in cells are dependent on its pore-forming ability. Here we show that the VacA channel exhibits two of the most characteristic electrophysiological properties of a specific family of cellular channels, the ClC channels: an open probability dependent on the molar ratio of permeable ions and single channel events resolvable as two independent, voltage-dependent transitions. The sharing of such peculiar properties by VacA and host ClC channels, together with their similar magnitudes of conductance, ion selectivities, and localization within eukaryotic cells, suggests a novel mechanism of toxin action in which the VacA pore largely mimics the electrophysiological behavior of a host channel, differing only in the membrane potential at which it closes. As a result, VacA can perturb, but not necessarily abolish, the homeostatic ionic imbalance across a membrane and so change cellular physiology without necessarily jeopardizing vitality. PMID:16100263

  12. Isolation and genotyping of Helicobacter pylori from untreated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingzhi; Redlinger, Thomas E; Avitia, Raquel; Galindo, Adriana; Goodman, Karen

    2002-03-01

    For this study, we isolated Helicobacter pylori from wastewater by a series of steps beginning with immunomagnetic separation and cell culture. After Gram staining and three standard microbial tests, the 16S rRNA sequences of a total of 23 out of 37 putative H. pylori isolates were verified by PCR. Eleven H. pylori isolates were genotyped and fell into four vacA classes: those with the vacA allelic variants s1a and m1, s1b and m1, s2 and m2, or s2 and m1. Most H. pylori isolates were of the vacA s1a/m1 type, which has been shown to be associated with advanced diseases based on genotyping of H. pylori from gastric cancer patients. These results demonstrated that H. pylori survives in water and may be a potential source of H. pylori transmission, especially where water is not adequately treated. PMID:11872498

  13. A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments. PMID:26123572

  14. A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3’-5’ exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments. PMID:26123572

  15. Helicobacter pylori Membrane Vesicles Stimulate Innate Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Responses and Induce Apoptosis in Jurkat T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Letley, Darren; Rhead, Joanne; Atherton, John; Robinson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic inflammation in the human gastric mucosa, which is associated with development of peptic ulceration, gastric atrophy, and gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been postulated that secretion of immunomodulatory molecules by H. pylori facilitates bacterial persistence, and membrane vesicles (MV), which have the potential to cross the gastric epithelial barrier, may mediate delivery of these molecules to host immune cells. However, bacterial MV effects on human immune cells remain largely uncharacterized to date. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of H. pylori MV with and without the vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, which inhibits human T cell activity. We show a high degree of variability in the toxin content of vesicles between two H. pylori strains (SS1 and 60190). Vesicles from the more toxigenic 60190 strain contain more VacA (s1i1 type) than vesicles from the SS1 strain (s2i2 VacA), but engineering the SS1 strain to produce s1i1 VacA did not increase the toxin content of its vesicles. Vesicles from all strains tested, including a 60190 isogenic mutant null for VacA, strongly induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-6 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells independently of the infection status of the donor. Finally, we show that H. pylori MV induce T cell apoptosis and that this is enhanced by, but not completely dependent on, the carriage of VacA. Together, these findings suggest a role for H. pylori MV in the stimulation of innate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses and in the suppression of T cell immunity. PMID:24421041

  16. Helicobacter pylori induced interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells is associated with CagA positive phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, J E; Covacci, A; Farmery, S M; Xiang, Z; Tompkins, D S; Perry, S; Lindley, I J; Rappuoli, R

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To use a range of natural phenotypically variant strains of Helicobacter pylori with disparate CagA and VacA (vacuolating cytotoxin) expression to determine which bacterial factors are more closely associated with epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction. METHODS--Gastric epithelial cells (AGS and KATO-3) were co-cultured with five H pylori strains which were variously shown to express the cagA gene/CagA protein, VacA and/or to exhibit biological cytotoxicity. Secreted IL-8 was assayed by enzyme leaked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) was assayed using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based technique (RT-PCR). RESULTS--Strains expressing CagA, including a variant strain (D931) which is non-cytotoxic and does not express the VacA protein, were found to upregulate epithelial IL-8 secretion and gene expression. In contrast, strains with no CagA expression, even in the presence of VacA and/or biological cytotoxicity, (G104, BA142), failed to induce IL-8 protein or mRNA above control values. CONCLUSIONS--These results strongly support a role for H pylori CagA or coexpressed factors other than the cytotoxin in upregulation of gastric epithelial IL-8. Increased epithelial IL-8 secretion and concomitant neutrophil chemotaxis and activation in addition to direct cytotoxicity may be an important factor in tissue damage and ulceration. Images PMID:7706517

  17. Proliferative and apoptotic effects of gastric epithelial cells induced by coccoid Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Neng; Han, Lei; Chen, Jiansen; Lin, Xu; Chen, Hao; She, Feifei

    2013-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibit morphology convertion in a spiral or coccoid form. This study aims to reveal the impact of coccoid H. pylori on the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. The cagA and vacA genes of H. pylori were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by the CCK-8 colorimetric method and TUNEL assay, respectively. Egr-1 mRNA and PCNA expression affected by the ERK1/2-specific inhibitor were detected by RT-PCR and immunochemistry. At low density of infection (MOI < 125:1), coccoid H. pylori exerted a stronger effect on proliferation and a weaker effect on apoptosis than did spiral form. The ERK1/2-specific inhibitor significantly blocked the increased expression in Egr-1 and PCNA induced by coccoid H. pylori. Expression of vacA and cagA in coccoid H. pylori decreased compared with the spiral form, whereas vacA decreased more than cagA. The difference of proliferation and apoptosis may be related to the unequal decreased expression of vacA and cagA in coccoid H. pylori. Activation of the ERK1/2-Egr-1-PCNA signal transduction pathway may play an important role in coccoid H. pylori-induced cell proliferation. Long latency of the coccoid form of H. pylori in gastric tissue may be associated with gastric cancer caused by H. pylori. PMID:22581720

  18. The Apportionment of Liability for Damages between Employer and Union in Section 301 Actions Involving a Union's Breach of Its Duty of Fair Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsey, James L.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the meaning and application of the Supreme Court's ruling in "Vaca v Sipes" concerning the apportionment of liability between union and employers in duty of fair representation cases. Available from the Managing Editor, Mercer Law Review, Mercer University, 1400 Coleman Avenue, Macon, Georgia 31207; single lead article issue $3.50.

  19. 78 FR 67133 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Commission received the following land acquisition reports: Docket Numbers: LA13-3-000. Applicants: CalPeak... Power--Vaca Dixon LLC Starwood Power-Midway LLC. Description: Quarterly Land Acquisition Report of Cal... facilities filings can be found at: http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For...

  20. Origin of Silicate Clasts in Mesosiderites: Trace Element Microdistributions and Mn-Cr Systematics Tell the Tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, M.; Shukolyukov, A.; Davis, A. M.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1999-03-01

    We report the results of a study of trace element distributions and Mn-Cr systematics in several basaltic clasts and one diogenitic clast from Vaca Muerta. The goal of this study is to ascertain whether these clasts are related to the HEDs.

  1. Mineralogical investigations of lunar samples and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1985-01-01

    Electron microprobe analysis was employed to study north ray crater breccia 67015 from the Moon. The melting history of lunar troctolite 130-9 was investigated, along with the presence of Mg-26 in anorthite grains recovered from the Vaca Meurta mesosiderite. Geographic distributions of meteorites in Antarctica were plotted. The Allende meteorite was analyzed with the electron microprobe method.

  2. H pylori iceA alleles are disease-specific virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Caner, Vildan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Yonetci, Nadir; Zencir, Sevil; Karagenc, Nedim; Kaleli, Ilknur; Bagci, Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To characterize and compare genotype profiles of H pylori strains isolated from patients with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer in western part of Turkey. METHODS: A total of 46 patients [30 chronic gastritis (CG) and 16 duodenal ulcer (DU)] who had undergone endoscopy because of dyspeptic complaints were studied. The antral biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by rapid urease test and culture, and the genotype profiles were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The cagA gene was observed in 43 (93.5%) isolates. The vacA s1m2 genotype was the predominant subtype, found in 63.3% and 68.7% of isolates in patients with CG and DU, respectively. Twenty (66.6%) isolates from patients with CG were iceA2 positive while the iceA1 was predominant in those with DU (68.8%). In terms of the association of the iceA alleles to other genes, both alleles were significantly associated with the cagA vacA s1m2 genotype. CONCLUSION: The prevalent circulating genotypes in CG and DU were cagA vacA s1m2 iceA2 and cagA vacA s1m2 iceA1 genotype, respectively. It was found that cagA vacA s1m2 genotype seems to be common virulence factors in both CG and DU while iceA alleles show specificity for gastroduodenal pathologies in this study. PMID:17552005

  3. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Con, Sergio A; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Con-Chin, Gil R; Con-Chin, Vicky G; Yasuda, Nobufumi; Con-Wong, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate several risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) in Costa Rican regions with contrasting GC incidence rate (GCIR). METHODS: According to GCIR, 191 Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-positive patients were classified into groups A (high GCIR, n = 101) and B (low GCIR, n = 90). Human DNA obtained from biopsy specimens was used in the determination of polymorphisms of the genes coding for interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 by PCR-RFLP, and IL-1RN by PCR. H pylori DNA extractions obtained from clinical isolates of 83 patients were used for PCR-based genotyping of H pylori cagA, vacA and babA2. Human DNA from gastric biopsies of 52 GC patients was utilized for comparative purposes. RESULTS: Cytokine polymorphisms showed no association with GCIR variability. However, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and strains with different vacA genotypes in the same stomach (mixed strain infection) were more frequently found in group A than in group B, and cagA and vacA s1b were significantly associated with high GCIR (P = 0.026 and 0.041, respectively). IL-1β+3954_T/C (OR 2.1, 1.0-4.3), IL-1RN*2/L (OR 3.5, 1.7-7.3) and IL-10-592_C/A (OR 3.2, 1.5-6.8) were individually associated with GC, and a combination of these cytokine polymorphisms with H pylori vacA s1b and m1 further increased the risk (OR 7.2, 1.4-36.4). CONCLUSION: Although a proinflammatory cytokine genetic profile showed an increased risk for developing GC, the characteristics of H pylori infection, in particular the status of cagA and vacA genotype distribution seemed to play a major role in GCIR variability in Costa Rica. PMID:19132772

  4. Helicobacter pylori inhibits expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in human epithelial cell line. Importance of Cag A protein.

    PubMed

    Targosz, A; Pierzchalski, P; Krawiec, A; Szczyrk, U; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W

    2006-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are crucial for the maintenance of cell integrity under normal cell growth and at pathophysiological conditions such as colonization of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (Hp). The effect of Hp on mRNA expression for HSP70 in the gastric epithelial cells in vitro has been little studied and remains inconclusive. In this study we attempted to determine the alterations in gene expression for HSP70 induced by two live strains of Hp in the epithelial MKN7 cells. The following Hp strains were employed; 1) Hp strain expressing cagA and vacA, and 2) cagA and vacA negative Hp strain without or with addiction of exogenous recombinant protein CagA. MKN7 cells were incubated in a standard medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and humidified atmosphere under basal condition or in a presence of Hp (1 x 10(9) CFU per dish) without or with the recombinant CagA (10 microg/ml of RPMI 1640 medium). After 3 h, 24 h and 48 h of incubation with Hp and in some experiments with the prolonged incubation time up to 72 h, the cells were harvested, the total cellular RNA was isolated and the expression of mRNA for HSP70 was determined by RT-PCR. The incubation of the MKN cells with CagA protein alone failed to affect significantly the expression of HSP70. In contrast, the strain Hp (cagA+, vacA+) inhibited in time-dependent manner the expression of mRNA for HSP70. When the MKN7 cells were coincubated with Hp (cagA+, vacA+) and exogenous CagA, the significant inhibition of the signal intensity for HSP70 mRNA was observed at 3 h and 24 h of incubation and these effects were followed by complete disappearance of the signal for HSP70 mRNA at 48 h. The incubation of MKN7 with Hp (cagA-, vacA-) also significantly attenuated the expression of HSP70 mRNA with the most pronounced inhibitory effect observed at 72 h of incubation with this Hp strain. Addition of the recombinant CagA to Hp (cagA-, vacA-) completely suppressed the expression of HSP70 at 48 h and 72 h after the end of incubation periods. We conclude that 1) both, Hp (cagA+, vacA+) and Hp (cagA-, vacA-) inhibit expression of HSP70 in MKN7 human gastric epithelial cells independently of the presence or absence of cagA gene, and that 2) recombinant CagA protein may exert biological activity in vitro via acceleration of inhibitory effect of Hp negative for Cag A and VacA on HSP70 expression in epithelial cells infected with this bacteria. PMID:16845230

  5. First direct sulfuric acid detection in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Sierau, B.; Arnold, F.; Baumann, R.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.

    Sulfuric acid (SA) was for the first time directly detected in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight. The measurements were made by a novel aircraft-based VACA (Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer) instrument of MPI-K Heidelberg while the research aircraft Falcon was chasing another research aircraft ATTAS. The VACA measures the total SA in the gas and in volatile submicron aerosol particles. During the chase the engines of the ATTAS alternatively burned sulfur-poor and sulfur-rich fuel. In the sulfur-rich plume very marked enhancements of total SA were observed of up to 1300 pptv which were closely correlated with ΔCO2 and ΔT and were far above the local ambient atmospheric background-level of typically 15-50 pptv. Our observations indicate a lower limit for the efficiency ɛ for fuel-sulfur conversion to SA of 0.34 %.

  6. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Extracellular Protein Release by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Schraw, Wayne; McClain, Mark S.; Cover, Timothy L.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of extracellular protein release by Helicobacter pylori, we analyzed the entry of metabolically radiolabeled bacterial proteins into broth culture supernatant. At early time points, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) constituted a major extracellular protein. Subsequently, culture supernatants accumulated many proteins that were components of intact bacterial cells. This nonselective release of proteins was associated with a decreasing turbidity of cultures and loss of bacterial viability, indicative of an autolytic process. The rates of VacA secretion and autolysis were each influenced by medium composition, and therefore these may be regulated phenomena. Extracellular release of proteins by H. pylori may be an important adaptation that facilitates the persistence of H. pylori in the human gastric mucus layer. Moreover, entry of proinflammatory proteins into the gastric mucosa may contribute to the induction of a mucosal inflammatory response. PMID:10496902

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Helicobacter pylori Strain 7C Isolated from a Mexican Patient with Chronic Gastritis.

    PubMed

    Mucito-Varela, Eduardo; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Cevallos, Miguel A; Lozano, Luis; Merino, Enrique; López-Leal, Gamaliel; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis is a risk factor for developing gastric pathologies. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant H. pylori strain isolated from a chronic gastritis patient in Mexico City, Mexico. Nonvirulent VacA and cag-pathogenicity island (PAI) genotypes were found, but the presence of a potential mobilizable plasmid carrying an IS605 element is of outstanding interest. PMID:26744372

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Helicobacter pylori Strain 7C Isolated from a Mexican Patient with Chronic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Mucito-Varela, Eduardo; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Lozano, Luis; Merino, Enrique; López-Leal, Gamaliel

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis is a risk factor for developing gastric pathologies. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant H. pylori strain isolated from a chronic gastritis patient in Mexico City, Mexico. Nonvirulent VacA and cag-pathogenicity island (PAI) genotypes were found, but the presence of a potential mobilizable plasmid carrying an IS605 element is of outstanding interest. PMID:26744372

  9. Cyclostratigraphy of an orbitally-driven Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp succession, Southern Mendoza, Argentina: Implications for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Neuquén Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Iglesia Llanos, Maria Paula

    2015-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological, sequence stratigraphical and cyclostratigraphical analyses have been made from four lower Tithonian-lower Valanginian sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation, exposed in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The Vaca Muerta Formation is characterized by decimetre-scale rhythmic alternations of marls, shales and limestones, and consists of five facies associations, which reflect different paleoenvironmental conditions: basin to restricted outer ramp, outer ramp, and middle ramp. Vertical organization within the Vaca Muerta Formation shows a well-ordered hierarchy of cycles, where elementary cycles, bundles and superbundles with frequencies within the Milankovitch band have been recognized. According to biostratigraphic data, elementary cycles have a periodicity of ~ 20 ky, which correlates with the precession cycle of Earth's axis. Spectral analysis based on series of cycle thickness allows us to identify frequencies of about 400 ky and 90-120 ky, which we interpret as the modulation of the precessional cycle by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. Cycles are probably driven by variations in carbonate exportation, as fluctuations in shallow-water carbonate production involve modifications in carbonate basinward exportation. Cyclostratigraphic data allowed us to build a floating orbital scale for the Tithonian-lower Valanginian interval in the Neuquén Basin. Correlation between studied sections allowed us to recognize a discontinuity between the Substeueroceras koeneni and Argentiniceras noduliferum ammonite zones in the Malargüe Anticline area. Orbital calibration of these sections is consistent with Riccardi's biostratigraphic scheme, wich place the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary within the Substeueroceras koeneni ammonite Zone. On the other hand, the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Virgatosphinctes mendozanus ammonite Zone) would be probably placed in the base of the middle Tithonian rather than the lower Tithonian, which is also consistent with our preliminary palaeomagnetic data.

  10. NIR reflectance spectroscopy of mafic minerals in the temperature range between 80 and 473 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, U.; Wäsch, R.

    1999-01-01

    We performed our investigations on mono-mineralogical phases of two terrestrial pyroxenes, a diopsidic augite and a hyperstene as well as on four meteoritic samples, Millbillillie, Ellemeet, Soko-Banja and Vaca Muerta, which represent extraterrestrial matter and could be considered to be analogs for surface material of some asteroid classes. Beside the known spectral variations characterizing ortho- and clinopyroxenes as well as basaltic assemblages, temperature related effects on the reflectance spectra are discussed.

  11. Helicobacter pylori typing as a tool for tracking human migration

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from different geographic areas exhibit clear phylogeographical differentiation; therefore, the genotypes of H. pylori strains can serve as markers for the migration of human populations. Currently, the genotypes of two virulence factors of H. pylori, cagA and vacA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are widely used markers for genomic diversity within H. pylori populations. There are two types of cagA: the East Asian type and the Western type. In addition, the right end of the cag pathogenicity island is divided into five subtypes and there are distinct mosaic structures at the signal region and the middle region of vacA. Using combinations of the cagA, cag right end junction, and vacA genotypes, five major groups (East Asia type, South/Central Asia type, Iberian/Africa type and Europe type) have been defined according to geographical associations. MLST has revealed seven modern population types and six ancestral population types of H. pylori, and is a useful tool for mapping human migration patterns. Serial studies of large numbers of H. pylori strains, including strains isolated from aboriginal populations, show that MLST analysis provides more detailed information on human migration than does the analysis of human genetics. H. pylori infection is rapidly declining as a result of improvements in personal hygiene and quality of life. The molecular epidemiology of H. pylori infection has much to tell us and should be studied before it disappears entirely. PMID:19702588

  12. Cholesterol Depletion Reduces Helicobacter pylori CagA Translocation and CagA-Induced Responses in AGS Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Ho; Chang, Yun-Chieh; Du, Shin-Yi; Wang, Hung-Jung; Kuo, Chun-Hsien; Fang, Shih-Hua; Fu, Hua-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hao; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with gastritis, ulcerations, and gastric cancer. CagA is translocated into infected epithelial cells by a type IV secretion system and can be tyrosine phosphorylated, inducing signal transduction and motogenic responses in epithelial cells. Cellular cholesterol, a vital component of the membrane, contributes to membrane dynamics and functions and is important in VacA intoxication and phagocyte evasion during H. pylori infection. In this investigation, we showed that cholesterol extraction by methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced the level of CagA translocation and phosphorylation. Confocal microscope visualization revealed that a significant portion of translocated CagA was colocalized with the raft marker GM1 and c-Src during infection. Moreover, GM1 was rapidly recruited into sites of bacterial attachment by live-cell imaging analysis. CagA and VacA were cofractionated with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), suggesting that the distribution of CagA and VacA is associated with rafts in infected cells. Upon cholesterol depletion, the distribution shifted to non-DRMs. Accordingly, the CagA-induced hummingbird phenotype and interleukin-8 induction were blocked by cholesterol depletion. Raft-disrupting agents did not influence bacterial adherence but did significantly reduce internalization activity in AGS cells. Together, these results suggest that delivery of CagA into epithelial cells by the bacterial type IV secretion system is mediated in a cholesterol-dependent manner. PMID:18443091

  13. Resistance to clarithromycin and genotypes in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Fasciana, Teresa; Calà, Cinzia; Bonura, Celestino; Di Carlo, Enza; Matranga, Domenica; Scarpulla, Giuseppe; Manganaro, Michele; Camilleri, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin is increasing in several developed countries and their association with a genetic pattern circulation has been variously explained as related to different geographical areas. In this study we have reported: the prevalence of the resistance of H. pylori, isolated in Sicily, to clarithromycin; the principal point of mutation associated with this resistance; and the more frequent association between resistance to clarithromycin and cagA, the EPIYA motif, and the vacA and oipA genes. Resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 25% of cases, the main genetic mutation involved being A2143G. The cagA gene was present in 48% of cases and the distribution of the EPIYA motif was: ABC in 35 cases; ABCC in 8 cases; ABCCC in 2 cases; ABC-ABCC in 2 cases; and ABC-ABCC-ABCCC in 1 case. Regarding the vacA allele, an s1i1m1 combination was detected in 35% of cases, s1i1m2 in 12 %, s1i2m2 in 12%, s2i2m2 in 40%, and a double s1m1-m2 mosaic in 1% of cases. The status of the oipA gene was 'off' in 45% of cases and 'on' in 55%. Resistance to clarithromycin was found to be high in Sicily, but no correlation was found among resistance to clarithromycin, the vacA gene and oipA status; a higher correlation was observed between resistant strains and cagA-negative strains. PMID:26338221

  14. Distinctiveness of Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Calcutta, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Datta, Simanti; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Sujit; Santra, Amal; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Azuma, Takeshi; Nair, G. Balakrish; Berg, Douglas E.

    2000-01-01

    The genotypes of 78 strains of Helicobacter pylori from Calcutta, India (55 from ulcer patients and 23 from more-benign infections), were studied, with a focus on putative virulence genes and neutral DNA markers that were likely to be phylogenetically informative. PCR tests indicated that 80 to 90% of Calcutta strains carried the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) and potentially toxigenic vacAs1 alleles of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA), independent of disease status. This was higher than in the West (where cag PAI+ vacAs1 genotypes are disease associated) but lower than in east Asia. The iceA2 gene was weakly disease associated in Calcutta, whereas in the West the alternative but unrelated iceA1 gene at the same locus is weakly disease associated. DNA sequence motifs of vacAm1 (middle region) alleles formed a cluster that was distinct from those of east Asia and the West, whereas the cagA sequences of Calcutta and Western strains were closely related. An internal deletion found in 20% of Calcutta iceA1 genes was not seen in any of ∼200 strains studied from other geographic regions and thus seemed to be unique to this H. pylori population. Two mobile DNAs that were rare in east Asian strains were also common in Calcutta. About 90% of Calcutta strains were metronidazole resistant. These findings support the idea that H. pylori gene pools differ regionally and emphasize the potential importance of studies of Indian and other non-Western H. pylori populations in developing a global understanding of this gastric pathogen and associated disease. PMID:10809703

  15. Helicobacter pylori Perturbs Iron Trafficking in the Epithelium to Grow on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shumin; Noto, Jennifer M.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) injects the CagA effector protein into host epithelial cells and induces growth factor-like signaling, perturbs cell-cell junctions, and alters host cell polarity. This enables Hp to grow as microcolonies adhered to the host cell surface even in conditions that do not support growth of free-swimming bacteria. We hypothesized that CagA alters host cell physiology to allow Hp to obtain specific nutrients from or across the epithelial barrier. Using a polarized epithelium model system, we find that isogenic ΔcagA mutants are defective in cell surface microcolony formation, but exogenous addition of iron to the apical medium partially rescues this defect, suggesting that one of CagA's effects on host cells is to facilitate iron acquisition from the host. Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. Both CagA and VacA contribute to the perturbation of transferrin recycling, since VacA is involved in apical mislocalization of the transferrin receptor to sites of bacterial attachment. To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. This resulted in a reduced ability of Hp to colonize the polarized epithelium. To test whether CagA is important in promoting iron acquisition in vivo, we compared colonization of Hp in iron-replete vs. iron-deficient Mongolian gerbils. While wild type Hp and ΔcagA mutants colonized iron-replete gerbils at similar levels, ΔcagA mutants are markedly impaired in colonizing iron-deficient gerbils. Our study indicates that CagA and VacA act in concert to usurp the polarized process of host cell iron uptake, allowing Hp to use the cell surface as a replicative niche. PMID:21589900

  16. Life in the human stomach: persistence strategies of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Nina R.; Hartung, Mara L.; Müller, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori has co-evolved with humans and colonizes roughly one half of the human population, but only causes overt gastric disease in a subset of infected hosts. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis of this bacterium and the mechanisms it uses to promote persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa, with a focus on recent insights into the role of the virulence factors VacA, CagA and CagL. We also describe the immunobiology of H. pylori infection and highlight how this bacterium manipulates the innate and adaptive immune systems of the host to promote its own persistence. PMID:23652324

  17. Disease association with two Helicobacter pylori duplicate outer membrane protein genes, homB and homA

    PubMed Central

    Oleastro, Monica; Cordeiro, Rita; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Queiroz, Dulciene; Mégraud, Francis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Ménard, Armelle

    2009-01-01

    Background homB encodes a Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein. This gene was previously associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and was shown to induce activation of interleukin-8 secretion in vitro, as well as contributing to bacterial adherence. Its 90%-similar gene, homA, was previously correlated with gastritis. The present study aimed to evaluate the gastric disease association with homB and homA, as well as with the H. pylori virulence factors cagA, babA and vacA, in 415 H. pylori strains isolated from patients from East Asian and Western countries. The correlation among these genotypes was also evaluated. Results Both homB and homA genes were heterogeneously distributed worldwide, with a marked difference between East Asian and Western strains. In Western strains (n = 234, 124 PUD and 110 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), homB, cagA and vacA s1 were all significantly associated with PUD (p = 0.025, p = 0.014, p = 0.039, respectively), and homA was closely correlated with NUD (p = 0.072). In East Asian strains (n = 138, 73 PUD and 65 NUD), homB was found more frequently than homA, and none of these genes was associated with the clinical outcome. Overall, homB was associated with the presence of cagA (p = 0.043) and vacA s1 (p < 0.001), whereas homA was found more frequently in cagA-negative (p = 0.062) and vacA s2 (p < 0.001) strains. Polymorphisms in homB and homA copy number were observed, with a clear geographical specificity, suggesting an involvement of these genes in host adaptation. A correlation between the homB two-copy genotype and PUD was also observed, emphasizing the role of homB in the virulence of the strain. Conclusion The global results suggest that homB and homA contribute to the determination of clinical outcome. PMID:19545429

  18. Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyat, Mati; Velin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori express lipopolysaccharides and flagellin that do not activate efficiently Toll-like receptors and express dedicated effectors, such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), arginase, that actively induce tolerogenic signals. In this perspective, H. pylori can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, when present in the stomach, H. pylori reduce the overall diversity of the gastric microbiota and promote gastric inflammation by inducing Nod1-dependent pro-inflammatory program and by activating neutrophils through the production of a neutrophil activating protein. The maintenance of a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors (vacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A) confer pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries. PMID:24914318

  19. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence, and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA, and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infection. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cagPAI, CagA, VacA, and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  20. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and regulatory cytokines as predictors of clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Carolina; Diaz, Maria Ines; Valdivia, Alejandra; Godoy, Alex; Peña, Alfredo; Rollan, Antonio; Kirberg, Arturo; Hebel, Eduardo; Fierro, Jaqueline; Klapp, Gerardo; Venegas, Alejandro; Harris, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in Chile (73%). Usually a minority of infected patients develops complications such as ulcers and gastric cancer that have been associated with the presence of virulence factors (cagA, vacA) and host T helper response (Th1/Th2). Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between strain virulence and host immune response, using a multiple regression approach for the development of a model based on data collected from H. pylori infected patients in Chile. We analyzed levels of selected cytokines determined by ELISA (IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-4) and the presence of cagA and vacA alleles polymorphisms determined by PCR in antral biopsies of 41 patients referred to endoscopy. By multiple regression analysis we established a correlation between bacterial and host factors using clinical outcome (gastritis and duodenal ulcer) as dependent variables. The selected model was described by: clinical outcome = 0.867491 (cagA) + 0.0131847 (IL-12/IL-10) + 0.0103503 (IFN-γ/IL-4) and it was able to explain over 90% of clinical outcomes observations (R2=96.4). This model considers that clinical outcomes are better explained by the interaction of host immune factors and strain virulence as a complex and interdependent mechanism. PMID:17336120

  1. Sulfuric acid measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for the sulfuric acid formation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2002-04-01

    Sulfuric acid concentrations were measured in the exhaust plume of a B737-300 aircraft in flight. The measurements were made onboard of the German research aircraft Falcon using the Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer (VACA). The VACA measures total H2SO4, which is the sum of gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol H2SO4. Measurements took place at distances of 25-200 m behind the B737 corresponding to plume ages of about 0.1-1 seconds. The fuel sulfur content (FSC) of the fuel burned by the B737 engines was alternatively 2.6 and 56 mg sulfur per kilogram fuel (ppmm). H2SO4 concentrations measured in the plume for the 56 ppmm sulfur case were up to ~600 pptv. The average concentration of H2SO4 measured in the ambient atmosphere outside the aircraft plume was 88 pptv, the maximum ambient atmospheric H2SO4 was ~300 pptv. Average efficiencies ɛΔCO2 = 3.3 +/- 1.8% and ɛΔT = 2.9 +/- 1.6% for fuel sulfur conversion to sulfuric acid were inferred when relating the H2SO4 data to measurements of the plume tracers ΔCO2 and ΔT.

