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Sample records for vaccinia virus vaccine

  1. Vaccinia Virus Vaccines: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Bertram L.; Langland, Jeffrey O.; Kibler, Karen V.; Denzler, Karen L.; White, Stacy D.; Holechek, Susan A.; Wong, Shukmei; Huynh, Trung; Baskin, Carole R.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used more extensively for human immunization than any other vaccine. For almost two centuries, VACV was employed to provide cross-protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, until the disease was eradicated in the late 1970s. Since that time, continued research on VACV has produced a number of modified vaccines with improved safety profiles. Attenuation has been achieved through several strategies, including sequential passage in an alternative host, deletion of specific genes or genetic engineering of viral genes encoding immunomodulatory proteins. Some highly attenuated third- and fourth-generation VACV vaccines are now being considered for stockpiling against a possible re-introduction of smallpox through bioterrorism. Researchers have also taken advantage of the ability of the VACV genome to accommodate additional genetic material to produce novel vaccines against a wide variety of infectious agents, including a recombinant VACV encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein that is administered orally to wild animals. This review provides an in-depth examination of these successive generations of VACV vaccines, focusing on how the understanding of poxviral replication and viral gene function permits the deliberate modification of VACV immunogenicity and virulence. PMID:19563829

  2. Vaccinia vectors as candidate vaccines: the development of modified vaccinia virus Ankara for antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Gerd; Staib, Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Vaccinia viruses engineered to express foreign genes are powerful vectors for production of recombinant proteins. Originating from highly efficacious vaccines securing world-wide eradication of smallpox, the most appealing use of vaccinia vectors is to serve as vaccine delivery system for heterologous antigens. Concerns about the safety of vaccinia virus have been addressed by the development of vectors based on attenuated viruses. One of them, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can be considered as current vaccinia virus strain of choice for clinical investigation. Historical development and use of MVA as vaccine against smallpox allowed to establish an extraordinary safety profile. MVA can be used under conditions of biosafety level 1 because of its avirulence and its deficiency to productively grow in human cells. In recent years significant progress has been made with regard to the development of MVA vector technologies. Compared to replication competent vaccinia viruses, MVA provides similar levels of recombinant gene expression even in nonpermissive cells. In animal models, MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective against various infectious agents including immunodeficiency viruses, influenza, parainfluenza, measles virus, flaviviruses, or plasmodium parasites. By now first data from clinical trials are becoming available. In this article we briefly review history of MVA and state-of-the art technologies with regard to generation of recombinant MVA vaccines, and describe the progress to develop MVA vector vaccines against important infectious diseases. PMID:14529359

  3. Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Sarah; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective malaria vaccine is a crucial part of the roadmap to malaria elimination/eradication by the year 2050. Viral-vectored vaccines based on adenoviruses and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing malaria immunogens are currently being used in heterologous prime-boost regimes in clinical trials for induction of strong antigen-specific T-cell responses and high-titer antibodies. Recombinant MVA is a safe and well-tolerated attenuated vector that has consistently shown significant boosting potential. Advances have been made in large-scale MVA manufacture as high-yield producer cell lines and high-throughput purification processes have recently been developed. This review describes the use of MVA as malaria vaccine vector in both preclinical and clinical studies in the past 5years. PMID:26511884

  5. Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, D E

    1990-01-01

    The development and continued refinement of techniques for the efficient insertion and expression of heterologous DNA sequences from within the genomic context of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants are among the most promising current approaches towards effective immunoprophylaxis against a variety of protozoan, viral, and bacterial human pathogens. Because of its medical relevance, this area is the subject of intense research interest and has evolved rapidly during the past several years. This review (i) provides an updated overview of the technology that exists for assembling recombinant vaccinia virus strains, (ii) discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, (iii) outlines the areas of outgoing research directed towards overcoming the limitations of current techniques, and (iv) provides some insight (i.e., speculation) about probable future refinements in the use of vaccinia virus as a vector. PMID:2187593

  6. Stability of undiluted and diluted vaccinia-virus vaccine, Dryvax.

    PubMed

    Newman, Frances K; Frey, Sharon E; Blevins, Tamara P; Yan, Lihan; Belshe, Robert B

    2003-04-15

    The stability of Dryvax vaccine was examined to determine whether diluted vaccine could be used over an extended period, thereby increasing the number of available doses. Stability parameters that we evaluated include dilution (undiluted, diluted 1:5, and diluted 1:10), diluent (original Dryvax diluent, new Dryvax diluent, and phosphate-buffered saline), and temperature (refrigerator temperature and room temperature). Storage of reconstituted Dryvax vaccine at room temperature, regardless of dilution or diluent, resulted in a significantly greater decrease in titer than did storage at refrigerator temperature. At refrigerator temperature, the decrease in vaccinia-vaccine titer during the first year was not significantly different between the undiluted Dryvax vaccine and either of the 2 diluted forms of Dryvax vaccine, with any of the 3 diluents. PMID:12696013

  7. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  8. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei . E-mail: zchen@adarc.org

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  9. Vaccinia Viruses with Mutations in the E3L Gene as Potential Replication-Competent, Attenuated Vaccines: Scarification Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jentarra, Garilyn M.; Heck, Michael C.; Youn, Jin Won; Kibler, Karen; Langland, Jeffrey O.; Baskin, Carole R.; Ananieva, Olga; Chang, Yung; Jacobs, Bertram L.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of vaccinia virus (VACV) containing mutations in the E3L virulence gene to protect mice against a lethal poxvirus challenge after vaccination by scarification. VACV strains with mutations in the E3L gene had significantly decreased pathogenicity, even in immune deficient mice, yet retained the ability to produce a potent Th1-dominated immune response in mice after vaccination by scarification, while protecting against challenge with wild type, pathogenic VACV. Initial experiments were done using the mouse-adapted, neurovirulent Western Reserve (WR) strain of vaccinia virus. Testing of the full E3L deletion mutation in the Copenhagen and NYCBH strains of VACV, which are more appropriate for use in humans, produced similar results. These results suggest that highly attenuated strains of VACV containing mutations in E3L have the potential for use as scarification administered vaccines. PMID:18455281

  10. A vaccinia virus renaissance: new vaccine and immunotherapeutic uses after smallpox eradication.

    PubMed

    Verardi, Paulo H; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J

    2012-07-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

  11. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yakubitskiy, S. N.; Kolosova, I. V.; Maksyutov, R. A.; Shchelkunov, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-?-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  12. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskiy, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-γ-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  13. Vaccinia Virus LC16m8? as a Vaccine Vector for Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, Minoru; Shida, Hisatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The LC16m8 strain of vaccinia virus, the active ingredient in the Japanese smallpox vaccine, was derived from the Lister/Elstree strain. LC16m8 is replication-competent and has been administered to over 100,000 infants and 3,000 adults with no serious adverse reactions. Despite this outstanding safety profile, the occurrence of spontaneously-generated large plaque-forming virulent LC16m8 revertants following passage in cell culture is a major drawback. We identified the gene responsible for the reversion and deleted the gene (B5R) from LC16m8 to derive LC16m8?. LC16m8? is non-pathogenic in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, genetically-stable and does not reverse to a large-plaque phenotype upon passage in cell culture, even under conditions in which most LC16m8 populations are replaced by revertants. Moreover, LC16m8? is >500-fold more effective than the non-replicating vaccinia virus (VV), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), at inducing murine immune responses against pathogenic VV. LC16m8?, which expresses the SIV gag gene, also induced anti-Gag CD8? T-cells more efficiently than MVA and another non-replicating VV, Dairen I minute-pock variants (DIs). Moreover, LC16m8? expressing HIV-1 Env in combination with a Sendai virus vector induced the production of anti-Env antibodies and CD8? T-cells. Thus, the safety and efficacy of LC16m8? mean that it represents an outstanding platform for the development of human vaccine vectors. PMID:26344890

  14. Oral vaccination with modified vaccinia virus Ankara attached covalently to TMPEG-modified cationic liposomes overcomes pre-existing poxvirus immunity from recombinant vaccinia immunization

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Toshio; Kaneko, Yutaro; Kozbor, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    Development of a safe and effective vaccine for induction of mucosal immunity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env, gp160) represents the best hope for containing the spread of an HIV epidemic worldwide. The highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a laboratory virus well suited as a safe vaccine vector. However, the presence of pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia virus in the adult population represents a hindrance that limits the application of the MVA vector for inducing immunity to HIV antigens. Here, cationic liposomes were covalently attached to the surface of recombinant MVA expressing the HIV-1 strain IIIB Env glycoprotein and β-galactosidase (MVAIIIB/β-gal) using tresylmonomethoxypolyethylene glycol (TMPEG) grafted into a lipid membrane without compromising viral infectivity in vitro and in vivo. The orally administered MVAIIIB/β-gal–TMPEG/liposome complexes were capable of delivering the transgenes to mucosal tissues in mice with pre-existing poxvirus immunity based on β-galactosidase gene expression in intestinal tissues measured 18 h after infection. Importantly, the MVAIIIB/β-gal–TMPEG/liposome complexes enhanced Env-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in the mucosal and systemic tissues after repeated oral immunization of BALB/c mice. This approach may prove useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in populations with pre-existing immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination. PMID:17170437

  15. The Novel Replication-defective Vaccinia Virus (Tiantan Strain)based Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine Induces Robust Immunity in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bo; Deng, Yao; Chen, Hong; Guan, Jie; Chuai, Xia; Ruan, Li; Kong, Wei; Tan, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    The induction of a robust neutralizing antibody (nAb) response is likely to be as essential as specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against multiple antigens for the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccines against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in humans. To date, no data on the immunogenicity of the replication-defective vaccinia virus (derived from the Tiantan strain) (rNTV)-based HCV vaccine in primates have been reported. This study describes in detail the immunogenicity of various vaccine candidates in rhesus macaques, including rNTV-based and replication-defective recombinant adenoviral (rAd)based HCV vaccines, as well as HCV pseudotyped virus-like particles (HCVpp). Our data showed that rAd-HCV vaccine boosting induced robust CMI, while priming or boosting with HCVpp enhanced the antigen-specific nAb response after rAd-HCV vaccination; however, CMI was not enhanced. Vaccination includes rNTV-HCV priming induced robust antigen-specific antibody, particularly nAbs, and CMI responses. Furthermore, more robust and longer-lasting CMI and higher cytokine levels (both Th1 and Th2 types, especially IFN-?) resulted from boosting with rAd-HCV. We conclude that the rNTV-based HCV vaccine induces robust nAbs and CMI when combined with a heterogeneous primer-booster strategy, which shows promise for development of a human HCV vaccine. PMID:23774793

  16. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  17. Vaccinia Virus Infections in Martial Arts Gym, Maryland, USA, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Blythe, David; Li, Yu; Reddy, Ramani; Jordan, Carol; Edwards, Cindy; Adams, Celia; Conners, Holly; Rasa, Catherine; Wilby, Sue; Russell, Jamaal; Russo, Kelly S.; Somsel, Patricia; Wiedbrauk, Danny L.; Dougherty, Cindy; Allen, Christopher; Frace, Mike; Emerson, Ginny; Olson, Victoria A.; Smith, Scott K.; Braden, Zachary; Abel, Jason; Davidson, Whitni; Reynolds, Mary; Damon, Inger K.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infections can be transmissible and can cause severe complications in those with weakened immune systems. We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym. PMID:21470473

  18. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising. PMID:26697713

  19. Genomic analysis of the vaccinia virus strain variants found in Dryvax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Upton, Chris; Hazes, Bart; Evans, David H

    2011-12-01

    Smallpox was eradicated using variant forms of vaccinia virus-based vaccines. One of these was Dryvax, a calf lymph vaccine derived from the New York City Board of Health strain. We used genome-sequencing technology to examine the genetic diversity of the population of viruses present in a sample of Dryvax. These studies show that the conserved cores of these viruses exhibit a lower level of sequence variation than do the telomeres. However, even though the ends of orthopoxviruses are more genetically plastic than the cores, there are still many telomeric genes that are conserved as intact open reading frames in the 11 genomes that we, and 4 genomes that others, have sequenced. Most of these genes likely modulate inflammation. Our sequencing also detected an evolving pattern of mutation, with some genes being highly fragmented by randomly assorting mutations (e.g., M1L), while other genes are intact in most viruses but have been disrupted in individual strains (e.g., I4L in strain DPP17). Over 85% of insertion and deletion mutations are associated with repeats, and a rare new isolate bearing a large deletion in the right telomere was identified. All of these strains cluster in dendrograms consistent with their origin but which also surprisingly incorporate horsepox virus. However, these viruses also exhibit a "patchy" pattern of polymorphic sites characteristic of recombinants. There is more genetic diversity detected within a vial of Dryvax than between variola virus major and minor strains, and our study highlights how propagation methods affect the genetics of orthopoxvirus populations. PMID:21976639

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Lülf, Anna; Marr, Lisa; Jany, Sylvia; Deeg, Cornelia A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells non-permissive for MVA replication. Prime-boost immunizations in BALB/c mice readily induced circulating serum antibodies binding to recombinant WNV E protein and neutralizing WNV in tissue culture infections. Vaccinations in HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice elicited WNV E-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Moreover, the MVA-WNV candidate vaccines protected C57BL/6 mice against lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV infection and induced heterologous neutralizing antibodies. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate these recombinant MVA-WNV vaccines in other preclinical models and use them as candidate vaccine in humans. PMID:26939903

  1. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector. PMID:23593246

  2. Protective properties of vaccinia virus-based vaccines: skin scarification promotes a nonspecific immune response that protects against orthopoxvirus disease.

    PubMed

    Rice, Amanda D; Adams, Mathew M; Lindsey, Scott F; Swetnam, Daniele M; Manning, Brandi R; Smith, Andrew J; Burrage, Andrew M; Wallace, Greg; MacNeill, Amy L; Moyer, Richard W

    2014-07-01

    The process of vaccination introduced by Jenner generated immunity against smallpox and ultimately led to the eradication of the disease. Procedurally, in modern times, the virus is introduced into patients via a process called scarification, performed with a bifurcated needle containing a small amount of virus. What was unappreciated was the role that scarification itself plays in generating protective immunity. In rabbits, protection from lethal disease is induced by intradermal injection of vaccinia virus, whereas a protective response occurs within the first 2 min after scarification with or without virus, suggesting that the scarification process itself is a major contributor to immunoprotection. importance: These results show the importance of local nonspecific immunity in controlling poxvirus infections and indicate that the process of scarification should be critically considered during the development of vaccination protocols for other infectious agents. PMID:24760885

  3. Induction of Antibody Responses to African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) in Ponies after Vaccination with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Sushila; Rao, Shujing; Mertens, Peter; Blacklaws, Barbara; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Wood, James; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. Methodology/Principal Findings VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2). MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigenspecific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable. PMID:19543394

  4. DNA and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Encoding Multiple Cytotoxic and Helper T-Lymphocyte Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Safe but Weakly Immunogenic in HIV-1-Uninfected, Vaccinia Virus-Naive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243

  5. Failure of the Smallpox Vaccine To Develop a Skin Lesion in Vaccinia Virus-Naïve Individuals Is Related to Differences in Antibody Profiles before Vaccination, Not After

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaolin; Chun, Sookhee; Pablo, Jozelyn; Felgner, Philip; Liang, Xiaowu

    2012-01-01

    Successful vaccination against smallpox with conventional vaccinia virus is usually determined by the development of a vesicular skin lesion at the site of vaccinia inoculation, called a “take.” Although previous vaccination is known to be associated with attenuation of the take, the immunology that underlies a no-take in vaccinia-naïve individuals is not well understood. We hypothesized that antibody profiling of individuals before and after receiving vaccinia virus would reveal differences between takes and no-takes that may help better explain the phenomenon. Using vaccinia virus proteome microarrays and recombinant protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we first examined the antibody response in vaccinia-naïve individuals that failed to take after receiving different doses of the replication-competent DryVax and Aventis Pasteur (APSV) smallpox vaccines. Most that received diluted vaccine failed to respond, although four no-takes receiving diluted vaccine and four receiving undiluted vaccine mounted an antibody response. Interestingly, their antibody profiles were not significantly different from those of controls that did show a take. However, we did find elevated antibody titers in no-takes prior to receiving DryVax that were significantly different from those of takes. Although the sample size studied was small, we conclude the failure to take in responders correlates with preexisting immunity of unknown etiology that may attenuate the skin reaction in a way similar to previous smallpox vaccination. PMID:22258709

  6. Protection of Mice from Fatal Measles Encephalitis by Vaccination with Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Encoding Either the Hemagglutinin or the Fusion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drillien, Robert; Spehner, Daniele; Kirn, Andre; Giraudon, Pascale; Buckland, Robin; Wild, Fabian; Lecocq, Jean-Pierre

    1988-02-01

    Vaccinia virus recombinants encoding the hemagglutinin or fusion protein of measles virus have been constructed. Infection of cell cultures with the recombinants led to the synthesis of authentic measles proteins as judged by their electrophoretic mobility, recognition by antibodies, glycosylation, proteolytic cleavage, and presentation on the cell surface. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of the recombinant encoding the hemagglutinin protein developed antibodies capable of both inhibiting hemagglutination activity and neutralizing measles virus, whereas animals vaccinated with the recombinant encoding the fusion protein developed measles neutralizing antibodies. Mice vaccinated with either of the recombinants resisted a normally lethal intracerebral inoculation of a cell-associated measles virus subacute sclerosing panencephalitis strain.