  2. Expression of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor vacuolating cytotoxin A (vac A) is influenced by a potential stem‐loop structure in the 5′ untranslated region of the transcript

    PubMed Central

    Amilon, Karin R.; Letley, Darren P.; Winter, Jody A.; Robinson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, is an important virulence factor secreted by the gastric pathogen H elicobacter pylori. Certain vac A genotypes are strongly associated with disease risk, but the association is not absolute. The factors determining vac A gene expression are not fully understood, and the mechanisms of its regulation are elusive. We have identified a potential mRNA stem‐loop forming structure in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the vac A transcript. Using site‐directed mutagenesis, we found that disruption of the stem‐loop structure reduced steady‐state mRNA levels between two‐ and sixfold (P = 0.0005) and decreased mRNA half‐life compared with wild type (P = 0.03). This led to a marked reduction in VacA protein levels and overall toxin activity. Additionally, during stressful environmental conditions of acid pH or high environmental salt concentrations, when general transcription of vac A was decreased or increased respectively, the stabilising effects of the stem‐loop were even more pronounced. Our results suggest that the stem‐loop structure in the vac A 5′ UTR is an important determinant of vac A expression through stabilisation of the vac A mRNA transcript and that the stabilising effect is of particular importance during conditions of environmental stress. PMID:26259667

  3. Isotopic, Chemical and Mineralogical Investigation's of Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.

    2003-01-01

    During the grant period we have concentrated on the following main topics: 1. Enstatite meteorites and original heterogeneity of Mn-53 distribution in the solar nebula. We have completed our studies of the enstatite chondrites. 2. Processes of planetary differentiation. We have completed our study of silicate clasts from the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta and found that the global Mn/Cr fractionation event that established mantle source reservoirs on the parent body of the Vaca Muerta silicate clasts occurred approx. 2 Ma after a similar event on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) parent body. 3. Carbonaceous chondrites. Much effort has been devoted during the last three years to the investigation of this important class of meteorites. 4. Early solar system timescales. Based on the studies of the Mn-53 - Cr-53 isotope system in various meteorites and using results obtained with other isotope chronometers we constructed an absolute time-scale for events in the early solar system. 5.Unusual meteorites. We have studied the anomalous pallasite Eagle Station. 6. The chromium isotopic composition as a tracer for extraterrestrial material on Earth. Based on the observed difference in the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratios between Earth and the other solar system objects we developed a method for detecting cosmic materials on Earth using the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratio as a tracer.

  4. Plausible asteroidal analogs for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ~400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

  5. Plausible parent bodies for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites: Implications for Lutetia's fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2009-08-01

    We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ˜400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho (both Xc types in the new Bus-DeMeo taxonomy) have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa (all three are Xk types in the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy) are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

  6. Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

  7. Molecular analysis of Helicobacter pylori virulent-associated genes in hepatobiliary patients

    PubMed Central

    Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Chomvarin, Chariya; Sripa, Banchob; Chau-in, Siri; Pugkhem, Ake; Namwat, Wises; Wongboot, Warawan; Khampoosa, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Helicobacter pylori virulence-associated genes in hepatobiliary patients, including vacA, iceA, babA2, cagA and cagE, have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate these genes and the association of those and the clinical outcomes in hepatobiliary diseases. Methods Eighty H. pylori-PCR-positive cases were obtained from hepatobiliary patients, representing both cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (n = 58) and cholelithiasis (n = 22). The diversity of virulence genes was examined by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of cagA was determined using the maximum parsimony method. Results The vacAs1a + c/m1, iceA1 and babA2 genes were the most predominant genotypes in both CCA and cholelithiasis patients. The cagA and cagE genes were found significantly more frequently in patients with CCA than those with cholelithiasis (P < 0.05). The cagA positive samples were the Western-type cagA and showed that almost all of the detected sequences in Thai hepatobiliary and Thai gastric cancer patients were classified in the same cluster but separated from the cluster of Japan and other countries. Conclusions The cagA and cagE genes may be associated in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary diseases, especially of CCA. Besides the bacterial variation, other host factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary cancer. PMID:23043664

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection in children: should it be carefully assessed?

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Princz, D; Daoud, G; Salgado-Sabel, A; Cavazza, M E

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of H. pylori infection, mainly acquired during childhood and may be persisting throughout life, has been found high in developing countries; this high prevalence is related to low socioeconomic status. The persistence of bacterium exposure is related to gastritis and other severe complications including peptic ulcer, lymphoma MALT and gastric cancer, which are rarely present in the pediatric age due to a lower inflammatory and immunological response. Virulence factors, host gastric mucosal factors, and the natural environment of patients are associated with the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection. The main bacterial virulence factors include adhesins (BabA, SabA), vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, and the products of the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). There are geographic differences between cagA, vacA status and H. pylori related diseases. The main criteria to evaluate H. pylori infection in children are gastrointestinal and extra gastrointestinal manifestations related to H. pylori infection, familial history of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer, lymphoma MALT, symptomatic children living in high prevalence regions, and immigrant or adopted children in developed countries. Early detection of H. pylori and its virulence factors, in addition to effective methods of eradication associated with prevention programs, may lead to the decrease of H. pylori incidence and gastritis, especially in endemic high-risk regions. The early assessment in children may prevent further severe complications in adulthood. PMID:27212173

  9. Trazando el brazo de Vela-Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vzquez, R. A.; Baume, G. L.; Seggewiss, W.; Feinstein, A.

    Presentamos resultados preliminares basados en anlisis fotomtricos UBVI para 9 cmulos abiertos ubicados en la zona de Vela-Puppis (? =7h58m y 9h54m, ? =- 28o a -59o) sobre un total de 15 cmulos previstos. Estos cmulos no han sido observados previamente, excepto en algunos pocos casos que se cuenta con fotometra y espectroscospa de algunas estrellas. Se han determinado membrecias, excesos de color, distancias y edades. En el futuro, la muestra global permitir definir mas claramente este brazo y ser utilizada para estudiar las funciones iniciales de masa individuales e integradas y compararlas con las obtenidas en observaciones intensivas realizadas en otras zonas de la Galaxia.

  10. The metamorphic history of eucrites and eucrite-related meteorites and the case for late metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Symes, Steven J. K.; Batchelor, J. David; Akridge, D. Glen; Benoit, Paul H.

    1997-11-01

    We report induced thermoluminescence data for separates from three HED meteorites and the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. The results of thermal modeling of the surface of their parent body are also described. The TL sensitivities for matrix samples from the LEW 85300, 302 and 303 paired eucrites and the Bholghati howardite are lower than the TL sensitivities for the clasts, consistent with regolith working of the matrix in fairly mature regoliths. Within an isochemical series of HED meteorites, TL sensitivity reflects metamorphic intensity, but clast-to-clast variations in the TL sensitivities of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite and clasts in the EET 87509, 513 and 531 paired howardite primarily reflect differences in mineralogy and petrology. Thermoluminescence peak temperatures indicate that all the components from the LEW 85300, 302 and 303 paired eucrites experienced a reheating event involving temperatures >800oC, thought to have been due to impact heating, and therefore that the event was concurrent with or post-dated brecciation. The Vaca Muerta clasts are essentially unmetamorphosed, but the induced TL data indicate that the remaining HEDM meteorites experienced metamorphism to a variety of intensities but involving temperatures <800oC. Laboratory heating experiments show that temperatures >800oC cause a change in TL peak temperature. Feldspars from a variety of terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources show this behavior, and X-ray diffraction and kinetic studies suggest that it is indirectly related to Al,Si disordering. Cooling rates are not consistent with autometamorphism following the initial igneous event, or with heating by subsequent eruptions of lava onto the surface of the HED parent body. Instead, our thermal models suggest that the metamorphism occurred within a regolith ejecta blanket of up to a few kilometers thick, with different levels of metamorphism corresponding to different thicknesses of blanket, between essentially zero and about 2 km, rather than different burial depths in a regolith of uniform thickness. We argue that metamorphism occurred 3.9 Ga ago and was associated with the resetting of the Ar-Ar system for the HED meteorites.

  11. Serum Antibodies Positivity to 12 Helicobacter pylori Virulence Antigens in Patients with Benign or Malignant Gastroduodenal Diseases – Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Filipec Kanižaj, Tajana; Katičić, Miroslava; Presečki, Vladimir; Gašparov, Slavko; Colić Cvrlje, Vesna; Kolarić, Branko; Mrzljak, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association of gastric histological and endoscopic findings in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), according to presence of seropositivity to 12 bacterial virulence antigens. Methods This is a cross-sectional single-center study of 360 consecutive outpatients referred in the period of one year to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspeptic complaints. Patients sera were tested by Western blot method to determine the presence of serum antibodies to bacterial virulence antigens – p120 (CagA – cytotoxin-associated antigen), p95 (VacA – vacuolating cytotoxin), p67 (FSH – flagellar sheath protein), p66 (UreB – urease enzyme heavy subunit), p57 (HSP homologue – heath shock protein homologue), p54 (flagellin), p33, p30 (OMP – outer membrane protein), p29 (UreA – urease enzyme light subunit), p26, p19, and p17. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed, endoscopic diagnosis recorded, and 4 mucosal biopsy samples were obtained and assessed according to Updated Sydney protocol. Results The sera of 207 patients were analyzed. Thirty patients had gastric adenocarcinoma, 126 peptic ulcers, and 51 normal finding. p120 (CagA) seropositivity was significantly more often present in patients with higher activity grade in the antrum (P = 0.025), p30 in patients with greater inflammation in the antrum (P = 0.025) and the corpus (P = 0.010), p33 in patients with greater inflammation in the corpus (P = 0.050), and p19 (OMP) in patients with lower intestinal metaplasia grades in the corpus (P = 0.025). Seroreactivity to all other bacterial proteins showed no association with the histological status of the stomach mucosa. Except for the seropositivity to protein p95 (VacA), which was more often present in patients with duodenal ulcer (P = 0.006), there was no difference in seroreactivity to other bacterial proteins and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings. Conclusions p120 (CagA), p33, p 30 (OMP), and p19 (OMP) seropositivity was more often present in patients with higher grades of the histological parameters of gastritis and seropositivity to protein p95 (VacA) with endoscopic presence of duodenal ulcer. Histological parameters of gastritis are more associated with bacterial virulence than endoscopic findings. PMID:19399945

  12. Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites - Implications for endogenous igneous processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of 13 igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites, using electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation techniques. These data, combined with literature data on compositions of 43 mesosiderite clasts were used to compile a classification scheme for the various types of mafic silicate clasts that occur in mesosiderites. These clasts were classified into five principal groups: (1) polygenic and monogenic cumulates (30 percent); (2) polygenic basalts (30 percent); (3) quench-textured rocks, comprising two compositional subgroups (those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5 percent), and those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2 percent)); (4) monogenic basalts (11 percent); and (5) ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9 percent) or olivine (4 percent). The conditions under which these clasts were formed are discussed.

  13. Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin: importance of native conformation for induction of neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Manetti, R; Massari, P; Burroni, D; de Bernard, M; Marchini, A; Olivieri, R; Papini, E; Montecucco, C; Rappuoli, R; Telford, J L

    1995-01-01

    We have attempted to express the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin in Escherichia coli. Although the 95-kDa VacA polypeptide was expressed abundantly, it completely lacked any biological activity. In addition, this material failed to induce neutralizing antibodies after immunization of rabbits. In contrast, highly purified high-molecular-mass cytotoxin from the supernatant of H. pylori cultures was active in a HeLa cell assay and effectively induced a neutralizing response in rabbits. Neutralizing sera were shown to contain a high proportion of antibodies which recognized conformational epitopes found only on the native toxin. The data indicate that toxin-neutralizing epitopes are conformational and that potential vaccines based on the cytotoxin may benefit from the use of the intact molecule. PMID:7591088

  14. Genome sequencing analysis reveals virulence-related gene content of Ochrobactrum intermedium strain 229E, a urease-positive strain isolated from the human gastric niche.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Girish J; Shetty, Sudarshan; Dharne, Mahesh S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2014-10-01

    We report draft genome sequence of Ochrobactrum intermedium strain 229E concurrent with Helicobacter pylori in urease positive gastric biopsy of non-ulcer dyspeptic individual from Southern part of India. Since the role of Ochrobactrum in human gastric environment is poorly understood, comprehensive pathological, microbiological, and genome level understanding are necessary to evaluate its association with H. pylori in the gastric niche. Comparative analysis of O. intermedium 299E strain revealed functional similarities with virulence related gene clusters present in H. pylori genomes, which probably might aid in its ability to persist in the human gastric mucosa. However, H.pylori specific vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) involved in vacuolization, cytotoxicity, and T-cell inhibition was absent in the O. intermedium 229E genome. Taken together, O. intermedium 229E shared numerous features like secretion system, urease, and flagella with H.pylori genome sequence that might aid concurrence in the gastric niche. PMID:25312622

  15. Historical descriptions of some soils and landscapes of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Darrell G.

    Europeans explorers, immigrants, and travelers have been crisscrossing Texas for almost 5 centuries, recording their observations of soils and landscapes through the lens of their own times. In the early 16th century, Cabeza de Vaca was struck by how the natives among whom he lived used soil as a part of their diet. In the 17th century, as a member of the La Salle expedition to Texas, Henri Joutel described the soils and landscapes he saw in considerable detail, perhaps with an eye to possible future French settlement. To 19th century immigrants, the soil was the source of their future wealth, but also, so they thought, of the source of the various illnesses that inflicted them. With their distinctive micro-topography and large cracks when dry, Vertisols have elicited some of the most interesting early descriptions of Texas soils.

  16. Olivines and olivine coronas in mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehru, C. E.; Zucker, S. M.; Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a study of olivines and their surrounding coronas in mesosiderites texturally and compositionally using optical and microprobe methods. Olivine composition ranges from Fo(58-92) and shows no consistent pattern of distribution within and between mesosiderites; olivine occurs as large single crystals or as partially recrystallized mineral clasts, except for two lithic clasts. These are Emery and Vaca Muerta, and both are shock-modified olivine orthopyroxenites. Fine-grained coronas surround olivine, except for those in impact-melt group mesosiderites and those without tridymite in their matrices. Coronas consist largely of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, chromite, merillite, and ilmenite, and are similar to the matrix, but lack metal and tridymite. Texturally the innermost parts of the corona can be divided into three stages of development: (1) radiating acicular, (2) intermediate, and (3) granular.

  17. A late Jurassic pterosaur (Reptilia, Pterodactyloidea) from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniú, Laura; Gasparini, Zulma; Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana

    2006-03-01

    A small to medium-sized pterodactyloid pterosaur (wingspan approximately 1.10 m) from the Upper Jurassic (middle-late Tithonian) marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation of Patagonia (Los Catutos area, central Neuquén Province, Argentina) is reported. The specimen lacks the skull but constitutes a nearly complete postcranial skeleton, which includes cervical and dorsal vertebrae; a few thoracic ribs; both pectoral girdles; the left pelvic girdle; a proximal right wing (humerus, ulna, and radius) and metacarpal IV; a left wing that lacks only wing phalanx four; and both hindlimbs, the right one without the foot. Ontogenetic features suggest that the new fossil corresponds to a relatively mature individual, probably a subadult. Observed characters support its assignment to the Archaeopteroactyloidea, a basal clade within the Pterodactyloidea. This specimen is the second pterosaur from Los Catutos and the most complete Jurassic pterosaur so far known from South America.

  18. Niobium-zirconium chronometry and early solar system development.

    PubMed

    Schönbächler, Maria; Rehkämper, Mark; Halliday, Alex N; Lee, Der-Chuen; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Hattendorf, Bodo; Günther, Detlef

    2002-03-01

    Niobium-92 (92Nb) decays to zirconium-92 (92Zr) with a half-life of 36 million years and can be used to place constraints on the site of p-process nucleosynthesis and the timing of early solar system processes. Recent results have suggested that the initial 92Nb/93Nb of the solar system was high (>10(-3)). We report Nb-Zr internal isochrons for the ordinary chondrite Estacado (H6) and a clast of the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta, both of which define an initial 92Nb/93Nb ratio of approximately 10(-5). Therefore, the solar system appears to have started with a ratio of <3 x 10(-5), which implies that Earth's initial differentiation need not have been as protracted as recently suggested. PMID:11872837

  19. Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites - Implications for endogenous igneous processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1992-02-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of 13 igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites, using electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation techniques. These data, combined with literature data on compositions of 43 mesosiderite clasts were used to compile a classification scheme for the various types of mafic silicate clasts that occur in mesosiderites. These clasts were classified into five principal groups: (1) polygenic and monogenic cumulates (30 percent); (2) polygenic basalts (30 percent); (3) quench-textured rocks, comprising two compositional subgroups (those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5 percent), and those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2 percent)); (4) monogenic basalts (11 percent); and (5) ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9 percent) or olivine (4 percent). The conditions under which these clasts were formed are discussed.

  20. The oldest zircons in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Wlotzka, F.

    1992-03-01

    The occurrence, chemistry, and U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics of three meteoritic zircon assemblages, two from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite and one from the Simmern H5 chondrite, are presented. Like terrestrial zircons, the meteoritic zircons are enriched in the heavy rare-earth elements, but unlike terrestrial zircons, they do not show a positive Ce anomaly. This feature is also absent in one lunar zircon analyzed and probably reflects the oxidation state of the formation environment: under oxidizing conditions Ce(4+) is stabilized, whereas under relatively reducing conditions Ce(3+) is stable. The zircon from Simmern has depletions in the relative abundances of Tm and Yb, a characteristic of the volatility fractionation of the REE. The Simmern zircon has an exceptionally low U concentration (around 180 ppb), and only a poorly constrained Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4100 +/- 700 Ma could be obtained.

  1. Niobium-Zirconium Chronometry and Early Solar System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbächler, Maria; Rehkämper, Mark; Halliday, Alex N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Hattendorf, Bodo; Günther, Detlef

    2002-03-01

    Niobium-92 (92Nb) decays to zirconium-92 (92Zr) with a half-life of 36 million years and can be used to place constraints on the site of p-process nucleosynthesis and the timing of early solar system processes. Recent results have suggested that the initial 92Nb/93Nb of the solar system was high (>10-3). We report Nb-Zr internal isochrons for the ordinary chondrite Estacado (H6) and a clast of the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta, both of which define an initial 92Nb/93Nb ratio of ~10-5. Therefore, the solar system appears to have started with a ratio of <3 × 10-5, which implies that Earth's initial differentiation need not have been as protracted as recently suggested.

  2. Olivines and olivine coronas in mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehru, C. E.; Zucker, S.; Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.

    1980-08-01

    The paper presents a study of olivines and their surrounding coronas in mesosiderites texturally and compositionally using optical and microprobe methods. Olivine composition ranges from Fo(58-92) and shows no consistent pattern of distribution within and between mesosiderites; olivine occurs as large single crystals or as partially recrystallized mineral clasts, except for two lithic clasts. These are Emery and Vaca Muerta, and both are shock-modified olivine orthopyroxenites. Fine-grained coronas surround olivine, except for those in impact-melt group mesosiderites and those without tridymite in their matrices. Coronas consist largely of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, chromite, merillite, and ilmenite, and are similar to the matrix, but lack metal and tridymite. Texturally the innermost parts of the corona can be divided into three stages of development: (1) radiating acicular, (2) intermediate, and (3) granular.