  7. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  8. Broad Immunogenicity of a Multigene, Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Vaccine Boosted with Heterologous HIV-1 Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, Eric; Nilsson, Charlotta; Hejdeman, Bo; Bråve, Andreas; Bratt, Göran; Robb, Merlin; Cox, Josephine; VanCott, Thomas; Marovich, Mary; Stout, Richard; Aboud, Said; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; Ljungberg, Karl; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia; Michael, Nelson; Birx, Deborah; Mhalu, Fred; Wahren, Britta; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Background A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine that limits disease and transmission is urgently needed. This clinical trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV vaccine that combines a plasmid-DNA priming vaccine and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boosting vaccine. Methods Forty healthy volunteers were injected with DNA plasmids containing gp160 of HIV-1 subtypes A, B, and C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A and B, and RTmut B by use of a needle-free injection system. The vaccine was administered intradermally or intramuscularly, with or without recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and boosted with a heterologous MVA containing env, gag, and pol of CRF01A_E. Immune responses were monitored with HIV-specific interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)–2 ELISpot and lymphoproliferative assays (LPAs). Results Vaccine-related adverse events were mild and tolerable. After receipt of the DNA priming vaccine, 11 (30%) of 37 vaccinees had HIV-specific IFN-γ responses. After receipt of the MVA boosting vaccine, ELISpot assays showed that 34 (92%) of 37 vaccinees had HIV-specific IFN-γ responses, 32 (86%) to Gag and 24 (65%) to Env. IFN-γ production was detected in both the CD8+ T cell compartment (5 of 9 selected vaccinees) and the CD4+ T cell compartment (9 of 9). ELISpot results showed that 25 (68%) of 37 vaccinees had a positive IL-2 response and 35 (92%) of 38 had a positive LPA response. Of 38 subjects, a total of 37 (97%) were responders. One milligram of HIV-1 DNA administered intradermally was as effective as 4 mg administered intramuscularly in priming for the MVA boosting vaccine. Conclusion This HIV-DNA priming–MVA boosting approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Trials registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial number: ISRCTN32604572. PMID:18808335

  9. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Mller, Jutta; Bdeker, Nicole; Grnert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rsch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Background. ?First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods. ?An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results. ?Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions. ?Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  10. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A.; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods. An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results. Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  11. Protective Efficacy of the Conserved NP, PB1, and M1 Proteins as Immunogens in DNA- and Vaccinia Virus-Based Universal Influenza A Virus Vaccines in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenling; Li, Renqing; Deng, Yao; Lu, Ning; Chen, Hong; Meng, Xin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Xiuping; Yan, Kexia; Qi, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Xin, Wei; Lu, Zhenhua; Li, Xueren; Bian, Tao; Gao, Yingying; Tan, Wenjie; Ruan, Li

    2015-06-01

    The conventional hemagglutinin (HA)- and neuraminidase (NA)-based influenza vaccines need to be updated most years and are ineffective if the glycoprotein HA of the vaccine strains is a mismatch with that of the epidemic strain. Universal vaccines targeting conserved viral components might provide cross-protection and thus complement and improve conventional vaccines. In this study, we generated DNA plasmids and recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the conserved proteins nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), and matrix 1 (M1) from influenza virus strain A/Beijing/30/95 (H3N2). BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with a single vaccine based on NP, PB1, or M1 alone or a combination vaccine based on all three antigens and were then challenged with lethal doses of the heterologous influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Vaccines based on NP, PB1, and M1 provided complete or partial protection against challenge with 1.7 50% lethal dose (LD50) of PR8 in mice. Of the three antigens, NP-based vaccines induced protection against 5 LD50 and 10 LD50 and thus exhibited the greatest protective effect. Universal influenza vaccines based on the combination of NP, PB1, and M1 induced a strong immune response and thus might be an alternative approach to addressing future influenza virus pandemics. PMID:25834017

  12. Protective Efficacy of the Conserved NP, PB1, and M1 Proteins as Immunogens in DNA- and Vaccinia Virus-Based Universal Influenza A Virus Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenling; Li, Renqing; Deng, Yao; Lu, Ning; Chen, Hong; Meng, Xin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Xiuping; Yan, Kexia; Qi, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Xin, Wei; Lu, Zhenhua; Li, Xueren; Bian, Tao; Gao, Yingying; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The conventional hemagglutinin (HA)- and neuraminidase (NA)-based influenza vaccines need to be updated most years and are ineffective if the glycoprotein HA of the vaccine strains is a mismatch with that of the epidemic strain. Universal vaccines targeting conserved viral components might provide cross-protection and thus complement and improve conventional vaccines. In this study, we generated DNA plasmids and recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the conserved proteins nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), and matrix 1 (M1) from influenza virus strain A/Beijing/30/95 (H3N2). BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with a single vaccine based on NP, PB1, or M1 alone or a combination vaccine based on all three antigens and were then challenged with lethal doses of the heterologous influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Vaccines based on NP, PB1, and M1 provided complete or partial protection against challenge with 1.7 50% lethal dose (LD50) of PR8 in mice. Of the three antigens, NP-based vaccines induced protection against 5 LD50 and 10 LD50 and thus exhibited the greatest protective effect. Universal influenza vaccines based on the combination of NP, PB1, and M1 induced a strong immune response and thus might be an alternative approach to addressing future influenza virus pandemics. PMID:25834017

  13. Extent of Systemic Spread Determines CD8+ T Cell Immunodominance for Laboratory Strains, Smallpox Vaccines, and Zoonotic Isolates of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Inge E A; Hollett, Natasha A; Wong, Yik Chun; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Howard, Debbie; da Fonseca, Flávio G; Tscharke, David C

    2015-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I are vital antiviral effectors. Such peptides presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity, allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we show across a range of vaccinia virus strains, including the current clonal smallpox vaccine, that the ability of a strain to spread systemically correlated with reduced immunodominance. Reduction in immunodominance was observed both in the lymphoid system and at the primary site of infection. Mechanistically, reduced immunodominance was associated with more robust priming and especially priming in the spleen. Finally, we show this is not just a property of vaccine and laboratory strains of virus, because an association between virulence and immunodominance was also observed in isolates from an outbreak of zoonotic vaccinia virus that occurred in Brazil. PMID:26195812

  14. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses. PMID:26985679

  15. CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine enhances protection against neutralization-resistant mucosal SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kwa, Suefen; Sadagopal, Shanmugalakshmi; Shen, Xiaoying; Hong, Jung Joo; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Basu, Rahul; Victor, Blandine; Iyer, Smita S; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Villinger, Francois; Moss, Bernard; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-04-01

    Here, we show that a CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine enhances protection against a pathogenic neutralization-resistant mucosal SIV infection, improves long-term viral control, and prevents AIDS. Analyses of serum IgG antibodies to linear peptides of SIV Env revealed a strong response to V2, with targeting of fewer epitopes in the immunodominant region of gp41 (gp41-ID) and the V1 region as a correlate for enhanced protection. Greater expansion of antiviral CD8 T cells in the gut correlated with long-term viral control. PMID:25653428

  16. Strong, but Age-Dependent, Protection Elicited by a Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Kannanganat, Sunil; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Nabi, Rafiq; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Wrammert, Jens; Keele, Brandon F.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Santra, Sampa; Basu, Rahul; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L.; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Methods. The tested vaccine used a DNA immunogen mutated to mimic the human vaccine and a regimen with DNA deliveries at weeks 0 and 8 and MVA deliveries at weeks 16 and 32. Twelve weekly rectal challenges with 0.3 animal infectious doses of SIV sootey mangabey E660 (SIVsmE660) were administered starting at 6 months after the last immunization. Results. Over the first 6 rectal exposures to SIVsmE660, <10-year-old tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)α-permissive rhesus macaques showed an 80% reduction in per-exposure risk of infection as opposed to a 46% reduction in animals over 10 years old; and, over the 12 challenges, they showed a 72% as opposed to a 10% reduction. Analyses of elicited immune responses suggested that higher antibody responses in the younger animals had played a role in protection. Conclusions. The simian analogue of the GOVX-B11 HIV provided strong protection against repeated rectal challenges in young adult macaques. PMID:27006959

  17. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR ?/?) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

  18. Correlation of immunogenicities and in vitro expression levels of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara HIV vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Linda S.; Earl, Patricia L.; Vogt, Jennifer; Eller, Leigh Anne; Chandran, Dev; Liu, Jinyan; Robinson, Harriet L.; Moss, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to correlate the in vitro level of HIV Env expression by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) with immunogenicity in mice. A 5-fold difference in Env synthesis was achieved at the translational level by the presence or absence of an out-of-frame initiation codon upstream of the env gene. This perturbation had no effect on the size or processing of Env. In contrast to the variation in Env synthesis, the rMVAs produced similar amounts of HIV Gag, which were expressed from identical cassettes. Mice immunized with the higher Env expressing rMVAs had about 15-fold higher titers of Env antibodies and several fold higher frequencies of Env-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells than mice immunized with the low expresser. The greater immune response achieved by high expression was maintained over a 100-fold dose range. Importantly, enhanced Env immune responses did not come at the expense of lower Gag T cell responses. These data suggest that for high immunogenicity, rMVAs should be engineered to produce the most recombinant protein that can be achieved without compromising the growth and stability of the rMVA. PMID:18155813

  19. Vaccinia virus-based multivalent H5N1 avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with IL-15 confer sterile cross-clade protection in mice1

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Leo L. M.; Leung, Y. H. Connie; Nicholls, John M.; Perera, Pin-Yu; Lichy, Jack H.; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Waldmann, Thomas A; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Perera, Liyanage P.

    2009-01-01

    The potential for a global influenza pandemic remains significant with epidemiologic and ecologic indicators revealing the entrenchment of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 in both wild bird populations and domestic poultry flocks in Asia and in many African and European countries. Indisputably, the single most effective public health intervention in mitigating the devastation such a pandemic could unleash is the availability of a safe and effective vaccine that can be rapidly deployed for pre-exposure vaccination of millions of people. We have developed two vaccinia-based influenza vaccines that are molecularly adjuvanted with the immune-stimulatory cytokine IL-15. The pentavalent Wyeth/IL-15/5Flu vaccine expresses the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleoprotein, derived from the H5N1 influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and the matrix proteins M1 and M2 from H5N1 A/CK/Indonesia/PA/2003 virus on the backbone of a currently licensed smallpox vaccine. The bivalent MVA/IL-15/HA/NA vaccine expresses only the H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) backbone. Both vaccines induced cross-neutralizing antibodies and robust cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice and conferred sterile cross-clade protection when challenged with H5N1 virus of a different clade. In addition to having the potential as a universal influenza vaccine, in the event of an impending pandemic, the Wyeth/IL-15/5Flu is also readily amenable for bulk production to cover the global population. For those individuals for whom the use of Wyeth vaccine is contraindicated, our MVA/IL-15/HA/NA offers a substitute or a prevaccine to be used in a mass vaccination campaign similar to the smallpox eradication campaigns of few decades ago. PMID:19234203

  20. Vaccination with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored HIV-1 immunogen induces modest vector-specific T cell responses in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Howles, Sarah; Guimares-Walker, Ana; Yang, Hongbing; Hancock, Gemma; di Gleria, Katalin; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Hayes, Peter; Gilmour, Jill; Bridgeman, Anne; Hanke, Tom; McMichael, Andrew; Dorrell, Lucy

    2010-10-21

    We investigated whether vaccination of healthy HIV-seronegative and HIV-1-seropositive antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing an HIV-1 immunogen (MVA.HIVA) induced MVA-specific T cell responses. Using IFN-? Elispot assays, we observed new or increased responses to MVA virus in 52% of HIV-seronegative subjects and 93% HIV-1 seropositive subjects; MVA-specific T cell frequencies were generally low and correlated poorly with T cell responses to the HIV-1 immunogen. In two vaccinees, responses were mapped to CD8+ T cell epitopes present in replication-competent vaccinia virus. These data support further evaluation of MVA as a viral vector for HIV-1 immunogens. PMID:20816902

  1. Broad and Potent Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After a Second Late HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccination in HIV-DNA-Primed and HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Boosted Swedish Vaccinees

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Hejdeman, Bo; Bråve, Andreas; Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Hallengärd, David; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Hasselrot, Klara; Earl, Patricia L.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Marovich, Mary A.; Robb, Merlin L.; Sandström, Eric; Wahren, Britta; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown that an HIV vaccine regimen including three HIV-DNA immunizations and a single HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost was safe and highly immunogenic in Swedish volunteers. A median 38 months after the first HIV-MVA vaccination, 24 volunteers received 108 plaque-forming units of HIV-MVA. The vaccine was well tolerated. Two weeks after this HIV-MVA vaccination, 18 (82%) of 22 evaluable vaccinees were interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) reactive: 18 to Gag and 10 (45%) to Env. A median minimal epitope count of 4 to Gag or Env was found in a subset of 10 vaccinees. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses in 23 (95%) of 24 vaccinees, 19 to Gag and 19 to Env. The frequency of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses was equally high (75%). A high proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Gag was polyfunctional with production of three or more cytokines (40% and 60%, respectively). Of the Env-specific CD4+ T cells 40% were polyfunctional. Strong lymphoproliferative responses to Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-treated subtype A, B, C, and A_E virus were demonstrable in 21 (95%) of 22 vaccinees. All vaccinees developed binding antibodies to Env and Gag. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assay against subtype B and CRF01_AE viruses. The neutralizing antibody response rates were influenced by the vaccine dose and/or mode of delivery used at the previous HIV-MVA vaccination. Thus, a second late HIV-MVA boost induced strong and broad cellular immune responses and improved antibody responses. The data support further exploration of this vaccine concept. PMID:24090081

  2. Kinetics of Immune Cell Infiltration in Vaccinia Virus Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Sharon; Toomey, Megan; Nesbit, Brittany; McIntyre, Kim; Covert, Jill; Dubielzig, Richard Redd; Leatherberry, Gary; Adkins, Elizabeth; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Vaccinia virus keratitis leading to blindness is a severe complication of smallpox vaccination. The clinical manifestations of vaccinia virus keratitis are similar to those of herpes simplex virus keratitis, a well-studied immunopathologic disease. Vaccinia virus keratitis is likely to involve an immunopathologic component, but little is known about the pathogenesis of the disease. The goal of this study was to determine type and kinetics of immune cell infiltration in the cornea during vaccinia virus keratitis. Methods. Rabbit eyes were trephined and inoculated with 1 105 pfu of the Dryvax strain of the vaccinia virus. On days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, and 28 after infection, the animals were scored for clinical disease and eye sections were stained for B cells, CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, and neutrophils. The eyelid, ciliary body, cornea, iris, iridocorneal angle, and choroid were examined. Results. Corneal vaccinia virus challenge resulted in the infiltration of B cells, CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, and neutrophils into the cornea and eyelids. Neutrophils were the predominant cell type on days 2 and 3 after infection, whereas CD4+ cells were the predominant cell type detected in corneas on days 4 through 10. CD8+ cells and B cells peaked on day 10, but at lower levels than CD4+ cells and neutrophils. Conclusions. These results suggest that sequential migration of neutrophils, then CD4+ cells, plays an important role in vaccinia virus keratitis. PMID:20375330

  3. Unusual Features of Vaccinia Virus Extracellular Virion Form Neutralization Resistance Revealed in Human Antibody Responses to the Smallpox Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Benhnia, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi; Maybeno, Matthew; Blum, David; Aguilar-Sino, Rowena; Matho, Michael; Meng, Xiangzhi; Head, Steven; Felgner, Philip L.; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Koriazova, Lilia; Kato, Shinichiro; Burton, Dennis R.; Xiang, Yan; Crowe, James E.; Peters, Bjoern

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular virion form (EV) of vaccinia virus (VACV) is essential for viral pathogenesis and is difficult to neutralize with antibodies. Why this is the case and how the smallpox vaccine overcomes this challenge remain incompletely understood. We previously showed that high concentrations of anti-B5 antibodies are insufficient to directly neutralize EV (M. R. Benhnia, et al., J. Virol. 83:1201–1215, 2009). This allowed for at least two possible interpretations: covering the EV surface is insufficient for neutralization, or there are insufficient copies of B5 to allow anti-B5 IgG to cover the whole surface of EV and another viral receptor protein remains active. We endeavored to test these possibilities, focusing on the antibody responses elicited by immunization against smallpox. We tested whether human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the three major EV antigens, B5, A33, and A56, could individually or together neutralize EV. While anti-B5 or anti-A33 (but not anti-A56) MAbs of appropriate isotypes were capable of neutralizing EV in the presence of complement, a mixture of anti-B5, anti-A33, and anti-A56 MAbs was incapable of directly neutralizing EV, even at high concentrations. This remained true when neutralizing the IHD-J strain, which lacks a functional version of the fourth and final known EV surface protein, A34. These immunological data are consistent with the possibility that viral proteins may not be the active component of the EV surface for target cell binding and infectivity. We conclude that the protection afforded by the smallpox vaccine anti-EV response is predominantly mediated not by direct neutralization but by isotype-dependent effector functions, such as complement recruitment for antibodies targeting B5 and A33. PMID:23152530

  4. Neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.C.; Eschete, M.L.; Cox, M.E.; King, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.