  3. Milk of livestock as a possible transmission route of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Ramin; Souod, Negar; Momtaz, Hassan; Dabiri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current investigation aimed to evaluate ruminant raw milk as a reservoir source of Helicobacter pylori and analyze the diversity of cagA and vacA genotypes as H. pylori virulence factors to find any relationship between these genotypes in human and animal H. pylori strains. Background: The way of transmission of Helicobacter pylori as one of the most controversial bacteria in the world, which colonizes the human gastric tissue and is responsible for several gastric diseases is still unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori is feasible, but is not proven in ruminant reservoirs. Methods: Overall 210 cows, sheep, goats, camels and buffalos’ raw milk samples and 100 human gastric biopsies were collected in this survey. We applied PCR assays to identify H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results: Totally 12(16%) cow, 8(13.79%) sheep, 2 (4.76%) goat, 2(13.33%), buffalo 4(20%) and 82 (82%) of human specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive. Among which s1a/m2 genotype was more frequent in isolated H. pylori strains and statistically significant between strains. Based on statistical analyses the s1b allele of sheep had a significant association with human strains. Conclusion: The current survey was prompted by our previous report. According to both results we can conclude that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and transmit this bacterium to human via its milk. Extended assessments in other geographical regions and other animals are recommended. PMID:26171135

  4. Comparative analysis of the full genome of Helicobacter pylori isolate Sahul64 identifies genes of high divergence.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Wise, Michael J; Tay, Chin Yen; Windsor, Helen M; Marshall, Barry J; Peacock, Christopher; Perkins, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Isolates of Helicobacter pylori can be classified phylogeographically. High genetic diversity and rapid microevolution are a hallmark of H. pylori genomes, a phenomenon that is proposed to play a functional role in persistence and colonization of diverse human populations. To provide further genomic evidence in the lineage of H. pylori and to further characterize diverse strains of this pathogen in different human populations, we report the finished genome sequence of Sahul64, an H. pylori strain isolated from an indigenous Australian. Our analysis identified genes that were highly divergent compared to the 38 publically available genomes, which include genes involved in the biosynthesis and modification of lipopolysaccharide, putative prophage genes, restriction modification components, and hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the virulence-associated vacA locus is a pseudogene and the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is not present. However, the genome does contain a gene cluster associated with pathogenicity, including dupA. Our analysis found that with the addition of Sahul64 to the 38 genomes, the core genome content of H. pylori is reduced by approximately 14% (?170 genes) and the pan-genome has expanded from 2,070 to 2,238 genes. We have identified three putative horizontally acquired regions, including one that is likely to have been acquired from the closely related Helicobacter cetorum prior to speciation. Our results suggest that Sahul64, with the absence of cagPAI, highly divergent cell envelope proteins, and a predicted nontransportable VacA protein, could be more highly adapted to ancient indigenous Australian people but with lower virulence potential compared to other sequenced and cagPAI-positive H. pylori strains. PMID:24375107

  5. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  6. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is one of the most controversial bacteria in the world causing diverse gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission way of this bacterium still remains unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been suggested, but is not proven in nonprimate reservoirs. In the current survey, we investigate the presence of H. pylori in cow, sheep and goat stomach, determine the bacterium virulence factors and finally compare the human H. pylori virulence factors and animals in order to examine whether H. pylori might be transmitted from these animals to human beings. Methods This cross- sectional study was performed on 800 gastric biopsy specimens of cows, sheep, goats and human beings. The PCR assays was performed to detection of H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. The PCR products of Ruminant’s samples with positive H. pylori were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results Overall 6 (3%) cows, 32 (16%) sheep and 164 (82%) human beings specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive; however we were not able to detect this bacterium in all 200 goat samples. The vacA s1a/m1a was the predominant H. pylori genotype in all three kinds of studied population. There was 3.4–8.4% variability and 92.9-98.5% homology between sheep and human samples. Conclusions Considering the high sequence homology among DNA of H. pylori isolated from sheep and human, our data suggest that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and in the some extent share the ancestral host for the bacteria with human. PMID:24708464

  7. Sequence Divergence and Conservation in Genomes of Helicobacter cetorum Strains from a Dolphin and a Whale

    PubMed Central

    Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Rossi, Mirko; Berg, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Strains of Helicobacter cetorum have been cultured from several marine mammals and have been found to be closely related in 16 S rDNA sequence to the human gastric pathogen H. pylori, but their genomes were not characterized further. Methods The genomes of H. cetorum strains from a dolphin and a whale were sequenced completely using 454 technology and PCR and capillary sequencing. Results These genomes are 1.8 and 1.95 mb in size, some 7–26% larger than H. pylori genomes, and differ markedly from one another in gene content, and sequences and arrangements of shared genes. However, each strain is more related overall to H. pylori and its descendant H. acinonychis than to other known species. These H. cetorum strains lack cag pathogenicity islands, but contain novel alleles of the virulence-associated vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Of particular note are (i) an extra triplet of vacA genes with ≤50% protein-level identity to each other in the 5′ two-thirds of the gene needed for host factor interaction; (ii) divergent sets of outer membrane protein genes; (iii) several metabolic genes distinct from those of H. pylori; (iv) genes for an iron-cofactored urease related to those of Helicobacter species from terrestrial carnivores, in addition to genes for a nickel co-factored urease; and (v) members of the slr multigene family, some of which modulate host responses to infection and improve Helicobacter growth with mammalian cells. Conclusions Our genome sequence data provide a glimpse into the novelty and great genetic diversity of marine helicobacters. These data should aid further analyses of microbial genome diversity and evolution and infection and disease mechanisms in vast and often fragile ocean ecosystems. PMID:24358262

  8. Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Suzuki, Rumiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal, a low-risk country for gastric cancer, is debatable. To our knowledge, no studies have examined H. pylori virulence factors in Nepal. We determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection by using three different tests, and the genotypes of virulence factors were determined by PCR followed by sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to analyze the population structure of the Nepalese strains. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was 38.4% (56/146), and was significantly related with source of drinking water. In total, 51 strains were isolated and all were cagA-positive. Western-type-cagA (94.1%), cagA pre-EPIYA type with no deletion (92.2%), vacA s1a (74.5%), and m1c (54.9%) were the predominant genotypes. Antral mucosal atrophy levels were significantly higher in patients infected with vacA s1 than in those infected with s2 genotypes (P = 0.03). Several Nepalese strains were H. pylori recombinants with genetic features of South Asian and East Asian genotypes. These included all East-Asian-type-cagA strains, with significantly lesser activity and inflammation in the corpus than the strains of the specific South Asian genotype (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although the population structure confirmed that most Nepalese strains belonged to the hpAsia2 population, some strains shared hpEurope- and Nepalese-specific components. Nepalese patients infected with strains belonging to hpEurope showed higher inflammation in the antrum than strains from the Nepalese specific population (P = 0.05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. PMID:26226153

  10. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Harris, Paul R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Carolina Flórez, Astrid; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least twofold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p = 0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p < 0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42 and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (area under the curve < 0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. PMID:26178251

  11. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA. PMID:26493848

  12. Host-Interactive Genes in Amerindian Helicobacter pylori Diverge from Their Old World Homologs and Mediate Inflammatory Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Mane, S. P.; Dominguez-Bello, M. G.; Blaser, M. J.; Sobral, B. W.; Hontecillas, R.; Skoneczka, J.; Mohapatra, S. K.; Crasta, O. R.; Evans, C.; Modise, T.; Shallom, S.; Shukla, M.; Varon, C.; Mgraud, F.; Maldonado-Contreras, A. L.; Williams, K. P.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the dominant member of the gastric microbiota and has been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in adults. H. pylori populations have migrated and diverged with human populations, and health effects vary. Here, we describe the whole genome of the cag-positive strain V225d, cultured from a Venezuelan Piaroa Amerindian subject. To gain insight into the evolution and host adaptation of this bacterium, we undertook comparative H. pylori genomic analyses. A robust multiprotein phylogenetic tree reflects the major human migration out of Africa, across Europe, through Asia, and into the New World, placing Amerindian H. pylori as a particularly close sister group to East Asian H. pylori. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of the host-interactive genes vacA and cagA shows substantial divergence of Amerindian from Old World forms and indicates new genotypes (e.g., VacA m3) involving these loci. Despite deletions in CagA EPIYA and CRPIA domains, V225d stimulates interleukin-8 secretion and the hummingbird phenotype in AGS cells. However, following a 33-week passage in the mouse stomach, these phenotypes were lost in isolate V225-RE, which had a 15-kb deletion in the cag pathogenicity island that truncated CagA and eliminated some of the type IV secretion system genes. Thus, the unusual V225d cag architecture was fully functional via conserved elements, but the natural deletion of 13 cag pathogenicity island genes and the truncation of CagA impaired the ability to induce inflammation. PMID:20400544

  13. The Primary Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Taiwan after the National Policy to Restrict Antibiotic Consumption and Its Relation to Virulence Factors—A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Jyh; Chen, Chieh-Chang; Fang, Yu-Jen; Lee, Ji-Yuh; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Liou, Tai-Cherng; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Tseng, Cheng-Hao; Wu, Chun-Ying; Yang, Tsung-Hua; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Hsiu‐Po; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Bair, Ming-Jong; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Taiwan Government issued a policy to restrict antimicrobial usage since 2001. We aimed to assess the changes in the antibiotic consumption and the primary resistance of H. pylori after this policy and the impact of virulence factors on resistance. Methods The defined daily dose (DDD) of antibiotics was analyzed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) research database. H. pylori strains isolated from treatment naïve (N=1395) and failure from prior eradication therapies (N=360) from 9 hospitals between 2000 and 2012 were used for analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution test. Genotyping for CagA and VacA was determined by PCR method. Results The DDD per 1000 persons per day of macrolides reduced from 1.12 in 1997 to 0.19 in 2008, whereas that of fluoroquinolones increased from 0.12 in 1997 to 0.35 in 2008. The primary resistance of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline remained as low as 2.2%, 7.9%, 23.7%, and 1.9% respectively. However, the primary levofloxacin resistance rose from 4.9% in 2000–2007 to 8.3% in 2008–2010 and 13.4% in 2011–2012 (p=0.001). The primary resistance of metronidazole was higher in females than males (33.1% vs. 18.8%, p<0.001), which was probably attributed to the higher consumption of nitroimidazole. Neither CagA nor VacA was associated with antibiotic resistance. Conclusions The low primary clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance of H. pylori in Taiwan might be attributed to the reduced consumption of macrolides and nitroimidazole after the national policy to restrict antimicrobial usage. Yet, further strategies are needed to restrict the consumption of fluoroquinolones in the face of rising levofloxacin resistance. PMID:25942450

  14. Loma La Lata giant gas field from a petroleum paleosystem, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Guillermo, A.J.; Guillermo, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    The elements of a fully developed petroleum system may undergo later modifications, transforming it to a new system. We define the original system as a Petroleum Paleosystem. In the evolution of the Loma La Lata gas field, diagenetic processes have played a major role in the entrapment since reservoir, lateral and top seals consist of eolian sandstones. The gas origin can be explained as an early oil accumulation trapped between the Late Jurassic to Early Tertiary (petroleum paleosystem) that since Late Tertiary underwent a weak but sufficient thermal degradation to provoke the oil cracking resulting in the co-generation of wet gas+condensate+pyrobitumen-like residue. The elements of the paleosystem are: the Kimmeridgian eolian sandstones of the Sierras Blancas Formation+Catriel Formation as reservoir; the source rock and vertical seat is the rich organic matter marine shales associated with the 139 Ma MFS of the Vaca Muerta Formation; the lateral seal is the eolian facies of the Sierras Blancas Formation that experienced very early diagenesis under the strong influence of the phreatic oscillations in areas of maximum subsidence (Sauzal Bonito); the structural trap is related to the Cenomanian tectonic inversion phase; the expulsion peak was reached in the Late Eocene (40 Ma) and the migration from Vaca Muerta Formation. In the last 5 Ma the paleosystem was transformed by processes related to temperature increase. Subsequent calcite precipitation is extensive and resulted in the transformation of eolianites of the Catriel Formation in the vertical seal and coeval down dip remigration from the top of the structure. The intra-reservoir oil cracking has occurred as a consequence of an increment in the subsidence rate accompanied by an abnormally high geothermal gradient in the area.

  15. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  16. Astronomía Mocoví

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

  17. Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

  18. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  19. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparna; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Yan, Ming; Joo, Jungsoo; Gu, Lei; Sang, Hong; Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Wood, William G; Ni, Yisheng; Smith, Kimberly; Jackson, Sharon H; Coleman, William G

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host. METHODS: In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes. We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector, pIVET8, which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors, pIVET11 and pIVET12. Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H. pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase. Additionally, each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene. We used a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 and mice, as selective media to identify specific genes that H. pylori expresses in vivo. Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H. pylori. This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes. RESULTS: In this study, we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens. These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families, including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs. Virulence factors, vacA and cagA, were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H. pylori infection, colonization and pathogenesis. Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems. Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H. pylori RNA isolated from H. pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages. We compared the expression profile of H. pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H. pylori only. Some genes such as cagA, vacA, lpxC, murI, tlpC, trxB, sodB, tnpB, pgi, rbfA and infB showed a 2-20 fold upregulation. Statistically significant upregulation was obtained for all the above mentioned genes (P < 0.05). tlpC, cagA, vacA, sodB, rbfA, infB, tnpB, lpxC and murI were also significantly upregulated (P < 0.01). These data suggest a strong correlation between results obtained in vitro in the macrophage cell line and in the intact animal. CONCLUSION: The positive identification of these genes demonstrates that our IVET systems are powerful tools for studying H. pylori gene expression in the host environment. PMID:22969195

  20. Instrumental Role of Helicobacter pylori γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in VacA-Dependent Vacuolation in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Khoo, Lawrence Han Boon; Hwang, Le-Ann; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Ho, Bow

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes cellular vacuolation in host cells, a cytotoxic event attributed to vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the presence of permeant weak bases such as ammonia. We report here the role of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a constitutively expressed secretory enzyme of H. pylori, in potentiating VacA-dependent vacuolation formation in H. pylori-infected AGS and primary gastric cells. The enhancement is brought about by GGT hydrolysing glutamine present in the extracellular medium, thereby releasing ammonia which accentuates the VacA-induced vacuolation. The events of vacuolation in H. pylori wild type (WT)- and Δggt-infected AGS cells were first captured and visualized by real-time phase-contrast microscopy where WT was observed to induce more vacuoles than Δggt. By using semi-quantitative neutral red uptake assay, we next showed that Δggt induced significantly less vacuolation in AGS and primary gastric epithelial cells as compared to the parental strain (P<0.05) indicating that GGT potentiates the vacuolating effect of VacA. Notably, vacuolation induced by WT was significantly reduced in the absence of GGT substrate, glutamine (P<0.05) or in the presence of a competitive GGT inhibitor, serine-borate complex. Furthermore, the vacuolating ability of Δggt was markedly restored when co-incubated with purified recombinant GGT (rGGT), although rGGT itself did not induce vacuolation independently. Similarly, the addition of exogenous ammonium chloride as a source of ammonia also rescued the ability of Δggt to induce vacuolation. Additionally, we also show that monoclonal antibodies against GGT effectively inhibited GGT activity and successfully suppressed H. pylori-induced vacuolation. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that generation of ammonia by GGT through glutamine hydrolysis is responsible for enhancing VacA-dependent vacuolation. Our findings provide a new perspective on GGT as an important virulence factor and a promising target in the management of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. PMID:26111186

  1. Infection with CagA-Positive Helicobacter Pylori Strain Containing Three EPIYA C Phosphorylation Sites is Associated with More Severe Gastric Lesions in Experimentally Infected Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Junior, M. Ferreira; Batista, S.A.; Vidigal, P.V.T; Cordeiro, A.A.C.; Oliveira, F.M.S.; Prata, L.O.; Diniz, A.E.T.; Barral, C.M.; Barbuto, R.C.; Comes, A.D.; Araujo, I.D.; Queiroz, D.M.M.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains containing high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites in the CagA is associated with significant gastritis and increased risk of developing pre-malignant gastric lesions and gastric carcinoma. However, these findings have not been reproduced in animal models yet. Therefore, we investigated the effect on the gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains exhibiting one or three EPIYA-C phosphorilation sites. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori clonal isolates containing one or three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. Control group was composed by uninfected animals challenged with Brucella broth alone. Gastric fragments were evaluated by the modified Sydney System and digital morphometry. Clonal relatedness between the isolates was considered by the identical RAPD-PCR profiles and sequencing of five housekeeping genes, vacA i/d region and of oipA. The other virulence markers were present in both isolates (vacA s1i1d1m1, iceA2, and intact dupA). CagA of both isolates was translocated and phosphorylated in AGS cells. After 45 days of infection, there was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells and in the area of the lamina propria in the infected animals, notably in those infected by the CagA-positive strain with three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. After six months of infection, a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites was associated with progressive increase in the intensity of gastritis and in the area of the lamina propria. Atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were also observed more frequently in animals infected with the CagA-positive isolate with three EPIYA-C sites. We conclude that infection with H. pylori strain carrying a high number of CagA EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in an animal model of H. pylori infection. PMID:26150158

  2. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

  3. Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is geochemically of low grade. In contrast, a large crosscutting bitumen dyke is of higher grade and formed later. At other localities, near basement faults, bitumen dykes have cap-rocks of hydrothermal calcrete. Other dykes or their wall rocks contain hydrothermal minerals. Finally, some dykes splay upward towards the current land surface. We conclude that (1) the bitumen dykes formed during volcanic activity in Pliocene-Pleistocene times, and that (2) heat advection by hydrothermal fluids helped to generate oil, which migrated upwards or downwards from the source rock and filled intrusive veins, before solidifying to bitumen, by loss of volatile elements. This unconventional hydrocarbon system may have significant implications for regional exploration in the foothills of the Andes.

  4. Indistinguishable cellular changes in gastric mucosa between Helicobacter pylori infected asymptomatic tribal and duodenal ulcer patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Dhira Rani; Datta, Simanti; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; Patra, Rajashree; De, Ronita; Rajendran, Krishnan; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ramamurthy, Thandavaryan; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changing pattern of different histological parameters occurring in the stomach tissue of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infected tribal populations and duodenal ulcer patients among ethnic Bengalis and correlation of the genotypes of H pylori with different histological parameters. METHODS: One hundred and twelve adult individuals were enrolled into this study between 2002 and 2004. Among them, 72 had clinical features of duodenal ulcer (DU) from ethnic Bengali population and 40 were asymptomatic ethnic tribals. Endoscopic gastric biopsy samples were processed for histology, genotyping and rapid urease test. Histologically, haematoxylin and eosin staining was applied to assess the pathomorphological changes and a modified Giemsa staining was used for better detection of H pylori. For intestinal metaplasia, special stainings, i.e. Alcian blue periodic acid-Schiff and high iron diamine-Alcian blue staining, were performed. PCR was performed on bacterial DNA to characterize the presence or absence of virulence-associated genes, like cagA, and distribution of different alleles of vacA and iceA. RESULTS: Intraglandular neutrophil infiltration, a hallmark of activity of gastritis, was present in 34 (94%) of tribals (TRs) and 42 (84%) of DU individuals infected with H pylori. Lymphoid follicles and aggregates, which are important landmarks in H pylori infection, were positive amongst 15 (41%) of TRs and 20 (40%) of DU subjects. Atrophic changes were observed in 60% and 27.7%, respectively, among DU cases and tribals (P > 0.003). Metaplastic changes were detected in low numbers in both groups. Moderate to severe density distribution of H pylori in the gastric mucosa was 63% among TRs, whereas it was 62% in DU subjects. There were no significant differences in the distribution of virulence-associated genes like cagA, vacA and iceA of H pylori strains carried by these two populations. CONCLUSION: Our study showed almost similar distribution of inflammatory cells among asymptomatic tribals and DU Bengali patients. Interestingly, the tribal population are free from any clinical symptoms despite evidence of active histologic gastritis and infection with H pylori strains carrying similar virulence markers as of strains isolated from patients with DU. There was an increased cellular response, especially in terms of neutrophil infiltration, but much lower risk of developing atrophy and metaplastic changes among the tribal population. PMID:19266604

  5. 20 years of mass balances on the Piloto glacier, Las Cuevas river basin, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J. C.; Cabrera, G. A.; Lenzano, L. E.

    2007-10-01

    Climatic changes of the 20th century have altered the water cycle in the Andean basins of central Argentina. The most visible change is seen in the mountain glaciers, with loss of part of their mass due to decreasing thickness and a substantial recession in the last 100 years. This paper briefly describes the results of glacier mass balance research since 1979 in the Piloto Glacier at the Cajón del Rubio, in the headwaters of Las Cuevas River, presenting new results for the period 1997-2003. Very large interannual variability of net annual specific balance is evident, due largely to variations in winter snow accumulation, with a maximum net annual value of + 151 cm w.e. and a minimum value of - 230 cm w.e. Wet El Niño years are normally associated with positive net annual balances, while dry La Niña years generally result in negative balances. Within the 24-year period, 67% of the years show negative net annual specific balances, with a cumulative mass balance loss of - 10.50 m water equivalent (w.e.). Except for exceptions normally related to El Niño events, a general decreasing trend of winter snow accumulation is evident in the record, particularly after 1992, which has a strong effect in the overall negative mass balance values. The glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River runoff is analysed based on the Punta de Vacas River gauge station for a hypothetical year without snow precipitation (YWSP), when the snowmelt component is zero. Extremely dry years similar to a YWSP have occurred in 1968-1969, 1969-1970 and 1996-1997. The Punta de Vacas gauge station is located 62 km downstream from Piloto Glacier, and the basin contains 3.0% of uncovered glacier ice and 3.7% of debris-covered ice. The total glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River discharge is calculated as 82 ± 8% during extremely dry years. If glacier wastage continues at the present trend as observed during the last 2 decades, it will severely affect the water resources in the arid central Andes of Argentina.

  6. Mesozoic inversion in southeastern parts of the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina: Implications for tectonic deformation and stratigraphic development across the Andean foreland of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, G. O.; Dorobek, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Neuquén Basin of west-central Argentina is a segment of the Andean foreland that has significant structural complexity due to protracted intraforeland deformation between Late Triassic to Recent time. Some structural features in the Neuquén Basin predate the main phases of the Andean orogeny although these structures were reactivated later and influenced basin configuration during the foreland-basin stage. The most conspicuous of these structures is the Huincul Arch, a 200-km-long right-lateral shear zone that was most active during Jurassic to Cretaceous time. Inversion structures along the Huincul Arch are associated with a restraining bend along the main east-west trending shear zone that cuts across the Argentine foreland. An extensive seismic and borehole data set was analyzed to evaluate the styles and intensity of Mesozoic foreland deformation in an approximately 10,000 sq km area north of the Huincul Arch. Transpressional and transtensional deformation is broadly distributed across the study area and other parts of the Neuquén foreland, although a series of inversion structures (e.g., Sierra Barrosa and Aguada Toledo anticlines) reflect more intense, localized deformation. These structures are the result of inversion of Late Triassic half-grabens and produced fault-propagation folds that affected the post-rift fill up to the Upper Jurassic (Tithonian). The most significant reactivation along the Huincul Arch south of our study area occurred during Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) time along the main displacement zone. To the north, however, significant inversion was slightly younger and occurred during and after deposition of the Tithonian to Berriasian (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) Vaca Muerta and Quintuco formations. Thus, early phases of tectonic inversion across the Argentine foreland were diachronous and likely reflect an accumulation of strain along the Huincul Arch was necessary before additional strain could propagate northward into our study area. Seismic-stratigraphic analyses also show that the growing inversion structures created bathymetric perturbations that affected sediment dispersal and stratigraphic development north of the Huincul Arch during deposition of the Vaca Muerta-Quintuco interval. This study contributes to the understanding of Pre-Andean deformation in the Neuquén Basin. 3D seismic data across the study area also provides a unique opportunity to investigate the geometries and kinematic history of inversion across the Andean foreland, as well as to evaluate tectonic controls on Mesozoic stratigraphic development in the poorly understood Northern Sub-basin of the Neuquén Basin.

  7. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. PMID:26931643

  8. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wenbo; Bai, Bing; Sheng, Liang; Li, Yan; Yue, Ping; Li, Xun; Qiao, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers of digestive system globally and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is believed to be a major risk factor. HP can be classified into different types based on the presence and expression level of CagA and VacA, and, when exposed to adverse environment, HP changes its phenotype from helical type to coccoid type, with each having different pathogenicity. The mechanisms of HP-induced gastric carcinogenesis and progression are complicated, including DNA nitration and oxidation induced by mutagenic factors, HP-induced epigenetic modifications, HP-induced disruption of the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, and HP-induced cancer cell invasion and metastasis. HP may also affect the biological function of cancer stem cells and induction of cell autophagy. The lipopolysaccharide produced by HP can act through toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) to induce gastric mucosal inflammation and is thereby linked to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:26645900

  9. Salt glands in the Jurassic metriorhynchid Geosaurus: implications for the evolution of osmoregulation in Mesozoic marine crocodyliforms.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marta; Gasparini, Zulma

    2008-01-01

    The presence of salt-excreting glands in extinct marine sauropsids has been long suspected based on skull morphology. Previously, we described for the first time the natural casts of salt-excreting glands in the head of the Jurassic metriorhynchid crocodyliform Geosaurus araucanensis from the Tithonian of the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquén Basin (Argentina). In the present study, salt-excreting glands are identified in three new individuals (adult, a sub-adult and a juvenile) referable to the same species. New material provides significant information on the salt glands form and function and permit integration of evolutionary scenarios proposed on a physiological basis in extant taxa with evidence from the fossil record. G. araucanensis represents an advanced stage of the basic physiological model to marine adaptations in reptiles. G. araucanensis salt glands were hypertrophied. On this basis, it can be hypothesized that these glands had a high excretory capability. This stage implies that G. araucanensis (like extant pelagic reptiles, e.g. cheloniids) could have maintained constant plasma osmolality even when seawater or osmoconforming prey were ingested. A gradual model of marine adaptation in crocodyliforms based on physiology (freshwater to coastal/estuarine to estuarine /marine to pelagic life) is congruent with the phylogeny of crocodyliforms based on skeletal morphology. The fossil record suggests that the stage of marine pelagic adaptation was achieved by the Early Middle Jurassic. Salt gland size in the juvenile suggests that juveniles were, like adults, pelagic. PMID:17712540

  10. The functional interplay of Helicobacter pylori factors with gastric epithelial cells induces a multi-step process in pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infections with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can lead to severe gastric diseases ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to neoplastic changes in the stomach. Development and progress of H. pylori-associated disorders are determined by multifarious bacterial factors. Many of them interact directly with host cells or require specific receptors, while others enter the host cytoplasm to derail cellular functions. Several adhesins (e.g. BabA, SabA, AlpA/B, or OipA) establish close contact with the gastric epithelium as an important first step in persistent colonization. Soluble H. pylori factors (e.g. urease, VacA, or HtrA) have been suggested to alter cell survival and intercellular adhesions. Via a type IV secretion system (T4SS), H. pylori also translocates the effector cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and peptidoglycan directly into the host cytoplasm, where cancer- and inflammation-associated signal transduction pathways can be deregulated. Through these manifold possibilities of interaction with host cells, H. pylori interferes with the complex signal transduction networks in its host and mediates a multi-step pathogenesis. PMID:24099599

  11. Exclusive measurements of pion nucleon going to pion pion nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermani, Mohammad Arjomand

    The pion induced pion production reactions ?p/to??+n were studied at projectile incident energies of 223, 243, 264, 284, and 305 MeV. The Canadian High Acceptance Orbit Spectrometer (CHAOS) was used to detected the charged particles, which originated from the interaction of the incident pion beam with a cryogenic liquid hydrogen target. The experimental results are presented in the form of single, double and triple differential cross sections. Total cross sections obtained by integrating the differential quantities are also reported. The experimental data, namely the ?-p/to?-?+n double differential cross sections, were used as input to the Chew-Low extrapolation procedure which was utilized to determine on-shell ?+?- elastic scattering cross sections in the near threshold region. The Chew-Low results (the extrapolated ?pi cross sections) were then used in a dispersion analysis (Roy equations) to obtain the ?pi isospin zero S-wave scattering length. We find a00=0.209/pm 0.011?-1. In addition, the invariant mass distributions from the (?+?-) channel were fitted to determine the model parameters for the extended model of Oset and Vicente-Vacas. We find that the model parameters obtained from fitting the (?+?-) data do not describe the invariant mass distributions in the (?+?+) channel.

  12. Recombination-based in vivo expression technology identifies Helicobacter pylori genes important for host colonization.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Andrea R; Woodruff, Andrew J; Connolly, Lynn E; Sause, William E; Ottemann, Karen M

    2008-12-01

    Here we undertook to identify colonization and gastric disease-promoting factors of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori as genes that were induced in response to the stomach environment. Using recombination-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET), we identified six promoters induced in the host compared to laboratory conditions. Three of these promoters, designated Pivi10, Pivi66, and Pivi77, regulate genes that H. pylori may use to interact with other microbes or the host. Pivi10 likely regulates the mobA, mobB, and mobD genes, which have potential roles in horizontal gene transfer through plasmid mobilization. Pivi66 occurs in the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island, a genomic region known to be associated with more severe disease outcomes, and likely regulates cagZ, virB11, and virD4. Pivi77 likely regulates HP0289, an uncharacterized paralogue of the vacA cytotoxin gene. We assessed the roles of a subset of these genes in colonization by creating deletion mutants and analyzing them in single-strain and coinfection experiments. We found that a mobABD mutant was defective for murine host colonization and that a cagZ mutant outcompeted the wild-type strain in a coinfection analysis. Our work supports the conclusion that RIVET is a valuable tool for identifying H. pylori factors with roles in host colonization. PMID:18794279

  13. Phylogeographic origin of Helicobacter pylori determines host-adaptive responses upon coculture with gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sheh, Alexander; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Merrell, D Scott; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T; Fox, James G

    2013-07-01

    While Helicobacter pylori infects over 50% of the world's population, the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric disease are not fully understood. Bacterial, host, and environmental factors play a role in disease outcome. To investigate the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori pathogenesis, global gene expression of six H. pylori isolates was analyzed during coculture with gastric epithelial cells. Clustering analysis of six Colombian clinical isolates from a region with low gastric cancer risk and a region with high gastric cancer risk segregated strains based on their phylogeographic origin. One hundred forty-six genes had increased expression in European strains, while 350 genes had increased expression in African strains. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with motility, pathogenicity, and other adaptations to the host environment. European strains had greater expression of the virulence factors cagA, vacA, and babB and were associated with increased gastric histologic lesions in patients. In AGS cells, European strains promoted significantly higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression than did African strains. African strains significantly induced apoptosis, whereas only one European strain significantly induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that gene expression profiles of clinical isolates can discriminate strains by phylogeographic origin and that these profiles are associated with changes in expression of the proinflammatory and protumorigenic cytokine IL-8 and levels of apoptosis in host epithelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that bacterial factors determined by the phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains may promote increased gastric disease. PMID:23630959

  14. Identification of putative vaccine candidates against Helicobacter pylori exploiting exoproteome and secretome: a reverse vaccinology based approach.

    PubMed

    Naz, Anam; Awan, Faryal Mehwish; Obaid, Ayesha; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Paracha, Rehan Zafar; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Amjad

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen associated with diverse gastric disorders ranging from peptic ulcer to malignancy. It has also been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as class I carcinogen. Conventional treatment regimens for H. pylori seem to be ineffective, possibly due to antibiotic resistance mechanisms acquired by the pathogen. In this study we have successfully employed a reverse vaccinology approach to predict the potential vaccine candidates against H. pylori. The predicted potential vaccine candidates include vacA, babA, sabA, fecA and omp16. Host-pathogen interactions analysis elaborated their direct or indirect role in the specific signaling pathways including epithelial cell polarity, metabolism, secretion system and transport. Furthermore, surface-exposed antigenic epitopes were predicted and analyzed for conservation among 39 complete genomes of H. pylori (Genbank) for all the candidate proteins. These epitopes may serve as a base for the development of broad spectrum peptide or multi-component vaccines against H. pylori. We also believe that the proposed pipeline can be extended to other pathogens and for the identification of novel candidates for the development of effective vaccines. PMID:25818402

  15. NMR-based Molecular Rheology of Entangled Polymers in Bulk and in Nanoscopic Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalwachter, Kay; Trutschel, Marie-Luise; Vaca Chavez, Fabian

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of simple proton low-field NMR to probe the validity of the tube model of polymer dynamics. The method yields a time-domain measure of the segmental orientation autocorrelation function C(t), which in turn is directly related to the stress relaxation modulus G(t), thus providing a true molecular measure of rheologically relevant quantities. The fixed-tube model does not describe actual data well, and current work focuses on deuteron labeling schemes to investigate the relevance of contour-length fluctuation (CLF) or constraint release (CR) effects. As first results, we found that unexpectedly, CR processes are responsible for modified chain modes faster than actual reptation [1], and also that the dynamics is inhomogeneous along a given chain, stressing also the significance of CLF. We also present recent results for melt dynamics in nanoscopic confinement of long cylindrical channels of 20-400 nm diameter [2]. We consistently observe a fraction of chains whose dynamics is less isotropic on long time scales, i.e., in the Doi-Edwards regimes III (reptation) and IV (disentangled dynamics)[0pt] [1] F. Vaca Ch'avez, K. Saalw"achter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 198305 (2010), [2] S. Ok et al., Macromolecules 43, 4429 (2010)

  16. Four thousand years of environmental change and human activity in the Cochabamba Basin, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Gosling, William D.; Coe, Angela L.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Gulliver, Pauline

    The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human-environmental interactions. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability ( c. 4000-3370 and c. 2190-1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes ( c. 3370-2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP-present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus ( Sporormiella) c. 1340 -1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.

  17. Efficacy of the antimicrobial peptide TP4 against Helicobacter pylori infection: in vitro membrane perturbation via micellization and in vivo suppression of host immune responses in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Jayaram Lakshmaiah; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancer. Antibiotic treatment regimens have low success rates due to the rapid occurrence of resistant H. pylori strains, necessitating the development of novel anti-H. pylori strategies. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of a novel peptide, Tilapia Piscidin 4 (TP4), against multidrug resistant gastric pathogen H. pylori, based on its in vitro and in vivo efficacy. TP4 inhibited the growth of both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant H. pylori (CagA+, VacA+) via membrane micelle formation, which led to membrane depolarization and extravasation of cellular constituents. During colonization of gastric tissue, H. pylori infection maintains high T regulatorysubsets and a low Th17/Treg ratio, and results in expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment with TP4 suppressed Treg subset populations and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TP4 restored the Th17/Treg balance, which resulted in early clearance of H. pylori density and recovery of gastric morphology. Toxicity studies demonstrated that TP4 treatment has no adverse effects in mice or rabbits. The results of this study indicate that TP4 may be an effective and safe monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multidrug resistant H. pylori infections. PMID:26002554

  18. A review of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  20. Signal transduction of Helicobacter pylori during interaction with host cell protein receptors of epithelial and immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infections can induce pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration to gastric cancer. Bacterial isolates harbor numerous well-known adhesins, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, protease HtrA, urease, peptidoglycan, and type IV secretion systems (T4SS). It appears that H. pylori targets more than 40 known host protein receptors on epithelial or immune cells. A series of T4SS components such as CagL, CagI, CagY, and CagA can bind to the integrin α5β1 receptor. Other targeted membrane-based receptors include the integrins αvβ3, αvβ5, and β2 (CD18), RPTP-α/β, GP130, E-cadherin, fibronectin, laminin, CD46, CD74, ICAM1/LFA1, T-cell receptor, Toll-like receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and c-Met. In addition, H. pylori is able to activate the intracellular receptors NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 with important roles in innate immunity. Here we review the interplay of various bacterial factors with host protein receptors. The contribution of these interactions to signal transduction and pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:24280762

  1. The engineering and geological constraints of the intraslope basins and submarine canyons of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, W.R.; Yuh Liu, J.; Ponthier, J.

    1995-10-01

    It is well realized that future hydrocarbon discoveries on the upper and lower continental slope and rise off Texas and Louisiana necessitate innovative methods for the construction of platforms and pipelines in a very difficult engineering and complex geological environment. There are 105 intraslope basins and 5 major submarine canyons on the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, many of which may be prime targets for hydrocarbon production. Examination of the physiographic, geophysical and geotechnical characteristics of the intraslope basins of Pigmy and Vaca basins and the Alaminos submarine canyon are used as examples to typify the various engineering and geological constraints that are most likely to be encountered on the continental slope and rise and along the Sigsbee Escarpment in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. High-resolution bathymetry identifies such constraints as high-angle intraslope basin walls, walls that exceed 40 degrees are not uncommon. Sediment slumps and other instabilities, such as long-term sediment creep and other affects of halokenesis and contemporaneous faulting, are illustrated and evaluated from high-resolution geophysics. The small canyons and large gullies that dissect the parameter flanks of Alaminos Canyon, that may be the results of both recent and old turbidity currents and debris flows, are structures that require engineering consideration in the implement of seafloor structures in, near or down slope of these features.

  2. Down-regulated Th17 Responses Are Associated with Reduced Gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Cover, Timothy L.; Venegas, Alejandro; Salazar, Maria G.; Smythies, Lesley E.; Harris, Paul R.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces less gastric inflammation in children than adults. Here we investigated whether this reduced inflammation involves dysregulated Th17 responses. H. pylori-infected children and adults in Santiago, Chile had similar levels of H. pylori colonization, proportions of bacteria containing cagA and s1/s2 vacA markers of virulence and strain genotypes (predominantly hpEurope), but the children had significantly reduced levels of gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The reduced neutrophil accumulation in infected children was accompanied by significantly fewer gastric Th17 cells and significantly lower levels of IL-17-specific mRNA and protein compared to infected adults. The gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected children also contained higher numbers of IL-10+ cells and increased levels of both IL-10 and Foxp3 mRNA compared to that of infected adults. Thus, reduced gastric inflammation, including diminished neutrophil accumulation, in H. pylori-infected children compared with infected adults is likely due to down-regulated gastric Th17/IL-17 responses as a consequence of enhanced mucosal regulatory T cell activity in the children. PMID:23299619

  3. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. PMID:26931643

  4. Growth phase-dependent composition of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Christina A; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Analysis of H. pylori protein secretion is complicated by the occurrence of bacterial autolysis. In this study, we analyzed the exoproteome of H. pylori at multiple phases of bacterial growth and identified 74 proteins that are selectively released into the extracellular space. These include proteins known to cause alterations in host cells, antigenic proteins, and additional proteins that have not yet been studied in any detail. The composition of the H. pylori exoproteome is dependent on the phase of bacterial growth. For example, the proportional abundance of the vacuolating toxin VacA in culture supernatant is higher during late growth phases than early growth phases, whereas the proportional abundance of many other proteins is higher during early growth phases. We detected marked variation in the subcellular localization of putative secreted proteins within soluble and membrane fractions derived from intact bacteria. By providing a comprehensive view of the H. pylori exoproteome, these results provide new insights into the array of secreted H. pylori proteins that may cause alterations in the gastric environment. PMID:26363098

  5. Antibacterial activities of almond skins on cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is known to be a gastric pathogen of humans. Eradication regimens for H. pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the need for alternative therapies for H. pylori infections is of special interest. We have previously shown that polyphenols from almond skins are active against a range of food-borne pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of natural almond skins before and after simulated human digestion and the pure flavonoid compounds epicatechin, naringenin and protocatechuic acid against H. pylori. Results H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsy samples following standard microbiology procedures. Also, cagA and vacA genes were identified using PCR. Susceptibility studies on 34 strains of H. pylori, including two reference strains (ATCC 43504, ATCC 49503), were performed by the standard agar dilution method. Natural almond skin was the most effective compound against H. pylori (MIC range, 64 to 128?g/ml), followed by natural skin post gastric digestion (MIC range, 128 to 512?g/ml), and natural almond skin post gastric plus duodenal digestion (MIC range, 256 to 512?g/ml). Amongst the pure flavonoid compounds, protocatechuic acid showed the greatest activity (MIC range, 128 to 512?g/ml) against H. pylori strains. Conclusions Polyphenols from almond skins were effective in vitro against H. pylori, irrespective of genotype status and could therefore be used in combination with antibiotics as a novel strategy for antibiotic resistance. PMID:23659287

  6. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  7. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kusters, Johannes G.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:16847081

  8. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Upper Jurassic open-marine microbialites (Neuquén Basin, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Palma, Ricardo M.; López-Gómez, José; Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2011-04-01

    Penecontemporaneous decimetre-scale soft-sediment deformation structures are reported from the basal part of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, in the Malargüe-Las Leñas area of the back-arc Neuquén Basin (Mendoza Province, Central Andes). The deformed interval (Amarillas bed) is only 0.3 to 0.9 m thick but occurs in a wide area, larger than 1500 km 2. Its age, determined by ammonite biostratigraphy, is Early Tithonian. The soft-sediment deformation structures were generated in finely laminated, partially consolidated, organic-rich, carbonate microbialites that were deposited in open-marine, poorly oxygenated settings, apparently devoid of any significant slope. Those structures include boudins of different sizes and complexity, a variety of folds, normal (listric) dm-scale faults, sub-horizontal detachment surfaces and other features, which are part of several larger-scale, complex slump structures. Deformation was dominantly plastic but near to the ductile-brittle field transition. On the basis of the observed soft-deformation structures, their geographic distribution, their lateral homogeneity, and the geodynamic framework of the basin in which it was generated, the Amarillas bed can be tentatively attributed to a large, intermediate-depth earthquake that occurred within the plate that subducted beneath the Andean continental margin and the Neuquén back-arc basin.

  9. Upper Jurassic ramp carbonate and associated evaporite, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.

  10. Compositional differences between basaltic and gabbroic clasts in mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Jerde, Eric A.

    1988-03-01

    Two gabbroic pebbles and one pebble with basaltic textural affinities from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and electron microprobe. These analyses plus literature data reveal remarkable compositional differences between basaltic and gabbroic clasts in mesosiderites. On average, basaltic clasts have small (15%) depletions in light relative to heavy rare earth elements (REEs) and moderate positive Eu anomalies (i.e., H-chondrite-normalized La/Lu= 0.85; Eu/Sm= 1.30). The mean La/Lu and Eu/Sm abundance ratios of gabbroic clasts are at least 3.3 × smaller and 28 × greater, respectively. Intense meteoroid bombardment probably persisted until after the mesosiderite parent body had differentiated. Near-surface mixtures of major amounts of basalt and lesser amounts of cumulate eucritic rocks were essentially totally melted and rapidly cooled, accounting for the moderately fractionated REE patterns of most basaltic clasts. At greater depths, impact-heating partially melted cumulate gabbros; incompatible-element-rich eutectic liquids drained away, creating large REE fractionations in the residual rocks. These rocks cooled slowly and developed gabbroic textures.

  11. Salt glands in the Jurassic metriorhynchid Geosaurus: implications for the evolution of osmoregulation in Mesozoic marine crocodyliforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Marta; Gasparini, Zulma

    2008-01-01

    The presence of salt-excreting glands in extinct marine sauropsids has been long suspected based on skull morphology. Previously, we described for the first time the natural casts of salt-excreting glands in the head of the Jurassic metriorhynchid crocodyliform Geosaurus araucanensis from the Tithonian of the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquén Basin (Argentina). In the present study, salt-excreting glands are identified in three new individuals (adult, a sub-adult and a juvenile) referable to the same species. New material provides significant information on the salt glands form and function and permit integration of evolutionary scenarios proposed on a physiological basis in extant taxa with evidence from the fossil record. G. araucanensis represents an advanced stage of the basic physiological model to marine adaptations in reptiles. G. araucanensis salt glands were hypertrophied. On this basis, it can be hypothesized that these glands had a high excretory capability. This stage implies that G. araucanensis (like extant pelagic reptiles, e.g. cheloniids) could have maintained constant plasma osmolality even when seawater or osmoconforming prey were ingested. A gradual model of marine adaptation in crocodyliforms based on physiology (freshwater to coastal/estuarine to estuarine /marine to pelagic life) is congruent with the phylogeny of crocodyliforms based on skeletal morphology. The fossil record suggests that the stage of marine pelagic adaptation was achieved by the Early Middle Jurassic. Salt gland size in the juvenile suggests that juveniles were, like adults, pelagic.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J.; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2015-01-01

    The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host–pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

  13. The antibacterial mode of action of allitridi for its potential use as a therapeutic agent against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Sun, Yundong; Li, Wenjuan; Yu, Han; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhifang; Zeng, Jiping; Zhou, Yabin; Chen, Chunyan; Jia, Jihui

    2010-02-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori with traditional therapy often fails in clinical treatment. As a result, a novel efficacious therapeutic agent is strongly needed. Allitridi, a proprietary garlic derivative, has been successfully used to treat both systemic fungal and bacterial infections in China. Our previous study has shown a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of allitridi on H. pylori growth. However, the antibacterial mode of action of allitridi is still unclear. Proteomic analysis was used to study the global protein alterations induced by allitridi. A total of 21 protein spots were identified to be differentially expressed. Our results indicated that the bacteriostatic mechanism of allitridi in H. pylori can be attributed to its multitarget inhibitory effects in energy metabolism and biosynthesis including amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, mRNA synthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis. Allitridi can also disturb the expression of antioxidant proteins and decrease the production of virulence factors. Western blot analysis showed that allitridi at subinhibitory concentrations can potently suppress the production of CagA and VacA. Our investigations on the antibacterial mode of action of allitridi provide an insight into the potential use of allitridi as a therapeutic agent against H. pylori infection. PMID:20030729

  14. Correlation Between Mucosal IL-6 mRNA Expression Level and Virulence Factors of Helicobacter pylori in Iranian Adult Patients With Chronic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Nader; Shirzad, Mahsa; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis and marked infiltration of the gastric mucosa by several cytokines secreting inflammatory cells that contribute to sustained local inflammation. In this study, we sought to examine IL-6 expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric mucosa and elucidate the implication in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastritis in human. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine mucosal IL-6 mRNA expression level and their correlation with virulence factors and the grade of chronic gastritis among H. pylori infected patients with chronic gastritis from Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods: Mucosal IL-6 mRNA levels was measured by real-time PCR using endoscopic biopsies taken from the gastric antrum of 58 subjects infected with H. pylori and 44 uninfected subjects. Presence of vacA and cagA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. Results: The IL-6 mRNA expression levels were significantly more elevated in H. pylori-positive patients than uninfected individuals and expression of this cytokine was independent from the virulence factors. There was a correlation between IL-6 expression level and the grade of chronic gastritis. Conclusions: Enhanced induction of IL-6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastritis. PMID:26464767

  15. Fine resolution chronology based on initial Sr-87/Sr-86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, B. W.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Capo, R. C.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    It has been recognized that small variations in initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (Sr(sub I)), can provide a fine scale relative chronology for the chemical fractionation of materials with low Rb/Sr from parent reservoirs with high Rb/Sr. Similarly, Sr(sub I), as determined for low Rb/Sr phases in meteorites, may permit a fine resolution chronology of the recrystallization or metamorphism of planetary materials. For the establishment of a primitive Sr-87/Sr-86 chronology, it is important to search for samples with extremely low Rb/Sr for which the measured Sr-87/Sr-86 is below BABI, in which case the primitive nature of the Sr can be directly established. Using the measured Rb/Sr to calculate an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 can introduce substantial uncertainty if the Rb-Sr are disturbed. We report Sr-87/Sr-86 in plagioclase from silicate pebbles from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite on which we have reported Sm-147-Nd-143 and Ne-142 correlations. For the purpose of cross-calibration with our previous work we have performed extensive new measurements on Angra dos Reis and on anorthite from Moore County, which have very low Rb/Sr and primitive Sr-87/Sr-86.

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Etxeberria Lekuona, D; Méndez López, I; Mercado Gutiérrez, M R; Oteiza Olaso, J; Arteaga Mazuelas, M; Jarne Betrán, V

    2016-01-01

     El clopidogrel es un fármaco antiagregante de la familia de la tienopiridinas muy utilizado en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica, ictus y arteriopatía periférica. La toxicidad hepática por este fármaco es muy infrecuente. En la bibliografía únicamente se han descrito 16 casos, y solo en dos de ellos se practicó una biopsia hepática. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 78 años pluripatológico que presentó una hepatitis tóxica colestásica severa por este fármaco y los hallazgos de la biopsia hepática que se le realizó. El cuadro se resolvió tras la retirada del fármaco. En base a los hallazgos de nuestro caso y los de los casos previamente publicados se revisan las características de la hepatitis tóxica por clopidogrel y su manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico. Palabras clave. Clopidogrel. Toxicidad. Hepatotoxicidad. Biopsia. PMID:27125614

  17. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  18. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Igor Dias Ferreira; Queiroz, André Lima de; Silva Júnior, Mário Ribeiro da; Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2015-12-01

    Background - The mechanisms whereby Helicobacter pylori produces different pathological manifestations in the stomach and duodenum are not fully understood. Considering the geographic diversity in the prevalence of virulence factors of this microorganism and their association with the development of different diseases, the search for pathogenicity markers such as CagA and VacA alleles by molecular techniques has intensified. Objectives - To investigate the presence of H. pylori infection and the frequency of different genotypes of this bacterium in patients with gastrointestinal diseases from Northern Brazil, and to establish their association with the histopathological findings. Methods - In a prospective study, samples were collected from 554 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer) seen at a referral hospital attending the entire State of Pará, located in the metropolitan region of Belém. Data such as gender and age obtained with an epidemiological questionnaire were analyzed. The presence of H. pylori and the bacterial genotype were investigated by PCR. Gastric biopsies were assessed histologically. Results - The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 91%. Infection was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. In these groups, there was a predominance of men and older patients when compared to the other two groups studied. The predominant bacterial genotype was s1m1cagA+, which was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between s1m1cagA+ strains and a higher degree of inflammation, neutrophil activity and development of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion - The present study demonstrates a high incidence of H. pylori infection in the patients analyzed, especially among those with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. Virulent s1m1cagA+ strains predominated and were associated with more severe lesions. PMID:26840466

  19. Cell vacuolation caused by Vibrio cholerae hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Heuser, J E; Akopyants, N S; Morisaki, J H; Giono-Cerezo, S; Enríquez-Rincón, F; Berg, D E

    2001-03-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (approximately 1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (approximately 16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  20. Analysis of Genomic Diversity among Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Children by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Feizabadi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mahjoub, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Presence of genomic diversity among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains have been suggested by numerous investigators. Little is known about diversity of H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian children and their association with virulence of the strains. Our purpose was to assess the degree of genomic diversity among H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian-children, on the basis of vacA genotype, cagA status of the strains, sex, age as well as the pathological status of the patients. Methods: Genomic DNA from 44 unrelated H. pylori strains isolated during 1997–2009, was examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Pathological status of the patients was performed according to the modified Sydney-system and genotype/status of vacA/cagA genes was determined by PCR. PFGE was performed using XbaI restriction-endonuclease and the field inversion-gel electrophoresis system. Findings: No significant relationship was observed between the patterns of PFGE and the cagA/vacA status/genotype. Also no relationship was observed between age, sex, and pathological status of the children and the PFGE patterns of their isolates. Similar conclusion was obtained by Total Lab software. However, more relationship was observed between the strains isolated in the close period (1997–2009, 2001–2003, 2005–2007, and 2007–2009) and more difference was observed among those obtained in the distant periods (1997 and 2009). Conclusion: H. pylori strains isolated from children in Iran are extremely diverse and this diversity is not related to their virulence characteristics. Occurrence of this extreme diversity may be related to adaptation of H. pylori strains to variable living conditions during transmission between various host individuals. PMID:26019775

  1. Mucosal interleukin-21 mRNA expression level is high in patients with Helicobacter pylori and is associated with the severity of gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Zamanzad, Benham; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Taghikhani, Afshin; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with gastritis and marked infiltration of the gastric mucosa by several cytokines secreting inflammatory cells. Different clinical forms of the infection may reflect distinctive patterns of cytokine expression. Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 have been reported to be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammation, but the details and relationship to different patterns of inflammation and virulence factors remain unclear. The present study was launched to analyse IL-6 expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric patients and to investigate its correlation with chronic gastritis among H. pylori-infected patients. Total RNA was extracted from the gastric antrum biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori uninfected patients. Mucosal IL-21 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsy was determined by real-time PCR. The presence of vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin associated gene A) virulence factors were evaluated using PCR. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression was significantly high in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori uninfected patients, and the mucosal IL-21 mRNA level was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation. There was no association between virulence factors and IL-21 mRNA expression. We believe that IL-21 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and might be an index of the severity of chronic gastritis. PMID:26155185

  2. Ulcerogenic Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Children: A Contribution to Get Insight into the Virulence of the Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vitoriano, Inês; Saraiva-Pava, Kathy D.; Rocha-Gonçalves, Alexandra; Santos, Andrea; Lopes, Ana I.; Oleastro, Mónica; Roxo-Rosa, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the major cause for the development of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). In children, with no other etiology for the disease, this rare event occurs shortly after infection. In these young patients, habits of smoking, diet, consumption of alcohol and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and stress, in addition to the genetic susceptibility of the patient, represent a minor influence. Accordingly, the virulence of the implicated H. pylori strain should play a crucial role in the development of PUD. Corroborating this, our in vitro infection assays comparing a pool of five H. pylori strains isolated from children with PUD to a pool of five other pediatric clinical isolates associated with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) showed the greater ability of PUD strains to induce a marked decrease in the viability of gastric cells and to cause severe damage in the cells cytoskeleton as well as an impairment in the production/secretion of mucins. To uncover virulence features, we compared the proteome of these two groups of H. pylori strains. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry allowed us to detect 27 differentially expressed proteins between them. In addition to the presence of genes encoding well established virulence factors, namely cagA, vacAs1, oipA “on” status, homB and jhp562 genes, the pediatric ulcerogenic strains shared a proteome profile characterized by changes in the abundance of: motility-associated proteins, accounting for higher motility; antioxidant proteins, which may confer increased resistance to inflammation; and enzymes involved in key steps in the metabolism of glucose, amino acids and urea, which may be advantageous to face fluctuations of nutrients. In conclusion, the enhanced virulence of the pediatric ulcerogenic H. pylori strains may result from a synergy between their natural ability to better adapt to the hostile human stomach and the expression of the established virulence factors. PMID:22039453

  3. Classification of mafic clasts from mesosiderites: Implications for endogenous igneous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.E. ); Mittlefehldt, D.W. )

    1992-02-01

    The authors have analyzed thirteen igneous pebbles from the Vaca Muerta, EET87500, and Bondoc mesosiderites by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation and combined these data with literature data for forty-three analyzed mesosiderite clasts. They classify these well-characterized clasts into the following five principal groups: (1) Polygenic and monogenic cumulates (39%) are coarse-grained gabbros that are highly depleted in incompatible elements (relative to H chondrites); they formed at moderate depth either as residues of low-degree partial melting of pre-existing cumulate eucrites or as cumulates from parent melts similar to cumulate eucrites. (2) Polygenic basalts (30%) are finer-grained rocks with positive europium anomalies, La/Lu ratios < 1, and lower rare earth element abundances than basaltic eucrites. It seems likely that these rocks were formed near their parent body surface by remelting mixtures of major amounts of basaltic eucrites and lesser amounts of cumulate eucrites. (3) Quench-textured rocks comprise two compositional groups, (a) those which resemble basaltic eucrites (5%), and (b) those which resemble cumulate eucrites (2%). The quench-textured rocks are probably monogenic; they formed most likely when small-scale impacts at their parent body surface totally melted small amounts of basaltic or cumulate eucrite material. (4) Monogenic basalts (11%) resemble basaltic eucrites and formed by endogenous igneous processes on the mesosiderite parent body (MPB). (5) Ultramafic rocks are cumulates consisting mainly of large crystals of orthopyroxene (9%) or olivine (4%). Orthopyroxenite clasts closely resemble diogenites and were formed most likely by endogenous igneous processes.