  5. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  6. UV-inactivated vaccinia virus (VV) in a multi-envelope DNA-VV-protein (DVP) HIV-1 vaccine protects macaques from lethal challenge with heterologous SHIV

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bart G; Sealy, Robert E; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Freiden, Pamela J; Surman, Sherri L; Blanchard, James L.; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic of HIV-1 has continued for decades, yet there remains no licensed vaccine. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multi-envelope, multi-vectored HIV-1 vaccine in a macaque-SHIV model, illustrating a potential means of combating HIV-1. Specifically, recombinant DNA, vaccinia virus (VV) and purified protein (DVP) delivery systems were used to vaccinate animals with dozens of antigenically-distinct HIV-1 envelopes for induction of immune breadth. The vaccinated animals controlled disease following challenge with a heterologous SHIV. This demonstration suggested that the antigenic cocktail vaccine strategy, which has succeeded in several other vaccine fields (e.g. pneumococcus), might also succeed against HIV-1. The strategy remains untested in an advanced clinical study, in part due to safety concerns associated with the use of replication-competent VV. To address this concern, we designed a macaque study in which psoralen/ultraviolet light-inactivated VV (UV VV) was substituted for replication-competent VV in the multi-envelope DVP protocol. Control animals received a vaccine encompassing no VV, or no vaccine. All VV vaccinated animals generated an immune response toward VV, and all vaccinated animals generated an immune response toward HIV-1 envelope. After challenge with heterologous SHIV 89.6P, animals that received replication-competent VV or UV VV experienced similar outcomes. They exhibited reduced peak viral loads, maintenance of CD4+ T cell counts and improved survival compared to control animals that received no VV or no vaccine; there were 0/15 deaths among all animals that received VV and 5/9 deaths among controls. Results define a practical means of improving VV safety, and encourage advancement of a promising multi-envelope DVP HIV-1 vaccine candidate. PMID:22425790

  7. Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing ICP27 induces protective immunity against herpes simplex virus through CD4+ Th1+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Manickan, E; Francotte, M; Kuklin, N; Dewerchin, M; Molitor, C; Gheysen, D; Slaoui, M; Rouse, B T

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of protection mediated by recombinant vaccinia viruses encoding immediate-early (IE) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Three mouse strains were immunized against the IE proteins ICP27, ICP0, and ICP4, and mice were challenged intracutaneously in the zosteriform model with HSV-2 strain MS. Protection was observed only following immunization with the ICP27 construct and then only in the BALB/c mouse strain. Protection in BALB/c mice was ablated by CD4+ T-cell suppression but remained intact in animals depleted of CD8+ T cells. Moreover, protection could be afforded to SCID nude recipients with CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells from ICP27-immunized mice. Only BALB/c mice developed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to HSV-2, and in vitro measurements of humoral and cell-mediated immunity revealed response patterns to ICP27 and HSV that differed between protected BALB/c and unprotected mouse strains. Accordingly, BALB/c responses showed antigen-induced cytokine profiles dominated by type 1 cytokines, whereas C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice generated cytokine responses mainly of the type 2 variety. Our results may indicate that protection against zosterification is mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells that express a type 1 cytokine profile and that protective vaccines against HSV which effectively induce such T-cell responses should be chosen. PMID:7609036

  8. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abraho, Jnatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, Andr T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Jnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zlia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cludio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  9. Molecular attenuation of vaccinia virus: mutant generation and animal characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M S; Roos, J M; McGuigan, L C; Smith, K A; Cormier, N; Cohen, L K; Roberts, B E; Payne, L G

    1992-01-01

    These studies demonstrated that the inbred BALB/c mouse strain can be optimized for the assessment of vaccinia virus virulence, growth, and spread from the site of inoculation and immune protection from a lethal vaccinia virus challenge. The studies established that manipulation of the vaccinia virus genome generated mutants exhibiting a wide range of attenuated phenotypes. The nine NYCBH vaccinia virus mutants had intracranial 50% lethal doses that ranged from 2 to greater than 7 log10 units. The decreased neurovirulence was due to decreased replication in brain tissue. Three mutants had a decreased ability to disseminate to the lungs, brains, livers, and spleens of mice after intranasal infection. One mutant had a decreased transmission from mice infected by tail scarification to naive cage mates. Although the mutants, with one exception, grew to wild-type titers in cell culture, they showed a growth potential on the scarified skin of mice that was dramatically different from that of the wild-type virus. Consequently, all of the mutants had significantly compromised immunogenicities at low virus immunization doses compared with that of the wild-type virus. Conversely, at high immunization doses most mutants could induce an immune response similar to that of the wild-type virus. Three Wyeth vaccine strain mutants were also studied. Whereas the thymidine kinase, ribonucleotide reductase, and hemagglutinin mutants had a reduced virulence (50% lethal dose), only the thymidine kinase mutant retained its immunogenicity. PMID:1560521

  10. Attenuated and Replication-Competent Vaccinia Virus Strains M65 and M101 with Distinct Biology and Immunogenicity as Potential Vaccine Candidates against Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Gmez, Carmen Elena; Mejas-Prez, Ernesto; Prez-Jimnez, Eva; Oliveros, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Replication-competent poxvirus vectors with an attenuation phenotype and with a high immunogenic capacity of the foreign expressed antigen are being pursued as novel vaccine vectors against different pathogens. In this investigation, we have examined the replication and immunogenic characteristics of two vaccinia virus (VACV) mutants, M65 and M101. These mutants were generated after 65 and 101 serial passages of persistently infected Friend erythroleukemia (FEL) cells. In cultured cells of different origins, the mutants are replication competent and have growth kinetics similar to or slightly reduced in comparison with those of the parental Western Reserve (WR) virus strain. In normal and immune-suppressed infected mice, the mutants showed different levels of attenuation and pathogenicity in comparison with WR and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strains. Wide genome analysis after deep sequencing revealed selected genomic deletions and mutations in a number of viral open reading frames (ORFs). Mice immunized in a DNA prime/mutant boost regimen with viral vectors expressing the LACK (Leishmania homologue for receptors of activated C kinase) antigen of Leishmania infantum showed protection or a delay in the onset of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Protection was similar to that triggered by MVA-LACK. In immunized mice, both polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an effector memory phenotype were activated by the two mutants, but the DNA-LACK/M65-LACK protocol preferentially induced CD4+ whereas DNA-LACK/M101-LACK preferentially induced CD8+ T cell responses. Altogether, our findings showed the adaptive changes of the WR genome during long-term virus-host cell interaction and how the replication competency of M65 and M101 mutants confers distinct biological properties and immunogenicity in mice compared to those of the MVA strain. These mutants could have applicability for understanding VACV biology and as potential vaccine vectors against pathogens and tumors. PMID:23596295

  11. A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine encoding Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) target antigens: a phase I trial in UK patients with EBV-positive cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Graham S.; Jia, Hui; Harrington, Kevin; Lee, Lip Wai; Turner, James; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Tanday, Manjit; Matthews, Jen; Roberts, Claudia; Edwards, Ceri; McGuigan, Lesley; Hartley, Andrew; Wilson, Steve; Hui, Edwin P.; Chan, Anthony T. C.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Steven, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumour cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumour antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses. Experimental Design Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5×107 and 5×108 plaque forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFNγ ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations. Results Vaccination was generally well-tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8/14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments respectively. Conclusions MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5×108 pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials. PMID:25124688

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE VIRUS OF VACCINIA

    PubMed Central

    Green, R. H.; Anderson, T. F.; Smadel, J. E.

    1942-01-01

    The pictorial data obtained by means of the electron microscope indicate a remarkable regularity in the morphology of the elementary body of vaccinia. The virus particles apparently have internal structure and some sort of limiting membrane. PMID:19871212

  13. Pre-Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Experimental Vaccines Based on Non-Replicating Vaccinia Vectors against Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Birgit; Holzer, Georg W.; Joachimsthaler, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Sogue; Schwendinger, Michael; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 105 TCID50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. PMID:21931732

  14. From crescent to mature virion: vaccinia virus assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Cooper, Tamara; Howley, Paul M; Hayball, John D

    2014-10-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV) to mature virus (MV), and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions. PMID:25296112

  15. Specificity and 6-Month Durability of Immune Responses Induced by DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Goepfert, Paul A.; Elizaga, Marnie L.; Seaton, Kelly; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Montefiori, David C.; Sato, Alicia; Hural, John; DeRosa, Stephen C.; Kalams, Spyros A.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Keefer, Michael C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; Mulligan, Mark J.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Hammer, Scott M.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Pensiero, Michael; Butler, Chris; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L.; Donastorg, Yeycy; Qin, Li; Lawrence, Dale; Cardinali, Massimo; Bae, Jin; Holt, Rene; Redinger, Huguette; Johannessen, Jan; Broder, Gail; Moody-White, Jerri; McKay, Butch; Calazans, Gabriela; Bentley, Carter; Kakinami, Lisa; Skibinski, Katie; Estep, Scharla; Tseng, Jenny; Swenson, Molly; Madenwald, Tamra; Overton, Edgar Turner; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Rouphael, Nadine; Whitaker, Jennifer; Hay, C Mhorag; Bunce, Catherine A; Gonzales, Pedro; Hurtado, Juan Carlos; Dolin, Raphael; Mayer, Ken; Walsh, Steven; Johnson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Clade B DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines producing virus-like particles displaying trimeric membrane-bound envelope glycoprotein (Env) were tested in a phase 2a trial in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)uninfected adults for safety, immunogenicity, and 6-month durability of immune responses. Methods.?A total of 299 individuals received 2 doses of JS7 DNA vaccine and 2 doses of MVA/HIV62B at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively (the DDMM regimen); 3 doses of MVA/HIV62B at 0, 2, and 6 months (the MMM regimen); or placebo injections. Results.?At peak response, 93.2% of the DDMM group and 98.4% of the MMM group had binding antibodies for Env. These binding antibodies were more frequent and of higher magnitude for the transmembrane subunit (gp41) than the receptor-binding subunit (gp120) of Env. For both regimens, response rates were higher for CD4+ T cells (66.4% in the DDMM group and 43.1% in the MMM group) than for CD8+ T cells (21.8% in the DDMM group and 14.9% in the MMM group). Responding CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were biased toward Gag, and >70% produced 2 or 3 of the 4 cytokines evaluated (ie, interferon ?, interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor ?, and granzyme B). Six months after vaccination, the magnitudes of antibodies and T-cell responses had decreased by <3-fold. Conclusions.?DDMM and MMM vaccinations with virus-like particleexpressing immunogens elicited durable antibody and T-cell responses. PMID:24403557

  16. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR ?/? Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors expressing structural components of the AHS virion. However, ethical and financial considerations, relating to the use of infected horses in high biosecurity installations, have made progress very slow. We have therefore assessed the potential of an experimental mouse-model for AHSV infection for vaccine and immunology research. We initially characterised AHSV infection in this model, then tested the protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing AHS-4 VP2 (MVA-VP2). PMID:21298069

  17. A Phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant HIV type 1 subtype C-modified vaccinia Ankara virus vaccine candidate in Indian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Vadakkuppatu Devasenapathi; Kumar, Makesh; Mahalingam, Jayashri; Sathyamoorthy, Pattabiraman; Narayanan, Paranji Ramaiyengar; Solomon, Suniti; Panicali, Dennis; Chakrabarty, Sekhar; Cox, Josephine; Sayeed, Eddy; Ackland, James; Verlinde, Carl; Vooijs, Dani; Loughran, Kelley; Barin, Burc; Lombardo, Angela; Gilmour, Jill; Stevens, Gwynneth; Smith, Michelle Seth; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Hayes, Peter; Kochhar, Sonali; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus vaccine candidate (TBC-M4) expressing HIV-1 subtype C env, gag, tat-rev, and nef-RT genes was tested in a randomized, double-blind, dose escalation Phase I trial in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers who received three intramuscular injections of TBC-M4 at 0, 1, and 6 months of 5 x 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu) (low dosage, LD) (n = 12) or 2.5 x 10(8) pfu (high dosage, HD) (n = 12) or placebo (n = 8). Local and systemic reactogenicity was experienced by approximately 67% and 83% of vaccine recipients, respectively. The reactogenicity events were mostly mild in severity. Severe but transient systemic reactogenicity was seen in one volunteer of the HD group. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or events suggesting perimyocarditis were seen. A higher frequency of local reactogenicity events was observed in the HD group. Cumulative HIV-specific IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses were detected in frozen PBMCs from 9/11 (82%), 12/12 (100%), and 1/8 (13%) volunteers after the third injection of the LD, HD, and placebo groups, respectively. Most of the responses were to gag and env proteins (maximum of 430 SFU/10(6) PBMCs) persisting across multiple time points. HIV-specific ELISA antibody responses were detected in 10/11, 12/12, and 0/8 volunteers post-third vaccination, in the LD, HD, and placebo groups, respectively. No neutralizing activity against HIV-1 subtype C isolates was detected. TBC-M4 appears to be generally safe and well-tolerated. The immune response detected was dose dependent, modest in magnitude, and directed mostly to env and gag proteins, suggesting further evaluation of this vaccine in a prime-boost regimen. PMID:19943789

  18. Environmental persistence of vaccinia virus on materials.

    PubMed

    Wood, J P; Choi, Y W; Wendling, M Q; Rogers, J V; Chappie, D J

    2013-11-01

    Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, and ranks as one of the most serious diseases that could originate from a biological weapon. However, limited data exist on the persistence of variola and related viruses on materials (that may act as fomites), under controlled environmental conditions. To fill these data gaps, we determined the persistence of the vaccinia virus (an established surrogate for the variola virus) as a function of temperature, relative humidity and material. Experiments were conducted with vaccinia virus in a freeze-dried form, using four materials under four sets of environmental conditions. After elapsed times ranging from 1 to 56 days, the virus was extracted from small coupons and quantified via plaque-forming units (PFU). The vaccinia virus was most persistent at low temperature and low relative humidity, with greater than 10(4) PFU recovered from glass, galvanized steel and painted cinder block at 56 days (equivalent to only a c. 2 log reduction). Thus, vaccinia virus may persist from weeks to months, depending on the material and environmental conditions. This study may aid those responsible for infection control to make informed decisions regarding the need for environmental decontamination following the release of an agent such as variola. PMID:23815079

  19. Recombinant vaccinia virus/Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus protects mice from peripheral VEE virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, R M; Esposito, J J; Mathews, J H; Johnson, B J; Roehrig, J T; Barrett, A D; Trent, D W

    1988-01-01

    Mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACC) expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus capsid protein and glycoproteins E1 and E2 or with attenuated VEE TC-83 virus vaccine developed VEE-specific neutralizing antibody and survived intraperitoneal challenge with virulent VEE virus strains including Trinidad donkey (subtype 1AB), P676 (subtype 1C), 3880 (subtype 1D), and Everglades (subtype 2). However, unlike immunization with TC-83 virus, immunization with the recombinant VACC/VEE virus did not protect mice from intranasal challenge with VEE Trinidad donkey virus. These results suggest that recombinant VACC/VEE virus is a vaccine candidate for equines and humans at risk of mosquito-transmitted VEE disease but not for laboratory workers at risk of accidental exposure to aerosol infection with VEE virus. PMID:3184276

  20. Deletion of Specific Immune-Modulatory Genes from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based HIV Vaccines Engenders Improved Immunogenicity in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Leigh A.; Gangadhara, Sailaja; McQuoid, Monica; Zhang, Xiugen; Zheng, Rui; Gill, Kiran; Verma, Meena; Yu, Tianwei; Johnson, Brent; Li, Bing; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Ibegbu, Chris; Altman, John D.; Hunter, Eric; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a safe, attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a vaccine vector but has demonstrated limited immunogenicity in several early-phase clinical trials. Our objective was to rationally improve the immunogenicity of MVA-based HIV/AIDS vaccines via the targeted deletion of specific poxvirus immune-modulatory genes. Vaccines expressing codon-optimized HIV subtype C consensus Env and Gag antigens were generated from MVA vector backbones that (i) harbor simultaneous deletions of four viral immune-modulatory genes, encoding an interleukin-18 (IL-18) binding protein, an IL-1? receptor, a dominant negative Toll/IL-1 signaling adapter, and CC-chemokine binding protein (MVA?4-HIV); (ii) harbor a deletion of an additional (fifth) viral gene, encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase (MVA?5-HIV); or (iii) represent the parental MVA backbone as a control (MVA-HIV). We performed head-to-head comparisons of the cellular and humoral immune responses that were elicited by these vectors during homologous prime-boost immunization regimens utilizing either high-dose (2 108 PFU) or low-dose (1 107 PFU) intramuscular immunization of rhesus macaques. At all time points, a majority of the HIV-specific T cell responses, elicited by all vectors, were directed against Env, rather than Gag, determinants, as previously observed with other vector systems. Both modified vectors elicited up to 6-fold-higher frequencies of HIV-specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses and up to 25-fold-higher titers of Env (gp120)-specific binding (nonneutralizing) antibody responses that were relatively transient in nature. While the correlates of protection against HIV infection remain incompletely defined, our results indicate that the rational deletion of specific genes from MVA vectors can positively alter their cellular and humoral immunogenicity profiles in nonhuman primates. PMID:22973033

  1. Vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a "self" antigen induces autoimmune vitiligo and tumor cell destruction in mice: requirement for CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Overwijk, W W; Lee, D S; Surman, D R; Irvine, K R; Touloukian, C E; Chan, C C; Carroll, M W; Moss, B; Rosenberg, S A; Restifo, N P

    1999-03-16

    Many human and mouse tumor antigens are normal, nonmutated tissue differentiation antigens. Consequently, immunization with these "self" antigens could induce autoimmunity. When we tried to induce immune responses to five mouse melanocyte differentiation antigens, gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP) 1 and TRP-2, we observed striking depigmentation and melanocyte destruction only in the skin of mice inoculated with a vaccinia virus encoding mouse TRP-1. These mice rejected a lethal challenge of B16 melanoma, indicating the immune response against TRP-1 could destroy both normal and malignant melanocytes. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for TRP-1 could not be detected in depigmented mice, but high titers of IgG anti-TRP-1 antibodies were present. Experiments with knockout mice revealed an absolute dependence on major histocompatibility complex class II, but not major histocompatibility complex class I, for the induction of both vitiligo and tumor protection. Together, these results suggest that the deliberate induction of self-reactivity using a recombinant viral vector can lead to tumor destruction, and that in this model, CD4(+) T lymphocytes are an integral part of this process. Vaccine strategies targeting tissue differentiation antigens may be valuable in cancers arising from nonessential cells and organs such as melanocytes, prostate, testis, breast, and ovary. PMID:10077623

  2. Vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a self antigen induces autoimmune vitiligo and tumor cell destruction in mice: Requirement for CD4+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Overwijk, Willem W.; Lee, David S.; Surman, Deborah R.; Irvine, Kari R.; Touloukian, Christopher E.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Carroll, Miles W.; Moss, Bernard; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    1999-01-01

    Many human and mouse tumor antigens are normal, nonmutated tissue differentiation antigens. Consequently, immunization with these self antigens could induce autoimmunity. When we tried to induce immune responses to five mouse melanocyte differentiation antigens, gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP) 1 and TRP-2, we observed striking depigmentation and melanocyte destruction only in the skin of mice inoculated with a vaccinia virus encoding mouse TRP-1. These mice rejected a lethal challenge of B16 melanoma, indicating the immune response against TRP-1 could destroy both normal and malignant melanocytes. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for TRP-1 could not be detected in depigmented mice, but high titers of IgG anti-TRP-1 antibodies were present. Experiments with knockout mice revealed an absolute dependence on major histocompatibility complex class II, but not major histocompatibility complex class I, for the induction of both vitiligo and tumor protection. Together, these results suggest that the deliberate induction of self-reactivity using a recombinant viral vector can lead to tumor destruction, and that in this model, CD4+ T lymphocytes are an integral part of this process. Vaccine strategies targeting tissue differentiation antigens may be valuable in cancers arising from nonessential cells and organs such as melanocytes, prostate, testis, breast, and ovary. PMID:10077623

  3. Heat shock response to vaccinia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sedger, L; Ruby, J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mice infected with vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus replicates to high levels in the ovaries of infected mice and causes a significant inhibition of host cell DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Many HSPs are constitutively expressed in murine ovarian tissue at low levels, consistent with their obligatory role in normal physiological events. In contrast with these events, HSP expression was augmented in virus-infected mouse ovaries 6 days postinfection. In particular, there was a dramatic increase in the expression of a protein identified as the inducible 72-kDa HSP. Analysis of cellular mRNA confirmed this protein to be the major mouse inducible HSP70 and demonstrated its presence within virus-infected cells. Hence, we have demonstrated the expression of stress proteins during poxvirus infection in vivo. Images PMID:8207845

  4. Vaccinia Virus Recombinants: Expression of VSV Genes and Protective Immunization of Mice and Cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackett, M.; Yilma, T.; Rose, J. K.; Moss, B.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a contagious disease of horses, cattle, and pigs. When DNA copies of messenger RNA's for the G or N proteins of VSV were linked to a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the vaccinia genome, the recombinants retained infectivity and synthesized VSV polypeptides. After intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the G protein, mice produced VSV-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous challenge with VSV. In cattle, the degree of protection against intradermalingually injected VSV was correlated with the level of neutralizing antibody produced following vaccination.

  5. Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Artois, M; Charlton, K M; Tolson, N D; Casey, G A; Knowles, M K; Campbell, J B

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (Marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. Each of ten coyotes (Canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. Several voles and most of the gulls died from diseases unrelated to vaccination during the observation period, but all other animals remained healthy and survived. These deaths from causes other than vaccination and the absence of any lesions suggestive of vaccinia infection indicate that it is unlikely that any animal suffered or died as a result of V-RG administration. In addition several animals showed an unexpected high level of rabies neutralizing antibodies. PMID:2249183

  6. Vaccine Efficacy against Malaria by the Combination of Porcine Parvovirus-Like Particles and Vaccinia Virus Vectors Expressing CS of Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez, Dolores; Gonzlez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Rodrguez, Juan R.; Vijayan, Aneesh; Gherardi, Magdalena; Rueda, Paloma; Casal, J. Ignacio; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) carrying the CD8+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI) of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS), and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors from the Western Reserve (WR) and modified virus Ankara (MVA) strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria. PMID:22529915

  7. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA-B) lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV-1-specific T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Garca-Arriaza, Juan; Njera, Jos Luis; Gmez, Carmen E; Tewabe, Nolawit; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B ?C6L) had no effect on virus growth kinetics; therefore C6 protein is not essential for virus replication. The innate immune signals elicited by MVA-B ?C6L in human macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are characterized by the up-regulation of the expression of IFN-? and IFN-?/?-inducible genes. In a DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol in mice, flow cytometry analysis revealed that MVA-B ?C6L enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by the CD8+ T-cell compartment with an effector phenotype. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env- and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ?C6L induced more Gag-Pol-Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Furthermore, MVA-B ?C6L enhanced the levels of antibodies against Env in comparison with MVA-B. These findings revealed that C6 can be considered as an immunomodulator and that deleting C6L gene in MVA-B confers an immunological benefit by enhancing IFN-?-dependent responses and increasing the magnitude and quality of the T-cell memory immune responses to HIV-1 antigens. Our observations are relevant for the improvement of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:21909386

  8. A Single Immunization With Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara–Based Influenza Virus H7 Vaccine Affords Protection in the Influenza A(H7N9) Pneumonia Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Wiersma, Lidewij C. M.; De Gruyter, Heidi L. M.; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E.; van Amerongen, Geert; Stittelaar, Koert J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Sutter, Gerd; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first reports in early 2013, >440 human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported including 122 fatalities. After the isolation of the first A(H7N9) viruses, the nucleotide sequences became publically available. Based on the coding sequence of the influenza virus A/Shanghai/2/2013 hemagglutinin gene, a codon-optimized gene was synthesized and cloned into a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). This MVA-H7-Sh2 viral vector was used to immunize ferrets and proved to be immunogenic, even after a single immunization. Subsequently, ferrets were challenged with influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 via the intratracheal route. Unprotected animals that were mock vaccinated or received empty vector developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by a marked alveolitis, accompanied by loss of appetite, weight loss, and heavy breathing. In contrast, animals vaccinated with MVA-H7-Sh2 were protected from severe disease. PMID:25246535

  9. A single immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based influenza virus H7 vaccine affords protection in the influenza A(H7N9) pneumonia ferret model.

    PubMed

    Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; De Gruyter, Heidi L M; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; van Amerongen, Geert; Stittelaar, Koert J; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Sutter, Gerd; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-03-01

    Since the first reports in early 2013, >440 human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported including 122 fatalities. After the isolation of the first A(H7N9) viruses, the nucleotide sequences became publically available. Based on the coding sequence of the influenza virus A/Shanghai/2/2013 hemagglutinin gene, a codon-optimized gene was synthesized and cloned into a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). This MVA-H7-Sh2 viral vector was used to immunize ferrets and proved to be immunogenic, even after a single immunization. Subsequently, ferrets were challenged with influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 via the intratracheal route. Unprotected animals that were mock vaccinated or received empty vector developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by a marked alveolitis, accompanied by loss of appetite, weight loss, and heavy breathing. In contrast, animals vaccinated with MVA-H7-Sh2 were protected from severe disease. PMID:25246535

  10. CD40L-Adjuvanted DNA/Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIV239 Vaccine Enhances SIV-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immunity and Improves Protection against a Heterologous SIVE660 Mucosal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kwa, Suefen; Lai, Lilin; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Siddiqui, Mariam; Pillai, Vinod B.; Labranche, Celia; Yu, Tianwei; Moss, Bernard; Montefiori, David C.; Robinson, Harriet L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It remains a challenge to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine that is capable of preventing infection. Here, we utilized the benefits of CD40L, a costimulatory molecule that can stimulate both dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, as an adjuvant for our simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. We coexpressed the CD40L with our DNA/SIV vaccine such that the CD40L is anchored on the membrane of SIV virus-like particle (VLP). These CD40L containing SIV VLPs showed enhanced activation of DCs in vitro. We then tested the potential of DNA/SIV-CD40L vaccine to adjuvant the DNA prime of a DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine in rhesus macaques. Our results demonstrated that the CD40L adjuvant enhanced the functional quality of anti-Env antibody response and breadth of anti-SIV CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, significantly delayed the acquisition of heterologous mucosal SIV infection, and improved viral control. Notably, the CD40L adjuvant enhanced the control of viral replication in the gut at the site of challenge that was associated with lower mucosal CD8 immune activation, one of the strong predictors of disease progression. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of CD40L adjuvant for enhancing antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, leading to enhanced protection against a pathogenic SIV. A single adjuvant that enhances both humoral and cellular immunity is rare and thus underlines the importance and practicality of CD40L as an adjuvant for vaccines against infectious diseases, including HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Despite many advances in the field of AIDS research, an effective AIDS vaccine that can prevent infection remains elusive. CD40L is a key stimulator of dendritic cells and B cells and can therefore enhance T cell and antibody responses, but its overly potent nature can lead to adverse effects unless used in small doses. In order to modulate local expression of CD40L at relatively lower levels, we expressed CD40L in a membrane-bound form, along with SIV antigens, in a nucleic acid (DNA) vector. We tested the immunogenicity and efficacy of the CD40L-adjuvanted vaccine in macaques using a heterologous mucosal SIV infection. The CD40L-adjuvanted vaccine enhanced the functional quality of anti-Env antibody response and breadth of anti-SIV T cell responses and improved protection. These results demonstrate that VLP-membrane-bound CD40L serves as a novel adjuvant for an HIV vaccine. PMID:24920805

  11. Susceptibility of Vaccinia Virus to Chemical Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Trcia Moreira Ludolfo; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Coelho Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Lobato, Zlia Ins Portela

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. Some chemical disinfectants have been used on farms affected by BV to disinfect cow teats and milkers' hands. To date, there is no information about the efficacy of disinfectants against VACV. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the virucidal activity of some active disinfectants commonly used in the field. Sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium combined with chlorhexidine, and quaternary ammonium combined with glutaraldehyde were effective in inactivating the virus at all concentrations tested. Iodine and quaternary ammonium as the only active component were partially effective. The presence of bovine feces as organic matter and light decreased the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. These results show that an appropriated disinfection and asepsis of teats and hands may be helpful in the control and prevention of BV and other infections with VACV. PMID:21734141

  12. Susceptibility of Vaccinia virus to chemical disinfectants.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Trcia Moreira Ludolfo; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Coelho Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Lobato, Zlia Ins Portela

    2011-07-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. Some chemical disinfectants have been used on farms affected by BV to disinfect cow teats and milkers' hands. To date, there is no information about the efficacy of disinfectants against VACV. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the virucidal activity of some active disinfectants commonly used in the field. Sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium combined with chlorhexidine, and quaternary ammonium combined with glutaraldehyde were effective in inactivating the virus at all concentrations tested. Iodine and quaternary ammonium as the only active component were partially effective. The presence of bovine feces as organic matter and light decreased the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. These results show that an appropriated disinfection and asepsis of teats and hands may be helpful in the control and prevention of BV and other infections with VACV. PMID:21734141

  13. Evolution of and Evolutionary Relationships between Extant Vaccinia Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Favis, Nicole; Famulski, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although vaccinia virus (VACV) was once used as a vaccine to eradicate smallpox on a worldwide scale, the biological origins of VACV are uncertain, as are the historical relationships between the different strains once used as smallpox vaccines. Here, we sequenced additional VACV strains that either represent relatively pristine examples of old vaccines (e.g., Dryvax, Lister, and Tashkent) or have been subjected to additional laboratory passage (e.g., IHD-W and WR). These genome sequences were compared with those previously reported for other VACVs as well as other orthopoxviruses. These extant VACVs do not always cluster in simple phylogenetic trees that are aligned with the known historical relationships between these strains. Rather, the pattern of deletions suggests that all existing strains likely come from a complex stock of viruses that has been passaged, distributed, and randomly sampled over time, thus obscuring simple historical or geographic links. We examined surviving nonclonal vaccine stocks, like Dryvax, which continue to harbor larger and now rare variants, including one that we have designated “clone DPP25.” DPP25 encodes genes not found in most VACV strains, including an ankyrin-F-box protein, a homolog of the variola virus (Bangladesh) B18R gene which we show can be deleted without affecting virulence in mice. We propose a simple common mechanism by which recombination of a larger and hypothetical DPP25-like ancestral strain, combined with selection for retention of critically important genes near the terminal inverted repeat boundaries (vaccinia virus growth factor gene and an interferon alpha/beta receptor homolog), could produce all known VACV variants. IMPORTANCE Smallpox was eradicated by using a combination of intensive disease surveillance and vaccination using vaccinia virus (VACV). Interestingly, little is known about the historical relationships between different strains of VACV and how these viruses may have evolved from a common ancestral strain. To understand these relationships, additional strains were sequenced and compared to existing strains of VACV as well as other orthopoxviruses by using whole-genome sequence alignments. Extant strains of VACV did not always cluster in simple phylogenetic trees based on known historical relationships between these strains. Based on these findings, it is possible that all existing strains of VACV are derived from a single complex stock of viruses that has been passaged, distributed, and sampled over time. PMID:25410873

  14. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) vaccine in recipients (R); or (2) exposure to vaccinia in contacts (C). Please note that these time... Reaction R or C: 1-21 days. 2. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome R or C: 1-21 days. 3. Inadvertent Inoculation R or C: 1-21 days. 4. Generalized Vaccinia R or C: 1-21 days. 5. Eczema Vaccinatum R or C: 1-21 days....