  4. MTHFR C677T polymorphism and differential methylation status in gastric cancer: an association with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Neves Filho, Eduardo Henrique Cunha; Alves, Markenia Kelia Santos; Lima, Valeska Portela; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2010-12-01

    MTHFR C677T and Helicobacter pylori infection are believed to play critical roles in the DNA methylation process, an epigenetic feature frequently found in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to verify the associations between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the methylation status of three gastric cancer-related genes. The influence of H. pylori strains was also assessed. DNA extracted from 71 gastric tumor samples was available for MTHFR C677T genotyping by PCR-RFLP, promoter methylation identification by MS-PCR and H. pylori detection and posterior subtyping (cagA and vacA genes) by PCR. In the distal tumors, a positive correlation was found between the methylation of CDKN2A and the allele T carriers (r=0.357; p=0.009). Considering the eldest patients (age ?60 years old), this correlation was even higher (r=0,417; p=0.014). H. pylori infection by highly pathogenic strains (cagA+/vacAs1m1) was also found correlated to promoter methylation of CDKN2A and the allele T carriers in distal tumors (r=0.484; p=0.026). No significant correlation was verified between MTHFR C677T genotype and promoter methylation status when we analyzed the general sample. DNA methylation in CDKN2A associated to the MTHFR 677T carrier is suggested to be a distal tumor characteristic, especially in those 60 years old or older, and it seems to depend on the infection by H. pylori cagA/vacAs1m1 strains. PMID:20957490

  5. Effects of Vibration on Leg Blood Flow After Intense Exercise and Its Influence on Subsequent Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Sañudo, Borja; César-Castillo, Manuel; Tejero, Sergio; Cordero-Arriaza, Francisco J; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Sañudo, B, César-Castillo, M, Tejero, S, Cordero-Arriaza, FJ, Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Á, and Figueroa, A. Effects of vibration on leg blood flow after intense exercise and its influence on subsequent exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1111-1117, 2016-This study aimed to determine the effects of vibration on leg blood flow after intense exercise and find out whether or not these effects can influence subsequent maximal exercise performance. Twenty-three participants performed an exercise test-to-exhaustion followed by a recovery period using six 1-minute sets of whole-body vibration (WBV; 25 Hz-4 mm) or a passive control (noWBV; 0 Hz-0 mm) in the seated position on separate days in random order. Blood flow was assessed at baseline and during each 1-minute interset rest periods post-WBV and noWBV. Thereafter, participants performed a cycle-ergometer test, and time to exhaustion and total distance covered (TDC) were recorded. During recovery, a similar trend was observed in both systolic and diastolic peak frequency dynamics in both conditions. The pulsatility index decreased (p < 0.01) from baseline during postbout 1 in both trials and during post-4 and post-5 in the WBV trial. Significant between-group differences were observed during post-4 (p ≤ 0.05) with greater decreases in pulsatility index after WBV compared with noWBV. Time to exhaustion and TDC were higher after WBV compared with noWBV. In conclusion, WBV decreased pulsatility index in the popliteal artery after maximal exercise and was effective to increase performance in a later exercise test-to-exhaustion. PMID:23820565

  6. Recombinant human lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of triple therapy in mice infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuping; Wu, Qinyi; Cheng, Guoxiang; Liu, Xuefang; Liu, Siguo; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Aimin; Bian, Li; Chen, Jianquan; Lv, Jiajun; Dong, Xiangqian; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Yunzhen; Ma, Lanqing

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a life-threatening pathogen which causes chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and even stomach cancer. Treatment normally involves bacterial eradication; however, this type of treatment only has a rate of effectiveness of <80%. Thus, it is a matter of some urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies. Lactoferrin, a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins, has been proven to be effective in removing a vast range of pathogens, including H. pylori. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) isolated from transgenic goats as a treatment for H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo experiments, BALB/c mice received an intragastric administration of 0.1 ml of a suspension of H. pylori. The mice were then divided into 4 groups: group A, treated with saline; group B, treated with 1.5 g of rhLF; group C, treated with the standard triple therapy regimen; and group D, treated with the standard triple therapy regimen plus.5 g of rhLF. Following sacrifice, the stomach tissues of the mice were histologically examined for the presence of bacteria. For the in vitro experiments, the bacteria were cultured in BHI broth and RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were carried out to determine the mRNA and protein levels of virulence factors (CagA and VacA) in the cultures. Our results revealed that rhLf not only inhibited the growth of H. pylori, but also suppressed the expression of two major virulence factors. Moreover, rhLf markedly increased bacterial eradication and effectively reduced the inflammatory response when combined with the standard triple therapy regimen. These results provide evidence supporting the use of rhLF as an adjuvant to traditional therapeutic strategies in the treatment of H. pylori. PMID:26080893

  7. Clinical Relevance and Diversity of Two Homologous Genes Encoding Glycosyltransferases in Helicobacter pylori▿

    PubMed Central

    Oleastro, Mónica; Santos, Andrea; Cordeiro, Rita; Nunes, Baltazar; Mégraud, Francis; Ménard, Armelle

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is known to be a major cause of peptic ulceration. The jhp0562 gene, encoding a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide, was associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in children. The β-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase [β-(1,3)GalT] gene (jhp0563), involved in Lewis (Le) antigen expression, is highly similar to jhp0562. The clinical significance and diversity of both genes were examined by PCR and sequencing of clinical strains (n = 117) isolated from children with PUD (n = 57) and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD; n = 60). The prevalence of the jhp0562 gene was significantly higher in strains with a more-virulent profile (strains positive for the cag pathogenicity island [PAI], vacA sl allele, babA, homB, phase-variable gene oipA “on” [i.e., functional], and hopQ I allele). The distribution of genotypes according to clinical outcome showed that the presence of jhp0562 represented one of the greatest risks for the development of PUD. Moreover, the triple-positive genotype for the cag PAI, jhp0562, and homB provided the best discriminatory model for distinguishing PUD and NUD outcomes in children. Sequence and in vitro expression analyses of jhp0562 showed the presence of a complete open reading frame, while the β-(1,3)GalT gene was shown to be a phase-variable gene. The regular presence of jhp0562 in strains with a truncated β-(1,3)GalT gene suggests that jhp0562 may also be implicated in the regulation of Le antigen expression. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the jhp0562 gene is of great clinical relevance, being a useful comarker for severe H. pylori-related disease and contributing to host adaptation. PMID:20554820

  8. Finding the smoking gun: protein tyrosine phosphatases as tools and targets of unicellular microorganisms and viruses.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, P

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. Since Guan and Dixon reported in 1990 that phosphatase YopH serves as an essential virulence determinant of Yersinia, the field shifted significantly forward, and dozens of PTPs were identified in various microorganisms and even in viruses. The discovery of extensive tyrosine signaling networks in non-metazoan organisms refuted the moth-eaten paradigm claiming that these organisms rely exclusively on phosphoserine/phosphothreonine signaling. Similarly to humans, phosphotyrosine signaling is thought to comprise a small fraction of total protein phosphorylation, but plays a disproportionately important role in cell-cycle control, differentiation, and invasiveness. Here we summarize the state-of-art knowledge on PTPs of important non-metazoan pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Caulobacter crescentus, Yersinia, Synechocystis, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica, etc.), and focus also at the microbial proteins affecting directly or indirectly the PTPs of the host (Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTSA-10, Bacillus anthracis anthrax toxin, streptococcal β protein, Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA, Leishmania GP63 and EF-1α, Plasmodium hemozoin, etc.). This is the first review summarizing the knowledge on biological activity and pharmacological inhibition of non-metazoan PTPs, with the emphasis of those important in host-pathogen interactions. Targeting of numerous non-metazoan PTPs is simplified by the fact that they act either as ectophosphatases or are secreted outside of the pathogen. Interfering with tyrosine phosphorylation represents a powerful pharmacologic approach, and even though the PTP inhibitors are difficult to develop, lifting the fog of phosphatase inhibition is of the great market potential and further clinical impact. PMID:22360485

  9. Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beavan, John; Gilbert, Lewis E.; Scholz, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A geodetic network which spans the region between San Francisco and Lake Tahoe has been measured 5 times completely with triangulation in 1880, 1922, 1929, 1943, 1963. A resurvey with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in 1991 allows the formation of 1 coseismic and 4 interseismic epochs. The data from this network provide a unique opportunity to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the strain field associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake in particular and with the Pacific-North American plate boundary in general. Calculations of strain rate from the network data lead to the following conclusions. (1) There is no resolvable (greater than 0.05 microradians/yr) strain in between Sutter Buttes and the Sierra Nevada. (2) Throughout the time since the 1906 earthquake, a region extending at least as far east as the westernmost Great Valley has been undergoing deformation related to Pac:Nam interaction and the associated earthquake cycle. (3) In the time and space of overlap, our results agree with those from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) trilateration data. Both data sets indicate that strain must be accumulating to the east of Vaca. (4) The San Andreas discrepancy cannot be accommodated in the Great Valley at the 1 sigma level of our results. It is possible to absorb it in that region at the 2 sigma level. (5) Strain rate is elevated in the years following the earthquake and decays slowly with time. It is possible that the rate in the Coast Ranges increases until around 1950 and then decays. With the exception of one epoch, strain rate in the Coast Ranges is consistently fault parallel, shows no sign changes, and is consistent with monotonic strain accumulation.

  10. Soluble Extracts from Helicobacter pylori Induce Dome Formation in Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers in a Laminin-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Terrés, A. M.; Windle, H. J.; Ardini, E.; Kelleher, D. P.

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach at the interface between the mucus layer and the apical pole of gastric epithelial cells. A number of secreted and shed products from the bacteria, such as proteins and lipopolysaccharide, are likely to have a role in the pathogenesis at the epithelial level. To determine the physiological response of transporting polarized epithelia to released soluble factors from the bacterium, we used the T84 cell line. Monolayers of T84 cells were exposed to soluble extracts from H. pylori. The extracts induced rapid “dome” formation as well as an immediate decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Domes are fluid-filled blister-like structures unique to polarized epithelia. Their formation has been linked to sodium-transporting events as well as to diminished adherence of the cells to the substrate. H. pylori-induced dome formation in T84 monolayers was exacerbated by amiloride and inhibited by ouabain. Furthermore, it was associated with changes in the expression of the laminin binding α6β4 integrin and the 67-kDa laminin receptor. Domes formed primarily on laminin-coated filters, rather than on fibronectin or collagen matrices, and their formation was inhibited by preincubating the bacterial extract with soluble laminin. This effect was specific to H. pylori and independent of the urease, vacA, cagA, and Lewis phenotype of the strains. These data indicate that released elements from H. pylori can alter the physiological balance and integrity of the epithelium in the absence of an underlying immune response. PMID:12819097

  11. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was deposited in EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ under accession number FN555004. PMID:20219135

  12. Phase Variation in the Helicobacter pylori Phospholipase A Gene and Its Role in Acid Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tannæs, Tone; Dekker, Niek; Bukholm, Geir; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Appelmelk, Ben J.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that Helicobacter pylori can spontaneously and reversibly change its membrane lipid composition, producing variants with low or high content of lysophospholipids. The “lyso” variant contains a high percentage of lysophospholipids, adheres better to epithelial cells, and releases more proteins such as urease and VacA, compared to the “normal” variant, which has a low content of lysophospholipids. Prolonged growth of the normal variant at pH 3.5, but not under neutral conditions, leads to enrichment of lyso variant colonies, suggesting that the colony switch is relevant to acid adaptation. In this study we show that the change in membrane lipid composition is due to phase variation in the pldA gene. A change in the (C) tract length of this gene results in reversible frameshifts, translation of a full-length or truncated pldA, and the production of active or inactive outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA). The role of OMPLA in determining the colony morphology was confirmed by the construction of an OMPLA-negative mutant. Furthermore, variants with an active OMPLA were able to survive acidic conditions better than variants with the inactive form. This explains why the lyso variant is selected at low pH. Our studies demonstrate that phase variation in the pldA gene, resulting in an active form of OMPLA, is important for survival under acidic conditions. We also demonstrated the active OMPLA genotype in fresh isolates of H. pylori from patients referred to gastroscopy for dyspepsia. PMID:11705905

  13. Prospective study of Helicobacter pylori antigens and gastric noncardia cancer risk in the nutrition intervention trial cohort.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gwen; Freedman, Neal D; Michel, Angelika; Fan, Jin-Hu; Taylor, Philip R; Pawlita, Michael; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhang, Han; Yu, Kai; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2015-10-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the strongest known risk factor for gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). We used multiplex serology to determine whether seropositivity to 15 H. pylori proteins is associated with the subsequent development of noncardia gastric cancer in Linxian, China. We included 448 GNCA cases and 1242 controls from two time points within the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial, Linxian. H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was defined as positivity to ≥4 of the 15 included antigens. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for major GNCA risk factors. In addition, we undertook a meta-analysis combining H. pylori multiplex serology data from both time points. H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was associated with a significant increase in risk of GNCA at one time point (1985; OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.91, 6.19) and this association remained significant following adjustment for H. pylori or CagA ELISA seropositivity (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.56, 5.47). Combining data from both time points in a meta-analysis H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of GNCA, as were six individual antigens: GroEL, HP0305, CagA, VacA, HcpC and Omp. CagM was inversely associated with risk of GNCA. We identified six individual antigens that confer an increase in risk of GNCA within this population of high H. pylori seroprevalence, as well as a single antigen that may be inversely associated with GNCA risk. We further determined that the H. pylori multiplex assay provides additional information to the conventional ELISA methods on risk of GNCA. PMID:25845708

  14. Microbial Disruption of Autophagy Alters Expression of the RISC Component AGO2, a Critical Regulator of the miRNA Silencing Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sibony, Michal; Abdullah, Majd; Greenfield, Laura; Raju, Deepa; Wu, Ted; Rodrigues, David M.; Galindo-Mata, Esther; Mascarenhas, Heidi; Philpott, Dana J.; Silverberg, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autophagy is implicated in Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests autophagy regulates the microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Therefore, autophagy may play a novel role in CD by regulating expression of miRISC, thereby altering miRNA silencing. As microbes associated with CD can alter autophagy, we hypothesized that microbial disruption of autophagy affects the critical miRISC component AGO2. Methods: AGO2 expression was assessed in epithelial and immune cells, and intestinal organoids with disrupted autophagy. Microarray technology was used to determine the expression of downstream miRNAs in cells with defective autophagy. Results: Increased AGO2 was detected in autophagy-deficient ATG5−/− and ATG16−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) in comparison with wild-type MEFs. Chemical agents and VacA toxin, which disrupt autophagy, increased AGO2 expression in MEFs, epithelial cells lines, and human monocytes, respectively. Increased AGO2 was also detected in ATG7−/− intestinal organoids, in comparison with wild-type organoids. Five miRNAs were differentially expressed in autophagy-deficient MEFs. Pathway enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs implicated signaling pathways previously associated with CD. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy is involved in the regulation of the critical miRISC component AGO2 in epithelial and immune cells and primary intestinal epithelial cells. We propose a mechanism by which autophagy alters miRNA expression, which likely impacts the regulation of CD-associated pathways. Furthermore, as enteric microbial products can manipulate autophagy and AGO2, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which enteric microbes could influence miRNA to promote disease. PMID:26332312

  15. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and its cytotoxicity by 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzaldehyde of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn); a new functional attribute.

    PubMed

    Srikanta, Belagihalli M; Nayaka, Mysore A Harish; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2011-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori mediated gastric ulcer and cancers are common global problems since it was found to colonize in ∼50% of gastric ulcer/cancer patients. Decalepis hamiltonii, (Asclepiadaceae family) extracts have been depicted with medicinal properties supporting the traditional knowledge of health beneficial attributes of D. hamiltonii. Previously we have shown that both aqueous as well as methanol extracts of D. hamiltonii containing abundant phenolics with predominant levels (20-40% of total phenolics) of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (HMBA). Despite higher levels, HMBA contributed very little to the antioxidant activity (<10%) when compared to other phenolic compounds in the extract. In the current study we attempted to explore antimicrobial property, particularly anti-H. pylori activity, since traditional users document D. hamiltonii as a fighter of microbial infections. HMBA was isolated from the roots of D. hamiltonii by hydrodistillation and cold crystallization method; identified by HPLC and characterized using ESI-MS and confirmed by NMR studies as a compound of molecular mass 152 Da. Isolated HMBA was found to inhibit the growth of H. pylori, a potential ulcerogen in a dose dependent manner with MIC of ∼39 μg/mL as apposed to that of amoxicillin (MIC - 26 μg/mL) for which H. pylori is susceptible. Results were further substantiated by the lysis of H. pylori by electron microscopy and electrophoretic studies. Studies on the mechanism of action indicated the counteracting effect of vacuolating toxin (VacA) of H. pylori which otherwise would lead to host cell cytotoxicity. Further the increased binding ability of HMBA to DNA and protein offered an impact on DNA protectivity and bioavailability. Results for the first time provide a direct evidence for anti-microbial attribute of HMBA. Insignificant antioxidant attribute of HMBA also reveals the anti-H. pylori activity via mechanisms other than antioxidative routes. PMID:21185348

  16. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

  17. Association between Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Gastroduodenal Diseases in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  18. Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rumiko; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only approximately 20% of infected individuals develop severe diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than in other countries. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA, vacA, and the right end of the cag pathogenicity island. The genotype of the virulence genes is also useful as a tool to track human migration utilizing the high genetic diversity and frequent recombination between different H. pylori strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using 7 housekeeping genes can also help predict the history of human migrations. Population structure analysis based on MLST has revealed 7 modern population types of H. pylori, which derived from 6 ancestral populations. Interestingly, the incidence of gastric cancer is closely related to the distribution of H. pylori populations. The different incidence of gastric cancer can be partly attributed to the different genotypes of H. pylori circulating in different geographic areas. Although approaches by MLST and virulence factors are effective, these methods focus on a small number of genes and may miss information conveyed by the rest of the genome. Genome-wide analyses using DNA microarray or whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view on the genome of H. pylori. In particular, next-generation sequencers, which can read DNA sequences in less time and at lower costs than Sanger sequencing, enabled us to efficiently investigate not only the evolution of H. pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance. PMID:22197766

  19. Piperine treatment suppresses Helicobacter pylori toxin entry in to gastric epithelium and minimizes β-catenin mediated oncogenesis and IL-8 secretion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Park, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Woo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yang, Ji Yeong; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer initiation has been studied widely. The objective of our present study was to evaluate the effect of a single compound piperine on H. pylori infection and its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in vitro. Cytotoxicity was tested by Ez-cytox cell viability assay kit. Effects of piperine on H. pylori toxin gene expression and IL-8 expression in mammalian cells during infection were assessed by RT-PCR. Effects of piperine on toxin entry into host cells, E-cadherin cleavage by H. pylori, and the changes in H. pylori mediated β-catenin expression and IL-8 secretion were determined by immunoblotting. Piperine treatment restrained the entry of CagA and VacA into AGS cells. Piperine administration in H. pylori infection reduced E-cadherin cleavage in stomach epithelium. In addition, H. pylori induced β-catenin up-regulation was reduced. Piperine administration impaired IL-8 secretion in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. As we reported previously piperine restrained H. pylori motility. The possible reason behind the H. pylori inhibition mechanism of piperine could be the dwindled motility, which weakened H. pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. The reduced adhesion decreased the toxin entry thereby secreting less amount of IL-8. In addition, piperine treatment suppressed H. pylori protease led to reduction of E-cadherin cleavage and β-catenin expression resulting in diminished β-catenin translocation into the nucleus thus decreasing the risk of oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the preliminary report of piperine mediated H. pylori infection control on gastric epithelial cells in-vitro. PMID:27158376

  20. Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rumiko; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only approximately 20% of infected individuals develop severe diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than in other countries. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA, vacA, and the right end of the cag pathogenicity island. The genotype of the virulence genes is also useful as a tool to track human migration utilizing the high genetic diversity and frequent recombination between different H. pylori strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using seven housekeeping genes can also help to predict the history of human migrations. Population structure analysis based on MLST has revealed seven modern population types of H. pylori, which derived from six ancestral populations. Interestingly, the incidence of gastric cancer is closely related to the distribution of H. pylori populations. The different incidence of gastric cancer can be partly attributed to the different genotypes of H. pylori circulating in different geographic areas. Although approaches by MLST and virulence factors are effective, these methods focus on a small number of genes and may miss information conveyed by the rest of the genome. Genome-wide analyses using DNA microarray or whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view on the genome of H. pylori. In particular, next-generation sequencers, which can read DNA sequences in less time and at lower costs than Sanger sequencing, enabled us to efficiently investigate not only the evolution of H. pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance. PMID:22197766

  1. A Water Resources Management Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts in North-Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciarelli, L. F.; Losano, F. T.; Marizza, M.; Cello, P.; Forni, L.; Young, C. A.; Girardin, L. O.; Nadal, G.; Lallana, F.; Godoy, S.; Vallejos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Most recently developed climate scenarios indicate a potential future increase in water stress in the region of Comahue, located in the North-Patagonia, Argentina. This region covers about 140,000 km2 where the Limay River and the Neuquén River converge into the Negro River, constituting the largest integrated basins in Argentina providing various uses of water resources: a) hydropower generation, contributing 15% of the national electricity market; b) fruit-horticultural products for local markets and export; c) human and industrial water supply; d) mining and oil exploitation, including Vaca Muerta, second world largest reserves of shale gas and fourth world largest reserves of shale-oil. The span of multiple jurisdictions and the convergence of various uses of water resources are a challenge for integrated understanding of economically and politically driven resource use activities on the natural system. The impacts of climate change on the system could lead to water resource conflicts between the different political actors and stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a hydrological simulation of the Limay river and Neuquén river basins using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) considering the operation of artificial reservoirs located downstream at a monthly time step. This study aims to support policy makers via integrated tools for water-energy planning under climate uncertainties, and to facilitate the formulation of water policy-related actions for future water stress adaptation. The value of the integrated resource use model is that it can support local policy makers understand the implications of resource use trade-offs under a changing climate: 1) water availability to meet future growing demand for irrigated areas; 2) water supply for hydropower production; 3) increasing demand of water for mining and extraction of unconventional oil; 4) potential resource use conflicts and impacts on vulnerable populations.

  2. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria?

    PubMed

    Olivera-Severo, D; Wassermann, G E; Carlini, C R

    2006-07-01

    Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein) that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori. PMID:16862275

  3. Genetic Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Strain Populations Colonizing the Stomach at Different Times Postinfection?

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Nina R.; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Deatherage, Brooke; Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Atherton, John C.; Graham, David Y.; Torres, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori in an individual host has been observed; whether this diversity represents diversification of a founding strain or a mixed infection with distinct strain populations is not clear. To examine this issue, we analyzed multiple single-colony isolates from two to four separate stomach biopsies of eight adult and four pediatric patients from a high-incidence Mexican population. Eleven of the 12 patients contained isolates with identical random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and vacA allele molecular footprints, whereas a single adult patient had two distinct profiles. Comparative genomic hybridization using whole-genome microarrays (array CGH) revealed variation in 24 to 67 genes in isolates from patients with similar molecular footprints. The one patient with distinct profiles contained two strain populations differing at 113 gene loci, including the cag pathogenicity island virulence genes. The two strain populations in this single host had different spatial distributions in the stomach and exhibited very limited genetic exchange. The total genetic divergence and pairwise genetic divergence between isolates from adults and isolates from children were not statistically different. We also analyzed isolates obtained 15 and 90 days after experimental infection of humans and found no evidence of genetic divergence, indicating that transmission to a new host does not induce rapid genetic changes in the bacterial population in the human stomach. Our data suggest that humans are infected with a population of closely related strains that vary at a small number of gene loci, that this population of strains may already be present when an infection is acquired, and that even during superinfection genetic exchange among distinct strains is rare. PMID:17337568

  4. Helicobacter acinonychis: Genetic and Rodent Infection Studies of a Helicobacter pylori-Like Gastric Pathogen of Cheetahs and Other Big Cats

    PubMed Central

    Dailidiene, Daiva; Dailide, Giedrius; Ogura, Keiji; Zhang, Maojun; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Kusters, Johannes G.; Berg, Douglas E.

    2004-01-01

    Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a U.S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that each strain lacked the cag pathogenicity island and contained a degenerate vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Analyses of nine other genes (glmM, recA, hp519, glr, cysS, ppa, flaB, flaA, and atpA) revealed a ∼2% base substitution difference, on average, between the two H. acinonychis groups and a ∼8% difference between these genes and their homologs in H. pylori reference strains such as 26695. H. acinonychis derivatives that could chronically infect mice were selected and were found to be capable of persistent mixed infection with certain H. pylori strains. Several variants, due variously to recombination or new mutation, were found after 2 months of mixed infection. H. acinonychis ' modest genetic distance from H. pylori, its ability to infect mice, and its ability to coexist and recombine with certain H. pylori strains in vivo should be useful in studies of Helicobacter infection and virulence mechanisms and studies of genome evolution. PMID:14702304

  5. Helicobacter pylori-induced histone modification, associated gene expression in gastric epithelial cells, and its implication in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Ze; Fischer, Wolfgang; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Liechti, George; Merrell, D Scott; Grant, Patrick A; Ferrero, Richard L; Crowe, Sheila E; Haas, Rainer; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2010-01-01

    Histone modifications are critical in regulating gene expression, cell cycle, cell proliferation, and development. Relatively few studies have investigated whether Helicobacter pylori, the major cause of human gastric diseases, affects histone modification. We therefore investigated the effects of H. pylori infection on histone modifications in a global and promoter-specific manner in gastric epithelial cells. Infection of gastric epithelial cells by wild-type H. pylori induced time- and dose-dependent dephosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3 Ser10) and decreased acetylation of H3 lysine 23, but had no effects on seven other specific modifications. Different cag pathogenicity island (PAI)-containing-clinical isolates showed similar abilities to induce H3 Ser10 dephosphorylation. Mutation of cagA, vacA, nonphosphorylateable CagA mutant cagA(EPISA), or disruption of the flagella showed no effects, while deletion of the entire cagPAI restored the H3 Ser10 phosphorylation to control levels. Analysis of 27 cagPAI mutants indicated that the genes that caused H3 Ser10 dephosphorylation were similar to those that were previously found to induce interleukin-8, irrespective of CagA translocation. This effect was independent of ERK or p38 pathways and type I interferon signaling. Additionally, c-Jun and hsp70 gene expression was associated with this histone modification. These results demonstrate that H. pylori alters histone modification and host response via a cagA-, vacA-independent, but cagPAI-dependent mechanisms, which contribute to its persistent infection and pathogenesis. PMID:20368982

  6. Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Berg, Douglas E.; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5–6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

  7. Helicobacter acinonychis: genetic and rodent infection studies of a Helicobacter pylori-like gastric pathogen of cheetahs and other big cats.