  15. Vaccinia Virus Requires Glutamine but Not Glucose for Efficient Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Krystal A.; Camarda, Roman

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses require host cell metabolism to provide the necessary energy and biosynthetic precursors for successful viral replication. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of the Poxviridae family, and its use as a vaccine enabled the eradication of variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox. A global metabolic screen of VACV-infected primary human foreskin fibroblasts suggested that glutamine metabolism is altered during infection. Glutamine and glucose represent the two main carbon sources for mammalian cells. Depriving VACV-infected cells of exogenous glutamine led to a substantial decrease in infectious virus production, whereas starving infected cells of exogenous glucose had no significant impact on replication. Viral yield in glutamine-deprived cells or in cells treated with an inhibitor of glutaminolysis, the pathway of glutamine catabolism, could be rescued by the addition of multiple tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Thus, VACV infection induces a metabolic alteration to fully rely on glutamine to anaplerotically maintain the TCA cycle. VACV protein synthesis, but not viral transcription, was decreased in glutamine-deprived cells, which corresponded with a dramatic reduction in all VACV morphogenetic intermediates. This study reveals the unique carbon utilization program implemented during poxvirus infection and provides a potential metabolic pathway to target viral replication. IMPORTANCE Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for critical processes including genome replication, viral protein synthesis, and membrane production. This study investigates how vaccinia virus (VACV) infection alters global cellular metabolism, providing the first metabolomic analysis for a member of the poxvirus family. Unlike most viruses examined to date, VACV does not activate glycolysis, and exogenous glucose is not required for maximal virus production. Instead, VACV requires exogenous glutamine for efficient replication, and inhibition of glutamine metabolism effectively blocks VACV protein synthesis. This study defines a major metabolic perturbation essential for the replication of a poxvirus and may lead to the discovery of novel antiviral therapies based on metabolic inhibitors. PMID:24501408

  16. Role of Genes That Modulate Host Immune Responses in the Immunogenicity and Pathogenicity of Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Shawn S.; Ilyinskii, Petr; Philippon, Valrie; Gritz, Linda; Yafal, Alicia Gmez; Zinnack, Kimberly; Beaudry, Kristin R.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Letvin, Norman L.; Mazzara, Gail P.; Panicali, Dennis L.

    2005-01-01

    Poxvirus vaccine vectors, although capable of eliciting potent immune responses, pose serious health risks in immunosuppressed individuals. We therefore constructed five novel recombinant vaccinia virus vectors which contained overlapping deletions of coding regions for the B5R, B8R, B12R, B13R, B14R, B16R, B18R, and B19R immunomodulatory gene products and assessed them for both immunogenicity and pathogenicity. All five of these novel vectors elicited both cellular and humoral immunity to the inserted HIV-BH10 env comparable to that induced by the parental Wyeth strain vaccinia virus. However, deletion of these immunomodulatory genes did not increase the immunogenicity of these vectors compared with the parental vaccinia virus. Furthermore, four of these vectors were slightly less virulent and one was slightly more virulent than the Wyeth strain virus in neonatal mice. Attenuated poxviruses have potential use as safer alternatives to current replication-competent vaccinia virus. Improved vaccinia virus vectors can be generated by deleting additional genes to achieve a more significant viral attenuation. PMID:15858042

  17. Complement inhibition prevents oncolytic vaccinia virus neutralization in immune humans and cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Evgin, Laura; Acuna, Sergio A; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Marguerie, Monique; Lemay, Chantal G; Ilkow, Carolina S; Findlay, C Scott; Falls, Theresa; Parato, Kelley A; Hanwell, David; Goldstein, Alyssa; Lopez, Roberto; Lafrance, Sandra; Breitbach, Caroline J; Kirn, David; Atkins, Harold; Auer, Rebecca C; Thurman, Joshua M; Stahl, Gregory L; Lambris, John D; Bell, John C; McCart, J Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown promising clinical activity when administered by direct intratumoral injection. However, natural barriers in the blood, including antibodies and complement, are likely to limit the ability to repeatedly administer OVs by the intravenous route. We demonstrate here that for a prototype of the clinical vaccinia virus based product Pexa-Vec, the neutralizing activity of antibodies elicited by smallpox vaccination, as well as the anamnestic response in hyperimmune virus treated cancer patients, is strictly dependent on the activation of complement. In immunized rats, complement depletion stabilized vaccinia virus in the blood and led to improved delivery to tumors. Complement depletion also enhanced tumor infection when virus was directly injected into tumors in immunized animals. The feasibility and safety of using a complement inhibitor, CP40, in combination with vaccinia virus was tested in cynomolgus macaques. CP40 pretreatment elicited an average 10-fold increase in infectious titer in the blood early after the infusion and prolonged the time during which infectious virus was detectable in the blood of animals with preexisting immunity. Capitalizing on the complement dependence of antivaccinia antibody with adjunct complement inhibitors may increase the infectious dose of oncolytic vaccinia virus delivered to tumors in virus in immune hosts. PMID:25807289

  18. Low-Resolution Structure of Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sèle, Céleste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P.

    2013-01-01

    Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages. PMID:23175373

  19. Cardiac Safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for Vaccination against Smallpox in a Young, Healthy Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zitzmann-Roth, Eva-Maria; von Sonnenburg, Frank; de la Motte, Stephan; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Uebler, Nadine; Vollmar, Jens; Virgin, Garth; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI) were monitored after each injection. Results A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia) were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE) was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis). The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions. Conclusions Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524 PMID:25879867

  20. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. PMID:24856783

  1. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  2. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based Vaccine Vectors Induce Apoptosis in Dendritic Cells Draining from the Skin via both the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Caspase Pathways, Preventing Efficient Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos-Zapata, C.; Cottingham, M. G.; Gilbert, S. C.; Prentice, H.; Charleston, B.; Hope, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells and central to the induction of immune responses following infection or vaccination. The collection of DC migrating from peripheral tissues by cannulation of the afferent lymphatic vessels provides DC which can be used directly ex vivo without extensive in vitro manipulations. We have previously used bovine migrating DC to show that recombinant human adenovirus 5 vectors efficiently transduce afferent lymph migrating DEC-205+ CD11c+ CD8? DC (ALDC). We have also shown that recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) infects ALDC in vitro, causing downregulation of costimulatory molecules, apoptosis, and cell death. We now show that in the bovine system, modified vaccinia virus Ankara-induced apoptosis in DC draining from the skin occurs soon after virus binding via the caspase 8 pathway and is not associated with viral gene expression. We also show that after virus entry, the caspase 9 pathway cascade is initiated. The magnitude of T cell responses to mycobacterial antigen 85A (Ag85A) expressed by recombinant MVA-infected ALDC is increased by blocking caspase-induced apoptosis. Apoptotic bodies generated by recombinant MVA (rMVA)-Ag85A-infected ALDC and containing Ag85A were phagocytosed by noninfected migrating ALDC expressing SIRP? via actin-dependent phagocytosis, and these ALDC in turn presented antigen. However, the addition of fresh ALDC to MVA-infected cultures did not improve on the magnitude of the T cell responses; in contrast, these noninfected DC showed downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), CD40, CD80, and CD86. We also observed that MVA-infected ALDC promoted migration of DEC-205+ SIRP?+ CD21+ DC as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells independently of caspase activation. These in vitro studies show that induction of apoptosis in DC by MVA vectors is detrimental to the subsequent induction of T cell responses. PMID:22419811

  3. The novel capripoxvirus vector lumpy skin disease virus efficiently boosts modified vaccinia Ankara human immunodeficiency virus responses in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Wendy A; Ginbot, Zekarias; Shen, Yen-Ju; Chege, Gerald K; Soares, Andreia P; Mller, Tracey L; Bunjun, Rubina; Kiravu, Agano; Munyanduki, Henry; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2014-10-01

    Poxvirus vectors represent promising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine candidates and were a component of the only successful HIV vaccine efficacy trial to date. We tested the immunogenicity of a novel recombinant capripoxvirus vector, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), in combination with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both expressing genes from HIV-1. Here, we demonstrated that the combination regimen was immunogenic in rhesus macaques, inducing high-magnitude, broad and balanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, and transient activation of the immune response. These studies support further development of LSDV as a vaccine vector. PMID:24866849

  4. Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Cyrklaff, Marek; Risco, Cristina; Fernndez, Jose Jess; Jimnez, Maria Victoria; Estban, Mariano; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Carrascosa, Jos L.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of cryo-microscopy and electron tomographic reconstruction has allowed us to determine the structure of one of the more complex viruses, intracellular mature vaccinia virus, at a resolution of 46 nm. The tomographic reconstruction allows us to dissect the different structural components of the viral particle, avoiding projection artifacts derived from previous microscopic observations. A surface-rendering representation revealed brick-shaped viral particles with slightly rounded edges and dimensions of ?360 270 250 nm. The outer layer was consistent with a lipid membrane (56 nm thick), below which usually two lateral bodies were found, built up by a heterogeneous material without apparent ordering or repetitive features. The internal core presented an inner cavity with electron dense coils of presumptive DNAprotein complexes, together with areas of very low density. The core was surrounded by two layers comprising an overall thickness of ?1819 nm; the inner layer was consistent with a lipid membrane. The outer layer was discontinuous, formed by a periodic palisade built by the side interaction of T-shaped protein spikes that were anchored in the lower membrane and were arranged into small hexagonal crystallites. It was possible to detect a few pore-like structures that communicated the inner side of the core with the region outside the layer built by the T-shaped spike palisade. PMID:15699328

  5. Successive site translocating inoculation potentiates DNA/recombinant vaccinia vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Na; Hu, Weiguo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing; Wan, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines have advantages over traditional vaccine modalities; however the relatively low immunogenicity restrains its translation into clinical use. Further optimizations are needed to get the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine closer to the level required for human use. Here we show that intramuscularly inoculating into a different limb each time significantly improves the immunogenicities of both DNA and recombinant vaccinia vaccines during multiple vaccinations, compared to repeated vaccination on the same limb. We term this strategy successive site translocating inoculation (SSTI). SSTI could work in synergy with genetic adjuvant and DNA prime-recombinant vaccinia boost regimen. By comparing in vivo antigen expression, we found that SSTI avoided the specific inhibition of in vivo antigen expression, which was observed in the limbs being repeatedly inoculated. Employing in vivo T cell depletion and passive IgG transfer, we delineated that the inhibition was not mediated by CD8+ T cells but by specific antibodies. Finally, by using C3−/− mouse model and in vivo NK cells depletion, we identified that specific antibodies negatively regulated the in vivo antigen expression primarily in a complement depended way. PMID:26667202

  6. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Tod J.; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K.; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Mosca, Joseph D.; Perera, Liyanage P.

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain as to the deployability of these vaccines, especially in the aftermath of a bioterror attack involving these pathogens. We have developed a single vaccine (Wyeth/IL-15/PA) using the licensed Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain that is efficacious against both smallpox and anthrax due to the integration of immune-enhancing cytokine IL-15 and the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis into the Wyeth vaccinia virus. Integration of IL-15 renders Wyeth vaccinia avirulent in immunodeficient mice and enhances anti-vaccinia immune responses. Wyeth/IL-15/PA conferred sterile protection against a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames strain spores in rabbits. A single dose of Wyeth/IL-15/PA protected 33% of the vaccinated A/J mice against a lethal spore challenge 72 h later whereas a single dose of licensed anthrax vaccine protected only 10%. Our dual vaccine Wyeth/IL-15/PA remedies the inadequacies associated with the licensed vaccines, and the inherent ability of Wyeth vaccinia virus to be lyophilized without loss of potency makes it cold-chain independent, thus simplifying the logistics of storage, stockpiling, and field delivery in the event of a bioterror attack involving smallpox or anthrax. PMID:20921397

  7. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Tod J; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N; Waldmann, Thomas A; Mosca, Joseph D; Perera, Liyanage P

    2010-10-19

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain as to the deployability of these vaccines, especially in the aftermath of a bioterror attack involving these pathogens. We have developed a single vaccine (Wyeth/IL-15/PA) using the licensed Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain that is efficacious against both smallpox and anthrax due to the integration of immune-enhancing cytokine IL-15 and the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis into the Wyeth vaccinia virus. Integration of IL-15 renders Wyeth vaccinia avirulent in immunodeficient mice and enhances anti-vaccinia immune responses. Wyeth/IL-15/PA conferred sterile protection against a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames strain spores in rabbits. A single dose of Wyeth/IL-15/PA protected 33% of the vaccinated A/J mice against a lethal spore challenge 72 h later whereas a single dose of licensed anthrax vaccine protected only 10%. Our dual vaccine Wyeth/IL-15/PA remedies the inadequacies associated with the licensed vaccines, and the inherent ability of Wyeth vaccinia virus to be lyophilized without loss of potency makes it cold-chain independent, thus simplifying the logistics of storage, stockpiling, and field delivery in the event of a bioterror attack involving smallpox or anthrax. PMID:20921397

  8. Use of a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing Interferon Gamma for Post-Exposure Protection against Vaccinia and Ectromelia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holechek, Susan A.; Denzler, Karen L.; Heck, Michael C.; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R. Mark; Legrand, Fatema A.; Verardi, Paulo H.; Jones, Leslie A.; Yilma, Tilahun; Jacobs, Bertram L.

    2013-01-01

    Post-exposure vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) has been suggested to be effective in minimizing death if administered within four days of smallpox exposure. While there is anecdotal evidence for efficacy of post-exposure vaccination this has not been definitively studied in humans. In this study, we analyzed post-exposure prophylaxis using several attenuated recombinant VACV in a mouse model. A recombinant VACV expressing murine interferon gamma (IFN-?) was most effective for post-exposure protection of mice infected with VACV and ectromelia virus (ECTV). Untreated animals infected with VACV exhibited severe weight loss and morbidity leading to 100% mortality by 8 to 10 days post-infection. Animals treated one day post-infection had milder symptoms, decreased weight loss and morbidity, and 100% survival. Treatment on days 2 or 3 post-infection resulted in 40% and 20% survival, respectively. Similar results were seen in ECTV-infected mice. Despite the differences in survival rates in the VACV model, the viral load was similar in both treated and untreated mice while treated mice displayed a high level of IFN-? in the serum. These results suggest that protection provided by IFN-? expressed by VACV may be mediated by its immunoregulatory activities rather than its antiviral effects. These results highlight the importance of IFN-? as a modulator of the immune response for post-exposure prophylaxis and could be used potentially as another post-exposure prophylaxis tool to prevent morbidity following infection with smallpox and other orthopoxviruses. PMID:24147092

  9. Vaccinia virus, a promising new therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yaghchi, Chadwan Al; Zhang, Zhongxian; Alusi, Ghassan; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-12-01

    The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients signifies a need for radically new therapeutic strategies. Tumor-targeted oncolytic viruses have emerged as attractive therapeutic candidates for cancer treatment due to their inherent ability to specifically target and lyse tumor cells as well as induce antitumor effects by multiple action mechanisms. Vaccinia virus has several inherent features that make it particularly suitable for use as an oncolytic agent. In this review, we will discuss the potential of vaccinia virus in the management of pancreatic cancer in light of our increased understanding of cellular and immunological mechanisms involved in the disease process as well as our extending knowledge in the biology of vaccinia virus. PMID:26595180

  10. A Novel High-Throughput Vaccinia Virus Neutralization Assay and Preexisting Immunity in Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Nie, Jianhui; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Dongying; Song, Aijing; Meng, Shufang; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT) resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. Methodology/Principal Findings A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV) neutralization assay that used the attenuated replication-competent VTT carrying the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis (rTV-Fluc) was established and standardized for critical parameters that included the choice of cell line, viral infection dose, and the infection time. The current study evaluated the maintenance of virus-specific immunity after smallpox vaccination by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis of antiviral antibody-mediated immune responses in volunteers examined 30–55 years after vaccination. The rTV-Fluc neutralization assay was able to detect neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against Vaccinia virus without the ability to differentiate strains of Vaccinia virus. We showed that the neutralizing titers measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Using this assay, we found a low prevalence of NAb to VTT (7.6%) in individuals born before 1980 from Beijing and Anhui provinces in China, and when present, anti-VTT NAb titers were low. No NAbs were detected in all 222 samples from individuals born after 1980. There was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender, age range and geographic origin. Conclusion A simplified, sensitive, standardized, reproducible, and high-throughput assay was developed for the quantitation of NAbs against different Vaccinia strains. The current study provides useful insights for the future development of VTT-based vaccination in Beijing and Anhui provinces of China. PMID:22438922

  11. A prime/boost DNA/Modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine expressing recombinant Leishmania DNA encoding TRYP is safe and immunogenic in outbred dogs, the reservoir of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Connor; Antoniou, Maria; Ruiz-Argüello, Maria Begoña; Alcami, Antonio; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Courtenay, Orin

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) prime/boost vaccines expressing tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP) and Leishmania homologue of the mammalian receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) against Leishmania major challenge in mice, which was consistent with results from TRYP protein/adjuvant combinations in non-human primates. This study aimed to conduct safety and immunogenicity trials of these DNA/MVA vaccines in dogs, the natural reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, followed-up for 4 months post-vaccination. In a cohort of 22 uninfected outbred dogs, blinded randomised administration of 1000 μg (high dose) or 100 μg (low dose) DNA prime (day 0) and 1 × 108 pfu MVA boost (day 28) was shown to be safe and showed no clinical side effects. High dose DNA/MVA vaccinated TRYP dogs produced statistically higher mean levels of the type-1 pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ than controls in whole blood assays (WBA) stimulated with the recombinant vaccine antigen TRYP, up to the final sampling at day 126, and in the absence of challenge with Leishmania. TRYP vaccinated dogs also demonstrated significantly higher TRYP-specific total IgG and IgG2 subtype titres than in controls, and positive in vivo intradermal reactions at day 156 in the absence of natural infection, observed in 6/8 TRYP vaccinated dogs. No significant increases in IFN-γ in LACK-stimulated WBA, or in LACK-specific IgG levels, were detected in LACK vaccinated dogs compared to controls, and only 2/9 LACK vaccinated dogs demonstrated DTH responses at day 156. In all groups, IgG1 subclass responses and antigen-specific stimulation of IL-10 were similar to controls demonstrating an absence of Th2/Treg response, as expected in the absence of in vivo restimulation or natural/experimental challenge with Leishmania. These collective results indicate significant antigen-specific type-1 responses and in vivo memory phase cellular immune responses, consistent with superior potential for protective vaccine immunogenicity of DNA/MVA TRYP over LACK. PMID:19095029

  12. Fatty acid acylation of vaccinia virus proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, C A; Reynolds, P L; Hruby, D E

    1989-01-01

    Labeling of vaccinia virus-infected cells with [3H]myristic acid resulted in the incorporation of label into two viral proteins with apparent molecular weights of 35,000 and 25,000 (designated M35 and M25, respectively). M35 and M25 were expressed in infected cells after the onset of viral DNA replication, and both proteins were present in purified intracellular virus particles. Virion localization experiments determined M25 to be a constituent of the virion envelope, while M35 appeared to be peripherally associated with the virion core. M35 and M25 labeled by [3H]myristic acid were stable to treatment with neutral hydroxylamine, suggesting an amide-linked acylation of the proteins. Chromatographic identification of the protein-bound fatty acid moieties liberated after acid methanolysis of M25, isolated from infected cells labeled during a 4-h pulse, resulted in the recovery of 25% of the protein-bound fatty acid as myristate-associated label and 75% as palmitate, indicating that interconversion of myristate to palmitate had occurred during the labeling period. Similar analyses of M25 and M35, isolated from infected cells labeled during a 0.5-h pulse, determined that 46 and 43%, respectively, of the protein-bound label had been elongated to palmitate even during this brief labeling period. In contrast, M25 and M35 isolated from purified intracellular virions labeled continuously during 24 h of growth contained 75 and 70%, respectively, myristate-associated label, suggesting greater stability of these proteins or a favored interaction of the proteins containing myristate with the maturing or intracellular virion. Images PMID:2778876

  13. Vaccinia virus as a subhelper for AAV replication and packaging

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Andrea R; Dong, Biao; Chen, Lingxia; Xiao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been widely used as a gene therapy vector to treat a variety of disorders. While these vectors are increasingly popular and successful in the clinic, there is still much to learn about the viruses. Understanding the biology of these viruses is essential in engineering better vectors and generating vectors more efficiently for large-scale use. AAV requires a helper for production and replication making this aspect of the viral life cycle crucial. Vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely cited as a helper virus for AAV. However, to date, there are no detailed analyses of its helper function. Here, the helper role of VV was studied in detail. In contrast to common belief, we demonstrated that VV was not a sufficient helper virus for AAV replication. Vaccinia failed to produce rAAV and activate AAV promoters. While this virus could not support rAAV production, Vaccinia could initiate AAV replication and packaging when AAV promoter activation is not necessary. This activity is due to the ability of Vaccinia-driven Rep78 to transcribe in the cytoplasm and subsequently translate in the nucleus and undergo typical functions in the AAV life cycle. As such, VV is subhelper for AAV compared to complete helper functions of adenovirus. PMID:26636113

  14. Oncolytic and immunologic cancer therapy with GM-CSF-armed vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lili; Fan, Jun; Guo, Mingming; Huang, Biao

    2016-03-28

    Targeted oncolytic vaccinia viruses are being developed as a novel strategy in cancer therapy. Arming vaccinia viruses with immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance antitumor efficacy. Such engineered oncolytic viruses, like JX-594, a Wyeth strain vaccinia virus modified with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have shown promising results and have proceeded rapidly in clinical trials. However, the oncolytic potential of the Chinese vaccine strain Tian Tan (VTT) has not been explored. In this study, we constructed a targeted oncolytic vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9 (VG9) expressing murine GM-CSF (VG9-GMCSF) and evaluated the antitumor effect of this recombinant vaccinia virus in a murine melanoma model. In vitro, viral replication and cytotoxicity of VG9-GMCSF was as potent as VG9; in vivo, VG9-GMCSF significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted melanoma tumors, prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and produced an antitumor cytotoxic response. Such antitumor effect may be due to the lytic nature of virus as well as the stimulation of immune activity by GM-CSF production. Our results indicate that VG9-GMCSF induces strong tumoricidal activity, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. PMID:26803055

  15. Glycosylated and nonglycosylated complement control protein of the lister strain of vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Meseda, Clement A; Kuhn, Jordan; Atukorale, Vajini; Campbell, Joseph; Weir, Jerry P

    2014-09-01

    The vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) is a secreted viral protein that binds the C3b and C4b complement components and inhibits the classic and alternative complement pathways. Previously, we reported that an attenuated smallpox vaccine, LC16m8, which was derived from the Lister strain of vaccinia virus (VV-Lister), expressed a glycosylated form of VCP, whereas published sequence data at that time indicated that the VV-Lister VCP has no motif for N-linked glycosylation. We were interested in determining whether the glycosylation of VCP impairs its biological activity, possibly contributing to the attenuation of LC16m8, and the likely origin of the glycosylated VCP. Expression analysis indicated that VV-Lister contains substrains expressing glycosylated VCP and substrains expressing nonglycosylated VCP. Other strains of smallpox vaccine, as well as laboratory strains of vaccinia virus, all expressed nonglycosylated VCP. Individual Lister virus clones expressing either the glycosylated VCP or the nonglycosylated species were isolated, and partially purified VCP from the isolates were found to be functional equivalents in binding human C3b and C4b complement proteins and inhibiting hemolysis and in immunogenicity. Recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing FLAG-tagged glycosylated VCP (FLAG-VCPg) and nonglycosylated VCP (FLAG-VCP) were constructed based on the Western Reserve strain. Purified FLAG-VCP and FLAG-VCPg bind human C3b and C4b and blocked complement-mediated hemolysis. Our data suggest that glycosylation did not affect the biological activity of VCP and thus may not have contributed to the attenuation of LC16m8. In addition, the LC16m8 virus likely originated from a substrain of VV-Lister that expresses glycosylated VCP. PMID:25030055

  16. Glycosylated and Nonglycosylated Complement Control Protein of the Lister Strain of Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jordan; Atukorale, Vajini; Campbell, Joseph; Weir, Jerry P.

    2014-01-01

    The vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) is a secreted viral protein that binds the C3b and C4b complement components and inhibits the classic and alternative complement pathways. Previously, we reported that an attenuated smallpox vaccine, LC16m8, which was derived from the Lister strain of vaccinia virus (VV-Lister), expressed a glycosylated form of VCP, whereas published sequence data at that time indicated that the VV-Lister VCP has no motif for N-linked glycosylation. We were interested in determining whether the glycosylation of VCP impairs its biological activity, possibly contributing to the attenuation of LC16m8, and the likely origin of the glycosylated VCP. Expression analysis indicated that VV-Lister contains substrains expressing glycosylated VCP and substrains expressing nonglycosylated VCP. Other strains of smallpox vaccine, as well as laboratory strains of vaccinia virus, all expressed nonglycosylated VCP. Individual Lister virus clones expressing either the glycosylated VCP or the nonglycosylated species were isolated, and partially purified VCP from the isolates were found to be functional equivalents in binding human C3b and C4b complement proteins and inhibiting hemolysis and in immunogenicity. Recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing FLAG-tagged glycosylated VCP (FLAG-VCPg) and nonglycosylated VCP (FLAG-VCP) were constructed based on the Western Reserve strain. Purified FLAG-VCP and FLAG-VCPg bind human C3b and C4b and blocked complement-mediated hemolysis. Our data suggest that glycosylation did not affect the biological activity of VCP and thus may not have contributed to the attenuation of LC16m8. In addition, the LC16m8 virus likely originated from a substrain of VV-Lister that expresses glycosylated VCP. PMID:25030055

  17. Disabling complement regulatory activities of vaccinia virus complement control protein reduces vaccinia virus pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Bernet, John; Ahmad, Muzammil; Mullick, Jayati; Panse, Yogesh; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Parab, Pradeep B.; Sahu, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Poxviruses encode a repertoire of immunomodulatory proteins to thwart the host immune system. One among this array is a homolog of the host complement regulatory proteins that is conserved in various poxviruses including vaccinia (VACV) and variola. The vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which inhibits complement by decaying the classical pathway C3-convertase (decay-accelerating activity), and by supporting inactivation of C3b and C4b by serine protease factor I (cofactor activity), was shown to play a role in viral pathogenesis. However, the role its individual complement regulatory activities impart in pathogenesis, have not yet been elucidated. Here, we have generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the VCP functions and utilized them to evaluate the relative contribution of complement regulatory activities of VCP in viral pathogenesis by employing a rabbit intradermal model for VACV infection. Targeting VCP by mAbs that inhibited the decay-accelerating activity as well as cofactor activity of VCP or primarily the cofactor activity of VCP, by injecting them at the site of infection, significantly reduced VACV lesion size. This reduction however was not pronounced when VCP was targeted by a mAb that inhibited only the decay-accelerating activity. Further, the reduction in lesion size by mAbs was reversed when host complement was depleted by injecting cobra venom factor. Thus, our results suggest that targeting VCP by antibodies reduces VACV pathogenicity and that principally the cofactor activity of VCP appears to contribute to the virulence. PMID:21803094

  18. Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

  19. Vaccinia Virus Induces Programmed Necrosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Archibald, Kyra M; Kulbe, Hagen; Balkwill, Frances R; Öberg, Daniel; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which oncolytic vaccinia virus induces tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have evaluated cell death pathways following infection of ovarian cancer cells with both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deleted (dTK) Lister strain vaccinia. We show that death does not rely upon classical apoptosis despite the appearances of some limited apoptotic features, including phosphatidylserine externalization and appearance of sub-G1 DNA populations. Vaccinia infection induces marked lipidation of LC3 proteins, but there is no general activation of the autophagic process and cell death does not rely upon autophagy induction. We show that vaccinia induces necrotic morphology on transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by marked by reductions in intracellular adenosine triphosphate, altered mitochondrial metabolism, and release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. This necrotic cell death appears regulated, as infection induces formation of a receptor interacting protein (RIP1)/caspase-8 complex. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of both RIP1 and substrates downstream of RIP1, including MLKL, significantly attenuate cell death. Blockade of TNF-α, however, does not alter virus efficacy, suggesting that necrosis does not result from autocrine cytokine release. Overall, these results show that, in ovarian cancer cells, vaccinia virus causes necrotic cell death that is mediated through a programmed series of events. PMID:23985697

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Delivered by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Efficiently Induces Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Provacia, Lisette B.; Volz, Asisa; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2013-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV. PMID:23986586

  1. Resistance to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Induced by Immunization of Cotton Rats with a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the RSV G Glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Narayanasamy; Prince, Gregory A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Venkatesan, Sundararajan; Chanock, Robert M.; Moss, Bernard

    1986-03-01

    A cDNA copy of the G glycoprotein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was placed under control of a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the thymidine kinase locus of the vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and expressed a 93-kDa protein that migrated with the authentic RSV G glycoprotein upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycosylation of the expressed protein and transport to the cell surface were demonstrated in the absence of other RSV proteins. Cotton rats that were inoculated intradermally with the infectious recombinant virus produced serum antibody to the G glycoprotein that neutralized RSV in vitro. Furthermore, the vaccinated animals were resistant to lower respiratory tract infection upon intranasal inoculation with RSV and had reduced titers of RSV in the nose.

  2. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    PubMed Central

    Root, J Jeffrey; McLean, Robert G; Slate, Dennis; MacCarthy, Kathleen A; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-01-01

    Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor). The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10) with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1) responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10) and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted. PMID:18834520

  3. Effect of suspending media on freeze-drying and preservation of vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M

    1970-03-01

    Unpurified and purified smallpox vaccines were prepared from calf dermal pulp, or chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of hen eggs infected with vaccinia virus, and freeze-dried. The protective effect of various suspending media was investigated both in the course of the freeze-drying and in the period of subsequent storage of the dried product at different temperatures, including 100 degrees C.Single media consisting of either sodium glutamate or peptone were effective in the preservation of both unpurified and purified vaccines prepared from calf dermal pulp or CAM. It was shown that there was an optimal concentration of sodium glutamate for the preservation of the vaccine preparations, especially of the purified vaccine.Combined media, consisting of soluble starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium glutamate, were effective with the purified vaccine when the concentration of sodium glutamate exceeded the optimum necessary for preservation. PMID:5266585

  4. Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Slabaugh, M.B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1986-11-01

    Repeated passage of vaccinia virus in increasing concentrations of hydroxyurea followed by plaque purification resulted in the isolation of variants capable of growth in 5 mM hydroxyurea, a drug concentration which inhibited the reproduction of wild-type vaccinia virus 1000-fold. Analyses of viral protein synthesis by using (/sup 35/S)methionine pulse-labeling at intervals throughout the infection cycle revealed that all isolates overproduced a 34,000-molecular-weight (MW) early polypeptide. Measurement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity after infection indicated that 4- to 10-fold more activity was induced by hydroxyurea-resistant viruses than by the wild-type virus. A two-step partial purification resulted in a substantial enrichment for the 34,000-MW protein from extracts of wild-type and hydroxyurea-resistant-virus-infected, but not mock-infected, cells. In the presence of the drug, the isolates incorporated (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA earlier and a rate substantially greater than that of the wild type, although the onset of DNA synthesis was delayed in both cases. The drug resistance trait was markedly unstable in all isolates. In the absence of selective pressure, plaque-purified isolated readily segregated progeny that displayed a wide range of resistance phenotypes. The results of this study indicate that vaccinia virus encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase which is 34,000-MW early protein whose overproduction confers hydroxyurea resistance on reproducing viruses.