    PubMed

    Dailidiene, Daiva; Dailide, Giedrius; Ogura, Keiji; Zhang, Maojun; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Eaton, Kathryn A; Cattoli, Giovanni; Kusters, Johannes G; Berg, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a U.S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that each strain lacked the cag pathogenicity island and contained a degenerate vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Analyses of nine other genes (glmM, recA, hp519, glr, cysS, ppa, flaB, flaA, and atpA) revealed a approximately 2% base substitution difference, on average, between the two H. acinonychis groups and a approximately 8% difference between these genes and their homologs in H. pylori reference strains such as 26695. H. acinonychis derivatives that could chronically infect mice were selected and were found to be capable of persistent mixed infection with certain H. pylori strains. Several variants, due variously to recombination or new mutation, were found after 2 months of mixed infection. H. acinonychis ' modest genetic distance from H. pylori, its ability to infect mice, and its ability to coexist and recombine with certain H. pylori strains in vivo should be useful in studies of Helicobacter infection and virulence mechanisms and studies of genome evolution. PMID:14702304

  8. Bitumen veins and Eocene transpression, Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Diraison, M.; Rossello, E. A.

    1999-12-01

    In the northwestern part of the petroleum-rich Neuquén Basin, veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) have been reported from over 150 localities. The bitumen veins are mostly steeply-dipping and show intrusive relationships with their wall rocks. The largest are some 8 m wide, 8 km long and probably several kilometres deep. The bitumen probably formed in the earliest stages of thermal maturation of organically-rich source rocks. The most likely source rocks for the bitumen, as well as for most of the oil and gas in the Neuquén Basin, are black marine shales of the Vaca Muerta and Agrio formations. These were deposited in a rift setting during the late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. According to subsidence models, the source rocks should have reached thermal maturity in the latest Cretaceous or Paleocene and should have remained in the oil window ever since. Although the bitumen has not been dated directly, the veins probably formed soon after maturation of the source rocks, in other words, in the Paleocene or Eocene. The wall rocks of the veins are mostly the source rocks themselves. Other veins have been emplaced into overlying strata of Early Cretaceous to Paleocene ages or into underlying sediments of Jurassic age. The bitumen veins have preferred orientations. The dominant trend is 060° and subsidiary trends are either 000° to 020° or 100°. As in other basins worldwide, the majority of bitumen veins in the Neuquén Basin probably formed by tensile failure, in orientations perpendicular to the least compressive stress, under the combined effects of regional tectonics and fluid overpressures. The orientations of the veins are compatible with the direction of oblique convergence between continental South America and the oceanic Nazca plate in the Eocene. Many major structures in the Neuquén Basin are also of Eocene age and may have formed under right-lateral transpression.

  9. 39Ar- 40Ar ages and thermal history of mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    1998-04-01

    Determinations of 39Ar- 40Ar ages for plagioclase separates of three clasts from the Vaca Muerta and Mount Padbury mesosiderites give similar results. Ages increase monotonically by ˜0.2-0.3 Ga when plotted against increasing 39Ar release from the samples and give average values of ˜3.95 Ga. When combined with revised ages for mesosiderite analyses previously reported, nineteen analyses of thirteen mesosiderites give an average Ar-Ar age of 3.94 ± 0.10 Ga. The average age at 90% 39Ar release is 4.13 ±0.14 Ga, and the ages at 10% 39Ar release range over 3.32-3.97 Ga. It seems unlikely that the 39Ar- 40Ar ages were produced by direct impact heating, but they probably are independent evidence for slow cooling deep within the mesosiderite parent body. We conclude that the sloped age plateaus and the significant range in Ar-Ar closure temperatures calculated for these mesosiderites (˜75-340°C) are due to significant differences in Ar diffusion properties among samples. From the Ar diffusion data, we estimate an approximate mesosiderite cooling rate of ˜0.2°C/Ma, which is similar to the preferred cooling rate of 0.1-0.5°C/Ma derived by others from Ni diffusion and metal textures. The 39Ar/ 40Ar ages seem incompatible with very slow cooling rates of <0.2°C/Ma, unless the closure temperatures for Ar diffusion and formation of metal cooling textures on the parent body substantially overlap. Any possible role of fragmentation of the mesosiderite parent body in producing the younger Ar-Ar ages and the very slow cooling rates is unclear.

  10. Review: prospects for the use of extracts and polysaccharides from marine algae to prevent and treat the diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Besednova, Natalya N; Zaporozhets, Tatyana S; Somova, Larisa M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H.pylori. In recent years, fucoidanshave been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes thedata on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H.pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H.pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H.pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H.pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of H.pylori infection. PMID:25660579

  11. Mesosiderites: A Chronologic and Petrologic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    1992-07-01

    Recent petrologic, chemical, and isotopic analyses of mesosiderite clasts and whole rocks allow construction of the evolutionary history of the mesosiderite parent body (MPB) as shown in the figure. I. Initial Melting ~4.56 Ga Ago. Numerous chronologic measurements indicate that initial melting of the MPB occurred shortly after accretion, at about the same time that the eucrites and angrites formed. For example, a zircon grain from a basaltic clast in Vaca Muerta yielded a Pb-Pb age of 4.563 Ga (Ireland and Wlotzka, 1992). The 4.56-Ga event on the MPB is probably responsible for forming the monogenic basaltic clasts that compositionally resemble typical eucrites (Rubin and Mittlefehldt, 1992). II. Crustal Remelting ~4.47 Ga Ago. Internal Sm-Nd isochron ages of 4.47 Ga have been determined for gabbroic pebble 12 from Vaca Muerta and a basaltic clast from Mt. Padbury (Stewart et al., 1991). Pebble 12 is one of many clasts in mesosiderites that are highly depleted in incompatible elements and probably represent remelted crustal rocks (Rubin and Mittlefehldt, 1992). Because variation of Fe/Mn with Fe/Mg in pyroxenes from these clasts follows a trend defined by FeO reduction from a melt (Mittlefehldt, 1990), and because the reducing agents (e.g., P) were likely to have been introduced during metal-silicate mixing, the age of pebble 12 indicates that metal-silicate mixing had to have occurred >=4.47 Ga ago. III. Localized Impact Melting 4.5-3.9 Ga Ago. Localized impact melting and metamorphism were widespread on the eucrite parent body as indicated by many ages that were partially or totally reset <4.56 Ga ago. Impact melt material is common in mesosiderites of all petrologic types, and ages between 4.5-3.9 Ga are preserved. Quench-textured pebble 5 from Vaca Muerta, which is likely to have formed from a localized impact melt of material resembling a cumulate eucrite (Rubin and Jerde, 1987), has an internal isochron age of 4.42 Ga (Stewart et al., 1992). The high temperature of these localized events places them before the 3.9-Ga event (below); however, because no extensive crustal remelting is evident, the metamorphism must have occurred after 4.47 Ga ago. The mesosiderite breccias were assembled during this phase of MPB history. IV. Collisional Disruption and Reassembly ~3.9 Ga Ago. Mesosiderites were degassed by a major thermal event ~3.9 Ga ago that heated the rocks to ~500 degrees C; this event may mark collisional disruption and gravitational reassembly of the MPB (Bogard et al., 1990). The surface breccias were deeply buried at this time and heated somewhat above the Fe-Ni solvus, resetting the metallographic cooling rates to ~1 degree C/Ma. This event may also account for some of the reported disturbances in the Rb- Sr, Sm-Nd, and Pb-Pb ages of a few mesosiderites. V. Impact Excavation and Ejection <<3.9 Ga Ago. Mesosiderites have cosmic ray exposure ages ranging from ~10-150 Ma, which represent the epoch when individual mesosiderites were excavated from the MPB or from a >=10-m-size MPB fragment. References: Bogard D.D., Garrison D.H., Jordan J.L. and Mittlefehldt D. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2549-2564. Ireland T.R. and Wlotzka F. (1992) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 109, 1-10. Mittlefehldt D.W. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 1165-1173. Rubin A.E. and Jerde E.A. (1987) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 84, 1-14. Rubin A.E. and Mittlefehldt D.W. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 827-840. Stewart B.W., Cheng Q.C., Papanastassiou D.A. and Wasserburg G.J. (1991) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract) 22, 1333. Stewart B.W., Papanastassiou D.A. and Wasserburg G.J. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract) 23, 1365.

  12. Helicobacter pylori-Mediated Protection from Allergy Is Associated with IL-10-Secreting Peripheral Blood Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Khiyam; Letley, Darren P.; Greenaway, A. Borgel; Kenefeck, Rupert; Winter, Jody A.; Tomlinson, William; Rhead, Joanne; Staples, Emily; Kaneko, Kazuyo; Atherton, John C.; Robinson, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infections are usually established in early childhood and continuously stimulate immunity, including T-helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses, throughout life. Although known to be the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, disease occurs in a minority of those who are infected. Recently, there has been much interest in beneficial effects arising from infection with this pathogen. Published data robustly show that the infection is protective against asthma in mouse models. Epidemiological studies show that H. pylori is inversely associated with human allergy and asthma, but there is a paucity of mechanistic data to explain this. Since Th1 and Treg responses are reported to protect against allergic responses, we investigated if there were links between the human systemic Th1 and Treg response to H. pylori and allergen-specific IgE levels. The human cytokine and T-cell responses were examined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 49 infected and 58 uninfected adult patients. Concentrations of total and allergen-specific plasma IgE were determined by ELISA and ImmunoCAP assays. These responses were analyzed according to major virulence factor genotypes of the patients’ colonizing H. pylori strains. An in vitro assay was employed, using PBMCs from infected and uninfected donors, to determine the role of Treg cytokines in the suppression of IgE. Significantly higher frequencies of IL-10-secreting CD4+CD25hi Tregs, but not H. pylori-specific Th1 cells, were present in the peripheral blood of infected patients. Total and allergen-specific IgE concentrations were lower when there was a strong Treg response, and blocking IL-10 in vitro dramatically restored IgE responses. IgE concentrations were also significantly lower when patients were infected with CagA+ strains or those expressing the more active i1 form of VacA. The systemic IL-10+ Treg response is therefore likely to play a role in H. pylori-mediated protection against allergy in humans. PMID:27014260

  13. Host genetic factors respond to pathogenic step-specific virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Caiyun; Chen, Moye; Liu, Jingwei; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The interindividual differences in risk of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric cancer involve significant heterogeneities of both host genetics and H. pylori strains. Several recent studies proposed a distinct sequence for H. pylori exerting its virulence in the host stomach: (i) adhering to and colonizing the surface of gastric epithelial cells, (ii) evading and attenuating the host defense, and (iii) invading and damaging the gastric mucosa. This review focuses on several key issues that still need to be clarified, such as which virulence factors of H. pylori are involved in the three pathogenic steps, which host genes respond to the step-specific virulence factors, and whether and/or how the corresponding host genetic variations influence the risk of gastric carcinogenesis. Urease, BabA and SabA in the adhesion-step, PGN and LPS in the immune evasion-step, and CagA, VacA and Tipα in the mucosal damage-step were documented to play an important role in step-specific pathogenicity of H. pylori infection. There is evidence further supporting a role of potentially functional polymorphisms of host genes directly responding to these pathogenic step-specific virulence factors in the susceptibility of gastric carcinogenesis, especially for urease-interacting HLA class II genes, BabA-interacting MUC1, PGN-interacting NOD1, LPS-interacting TLR4, and CagA-interacting PTPN11 and CDH1. With the continuous improvement of understanding the genetic profile of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, a person at increased risk for gastric cancer may benefit from several aspects of efforts: (i) prevent H. pylori infection with a vaccine targeting certain step-specific virulence factor; (ii) eradicate H. pylori infection by blocking step-specific psychopathological characteristics of virulence factors; and (iii) adjust host physiological function to resist the carcinogenic role of step-specific virulence factors or interrupt the cellular signal transduction of the interplay between H. pylori and host in each pathogenic step, especially for the subjects with precancerous lesions in the stomach. PMID:24076409

  14. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical signature and timing of metamorphism (dated at ca. 465 Ma in the study area), which allow definition of a single, mafic back-arc belt in central Argentina, from San Luis to La Pampa.

  15. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

  16. Helicobacter pylori-Mediated Protection from Allergy Is Associated with IL-10-Secreting Peripheral Blood Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khiyam; Letley, Darren P; Greenaway, A Borgel; Kenefeck, Rupert; Winter, Jody A; Tomlinson, William; Rhead, Joanne; Staples, Emily; Kaneko, Kazuyo; Atherton, John C; Robinson, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infections are usually established in early childhood and continuously stimulate immunity, including T-helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses, throughout life. Although known to be the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, disease occurs in a minority of those who are infected. Recently, there has been much interest in beneficial effects arising from infection with this pathogen. Published data robustly show that the infection is protective against asthma in mouse models. Epidemiological studies show that H. pylori is inversely associated with human allergy and asthma, but there is a paucity of mechanistic data to explain this. Since Th1 and Treg responses are reported to protect against allergic responses, we investigated if there were links between the human systemic Th1 and Treg response to H. pylori and allergen-specific IgE levels. The human cytokine and T-cell responses were examined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 49 infected and 58 uninfected adult patients. Concentrations of total and allergen-specific plasma IgE were determined by ELISA and ImmunoCAP assays. These responses were analyzed according to major virulence factor genotypes of the patients' colonizing H. pylori strains. An in vitro assay was employed, using PBMCs from infected and uninfected donors, to determine the role of Treg cytokines in the suppression of IgE. Significantly higher frequencies of IL-10-secreting CD4(+)CD25(hi) Tregs, but not H. pylori-specific Th1 cells, were present in the peripheral blood of infected patients. Total and allergen-specific IgE concentrations were lower when there was a strong Treg response, and blocking IL-10 in vitro dramatically restored IgE responses. IgE concentrations were also significantly lower when patients were infected with CagA(+) strains or those expressing the more active i1 form of VacA. The systemic IL-10(+) Treg response is therefore likely to play a role in H. pylori-mediated protection against allergy in humans. PMID:27014260

  17. Paleogene and Neogene magmatism in the Valle del Cura region: New perspective on the evolution of the Pampean flat slab, San Juan province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    2007-09-01

    The Valle del Cura region is characterized by a thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence that records the Tertiary arc and backarc magmatic evolution of the Argentine Main Cordillera over the modern Pampean flatslab at 29.5-30°S. During the Eocene, a retroarc basin developed, represented by the Valle del Cura Formation synorogenic volcanosedimentary sequence, which includes rhyolites and dacitic tuffs. These silicic volcanic rocks have weak arc chemical signatures and high lithophile element concentrations and are isotopically enriched relative to the late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks that followed them. Their chemical characteristics fit with eruption through a thin crust. The Valle de Cura Formation was followed by the Oligocene-early Miocene Doña Ana Group volcanic sequence, which erupted at and near the arc front west of the border with Chile. The Doña Ana Group volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline chemical characteristics consistent with parental magmas forming in a mantle wedge and erupting through a normal thickness crust (35 km). Subsequent shallowing of the downgoing Nazca plate caused the volcanic front to migrate eastward. The volcanic sequences of the middle Miocene Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation erupted at this new arc front, essentially at the Argentine border. Two stages are recognized: an older one (16-14 Ma) in which magmas appear to have erupted through a normal thickness crust (30-35 km) and a younger one (13-10 Ma) in which the steeper REE pattern suggests the magmas last equilibrated with higher pressure residual mineral assemblages in a thicker crust. Isotopic ratios in the younger group are consistent with an increase in original crustal components and crust introduced into the mantle source by forearc subduction erosion. A peak in forearc subduction erosion near 12-10 Ma is consistent with when the main part of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct beneath the region. In addition to late Miocene Tambo Formation dacitic ignimbrites, the younger Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation volcanic rocks erupted at the height of contractional deformation in the Valle del Cura and to the east. The last important volcanic sequence to erupt in the Valle del Cura is the late Miocene Vacas Heladas Ignimbrite, the most isotopically enriched Tertiary magmas in the Valle del Cura that contain the highest proportion of crustal components. Subsequently volcanism ceased in the region in response to shallowing of the subduction zone.

  18. Molecular alterations in fibroblasts exposed to Helicobacter pylori: a missing link in bacterial inflammation progressing into gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Krzysiek-Maczka, G; Targosz, A; Ptak-Belowska, A; Korbut, E; Szczyrk, U; Strzalka, M; Brzozowski, T

    2013-02-01

    Major human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) can colonize the gastric mucosa causing inflammation and being of potential risk for gastric cancer development but the contribution of fibroblasts to the pathogenesis of Hp in the stomach has been little studied. Normal stroma contains few fibroblasts, especially myofibroblasts, but their number rapidly increases in the reactive stroma surrounding inflammatory region and neoplastic tissue. We determined the effect of coincubation of cultured rat gastric fibroblasts with alive Hp on the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts associated with Hp-induced inflammation and neoplasia. Gastric mucosal samples were harvested from 8-week-old Spraque-Dowley rats and cultured to obtain the sub-confluent fibroblasts. The isolated fibroblasts were infected with 1 x 10(9) of live Hp (ATCC 700824, cagA+, vacA+) per dish and incubated in humidified atmosphere for 3, 24 and 48 hours. At respective times, fibroblasts were harvested and the expression of mRNA for α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, collagen I, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, Bax and Ki67 transcripts was determined by RT-PCR with specific primers. Hp increased the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts as reflected by the time-dependent overexpression of mRNA for α-SMA. The increased expression of HIF-1α and collagen I was observed in fibroblasts co-cultured with Hp. The expression of HSP70 which was negligible in isolated fibroblasts incubated with vehicle (saline) showed time-dependent 2-3 fold increase in those incubated with Hp. The HO-1 mRNA was strongly expressed in rat gastric fibroblasts without or with the co-incubation with Hp. The mRNA for Bax was progressively downregulated within the time of incubation while no significant changes in expression of proliferation marker Ki67 were recorded. We conclude that Hp-induced transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts involves an increased expression of the early carcinogenic marker HIF-1α, and inhibition of proapoptotic Bax expression, and 2) the overexpression of HSP70 and the unchanged expression HO-1 and Ki67 probably represent the enhanced protective activity of Hp-infected fibroblasts to maintain their own integrity under inflammatory action of this bacteria and its cytotoxins. PMID:23568974

  19. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility: a petrofrabric tool for understanding mechanisms of fold and thrust belt evolution. Application in Malargüe FTB, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branellec, Matthieu; Callot, Jean Paul; Aubourg, Charles; Nivière, Bertrand; Ringenbach, Jean Claude

    2013-04-01

    In fold and thrust belts (FTB), sedimentary beds are folded and faulted but rocks do not always show evidence of strong internal deformation. Nevertheless, several studies have demonstrated that a weak internal deformation (layer parallel shortening) can be recorded at the matrix scale before any macroscopic deformation. The Anisotropy of Magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides information about the preferred orientation of billions of magnetic minerals. It enables the definition of a magnetic fabric, which may be visualized as an ellipsoid with principal axes K1 ≥ K2 ≥ K3. Basic elements of a magnetic fabric are the magnetic foliation (K1-K2 plane) and the magnetic lineation (K1 axe), when they are statistically defined. Both are related to strain-controlled petrofrabric. The Neuquén Basin is a wide intracratonic sag basin with complex and polyphased/diachronic evolution. The Pacific subduction and south Atlantic opening were the mechanisms controlling the large scale geodynamic framework. By late Triassic times, continental scale extension initiated fault-related narrow rift depocenters which later evolved toward a sag basin from middle Jurassic to upper Cretaceous. At that time, the basin started to record the compressive stress regime from the Pacific subduction. Three pulses of compressive deformation (Cretaceous, Paleogene and Miocene) are recorded in this retro-arc foreland setting. Approximately 300 samples have been collected from 30 sites in terrigenous rocks located along three cross sections from foothills to uplifted foreland area in Malargüe FTB. We mainly sample Kimmeridgian red beds of the Tordillo formation, Tithonian shales from the Vaca Muerta Fm, and late cretaceous red beds of the Neuquén Group. AMS fabrics are used as a proxy to measure accumulated microscopic finite strain and compares it with mesoscale (fractures) and macroscale structures (faults, folds…). This multi-scaled approach helps in defining a kinematic scenario for Malargüe FTB evolution by classifying magnetic fabrics related either to (1) sedimentary processes or (2) pre-folding layer parallel shortening (LPS) or (3) syn-folding kinematics depending on folding mode. Propagation of deformation in this case is neither uniform nor gradual. Therefore Malargüe FTB cannot be defined as a classical critical wedge; On the contrary extensional inheritance exerts a strong influence in localization of compressive deformation (LPS).

  20. Are sills really elastic hydraulic fractures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spacapan, Juán B.; Galland, Olivier; Leanza, Héctor A.; Planke, Sverre

    2015-04-01

    Seismic reflection data and field observations have over the past few decades revealed the presence of voluminous igneous sill complexes in sedimentary basins worldwide. The implications of sill emplacement in sedimentary basins are numerous: they trigger maturation of organic-rich formations, they produce large quantities of greenhouse gases that trigger dramatic climate change and mass extinctions, and they produce small- and large-scale structures that affect fluid flow. Therefore, a proper understanding of their emplacement mechanism is essential. Most models of sill and laccolith emplacement account for purely elastic host rock, and their propagation mechanism is dominantly assumed to be according to the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) theory. Recent field and seismic observations, however, demonstrated that part, if not all, sill- and laccolith-induced deformation is accommodated by inelastic deformation, strongly questioning the relevance of the LEFM theory applied for igneous intrusions. In this contribution, we present detailed structural observations from spectacularly well-exposed sills in the northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina. We studied a 50-m outcrop that exhibits very clearly three sills of different sizes, the shapes of their tips, and the associated structures in their sedimentary host rock, i.e. the calcareous pelites of the organic-rich Vaca Muerta Fm. This formation is adequate to map the structures at the outcrop scale, as it consists in fine layers of mudstone inter-bedded with weak shale, such that it is possible to map each layer along the entire outcrop. Detailed structural mapping evidence that the sedimentary layers have not been opened, i.e. pushed away by the emplacement of the sills, as expected from the LEFM theory. Indeed, some of the sedimentary layers are not present at the location of the sills, but they appear duplicated several times ahead of the tips of the three observed sills; the relative movements between the duplicated segments are clearly associated with shortening. Therefore, our field observations show that the host rock is pushed and shortened ahead of the sill tips, in total contradiction with the extensional features predicted by the LEFM theory. The structures described above strongly suggest instead that these sills were emplaced according to the viscous indenter model, in good agreement with recent laboratory models (Abdelmalak et al., 2012). These detailed observations strongly question the geological relevance of the LEFM theory applied to igneous sheet intrusions, and call for more field observations to better constrain the dynamics of sill and dyke emplacement mechanisms. Abdelmalak, M.M., Mourgues, R., Galland, O., Bureau, D., 2012. Fracture mode analysis and related surface deformation during dyke intrusion: Results from 2D experimental modelling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 359-360, 93-105.

  1. Variations in water clarity and bottom albedo in Florida Bay from 1985 to 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Frayer, M.L.; Durako, M.J.; Brock, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Following extensive seagrass die-offs of the late 1980s and early 1990s, Florida Bay reportedly had significant declines in water clarity due to turbidity and algal blooms. Scant information exists on the extent of the decline, as this bay was not investigated for water quality concerns before the die-offs and limited areas were sampled after the primary die-off. We use imagery from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to examine water clarity in Florida Bay for the period 1985 to 1997. The AVHRR provides data on nominal water reflectance and estimated fight attenuation, which are used here to describe turbidity conditions in the bay on a seasonal basis. In situ observations on changes in seagrass abundance within the bay, combined with the satellite data, provide additional insights into losses of seagrass. The imagery shows an extensive region to the west of Florida Bay having increased reflectance and fight attenuation in both winter and summer beginning in winter of 1988. These increases are consistent with a change from dense seagrass to sparse or negligible cover. Approximately 200 km2 of these offshore seagrasses may have been lost during the primary die-off (1988 through 1991), significantly more than in the bay. The imagery shows the distribution and timing of increased turbidity that followed the die-offs in the northwestern regions of the bay, exemplified in Rankin Lake and Johnson Key Basin, and indicates that about 200 km2 of dense seagrass may have been lost or severely degraded within the bay from the start of the die-off. The decline in water clarity has continued in the northwestern bay since 1991. The area west of the Everglades National Park boundaries has shown decreases in both winter turbidity and summer reflectances, suggestive of partial seagrass recovery. Areas of low reflectance associated with a major Syringodium filiforme seagrass meadow north of Marathon (Vaca Key, in the Florida Keys) appear to have expanded westward toward Big Pine Key, indicating changes in the bottom cover from before the die-off. The southern and eastern sections of the Bay have not shown significant changes in water clarity or bottom albedo throughout the entire time period.