  5. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Vaccinia Virus Recombinant That Expresses the Influenza Hemagglutinin Gene and Induces Resistance to Influenza Virus Infection in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Moss, Bernard

    1983-12-01

    A DNA copy of the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene, derived from influenza virus A/Jap/305/57 (H2N2) was inserted into the genome of vaccinia virus under the control of an early vaccinia virus promoter. Tissue culture cells infected with the purified recombinant virus synthesized influenza hemagglutinin, which was glycosylated and transported to the cell surface where it could be cleaved with trypsin into HA1 and HA2 subunits. Rabbits and hamsters inoculated intradermally with recombinant virus produced circulating antibodies that inhibited hemagglutination by influenza virus. Furthermore, vaccinated hamsters achieved levels of antibody similar to those obtained upon primary infection with influenza virus and were protected against respiratory infection with the A/Jap/305/57 influenza virus.

  6. Comparison of the replication characteristics of vaccinia virus strains Guang 9 and Tian Tan in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    Vaccinia virus is widely used as a vector in the development of recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus strain Guang 9 (VG9), which was derived from vaccinia virus strain Tian Tan (VTT) by successive plaque-cloning purification, was more attenuated than VTT. In this study, the host cell range and the growth and replication of VG9 were compared with those of VTT. The results showed that both VG9 and VTT could infect permissive cells (Vero, TK-143 and CEF) and semipermissive cells PK (15) and induced a visible cytopathic effect (CPE). Both strains could infect nonpermissive CHO-K1 cells but neither was able to reproduce. The replicative ability of VG9 was a little lower than that of VTT. Additionally, recombinant vaccinia viruses containing a firefly luciferase gene (VG9-L and VTT-L) were constructed, and their expression in vitro and replication and spread in vivo were compared. The expression ability of VG9-L was lower than that of VTT-L. Whole-animal imaging data indicated that VG9-L could reproduce quickly and express the exogenous protein at the site of inoculation, regardless of whether the intramuscular, intracutaneous, subcutaneous or celiac inoculation route was used. VG9-L was better in its ability to express a foreign protein than VTT-L, but the time during which expression occurred was shorter. There was no dissemination of virus in mice inoculated with either strain. In summary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using VG9 for the production of smallpox vaccines or the construction of recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines. PMID:24838849

  7. Modification of promoter spacer length in vaccinia virus as a strategy to control the antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Mauro; Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    Vaccinia viruses (VACVs) with distinct early promoters have been developed to enhance antigen expression and improve antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses. It has not been demonstrated how the length of the spacer between the coding region of the gene and its regulatory early promoter motif influences antigen expression, and whether the timing of gene expression can modify the antigen-specific CD4 T-cell response. We generated several recombinant VACVs based on the attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain, which express GFP or the Leishmania LACK antigen under the control of an optimized promoter, using different spacer lengths. Longer spacer length increased GFP and LACK early expression, which correlated with an enhanced LACK-specific memory CD4 and CD8 T-cell response. These results show the importance of promoter spacer length for early antigen expression by VACV and provide alternative strategies for the design of poxvirus-based vaccines. PMID:25972354

  8. Capturing the Natural Diversity of the Human Antibody Response against Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lantto, Johan; Haahr Hansen, Margit; Rasmussen, Søren Kofoed; Steinaa, Lucilla; Poulsen, Tine R.; Duggan, Jackie; Dennis, Mike; Naylor, Irene; Easterbrook, Linda; Bregenholt, Søren; Haurum, John; Jensen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The eradication of smallpox (variola) and the subsequent cessation of routine vaccination have left modern society vulnerable to bioterrorism employing this devastating contagious disease. The existing, licensed vaccines based on live vaccinia virus (VACV) are contraindicated for a substantial number of people, and prophylactic vaccination of large populations is not reasonable when there is little risk of exposure. Consequently, there is an emerging need to develop efficient and safe therapeutics to be used shortly before or after exposure, either alone or in combination with vaccination. We have characterized the human antibody response to smallpox vaccine (VACV Lister) in immunized volunteers and isolated a large number of VACV-specific antibodies that recognize a variety of different VACV antigens. Using this broad antibody panel, we have generated a fully human, recombinant analogue to plasma-derived vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIG), which mirrors the diversity and specificity of the human antibody immune response and offers the advantage of unlimited supply and reproducible specificity and activity. The recombinant VIG was found to display a high specific binding activity toward VACV antigens, potent in vitro VACV neutralizing activity, and a highly protective efficacy against VACV challenge in the mouse tail lesion model when given either prophylactically or therapeutically. Altogether, the results suggest that this compound has the potential to be used as an effective postexposure prophylaxis or treatment of disease caused by orthopoxviruses. PMID:21147924

  9. Cross-protective and cross-reactive immune responses to recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length lyssavirus glycoprotein genes

    PubMed Central

    WEYER, J.; KUZMIN, I.V.; RUPPRECHT, C.E.; NEL, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Lyssaviruses cause acute, progressive encephalitis in mammals. Current rabies vaccines offer protection against the lyssaviruses, with the notable exceptions of Mokola virus (MOKV), Lagos bat virus (LBV) and West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV). Here we describe the cross-protective and cross-reactive immune responses induced by experimental recombinant vaccinia viruses encoding the glycoprotein genes of rabies virus (RABV), MOKV and WCBV, either singly or in dual combinations. Constructs expressing a single glycoprotein gene protected mice against lethal intracranial challenge with homologous virus. Similarly, recombinants expressing glycoprotein genes from two different lyssaviruses offered mice protection against both homologous viruses. VNAb induced by vaccines that included a MOKV glycoprotein gene cross-neutralized LBV, but not WCBV. We concluded that a single recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine including MOKV and RABV glycoprotein genes, should be a major addition to available rabies biologics and should offer broad protection against all of the lyssaviruses, except WCBV. PMID:17588277

  10. A Pilot Study Comparing the Development of EIAV Env-Specific Antibodies Induced by DNA/Recombinant Vaccinia-Vectored Vaccines and an Attenuated Chinese EIAV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinglai; Lin, Yuezhi; Ma, Jian; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Liping; Li, Shenwei; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jianhua; Shen, Rongxian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data from successful attenuated lentiviral vaccine studies indicate that fully mature Env-specific antibodies characterized by high titer, high avidity, and the predominant recognition of conformational epitopes are associated with protective efficacy. Although vaccination with a DNA prime/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccine boost strategy has been found to be effective in some trials with non-human primate/simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models, it remains unclear whether this vaccination strategy could elicit mature equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Env-specific antibodies, thus protecting vaccinated horses against EIAV infection. Therefore, in this pilot study we vaccinated horses using a strategy based on DNA prime/recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV)-vectored vaccines encoding EIAV env and gag genes, and observed the development of Env-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and p26-specific antibodies. Vaccination with DNA induced low titer, low avidity, and the predominant recognition of linear epitopes by Env-specific antibodies, which was enhanced by boosting vaccinations with rTTV vaccines. However, the maturation levels of Env-specific antibodies induced by the DNA/rTTV vaccines were significantly lower than those induced by the attenuated vaccine EIAVFDDV. Additionally, DNA/rTTV vaccines did not elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent EIAV strain, all of the vaccinees and control horses died from EIAV disease. These data indicate that the regimen of DNA prime/rTTV vaccine boost did not induce mature Env-specific antibodies, which might have contributed to immune protection failure. PMID:23171359

  11. [Expression of the glow worm luciferase gene in mammalian cells using vectors based on vaccinia viruses].

    PubMed

    Krauzova, V I; Kopylova-Sviridova, T N; Timiriasova, T M; Fodor, I I

    1991-02-01

    The transient expression of the two reporter genes, the genes for luciferase and bacterial beta-galactosidase, were used for comparative estimation of vaccinia viral promoters and for characterizing of the constructed plasmids. The recombinant clones of vaccinia virus expressing simultaneously and with high efficiency the luciferase and beta-galactosidase were used for studying the reproduction of vaccinia virus in mammalian cells. The advantages of the luciferase gene in using it as a reporter gene are discussed. PMID:1903177

  12. Evaluation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus as an immunogen in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Mara Paula Del Mdico; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing mature viral protein 2 (VP2) of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was constructed to develop MVA-based vaccines for poultry. We demonstrated that this recombinant virus was able to induce a specific immune response by observing the production of anti-IBDV-seroneutralizing antibodies in specific pathogen-free chickens. Besides, as the epitopes of VP2 responsible to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies are discontinuous, our results suggest that VP2 protein expressed from MVA-VP2 maintained the correct conformational structure. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the usefulness of MVA-based vectors for developing recombinant vaccines for poultry. PMID:22705743

  13. Generation of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 Proteins of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Marín-López, Alejandro; Ortego, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental vaccine vector for its lack of replication in mammalian cells and high expression level of foreign/heterologous genes. Recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) are used as platforms for protein production as well as vectors to generate vaccines against a high number of infectious diseases and other pathologies. The portrait of the virus combines desirable elements such as high-level biological safety, the ability to activate appropriate innate immune mediators upon vaccination, and the capacity to deliver substantial amounts of heterologous antigens. Recombinant MVAs encoding proteins of bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that infects domestic and wild ruminants transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species, are excellent vaccine candidates against this virus. In this chapter we describe the methods for the generation of rMVAs encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 proteins of bluetongue virus as a model example for orbiviruses. The protocols included cover the cloning of VP2, NS1, and VP7 BTV-4 genes in a transfer plasmid, the construction of recombinant MVAs, the titration of virus working stocks and the protein expression analysis by immunofluorescence and radiolabeling of rMVA infected cells as well as virus purification. PMID:26458834

  14. Immunogenicity of viral vector, prime -boost SIV vaccine regimens in infant rhesus macaques: attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinant SIV vaccines compared to live-attenuated SIV

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Abel, Kristina; Earl, Patricia; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Easlick, Juliet; Moore, Joseph; Buonocore-Buzzelli, Linda; Schmidt, Kimberli A.; Wilson, Robert L.; Simon, Ian; Moss, Bernard; Rose, Nina; Rose, John; Marthas, Marta L.

    2009-01-01

    In a previously developed infant macaque model mimicking HIV infection by breast feeding, we demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with recombinant poxvirus vaccines expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) structural proteins provided partial protection against infection following oral inoculation with virulent SIV. In an attempt to further increase systemic but also local antiviral immune responses at the site of viral entry, we tested the immunogenicity of different orally administered, replicating vaccines. One group of newborn macaques received an oral prime immunization with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing SIVmac239 gag, pol and env (VSV-SIVgpe), followed 2 weeks later by an intramuscular boost immunization with MVA-SIV. Another group received two immunizations with live-attenuated SIVmac1A11, administered each time both orally and intravenously. Control animals received mock immunizations or non-SIV VSV and MVA control vectors. Analysis of SIV-specific immune responses in blood and lymphoid tissues at 4 weeks of age demonstrated that both vaccine regimens induced systemic antibody responses and both systemic and local cell-mediated immune responses. The safety and immunogenicity of the VSV-SIVgpe +MVA-SIV immunization regimen described in this report provide the scientific incentive to explore the efficacy of this vaccine regimen against virulent SIV exposure in the infant macaque model. PMID:19995539

  15. Marker gene swapping facilitates recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara production by host-range selection.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Giulia; Soprana, Elisa; Panigada, Maddalena; Palini, Alessio; Erfle, Volker; Staib, Caroline; Sutter, Gerd; Siccardi, Antonio G

    2009-03-01

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental and human vaccine vector for its lack of replication in mammalian cells and high expression of heterologous genes. Recombinant MVA technology can be improved greatly by combining transient host-range selection (based on the restoration in MVA of the deleted vaccinia gene K1L) with the differential expression of fluorescent proteins. Recombinant virus results from swapping a red protein gene (in the acceptor virus) with a cassette of the transfer plasmid comprising the transgene and the green marker K1Lgfp (a chimeric gene comprising K1L and EGFP). Recombinant selection is performed in the selective host RK13. Finally, in the non-selective host BHK-21, a single crossover between identical flanking regions excises the marker gene. The three types of viruses involved (red parental, green intermediate and colourless final recombinant) are visualized differentially by fluorescence microscopy or fluoro-imaging of terminal dilution microcultures, leading to a straightforward and efficient purification protocol. This method (Red-to-Green gene swapping) reduces greatly the time needed to obtain marker-free recombinant MVA and increases the reliability of the construction process. PMID:19038289

  16. The mechanisms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Artrish; Cadet, Valerie E; Hielscher, Abigail

    2015-09-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses for the treatment of cancer is an emerging field of cancer research and therapy. Oncolytic viruses are designed to induce tumor specific immunity while replicating selectively within cancer cells to cause lysis of the tumor cells. While there are several forms of oncolytic viruses, the use of vaccinia viruses for oncolysis may be more beneficial than other forms of oncolytic viruses. For example, vaccinia viruses have been shown to exert their anti-tumor effects through genetic engineering strategies which enhance their therapeutic efficacy. This paper will address some of the most common forms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses and will explore the mechanisms whereby they selectively target, enter and destroy cancer cells. Furthermore, this review will highlight how vaccinia viruses activate host immune responses against cancer cells and will address clinical trials evaluating the tumor-directed and killing efficacy of these viruses against solid tumors. PMID:25900073

  17. Deletion of Fifteen Open Reading Frames from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Fails to Improve Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Gilbert, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, which has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector in many vaccine development programmes. The loss of many immunosuppressive and host-range genes resulted in a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. However it still retains some immunomodulatory genes that may reduce MVA immunogenicity. Earlier reports demonstrated that the deletion of the A41L, B15R, C6L, or C12L open reading frames (ORFs) enhanced cellular immune responses in recombinant MVA (rMVA) by up to 2-fold. However, previously, we showed that deletion of the C12L, A44L, A46R, B7R, or B15R ORFs from rMVA, using MVA-BAC recombineering technology, did not enhance rMVA immunogenicity at either peak or memory cellular immune responses. Here, we extend our previous study to examine the effect of deleting clusters of genes on rMVA cellular immunogenicity. Two clusters of fifteen genes were deleted in one rMVA mutant that encodes either the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or an immunodominant H2-Kd-restricted murine malaria epitope (pb9). The deletion mutants were tested in prime only or prime and boost vaccination regimens. The responses showed no improved peak or memory CD8+ T cell frequencies. Our results suggest that the reported small increases in MVA deletion mutants could not be replicated with different antigens, or epitopes. Therefore, the gene deletion strategy may not be taken as a generic approach for improving the immunogenicity of MVA-based vaccines, and should be carefully assessed for every individual recombinant antigen. PMID:26053118