  2. Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30–31°S. PMID:25334020

  3. Sm-Nd chronology and petrogenesis of mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brian W.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-08-01

    We have obtained Sm-Nd data from four mesosiderite silicate clasts, including three clasts with a variety of textures from the Vaca Muerta type 1A mesosiderite and one gabbroic clast from the Mt. Padbury mesosiderite. The gabbroic Vaca Muerta Pebble 12 and basaltic Pebble 16 yield identical 147Sm- 143Nd ages of 4.48 ± 0.19 AE and 4.48 ± 0.09 AE, respectively, while the highly recrystallized Pebble 5 gives an age of 4.42 ± 0.02 AE; Mt. Padbury yields an age of 4.52 ± 0.04 AE. All clasts show a correlation of 142Nd /144Nd with 147Sm /144Nd , and provide unequivocal evidence for the presence of live 146Sm at the time of their formation. Calculated initial 146Sm /144Sm values range from 0.004 (Pebble 5) to 0.006 (Pebbles 12, 16, and Mt. Padbury) and are generally consistent with the 147Sm- 143Nd ages. However, discordance of whole-rock leach and residue data and some disagreement between 146Sm- 142Nd relative ages and 147Sm- 143Nd absolute ages indicate small but significant disturbances to the Sm-Nd systematics. The ranges of ages and initial 146Sm /144Sm and 143Nd /144Nd values suggest that each of these silicate clasts underwent a separate, protracted evolution on its parent body prior to mixing with metal. Textural and trace element criteria indicate that individual clasts from the same mesosiderite often had very different igneous sources and thermal histories prior to their incorporation in the meteorite. Pebble 12 is extremely LREE depleted, probably a result of several melt extraction events, whereas Pebbles 5 and 16 and Mt. Padbury have nearly chondritic Sm/Nd with bulk REE concentrations higher than chondrites by factors of 5 to 15. In general, the Sm-Nd systematics of mesosiderite silicates require formation of the silicates on a parent planet which underwent relatively early and extreme differentiation. Preservation of diverse, old ages and the presence of 146Sm imply that metal-silicate mixing did not seriously alter the Sm-Nd isotopic memories of these clasts. We present a model for metal-silicate mixing which combines the cooling history with isotopic reequilibration for the case of thermal blanketing. We show that the total amount of isotopic reequilibration in a sample can be related to the initial temperature, depth of burial, grain size, and diffusion parameters. Application of this model to the silicate clasts measured in this study indicates that if the metal and silicate were thermally equilibrated above the metal solidus temperature during mixing, then the clasts must have been buried no deeper than 1-10 m in regolith during the initial high-temperature cooling phase in order to prevent the Sm-Nd systems from being extensively reset. In order to reconcile these results with the slow cooling rates at lower temperatures determined from studies of exsolution in the metal phase, we infer that heat was transferred rapidly from hot metal to cold silicate material during initial metal-silicate mixing, and that the deeply buried portions of the mixture then cooled slowly after reaching thermal equilibrium at ~600-700°C. The data from this study point to the following history for the mesosiderite parent body: (1) differentiation of a silicate parent body within the first ~50 m.y. of solar system history to form diverse parent magmas; (2) emplacement of primitive and differentiated mafic magmas near the planetary surface, and extensive differentiation in the near surface environment; (3) formation and reworking of regolith breccias through impact gardening at the near surface of the body; (4) mixing of molten Fe-Ni metal with the regolith followed by rapid cooling 100-150 m.y. after the origin of the solar system; (5) slow cooling from temperatures of ~700°C to produce the observed nickel diffusion profiles in the iron phase; (6) mild impact metamorphism and brecciation to obtain the much younger K-Ar ages; and (7) recent collisions or perturbations sending mesosiderite fragments into Earth-crossing trajectories.

  4. Abundâncias químicas de estrelas T Tauri fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, G. A.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados do estudo de 44 estrelas pré-seqüência principal, para as quais buscamos realizar uma classificação espectroscópica e determinar parâmetros estelares e abundâncias químicas. A amostra foi escolhida da seguinte maneira : 21 objetos selecionados a partir de catálogos de objetos jovens, como o Pico dos Dias Survey e o Herbig Bell Catalogue, e 23 objetos selecionados a partir de contrapartidas ópticas de fontes de raios X detectadas pelo satélite ROSAT. Dentre 24 objetos previamente classificados como estrelas T Tauri Fracas, apenas 7 revelaram ser realmente pertencentes à essa classe, sendo os demais objetos T Tauri Clássicas ou estrelas evoluídas da pré-seqüência principal. Esse resultado demonstra que o critério mais utilizado para distinguir as T Tauri Clássicas das T Tauri Fracas, baseado na largura equivelente da emissão Ha, não é suficiente para determinar o estágio evolutivo desses objetos. Para o cálculo de parâmetros estelares e abundâncias, foram escolhidas as estrelas que apresentam características ideais para esse tipo de estudo, como ausência de velamento, baixa velocidade de rotação e espectros com razão sinal-ruído adequada. Os parâmetros estelares como temperatura efetiva e gravidade foram determinados através do equilíbrio de excitação e ionização das linhas de Ferro, e as abundâncias químicas foram calculadas utilizando o método de síntese espectral. Serão apresentados os parâmetros estelares e as abundâncias de Lítio para toda a amostra, e abundâncias de vários elementos quimicos para 7 estrelas estudadas em maior detalhe

  5. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  6. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  7. Pneumatocele selar a tensión: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damián; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El neumoencéfalo a tensión luego de la cirugía transesfenoidal es poco común. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artículo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensión de presentación tardía. Descripción del caso: Una mujer de 57 años consultó por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le había realizado una cirugía transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le había colocado una derivación lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Además, se le había realizado una resección transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirugía debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llevó a cabo una resonancia magnética que demostró un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervención: Se realizó un abordaje transciliar. La región selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abrió la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despuós del procedimiento, su campo visual retornó a la normalidad. Un año después de su última cirugía, continua asintomática. Conclusión: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensión es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirugía transesfenoidal. Su manifestaciónw clínica sería la alteración visual debida a la compresión inferior de la vía óptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensión debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  8. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  9. Potential effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection on glucose metabolism of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Li, Wei; He, Cong; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on metabolic parameters in Mongolian gerbils. METHODS: A total of 40 male, 5- to 8-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free Mongolian gerbils (30-50 g) were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group (n = 20) and an H. pylori group (n = 20). After a two-week acclimation period, the control group was administered Brucella broth and the H. pylori group was challenged intra-gastrically five times every other day with approximately 109/CFU H. pylori ATCC43504 (CagA+, VacA+). Each group was then divided into two subgroups, which were sacrificed at either 6 or 12 mo. The control and H. pylori subgroups each contained 10 Mongolian gerbils. Body weight, abdominal circumference, and body length were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and Lee’s index were calculated. Biochemical assays were used to detect serum indexes, including glucose, glycated hemoglobin (GHb), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol, using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN)-γ, were assayed using ELISA. The expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and islet apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. RESULTS: At each time point, body weight, abdominal circumference, BMI, and Lee’s index were increased after H. pylori infection. However, these differences were not significant. H. pylori infection significantly increased the GHb (5.45 ± 0.53 vs 4.98 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and HbA1c (4.91 ± 0.61 vs 4.61 ± 0.15, P < 0.05) levels at 12 mo. We observed no significant differences in serum biochemical indexes, including fasting blood glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, at 6 or 12 mo after infection. H. pylori infection significantly increased the expression of IGF-1 (P < 0.05). Insulin levels from the pancreas and the apoptotic rate of islet β-cells remained unchanged. Also, we observed no significant differences among cytokines levels, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ. IL-4 was the only exception, which increased at 6 (44.36 ± 25.17 vs 17.38 ± 3.47, P < 0.05) and 12 mo (33.41 ± 10.00 vs 18.91 ± 5.31, P < 0.05) after H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Long-term H. pylori infection is significantly associated with high levels of HbA1c in Mongolian gerbils, indicating a potential role of H. pylori infection in glucose dysregulation. PMID:26640335

  10. Delineation of the High Enthalpy Reservoirs of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Geothermal System, South-Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.; Muñoz, M.; Parada, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geothermal system associated with the Pleistocene-Holocene Sierra Nevada volcano (SNVGS) in the Araucanía Region of Chile has surface manifestations from the north-western flank of the volcano, up to Manzanar and Malalcahuello. Baños del Toro, located on the northwestern flank of the volcano, has numerous fumaroles and acid pools (acid sulfate waters, T=~90°C, pH=2.1, TDS=3080 mg/L); while Aguas de la Vaca, near the base of the volcano, has a bubbling spring (chloride-sulfate waters, T=~60°C, pH=7.0, TDS=950 mg/L). Five shallow (<120m) wells (2 at Manzanar and 3 at Malalcahuello) dug and drilled in the Cautín River Valley discharge alkaline (pH= 9-10) waters with relatively low TDS (130-210mg/L). The main heat source of the geothermal system is apparently the magmatic system of the Sierra Nevada volcano. Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) that transects the area forms excellent conduits for the flow of the geothermal waters. The geothermal reservoirs are hosted in the volcanic rocks interceded with glacial deposits over the North Patagonian Batholith that forms an impermeable barrier, and thus constitutes the lower boundary of the geothermal system and also controls the lateral flow of the fluids. An equilibrium temperature of ~210°C is derived from gas geothermometry (CO2/Ar-H2/Ar) of the discharges at Baños del Toro. Geothermal fluids from the upflow area on the northwestern flank of the volcano migrate northwards to the Cautín River Valley. The geothermal system has a high enthalpy reservoir(s) on the northwestern flank of the Sierra Nevada volcano and low-enthalpy reservoirs in the Cautín River Valley that have been tapped to form spas at Manzanar and Malalcahuello. While sub-vertical fractures of LOFZ facilitate the recharge of the system, lateral flow of the geothermal fluids is apparently controlled by lithology; Melipueclo Pluton in particular prevents the westward flow from the upflow zone, causing the flow only northwards to Malalcahuello and subsequently westward on meeting poorly permeable Guapitrío Member of the Cura-Mallín Formation. This change in the flow direction from northwestward up to Malalcahuello to westward towards Manzanar is supported by topographic and hydrographic conditions as well, besides available geological and geophysical data. SNVGS is perhaps the most promising geothermal system in the area, considering the presence of high enthalpy reservoir and stable heat source, ideal for its development as geothermal resource. Acknowledgments: Authors would like to acknowledge the funding for this work through the PBCT PDA-07 project of CONICYT and Geothermal Program (Cátedra de Geotermia) of the Ministry of Energy and Mining, Government of Chile.

  11. Zircons in Eucrites: Pristine and Disturbed U-Pb Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovanska, M.; Ireland, T. R.

    1993-07-01

    In our previous studies of HED zircons we have found that the zircon U-Pb systems have been undisturbed and consistent with a formation age of 4.56 Ga. Zi from the eucrites Padvarninkai [1], Stannern [2], and Yamato 791438 [3] all show concordant compositions and even the eucritic enclaves in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite appear to be undisturbed [4]. We have analyzed zircons found in pol sections from another six eucrites, Bereba, Cachari, Jonzac, Juvinas, Millbillil and Pasamonte. In addition, a relatively large (~10 micrometers) baddeleyite was discovered in Pasamonte and gives us a chance to examine the systematics of this phase in comparison to zircon. The zircons in these meteorites are typically less than 10 micrometer and occur in close association with ilmenite and chromite. Zircons and baddeleyite were analyzed for U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace-element abundances with the SHRIMP ion microprobe. The analytical techniques for ion microprobe analysis are described [4]. Owing to the small size of the zircons, most of them were entirely consumed during the U-Pb analyses and REE patterns were not measured. In addition, the sm size of the grains meant that there was significant beam overlap onto the surrou chromite and ilmenite with the possibility that the U-Pb normalization could be affected. The zircons are fairly typical of meteoritic zircons with U concentrat around 50-100 ppm with a high value of 300 ppm in a Pasamonte zircon. REE are al the range previously observed for meteoritic zircon. The baddeleyite has ~60 ppm and, in contrast to the extreme heavy REE enriched zircon patterns, has a slight light REE ennched pattern (La 1800 x CI; Lu 800 x CI) with a large Eu depletion. All U-Pb analyses are either concordant or reverse discordant (i.e. they have excess radiogenic Pb). Three of the sections (Jonzac, Juvinas, Millbillillie) ha large surface Pb contributions, but their compositions were consistent with concordant 4.56 Ga U-Pb. Pasamonte zircon was also concordant at 4.56 Ga and Ber was concordant to slightly reverse discordant at 4.534 +- 0.016 Ga. Cachari, how is distinct in that it shows a mixing line between concordant 4.56 Ga and a radiogenic common Pb with a ^207Pb/^206Pb of ~0.4. The lowest apparent ^207Pb/^2 age is 4.20 Ga. Cachan also has a number of petrographic features associated wit deformation; in particular one of the zircons has been sheared with an offset th the center of the grain. It is possible that the U-Pb systematics are reflecting event, which has caused isotopic disturbance in the mesosiderites. The Pasamonte baddeleyite may also be slightly disturbed with a young ^207Pb/^206Pb age of ~4. Ga; as yet we have no standard to calibrate U-Pb ratios. References: [1] Bukovanska M. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 325. [2] Ireland T. R. and Bukovanska M. (1992) Meteoritics 27, 237. [3] Ireland T. R. et al. (1992) XXIII, 569-570. [4] Ireland T. R. and Wlotzka F. (1992) EPSL, 109, 1-10.

  12. Zircons from the Stannern Eucrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Bukovanska, M.

    1992-07-01

    Zircons are becoming increasingly apparent in meteorites of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite association. The zircons generally occur as small (<=30 micrometers) inclusions closely associated with ilmenite and chromite. We have previously analyzed zircons from eucritic enclaves from Vaca Muerta [1], zircons from the brecciated eucrite Padvarninkai [2], and from the Yamato 791438 eucrite [3]. Here we report on our continued studies of meteoritic zircons with ion probe U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics and REE abundances of zircons from the Stannern eucrite. Eighteen zircons were identified and analyzed by electron probe in a polished section of the Stannern eucrite. An average composition is SiO2 31.78, TiO2 0.73, FeO 1.45, ZrO2 64.26, HfO2 1.04, total 99.26. The mean Zr/Hf ratio of 63 (range 21-129) is similar to the range observed in lunar zircons 30-60. Most of these zircons were not suitable for analysis (too small, proximity to cracks) and only four were analyzed for U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace-element abundances with the SHRIMP ion microprobe. All of these zircons occur in close association with ilmenite. The ilmenite grains range in size up to several hundred micrometers, but the zircons are at most only 20 micrometers in diameter. The analytical techniques for ion microprobe analysis are described in [1]. The U concentrations ranged from 30-80 ppm and the mean ^207Pb/^206Pb age of the four grains is 4550 +- 10 Ma (2 sigma); these values are very similar to the range in U concentrations (30-60 ppm) and the age (4553 +- 13 Ma) of the zircons analyzed from Padvarninkai [2]. The zircon age is compatible with the Sm-Nd age of Stannern (4.48 +- 0.07 Ga [4]) and the zircons have not been affected by the event(s) that disturbed the Rb-Sr system (3.1 +- 0.5 Ga [5]). The REE patterns (Fig. 1) are also very similar to the range shown in Padvarninkai. The LREE patterns are flat but the absolute abundances are different in the four grains ranging from chondritic to over 100 x chondritic. Europium is depleted in all zircons relative to the trend of the other REE. The HREE abundances are smoothly fractionated with overall absolute abundances that vary sympathetically with the overall LREE abundances. The similarity of the REE in zircons from Padvarninkai is noteworthy since the absolute abundances of REE in Stannern are 20 x CI compared with 10 x CI in Padvarninka. Therefore the zircon compositions do not appear to be controlled solely by the total REE inventory. References: [1] Ireland and Wlotzka (1992) EPSL 109, 1. [2] Bukovanska et al. (1991) Meteoritics 26, 325. [3] Ireland et al. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIII, 569. [5] Birck and Allegre (1978) EPSL 39, 37. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows Stannern REE.

  13. Mesosiderites: Young Meteorites from the Largest Sampled Asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    1992-07-01

    The 3.6-Gy ^39Ar-^40Ar age of mesosiderites has been interpreted in terms of a major impact around the time of major impacts on the Moon and the HED parent body [1;2]. We suggest instead that the young age of mesosiderites reflects lengthy primary cooling of the largest sampled asteroid; we calculate that its radius was 200-400 km. This conclusion is more consistent with the petrologic properties and our revised metallographic cooling rates of the mesosiderites. If correct, this would present us with a unique opportunity to calibrate the metallographic cooling rates. We have measured metallographic cooling rates of 5 mesosiderites (Vaca Muerta, Emery, Lowicz, Esterville, and Pinnaroo, see also [3]) using the revised phase-diagrams and diffusion constant of [4] and the local-bulk Ni technique of [5]. The metal structure indicates that the mesosiderites cooled slowly from at least 700 degrees C, where kamacite begins to precipitate, to below 320 degrees C, where tetrataenite forms. Cooling of the mesosiderites from 700 degrees C to below 300 degrees C in 900 My would require a cooling rate of more than 0.4 K/My. However, our preliminary results indicate metallographic cooling rates of approximately 0.05 K/My or almost an order of magnitude lower than the 0.4 K/My required to obtain Ar closure before 3.6 Gy ago. We find that the ^39Ar-^40Ar dates represent primary cooling for the following three reasons: 1) The metallographic cooling rates are the lowest known and--if taken at face value--inconsistent with cooling to Ar closure temperatures within 900 My. 2) Fresh shock features in the metal and silicates of mesosiderites are lacking but should be abundant if the parent body experienced a major impact 3.6 Gy ago. 3) The ^39Ar-^40Ar ages [1] are typically better defined than documented shock-ages of randomly sampled impact products since only small amounts of target material are heated sufficiently to remove Ar completely. Under the assumption that the Ar age represents primary cooling of the mesosiderites we have an independent measure of the cooling rate: 0.4 K/My. This would indicate that our revised mesosiderite cooling rates are too low by a factor of approximately 10. If, on the other hand, the Ar age represents a resetting of the Ar clock, then the cooling rate must have been even higher in order to obtain Ar closure prior to 3.6 Gy ago. A cooling rate of 0.4 K/My would require a parent body with a radius of 200 to 400 km. These radii are calculated assuming that the asteroid was covered with an insulating regolith with a thickness of between 600 and 0 m [6]. References: [1] Bogard D.D., Garrison D.H., Jordan J.L., and Mittlefehldt D. (1990) GCA, 54, 2549-2564 [2] Bogard D.D. and Garrison D.H. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 131-132. [3] Rasmussen K.L., Delaney J.S., and Prinz M. (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 738-739. [4] Saikumar V. and Goldstein J.I. (1988) GCA, 52, 715-726 [5] Rasmussen K.L. (1981) Icarus, 52, 564-576 [6] Haack H., Rasmussen, K.L., and Warren, P.H. (1990) JGR, 95, 5111-5124.

  14. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites: Implications for the "Great Dunite Shortage" and HED-mesosiderite connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Scott, Edward R. D.; Haack, Henning; Buchanan, Paul C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Yamaguchi, Akira; Johnson, Diane; Bevan, Alex W. R.; Burbine, Thomas H.

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from iron meteorites indicates that a large number of differentiated planetesimals formed early in Solar System history. These bodies should have had well-developed olivine-rich mantles and consequentially such materials ought to be abundant both as asteroids and meteorites, which they are not. To investigate this "Great Dunite Shortage" we have undertaken a geochemical and oxygen isotope study of main-group pallasites and dunitic rocks from mesosiderites. Oxygen isotope analysis of 24 main-group pallasites (103 replicates) yielded a mean Δ17O value of -0.187 ± 0.016‰ (2σ), which is fully resolved from the HED Δ17O value of -0.246 ± 0.014 (2σ) obtained in our earlier study and demonstrates that both groups represent distinct populations and were derived from separate parent bodies. Our results show no evidence for Δ17O bimodality within the main-group pallasites, as suggested by a number of previous studies. Olivine-rich materials from the Vaca Muerta, Mount Padbury and Lamont mesosiderites, and from two related dunites (NWA 2968 and NWA 3329), have Δ17O values within error of the mesosiderite average. This indicates that these olivine-rich materials are co-genetic with other mesosiderite clasts and are not fragments from an isotopically distinct pallasite-like impactor. Despite its extreme lithologic diversity the mesosiderite parent body was essentially homogeneous with respect to Δ17O, a feature best explained by an early phase of large-scale melting (magma ocean), followed by prolonged igneous differentiation. Based on the results of magma ocean modeling studies, we infer that Mg-rich olivines in mesosiderites formed as cumulates in high-level chambers and do not represent samples of the underlying mantle. By analogy, recently documented Mg-rich olivines in howardites may have a similar origin. Although the Dawn mission did not detect mesosiderite-like material on Vesta, evidence linking the mesosiderites and HEDs includes: (i) their nearly identical oxygen isotope compositions; (ii) the presence in both of coarse-grained Mg-rich olivines; (iii) both have synchronous Lu-Hf and Mn-Cr ages; (iv) there are compositional similarities between the metal in both; and (v) mesosiderite-like material has been identified in a howardite breccia. The source of the mesosiderites remains an outstanding question in meteorite science. The underrepresentation of olivine-rich materials amongst both asteroids and meteorites results from a range of factors. However, evidence from pallasites and mesosiderites indicates that the most important reason for this olivine shortage lies in the early, catastrophic destruction of planetesimals in the terrestrial planet-forming region and the subsequent preferential loss of their olivine-rich mantles.

  15. Substrate-controlled ichnofacies along a marine sequence boundary: The Intra-Valanginian Discontinuity in central Neuquén Basin (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Ernesto; Buatois, Luis A.

    2012-11-01

    The Intra-Valanginian Discontinuity in the Neuquén Basin (Argentina) marks a dramatic sea-level fall within Lower Cretaceous strata, and can be mapped for tens of kilometers both along depositional strike and dip. In the proximal region of the lowstand configuration, the subaerial segment of the sequence boundary is demarcated by alluvial conglomerates (basal Mulichinco Formation) onto deep-marine black shales (Vaca Muerta Formation). In the distal marine realm, the time-equivalent marine sequence boundary separates black shales and marls beneath from shallow-marine carbonate deposits above. This paper documents and discusses substrate-controlled trace fossils demarcating the marine sequence boundary across more than 30 km in a proximal-distal transect in order to shed light onto processes affecting the sea-floor during the generation, biogenic modification, and preservation of this regionally extensive omission surface. The downdip expression of the marine sequence boundary is well-exposed across a 20-km long, strike-oriented outcrop. Everywhere in this region the discontinuity is demarcated by robust Thalassinoides with well-defined walls and circular cross-sections, suggesting that the marly substrate was relatively firm during excavation. The burrow system is filled with bioclasts of echinoids and bivalves not present in underlying strata, up to pebble-size intraclasts that were eroded from the underlying succession, and authigenic minerals (glauconite, phosphates). This trace-fossil suite illustrates the Glossifungites Ichnofacies. The updip expression of the marine sequence boundary in the study area was recorded in a cored well located about 20 km from the outcrops. As in the distal region, a first generation of passively filled Thalassinoides excavated into a firm marly substrate is attributed to the Glossifungites Ichnofacies. However, this suite is cross-cut at the top by Gastrochaenolites and other unidentified borings. Bored intraclasts also occur above the omission surface. This trace-fossil suite represents the Trypanites Ichnofacies. The Intra-Valanginian Discontinuity records a complex history after the onset of the dramatic sea-level fall. Extensive erosion and exhumation of previous sediments, as well as early cementation, combined to produce different types of substrates during the generation of the omission surface (firmgrounds and hardgrounds). Colonization of firm substrates probably started firstly in proximal regions, when relative sea-level was still falling. During early transgression, firmgrounds were occupied in distal regions and borers colonized the hardgrounds developed in proximal regions. Thus, the surface demarcates a composite surface, involving a sequence boundary plus a transgressive surface, draped in turn by a mixing of sediments suggesting siliciclastic starvation. The generation and preservation of the features associated with the Intra-Valanginian Discontinuity are thought to result from the combination of a ramp-type pre-existing morphology, coupled with a high-amplitude sea-level fall and a relatively deep-marine setting prior to the formation of the omission surface.

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Rodríguez Blanquet, Raquel; Sánchez García, Juan Carlos; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel; Baena García, Laura; López Contreras, Gracia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el entrenamiento mediante ejercicio físico moderado durante el periodo de gestación aporta beneficios tanto a la mujer embarazada como al feto. Los trabajos de investigación consultados vinculan la actividad física con una reducción del número de cesáreas, de partos instrumentados y con un parto más fisiológico. Previene igualmente la ganancia excesiva de peso de la mujer, disminuye el riesgo de diabetes gestacional y de hipertensión arterial.Objetivo: el objetivo de esta investigación es conocer si un programa de ejercicio físico de carácter moderado con el método Study Water Exercise Pregnant (SWEP), realizado en un medio acuático, contribuye a obtener unos resultados más favorables en la etapa perinatal, tanto para la mujer como para el bebé.Material y métodos: el diseño que se llevará a cabo es un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. La muestra estará constituida por 364 gestantes, obtenida de un universo total de 6.579 partos acontecidos en Granada (España) durante el año 2014. Dicha muestra se ha dividido en dos grupos, uno de intervención y otro de control. La actividad se realizará en las instalaciones deportivas acuáticas de la Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte de la Universidad de Granada, que cuentan con dos vasos adecuados a nuestros objetivos, uno polivalente de 25 metros y otro de enseñanza de 12,5 metros.  Resultados: el programa de ejercicios diseñado específicamente para el proyecto denominado SWEP, abarca desde la 20 hasta la 37 semana de gestación (SG) y consta de tres sesiones semanales, con una duración de 60 minutos cada una. Las sesiones incluirán tres fases: fase de calentamiento, fase principal en la que el ejercicio se divide en una parte aeróbica y otra de ejercicios de fuerza y resistencia y una final con estiramientos y relajación. Las variables que se van a estudiar son las siguientes: a) maternas: peso, IMC, tensión arterial, test de O´Sullivan, aparición de depresión postparto, nivel de autopercepción de salud, calidad del sueño y esfuerzo percibido durante la actividad física; b) fetales: peso, test de Apgar, perímetro cefálico y SG (semana de gestación al nacimiento); c) periparto: tiempos de dilatación, expulsivo y alumbramiento, tipo de parto, presencia de episiotomía, tipo de alimentación que recibe el RN y tiempo de lactancia materna exclusiva; y d) descriptivas: edad, profesión, nivel de estudios, tipo de ejercicio físico realizado previamente y FO (fórmula obstétrica).Conclusión: con la actividad física acuática moderada, por parte de la embarazada (método SWEP), se pretenden mejorar las variables arriba indicadas. PMID:27019255

  17. Relaxometry in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non-destructive way. Recent studies investigated wetting and swelling processes in soil samples, as well as the formation of microbial biofilms in soil the formation. This contribution gives an overview of current applications and the potential of NMR relaxometry in soil science with special emphasis on proton NMR relaxometry. References Bird, N.R.A., Preston, A.R., Randall, E.W., Whalley, W.R. & Whitmore, A.P. 2005. Measurement of the size distribution of water-filled pores at different matric potentials by stray field nuclear magnetic resonance. 56, 135-143. Bryar, T.R. & Knight, R.J. 2002. Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements to Changing Soil Redox Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 50/1-50/4. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A. 2006. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 382-390. Gunasekara, A.S., Simpson, M.I. & Xing, B. 2003. Identification and characterization of sorption domains in soil organic matter using strucuturally modified humic acids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 852-858. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E., Boeckelmann, U. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. Microbial effects on 1H NMR Relaxometry in soil samples and glass bead reactors. In Humic Substances - Linking Structure to Functions. Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Societyin Karlsruhe eds. F.H. Frimmel & G. Abbt-Braun), pp. 929-932. Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe. Hurraß, J. & Schaumann, G.E. 2007. Hydration kinetics of wettable and water repellent soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 280-288. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. 1H NMR Relaxometry in natural humous soil samples: Insights in microbial effects on relaxation time distributions. Plant and Soil, 280, 209-222. Jaeger, F., Rudolph, N., Lang, F. & Schaumann, G.E. 2008. Effects of soil solution's constituents on proton NMR relaxometry of soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 72, 1694-1707. Jaeger, F., Bowe, S. & Schaumann, G.E. in preparation. Evaluation of 1H NMR relaxometry for the assessment of pore size distribution in soil samples. European Journal of Soil Science. Jähnert, S., Vaca Chavez, F., Schaumann, G.E., Schreiber, A., Schönhoff, M. & Findenegg, G.H. 2008. Melting and freezing of water in cylindrical silica nanopores. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 39, 6039-6051. Schaumann, G.E., Hurraß, J., Müller, M. & Rotard, W. 2004. Swelling of organic matter in soil and peat samples: insights from proton relaxation, water absorption and PAH extraction. In Humic Substances: Nature's Most Versatile Materials eds. E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies), pp. 101-117. Taylor and Francis, Inc., New York. Schaumann, G.E., Hobley, E., Hurraß, J. & Rotard, W. 2005. H-NMR Relaxometry to monitor wetting and swelling kinetics in high organic matter soils. Plant and Soil, 275, 1-20. Schaumann, G.E. & Bertmer, M. 2008. Do water molecules bridge soil organic matter molecule segments? European Journal of Soil Science, 59, 423-429. Todoruk, T.R., Langford, C.H. & Kantzas, A. 2003. Pore-Scale Redistribution of Water during Wetting of Air-Dried Soils As Studied by Low-Field NMR Relaxometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 2707-2713. Todoruk, T.R., Litvina, M., Kantzas, A. & Langford, C.H. 2003. Low-Field NMR Relaxometry: A Study of Interactions of Water with Water-Repellant Soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 2878-2882. Van As, H. & van Dusschoten, D. 1997. NMR methods for imaging of transport processes in micro-porous systems. Geoderma, 80, 389-403. Van As, H. & Lens, P. 2001. Use of 1H NMR to study transport processes in porous biosystems. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 26, 43-52.

  18. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

    One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux sont grossièrement caractérisés par des différentes gammes de résistivitéélectrique se recouvrant, dépendant surtout de la teneur en argiles et du degré de cimentation. Les résistivités près de la côte diminuent du fait de l'intrusion marine. Ces variations de résistivité ont été cartographiées à partir de 400km de profils électromagnétiques, dans le domaine temporel ; trois zones ont été distinguées dans l'aquifère alluvial. Le biseau salé a aussi été délimité, jusqu'à 10km de la côte. L'épaisseur de la partie saturée des graviers va de 20-160m sur une étendue supérieure à 600km2. Resumen Un tercio de la población de Omán depende de las aguas subterráneas extraídas del aluvial de la Llanura de Batinah, en la costa del Golfo de Omán. Para determinar la profundidad y naturaleza del aluvial, así como los límites del acuífero, se han usado técnicas de exploración geofísica profunda. El basamento y los límites estructurales del aluvial en su contacto con los sedimentos marinos del Terciario y la ofiolita cretácica se obtuvieron mediante sísmica de reflexión, registrada previamente en campañas de exploración petrolífera. La base del aluvial buza hacia el norte desde el pie de las Montañas del Norte de Omán, alcanzando una profundidad máxima de 2000m en la costa. Las distintas facies del aluvial están caracterizadas por rangos distintos, pero superpuestos, de resistividad eléctrica, dependiendo del contenido en arcillas y del grado de cementación. Las resistividades cerca de la costa se reducen por la intrusión salina. Estas variaciones de resistividad se obtuvieron con registros electromagnéticos a lo largo de un perfil de 400km, con el objetivo de distinguir las tres zonas del acuífero aluvial. También se pudo obtener la geometría de la cuña de intrusión, que llega hasta 10km de la costa. El espesor de las gravas saturadas que forman el acuífero oscila entre los 20-160m en un área superior a 600km2.

  19. Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2000-08-01

    An improved mathematical hydrodynamic quasi-two-dimensional model of cells, CELSUB3, is presented for simulating drainage systems that consist of pumping well fields or subsurface drains. The CELSUB3 model is composed of an assemblage of algorithms that have been developed and tested previously and that simulate saturated flow in porous media, closed conduit flow, and flow through pumping stations. A new type of link between aquifer cells and drainage conduits is proposed. This link is verified in simple problems with well known analytical solutions. The correlation between results from analytical and mathematical solutions was considered satisfactory in all cases. To simulate more complex situations, the new proposed version, CELSUB3, was applied in a project designed to control the water-table level within a sewer system in Chañar Ladeado Town, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Alternative drainage designs, which were evaluated under conditions of dynamic recharge caused by rainfall in a critical year (wettest year for the period of record) and a typical year, are briefly described. After analyzing ten alternative designs, the best technical-economic solution is a subsurface drainage system of closed conduits with pumping stations and evacuation channels. Résumé. Un modèle hydrodynamique perfectionné de cellules en quasi 2D, CELSUB3, est présenté dans le but de simuler des systèmes de drainage qui consistent en des champs de puits de pompage ou de drains souterrains. Le modèle CELSUB3 est composé d'un assemblage d'algorithmes développés et testés précédemment et qui simulent des écoulements en milieu poreux saturé, en conduites et dans des stations de pompage. Un nouveau type de lien entre des cellules d'aquifères et des drains est proposé. Ce lien est vérifié dans des problèmes simples dont les solutions analytiques sont bien connues. La corrélation entre les résultats des solutions analytiques et des solutions mathématiques a été considérée comme satisfaisante dans tous les cas. Afin de simuler des situations plus complexes, la nouvelle version proposée, CELSUB3, a été mise en œuvre dans un projet destiné à contrôler le niveau de la nappe à l'intérieur d'un système d'égouts, dans la ville de Chaar Ladeado (province de Santa Fe, Argentine). Différentes organisations du projet de drainage, qui ont été testées pour des conditions de recharge dynamique causées par la pluie au cours d'une année critique (la plus humide de la chronique disponible) et une année typique, sont brièvement décrites. Après analyse de dix organisations différentes, la meilleure solution technico-économique retenue est un système de drainage souterrain de conduites avec des stations de pompage et des canaux d'évacuation. Resumen. Se presenta un modelo matemático hidrodinámico cuasi-bidimensional de celdas, CELSUB3, apto para la simulación integral de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo basados en campos de bombeo o drenes subsuperficiales. El modelo de simulación presenta un ensamble de algoritmos, previamente desarrollados y testeados, que representan al escurrimiento a través del medio poroso saturado, escurrimiento en conducciones cerradas, estaciones de bombeo, etc. En la estructura del modelo se propone un nuevo tipo de vinculación entre celdas acuíferas y conductos de drenaje, la cual es verificada en problemas simples con solución analítica conocida arrojando, en todos los casos, resultados satisfactorios. Abordando situaciones más complejas, la nueva versión propuesta fue aplicada en un proyecto de control de niveles freáticos que acompaña un sistema de conductos cloacales, en la localidad de Chañar Ladeado, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen las alternativas de drenaje consideradas las cuales fueron evaluadas bajo recargas dinámicas provocadas por años críticamente lluviosos y en situaciones típicas. Los resultados derivados permitieron definir, tras analizar una decena de proyectos alternativos, la mejor solución técnico-económica consistente en un sistema de drenes subterráneos, estaciones de bombeo y canales de evacuación.

  20. Groundwater capture processes under a seasonal variation in natural recharge and discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, Thomas, III.; Vionnet, Leticia Beatriz

    "Capture" is the increase in recharge and the decrease in discharge that occurs when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system that was in a previous state of approximate dynamic equilibrium. Regional groundwater models are usually used to calculate capture in a two-step procedure. A steady-state solution provides an initial-head configuration, a set of flows through the boundaries for the modeled region, and the initial basis for the capture calculation. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions renders the capture calculation. When seasonality is a modeling issue, the use of a single initial hydraulic head and a single set of boundary flows leads to miscalculations of capture. Instead, an initial condition for each season should be used. This approach may be accomplished by determining steady oscillatory solutions, which vary through the seasons but repeat from year to year. A regional groundwater model previously developed for a portion of the San Pedro River basin, Arizona, USA, is modified to illustrate the effect that different initial conditions have on transient solutions and on capture calculations. Résumé Les "prélèvements" sont constitués par l'augmentation de la recharge et par la diminution de l'écoulement qui se produit lorsqu'un pompage est imposéà un système aquifère qui était auparavant dans un état proche de l'équilibre dynamique. Les modèles régionaux de nappe sont en général utilisés pour calculer les prélèvements dans une procédure à deux étapes. Une solution en régime permanent donne la configuration piézométrique initiale, un jeu de conditions aux limites pour la région modélisée et les données de base pour le calcul des prélèvements. Les solutions transitoires donnent les modifications globales des conditions aux limites. Lorsque des variations saisonnières sont produites en sortie du modèle, le recours à une piézométrie initiale unique et à un seul jeu de données de conditions aux limites conduit à un mauvais calcul des prélèvements. Il faut alors utiliser une condition de recharge initiale pour chaque saison. Cette approche peut être réalisée en déterminant des solutions permanentes périodiques, variantes au cours des saisons, mais se répétant d'année en année. Un modèle de nappe régional, précédemment mis au point pour une partie du bassin de la rivière San Pedro (Arizona, États-Unis), a été modifié pour illustrer l'effet de conditions initiales différentes sur des solutions transitoires et sur le calcul des prélèvements. Resumen Se define como "captura" al aumento de recarga y descenso de descarga que tiene lugar cuando se impone un bombeo en un acuífero en estado de equilibrio dinámico. Se suelen utilizar modelos regionales de agua subterránea para calcular la captura en un procedimiento que consta de dos etapas. Una solución en régimen estacionario proporciona la distribución inicial de niveles piezométricos, los flujos a través de los contornos de la región modelada y el punto de partida para el cálculo de la captura. Las soluciones transitorias proporcionan los cambios en los flujos a través de los contornos. La diferencia entre las soluciones estacionaria y transitoria da el valor de la captura. Cuando los cambios estacionales son importantes, la utilización de un único estado inicial de niveles y de flujos en los contornos da lugar a errores en el cálculo de la captura. En este caso debe usarse una condición inicial para cada una de las estaciones. Esto se puede conseguir obteniendo soluciones periódicas estacionarias, que varíen a lo largo de las estaciones, pero que se repitan año a año. Un modelo regional desarrollado previamente para el estudio de una parte de la cuenca del Río San Pedro, en Arizona (EE.UU.) se modificó para ilustrar el efecto que las distintas condiciones iniciales tienen en el cálculo de la captura.

  1. Using operational data to estimate the reliable yields of water-supply wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misstear, Bruce D. R.; Beeson, Sarah

    The reliable yield of a water-supply well depends on many different factors, including the properties of the well and the aquifer; the capacities of the pumps, raw-water mains, and treatment works; the interference effects from other wells; and the constraints imposed by ion licences, water quality, and environmental issues. A relatively simple methodology for estimating reliable yields has been developed that takes into account all of these factors. The methodology is based mainly on an analysis of water-level and source-output data, where such data are available. Good operational data are especially important when dealing with wells in shallow, unconfined, fissure-flow aquifers, where actual well performance may vary considerably from that predicted using a more analytical approach. Key issues in the yield-assessment process are the identification of a deepest advisable pumping water level, and the collection of the appropriate well, aquifer, and operational data. Although developed for water-supply operators in the United Kingdom, this approach to estimating the reliable yields of water-supply wells using operational data should be applicable to a wide range of hydrogeological conditions elsewhere. Résumé La productivité d'un puits capté pour l'adduction d'eau potable dépend de différents facteurs, parmi lesquels les propriétés du puits et de l'aquifère, la puissance des pompes, le traitement des eaux brutes, les effets d'interférences avec d'autres puits et les contraintes imposées par les autorisations d'exploitation, par la qualité des eaux et par les conditions environnementales. Une méthodologie relativement simple d'estimation de la productivité qui prenne en compte tous ces facteurs a été mise au point. Cette méthodologie est basée surtout sur une analyse des données concernant le niveau piézométrique et le débit de prélèvement, quand ces données sont disponibles. De bonnes données opérationnelles sont particulièrement importantes quand il s'agit de puits dans des aquifères fissurés, libres et peu profonds, dans lesquels la performance réelle d'un puits peut varier considérablement de celle prédite à partir d'une approche plus analytique. Des données essentielles dans les processus d'estimation de la productivité sont l'identification d'un niveau piézométrique de pompage le plus profond possible et le recueil de données opérationnelles appropriées concernant le puits et l'aquifère. Bien qu'elle ait été développée pour des opérateurs gérant des captages en Grande-Bretagne, cette approche de l'estimation de la productivité des puits de captage d'eau potable à partir de données opérationnelles peut être appliquée à une large gamme de conditions hydrogéologiques en d'autres lieux. Resumen La productividad de un pozo de abastecimiento depende de varios factores, entre los que se incluyen las propiedades del pozo y del acuífero, la capacidad de la bomba, las obras de mantenimiento, la interferencia de otras captaciones y las restricciones impuestas por permisos legales, calidad del agua y aspectos ambientales. Se ha desarrollado una metodología relativamente simple para estimar la productividad de un pozo teniendo en cuenta todos los factores previamente mencionados. Esta metodología se basa principalmente en el análisis de niveles y caudales cuando estos datos están disponibles. Se requieren buenos datos de operación, principalmente cuando el pozo está situado en un acuífero de poco espesor, no confinado y en medio fracturado, donde la respuesta del sistema puede diferir enormemente de la predicción analítica. Un punto destacado en el estudio de productividad es la identificación del descenso máximo admisible. Aunque desarrollada para el Reino Unido, la metodología puede ser utilizada a un amplio rango de condiciones hidrogeológicas en otras zonas del mundo.

  2. Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de corriente no circulares perturba significativamente el movimiento de las partículas alrededor del Sol e incrementa su vida media en la Nebulosa. El flujo medio del gas se modela de forma simple, analizándose la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas mediante simulaciones numéricas. Al incrementarse la vida media y la densidad superficial de las partículas sólidas, los mecanismos de confinamiento derivados de la presencia de vórtices y ondas espirales actuan sobre el material sólido de la Nebulosa (mediante agregación colisional o inestabilidades gravitacionales) de manera mucho más eficiente que la previamente considerada. Esto ofrece nuevas posibilidades para la formación de planetesimales y núcleos de planetas gigantes, y puede explicar la formación rápida de planetas extrasolares gigantes. Además, esta Tesis analiza la respuesta de las partículas, en un disco protoplanetario con un radio de 100 UA en torno a una estrella de tipo solar, al campo gravitatorio derivado de la presencia de dos estrellas compañeras ligadas en una órbita relativamente elongada (300-1600 UA). Para llevar a cabo este análisis, se han realizado una serie de simulaciones numéricas de configuraciones jerárquicas coplanares utilizando un programa FORTRAN que integra directamente las ecuaciones del movimiento con el objeto de modelar la presencia de las fuerzas gravitacionales y viscosas. El disco protoplanetario masivo se encuentra en torno a una de las componentes de la binaria. La evolución temporal del subdisco de polvo depende directamente de la naturaleza (directa o retrógrada) de la revolución relativa de la compañera estelar, y de la temperatura y la masa del disco circunestelar.

  3. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  4. Quality of surgical care in hospitals providing internship training in Kenya: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Mwinga, Stephen; Kulohoma, Colette; Mwaniki, Paul; Idowu, Rachel; Masasabi, John; English, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate services in hospitals providing internship training to graduate doctors in Kenya. Methods A survey of 22 internship training hospitals was conducted. Availability of key resources spanning infrastructure, personnel, equipment and drugs was assessed by observation. Outcomes and process of care for pre-specified priority conditions (head injury, chest injury, fractures, burns and acute abdomen) were evaluated by auditing case records. Results Each hospital had at least one consultant surgeon. Scheduled surgical outpatient clinics, major ward rounds and elective (half day) theatre lists were provided once per week in 91%, 55% and 9%, respectively. In all other hospitals, these were conducted twice weekly. Basic drugs were not always available (e.g. gentamicin, morphine and pethidine in 50%, injectable antistaphylococcal penicillins in 5% hospitals). Fewer than half of hospitals had all resources needed to provide oxygen. One hundred and forty-five of 956 cases evaluated underwent operations under general or spinal anaesthesia. We found operation notes for 99% and anaesthetic records for 72%. Pre-operatively measured vital signs were recorded in 80% of cases, and evidence of consent to operation was found in 78%. Blood loss was documented in only one case and sponge and instrument counts in 7%. Conclusions Evaluation of surgical services would be improved by development and dissemination of clear standards of care. This survey suggests that internship hospitals may be poorly equipped and documented care suggests inadequacies in quality and training. Objectif Evaluer les services dans les hôpitaux offrant des stages de formation à des médecins diplômés au Kenya. Méthodes Enquête auprès de 22 hôpitaux offrant des stages de formation. La disponibilité des ressources clés incluant infrastructure, personnel, matériel et médicaments a été évaluée par observation. Les résultats et processus de soins pour des affections prioritaires prédéfinies (blessure à la tête, blessure à la poitrine, fractures, brûlures et maux d'estomac aigus) ont été évalués par l'audit des dossiers des cas. Résultats Chaque hôpital avait au moins un chirurgien consultant. Les cliniques chirurgicales ambulatoires planifiées, les principales tournées dans les chambres d'hospitalisation et des listes d'opérations choisies (demi-journée) ont été fournies une fois par semaine dans 91%, 55% et 9% des cas respectivement. Dans tous les autres hôpitaux, cela a été effectué deux fois par semaine. Les médicaments de base n’étaient pas toujours disponibles (par ex. la gentamicine, la morphine et la péthidine dans 50% des hôpitaux, les pénicillines anti-staphylococciques injectables dans 5%). Moins de la moitié des hôpitaux disposaient de toutes les ressources nécessaires pour fournir de l'oxygène. 145 sur 956 cas évalués ont subi des opérations sous anesthésie générale ou rachidienne. Nous avons retrouvé des notes d'opération pour 99% des cas et des dossiers d'anesthésie pour 72%. Les mesures préopératoires des signes vitaux ont été enregistrées dans 80% des cas et la preuve du consentement pour l'opération a été trouvée dans 78% des cas. La perte de sang a été documentée dans un seul cas et le comptage des éponges et instruments dans 7% des cas. Conclusions L’évaluation des services de chirurgie serait améliorée par le développement et la dissémination de normes de soins claires. Cette étude suggère que les hôpitaux offrant des stages peuvent être mal équipés et les soins enregistrés suggèrent des insuffisances dans la qualité et la formation. Objetivo Evaluar los servicios en hospitales que proveen entrenamiento a médicos graduados en Kenia. Métodos Estudio en 22 hospitales universitarios con entrenamiento de médicos residentes. Se evaluó mediante observación la disponibilidad de recursos claves, incluyendo infraestructura, personal, equipamiento y medicamentos. Se evaluaron los resultados y procesos de cuidados para condiciones prioritarias especificadas previamente (traumatismo craneoencefálico, lesión torácica, fracturas, quemaduras y abdomen agudo) mediante la auditoría de historias clínicas. Resultados Cada hospital tenía al menos un cirujano consultor. Se entregaban una vez por semana las listas de intervenciones quirúrgicas programadas en clínicas ambulatorias, en las rondas de visitas a las principales salas y las cirugías electivas (medio día) en 91%, 55% y 9% de los hospitales, respectivamente. En los demás hospitales se llevaban a cabo dos veces por semana. Los medicamentos básicos no estaban siempre disponibles (ej. gentamicina, morfina y meperidina en 50%, penicilina anti-estafilocócica inyectable 5% de los hospitales). Menos de la mitad de los hospitales tenían todos los recursos necesarios para proveer oxígeno. En 145 de 956 casos evaluados se llevó a cabo la cirugía con anestesia general o intradural. Encontramos apuntes quirúrgicos para un 99% y registros de la anestesia para el 72%. Se tenían registros de los signos vitales pre-quirúrgicos en un 80% de los casos y evidencia del consentimiento del paciente a ser intervenido en un 78%. Se documentaba pérdida de sangre solo en un caso y conteo de esponjas e instrumental en un 7%. Conclusiones La evaluación de los servicios quirúrgicos podría mejorarse mediante el desarrollo y la diseminación de estándares de cuidados precisos. Este estudio sugiere que los hospitales universitarios podrían estar mal equipados y los cuidados documentados sugieren que existen deficiencias tanto a nivel calidad como en el entrenamiento. PMID:25348925

  5. Feasibility and effectiveness of two community-based HIV testing models in rural Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lucy Anne; Jobanputra, Kiran; Rusike, Lorraine; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Okello, Velephi; Kerschberger, Bernhard; Jouquet, Guillaume; Cyr, Joanne; Teck, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility (population reached, costs) and effectiveness (positivity rates, linkage to care) of two strategies of community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in rural Swaziland. Methods Strategies used were mobile HTC (MHTC) and home-based HTC (HBHTC). Information on age, sex, previous testing and HIV results was obtained from routine HTC records. A consecutive series of individuals testing HIV-positive were followed up for 6 months from the test date to assess linkage to care. Results A total of 9 060 people were tested: 2 034 through MHTC and 7 026 through HBHTC. A higher proportion of children and adolescents (<20 years) were tested through HBHTC than MHTC (57% vs. 17%; P < 0.001). MHTC reached a higher proportion of adult men than HBHTC (42% vs. 39%; P = 0.015). Of 398 HIV-positive individuals, only 135 (34%) were enrolled in HIV care within 6 months. Of 42 individuals eligible for antiretroviral therapy, 22 (52%) started treatment within 6 months. Linkage to care was lowest among people who had tested previously and those aged 20–40 years. HBHTC was 50% cheaper (US$11 per person tested; $797 per individual enrolled in HIV care) than MHTC ($24 and $1698, respectively). Conclusion In this high HIV prevalence setting, a community-based testing programme achieved high uptake of testing and appears to be an effective and affordable way to encourage large numbers of people to learn their HIV status (particularly underserved populations such as men and young people). However, for community HTC to impact mortality and incidence, strategies need to be implemented to ensure people testing HIV-positive in the community are linked to HIV care. Objectifs Evaluer la faisabilité (population atteinte, coûts) et l'efficacité (taux de positivité, liaison aux soins) de deux stratégies de dépistage et conseil (DC) communautaire du VIH en zone rurale au Swaziland. Méthodes Les stratégies utilisées étaient des DC mobiles (DC-M) et le DC à domicile (DC-D). Les informations sur l’âge, le sexe, les tests précédents et les résultats VIH ont été obtenues à partir des dossiers de routine du DC. Une série d'individus séropositifs consécutifs a été suivie pendant six mois à partir de la date du test afin d’évaluer les liaisons aux soins. Résultats 9.060 personnes ont été testées: 2.034 par le biais du DC-M et 7026 par le biais du DC-D. Une plus grande proportion d'enfants et d'adolescents (<20 ans) ont été testés par le biais du DC-D que par celui du DC-M (57% vs 17%; p <0,001). Le DC-M a atteint une proportion plus élevée d'hommes adultes que le DC-D (42% vs 39%; p = 0,015). Des 398 personnes séropositives, seules 135 (34%) ont été inscrites à des soins VIH dans les 6 mois. De 42 personnes admissibles à la thérapie antirétrovirale, 22 (52%) ont commencé le traitement dans les 6 mois. Les liaisons avec les soins étaient plus faibles chez les personnes qui ont effectué un dépistage auparavant et celles âgées de 20 à 40 ans. Le DC-D était 50% moins cher (11 $ US par personne testée, 797 $ par personne inscrite dans les soins VIH) que le DC-M (24 $ et 1.698 $, respectivement). Conclusion Dans ce contexte à haute prévalence du VIH, un programme de dépistage communautaire a atteint une couverture élevée et semble être un moyen efficace et abordable pour encourager un grand nombre de personnes à connaître leur statut VIH (en particulier les populations mal desservies, telles que les hommes et les jeunes personnes). Cependant, afin que le DC communautaire ait un impact sur la mortalité et l'incidence, des stratégies doivent être mises en œuvre pour assurer que les personnes testées séropositives dans la communauté soient reliées aux soins du VIH. Objetivos Evaluar la viabilidad (población alcanzada, costes) y efectividad (tasas de positividad, vinculación al tratamiento) de dos estrategias comunitarias de asesoramiento y prueba para el VIH (APV) en zonas rurales de Suazilandia. Métodos Las estrategias utilizadas fueron la de APV en instalaciones clínicas móviles (APVM) y el APV realizado en el hogar (APVBH). Se obtuvo información sobre la edad, el sexo, la realización de pruebas anteriores y resultados de VIH de los informes rutinarios de APV. A una serie consecutiva de individuos que habían dado positivo en la prueba de VIH se les siguió durante 6 meses a partir del día de la prueba, con el fin de evaluar la conexión posterior a los cuidados y tratamiento adecuados. Resultados Se evaluaron 9,060 personas: 2,034 mediante APVM y 7,026 mediante APVBH. A una mayor proporción de niños y adolescentes (<20 años) se les realizó la prueba mediante APVBH que mediante APVM (57% vs. 17%; p<0.001). El APVM llegó a una mayor proporción de hombres adultos que el APVBH (42% vs. 39%; p=0.015). De 398 individuos VIH positivos, solo 135 (34%) estaban recibiendo atención y cuidados para el VIH después de 6 meses. De 42 individuos elegibles para Terapia Antirretroviral, 22 (52%) comenzaron el tratamiento dentro de los 6 meses siguientes a la prueba. La vinculación a los cuidados y atención para VIH posterior a la prueba era menor entre aquellos que habían dado previamente positivo y aquellos con edades entre 20-40 años. El APVBH era un 50% más barato (US$11 por persona a la que se le realizó la prueba, $797 por individuo recibiendo cuidados para VIH) que el APVM ($24 y $1698, respectivamente). Conclusión En este emplazamiento con una alta prevalencia de VIH, un programa de prueba para el VIH basado en la comunidad alcanzó un alto nivel de aceptación de la prueba, y parece ser una manera efectiva y económicamente asumible de animar a un gran número de personas a conocer su estatus de VIH (en particular población actualmente poco alcanzada como los hombres y personas jóvenes). Sin embargo, para que el APV comunitario tenga un impacto sobre la mortalidad y la incidencia, es necesario implementar estrategias apoyen el tratamiento, asegurando que las personas que dan positivo en la prueba son remitidas y reciben los cuidados adecuados. PMID:25753897