  18. Deletion of Fifteen Open Reading Frames from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Fails to Improve Immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Spencer, Alexandra J; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, which has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector in many vaccine development programmes. The loss of many immunosuppressive and host-range genes resulted in a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. However it still retains some immunomodulatory genes that may reduce MVA immunogenicity. Earlier reports demonstrated that the deletion of the A41L, B15R, C6L, or C12L open reading frames (ORFs) enhanced cellular immune responses in recombinant MVA (rMVA) by up to 2-fold. However, previously, we showed that deletion of the C12L, A44L, A46R, B7R, or B15R ORFs from rMVA, using MVA-BAC recombineering technology, did not enhance rMVA immunogenicity at either peak or memory cellular immune responses. Here, we extend our previous study to examine the effect of deleting clusters of genes on rMVA cellular immunogenicity. Two clusters of fifteen genes were deleted in one rMVA mutant that encodes either the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or an immunodominant H2-Kd-restricted murine malaria epitope (pb9). The deletion mutants were tested in prime only or prime and boost vaccination regimens. The responses showed no improved peak or memory CD8+ T cell frequencies. Our results suggest that the reported small increases in MVA deletion mutants could not be replicated with different antigens, or epitopes. Therefore, the gene deletion strategy may not be taken as a generic approach for improving the immunogenicity of MVA-based vaccines, and should be carefully assessed for every individual recombinant antigen. PMID:26053118

  19. IL-15 adjuvanted multivalent vaccinia-based universal influenza vaccine requires CD4+ T cells for heterosubtypic protection.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Sophie A; Li, Olive T W; Mak, Polly W Y; Mok, Chris K P; Nicholls, John M; Guan, Yi; Waldmann, Thomas A; Peiris, J S Malik; Perera, Liyanage P; Poon, Leo L M

    2014-04-15

    Current influenza vaccines are ineffective against novel viruses and the source or the strain of the next outbreak of influenza is unpredictable; therefore, establishing universal immunity by vaccination to limit the impact of influenza remains a high priority. To meet this challenge, a novel vaccine has been developed using the immunogenic live vaccinia virus as a vaccine vector, expressing multiple H5N1 viral proteins (HA, NA, M1, M2, and NP) together with IL-15 as a molecular adjuvant. Previously, this vaccine demonstrated robust sterile cross-clade protection in mice against H5 influenza viruses, and herein its use has been extended to mediate heterosubtypic immunity toward viruses from both group 1 and 2 HA lineages. The vaccine protected mice against lethal challenge by increasing survival and significantly reducing lung viral loads against the most recent human H7N9, seasonal H3N2, pandemic-2009 H1N1, and highly pathogenic H7N7 influenza A viruses. Influenza-specific antibodies elicited by the vaccine failed to neutralize heterologous viruses and were unable to confer protection by passive transfer. Importantly, heterologous influenza-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses that were elicited by the vaccine were effectively recalled and amplified following viral challenge in the lungs and periphery. Selective depletion of T-cell subsets in the immunized mice revealed an important role for CD4(+) T cells in heterosubtypic protection, despite low sequence conservation among known MHC-II restricted epitopes across different influenza viruses. This study illustrates the potential utility of our multivalent Wyeth/IL-15/5Flu as a universal influenza vaccine with a correlate of protective immunity that is independent of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24706798

  20. Environmental Risk Assessment of Clinical Trials Involving Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA)-Based Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Martine; Pauwels, Katia; Willemarck, Nicolas; Breyer, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain, which has been developed as a vaccine against smallpox, is since the nineties widely tested in clinical trials as recombinant vector for vaccination or gene therapy applications. Although MVA is renowned for its safety, several biosafety aspects need to be considered when performing the risk assessment of a recombinant MVA (rMVA). This paper presents the biosafety issues and the main lessons learned from the evaluation of the clinical trials with rMVA performed in Belgium. Factors such as the specific characteristics of the rMVA, the inserted foreign sequences/transgene, its ability for reconversion, recombination and dissemination in the population and the environment are the main points of attention. Measures to prevent or manage identified risks are also discussed. PMID:24397528

  1. Genome Scale Patterns of Recombination between Coinfecting Vaccinia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombination plays a critical role in virus evolution. It helps avoid genetic decline and creates novel phenotypes. This promotes survival, and genome sequencing suggests that recombination has facilitated the evolution of human pathogens, including orthopoxviruses such as variola virus. Recombination can also be used to map genes, but although recombinant poxviruses are easily produced in culture, classical attempts to map the vaccinia virus (VACV) genome this way met with little success. We have sequenced recombinants formed when VACV strains TianTan and Dryvax are crossed under different conditions. These were a single round of growth in coinfected cells, five rounds of sequential passage, or recombinants obtained using leporipoxvirus-mediated DNA reactivation. Our studies showed that recombinants contain a patchwork of DNA, with the number of exchanges increasing with passage. Further passage also selected for TianTan DNA and correlated with increased plaque size. The recombinants produced through a single round of coinfection contain a disproportionate number of short conversion tracks (<1 kbp) and exhibited 1 exchange per 12 kbp, close to the ?1 per 8 kbp in the literature. One by-product of this study was that rare mutations were also detected; VACV replication produces ?1 10?8 mutation per nucleotide copied per cycle of replication and ?1 large (21 kbp) deletion per 70 rounds of passage. Viruses produced using DNA reactivation appeared no different from recombinants produced using ordinary methods. An attractive feature of this approach is that when it is combined with selection for a particular phenotype, it provides a way of mapping and dissecting more complex virus traits. IMPORTANCE When two closely related viruses coinfect the same cell, they can swap genetic information through a process called recombination. Recombination produces new viruses bearing different combinations of genes, and it plays an important role in virus evolution. Poxviruses are a family of viruses that includes variola (or smallpox) virus, and although poxviruses are known to recombine, no one has previously mapped the patterns of DNAs exchanged between viruses. We coinfected cells with two different vaccinia poxviruses, isolated the progeny, and sequenced them. We show that poxvirus recombination is a very accurate process that assembles viruses containing DNA copied from both parents. In a single round of infection, DNA is swapped back and forth ?18 times per genome to make recombinant viruses that are a mosaic of the two parental DNAs. This mixes many different genes in complex combinations and illustrates how recombination can produce viruses with greatly altered disease potential. PMID:24574414

  2. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    SciTech Connect

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H.; Buller, R. Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-05-15

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus.

  3. Generation of an attenuated Tiantan vaccinia virus by deletion of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shifu; Jia, Peng; Sun, Lili; Hu, Ningning; Li, Chang; Lu, Huijun; Tian, Mingyao; Qi, Yanxin; Jin, Ningyi; Li, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Attenuation of the virulence of vaccinia Tiantan virus (VTT) underlies the strategy adopted for mass vaccination campaigns. This strategy provides advantages of safety and efficacy over traditional vaccines and is aimed at minimization of adverse health effects. In this study, a mutant form of the virus, MVTT was derived from VTT by deletion of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (R1) (TI4L). Compared to wild-type parental (VTT) and revertant (VTT-rev) viruses, virulence of the mutant MVTT was reduced by 100-fold based on body weight reduction and by 3,200-fold based on determination of the intracranial 50% lethal infectious dose. However, the immunogenicity of MVTT was equivalent to that of the parental VTT. We also demonstrated that the TI4L gene is not required for efficient replication. These data support the conclusion that MVTT can be used as a replicating virus vector or as a platform for the development of vaccines against infectious diseases and for cancer therapy. PMID:24677065

  4. Efficacy and safety of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored plague vaccine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brewoo, Joseph N.; Powell, Tim D.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of plague vaccines based on the modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector was evaluated. MVA recombinants were constructed expressing Yersinia pestis antigens under the translational control of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and/or fused to the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) secretory signal. A MVA/Y. pestis recombinant that expressed a truncated version of the low-calcium response V antigen (MVA/IRES/tPA/V307), conferred significant protection (87.5%–100%) against intranasal or intraperitoneal challenge with CO92 (encapsulated) or Java 9 (non-encapsulated) strains of Y pestis, respectively. In contrast, a MVA/Y. pestis recombinant that expressed the full-length V antigen provided only 37.5% protection against challenge with CO92 or Java 9 strains, respectively. Interestingly, a MVA/Y. pestis recombinant that expressed the capsular protein (F1) did not elicit significant antibody titers but still conferred 50% and 25% protection against CO92 or Java 9 challenge, respectively. The MVA/Y. pestis recombinant viruses did not demonstrate any mortality or morbidity in SCID mice. Based on their safety and efficacy in mice, these MVA/Y. pestis recombinants are candidates for further development as biodefense and public health vaccines. PMID:20638759

  5. Chasing Jenner's vaccine: revisiting cowpox virus classification.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Darin S; Emerson, Ginny L; Li, Yu; Sammons, Scott; Olson, Victoria; Frace, Michael; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Czerny, Claus Peter; Tryland, Morten; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Khristova, Marina; Govil, Dhwani; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K; Meyer, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) is described as the source of the first vaccine used to prevent the onset and spread of an infectious disease. It is one of the earliest described members of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes the viruses that cause smallpox and monkeypox in humans. Both the historic and current literature describe "cowpox" as a disease with a single etiologic agent. Genotypic data presented herein indicate that CPXV is not a single species, but a composite of several (up to 5) species that can infect cows, humans, and other animals. The practice of naming agents after the host in which the resultant disease manifests obfuscates the true taxonomic relationships of "cowpox" isolates. These data support the elevation of as many as four new species within the traditional "cowpox" group and suggest that both wild and modern vaccine strains of Vaccinia virus are most closely related to CPXV of continental Europe rather than the United Kingdom, the homeland of the vaccine. PMID:21858000

  6. Vaccinia virus strain differences in cell attachment and entry

    SciTech Connect

    Bengali, Zain; Townsley, Alan C.; Moss, Bernard

    2009-06-20

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain WR can enter cells by a low pH endosomal pathway or direct fusion with the plasma membrane at neutral pH. Here, we compared attachment and entry of five VACV strains in six cell lines and discovered two major patterns. Only WR exhibited pH 5-enhanced rate of entry following neutral pH adsorption to cells, which correlated with sensitivity to bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification. Entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree strains were neither accelerated by pH 5 treatment nor prevented by bafilomycin A1. Entry of the Wyeth strain, although not augmented by pH 5, was inhibited by bafilomycin A1. WR and Wyeth were both relatively resistant to the negative effects of heparin on entry, whereas the other strains were extremely sensitive due to inhibition of cell binding. The relative sensitivities of individual vaccinia virus strains to heparin correlated inversely with their abilities to bind to and enter glycosaminoglycan-deficient sog9 cells but not other cell lines tested. These results suggested that that IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree have a more limited ability than WR and Wyeth to use the low pH endosomal pathway and are more dependent on binding to glycosaminoglycans for cell attachment.

  7. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. PMID:26535889

  8. In vivo effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen.

    PubMed Central

    Krummenacher, C; Diggelmann, H; Acha-Orbea, H

    1996-01-01

    Early after infection, the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expresses a superantigen (SAg) at the surface of B lymphocytes. Interaction with the T-cell receptor Vbeta domain induces a polyclonal proliferative response of the SAg-reactive T cells. Stimulated T cells become anergic and are deleted from the T-cell repertoire. We have used a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the MMTV(GR) SAg to dissect the effects of the retroviral SAg during an unrelated viral infection. Subcutaneous infection with this recombinant vaccinia virus induces a very rapid increase of Vbeta14 T cells in the draining lymph node. This stimulation does not require a large Plumber of infectious particles and is not strictly dependent on the expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II I-E molecule, as it is required after MMTV(GR) infection. In contrast to MMTV infection during which B cells are infected, we do not observe any clonal deletion of the reactive T cells following the initial stimulation phase. Our data show that contrary to the case with MMTV, macrophages but not B cells are the targets of infection by vaccinia virus in the lymph node, indicating the ability of these cells to present a retroviral SAg. The altered SAg expression in a different target cell observed during recombinant vaccinia virus infection therefore results in significant changes in the SAg response. PMID:8627779

  9. Potent Neutralization of Vaccinia Virus by Divergent Murine Antibodies Targeting a Common Site of Vulnerability in L1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kaever, Thomas; Meng, Xiangzhi; Matho, Michael H.; Schlossman, Andrew; Li, Sheng; Sela-Culang, Inbal; Ofran, Yanay; Buller, Mark; Crump, Ryan W.; Parker, Scott; Frazier, April; Crotty, Shane; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Peters, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) L1 is an important target for viral neutralization and has been included in multicomponent DNA or protein vaccines against orthopoxviruses. To further understand the protective mechanism of the anti-L1 antibodies, we generated five murine anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which clustered into 3 distinct epitope groups. While two groups of anti-L1 failed to neutralize, one group of 3 MAbs potently neutralized VACV in an isotype- and complement-independent manner. This is in contrast to neutralizing antibodies against major VACV envelope proteins, such as H3, D8, or A27, which failed to completely neutralize VACV unless the antibodies are of complement-fixing isotypes and complement is present. Compared to nonneutralizing anti-L1 MAbs, the neutralization antibodies bound to the recombinant L1 protein with a significantly higher affinity and also could bind to virions. By using a variety of techniques, including the isolation of neutralization escape mutants, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, the epitope of the neutralizing antibodies was mapped to a conformational epitope with Asp35 as the key residue. This epitope is similar to the epitope of 7D11, a previously described potent VACV neutralizing antibody. The epitope was recognized mainly by CDR1 and CDR2 of the heavy chain, which are highly conserved among antibodies recognizing the epitope. These antibodies, however, had divergent light-chain and heavy-chain CDR3 sequences. Our study demonstrates that the conformational L1 epitope with Asp35 is a common site of vulnerability for potent neutralization by a divergent group of antibodies. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus, the live vaccine for smallpox, is one of the most successful vaccines in human history, but it presents a level of risk that has become unacceptable for the current population. Studying the immune protection mechanism of smallpox vaccine is important for understanding the basic principle of successful vaccines and the development of next-generation, safer vaccines for highly pathogenic orthopoxviruses. We studied antibody targets in smallpox vaccine by developing potent neutralizing antibodies against vaccinia virus and comprehensively characterizing their epitopes. We found a site in vaccinia virus L1 protein as the target of a group of highly potent murine neutralizing antibodies. The analysis of antibody-antigen complex structure and the sequences of the antibody genes shed light on how these potent neutralizing antibodies are elicited from immunized mice. PMID:25031354

  10. Spread of vaccinia virus through shaving during military training, Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, June 2014.

    PubMed

    Webber, Bryant J; Montgomery, Jay R; Markelz, Ana E; Allen, Kahtonna C; Hunninghake, John C; Ritchie, Simon A; Pawlak, Mary T; Johnston, Lindsay A; Oliver, Tiffany A; Winterton, Brad S

    2014-08-01

    Although naturally occurring smallpox virus was officially declared eradicated in 1980, concern for biological warfare prompted the U.S. Government in 2002 to recommend smallpox vaccination for select individuals. Vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, is administered into the skin, typically on the upper arm, where the virus remains viable and infectious until the scab falls off and the epidermis is fully intact - typically 2-4 weeks. Adverse events following smallpox vaccination may occur in the vaccinee, in individuals who have contact with the vaccinee (i.e., secondary transmission), or in individuals who have contact with the vaccinee's contact (i.e., tertiary transmission). In June 2014 at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, two cases of inadvertent inoculation of vaccinia and one case of a non-viral reaction following vaccination occurred in the security forces training squadron. This includes the first reported case of shaving as the likely source of autoinoculation after contact transmission. This paper describes the diagnosis and treatment of these cases, the outbreak investigation, and steps taken to prevent future transmission. PMID:25162496

  11. Laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection in a recently immunized person--Massachusetts, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christopher H; Farland, Julien; Winters, Thomas; Gunn, Julia; Caron, Donna; Evans, Jennifer; Osadebe, Lynda; Bethune, Leon; McCollum, Andrea M; Patel, Nishi; Wilkins, Kimberly; Davidson, Whitni; Petersen, Brett; Barry, M Anita

    2015-05-01

    On November 26, 2013, the CDC poxvirus laboratory was notified by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) of an inadvertent inoculation of a recently vaccinated (ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine) laboratory worker with wild type vaccinia virus (VACV) Western Reserve. A joint investigation by CDC and BPHC confirmed orthopoxvirus infection in the worker, who had reported a needle stick in his thumb while inoculating a mouse with VACV. He experienced a non-tender, red rash on his arm, diagnosed at a local emergency department as cellulitis. He subsequently developed a necrotic lesion on his thumb, diagnosed as VACV infection. Three weeks after the injury, the thumb lesion was surgically debrided and at 2 months post-injury, the skin lesion had resolved. The investigation confirmed that the infection was the first reported VACV infection in the United States in a laboratory worker vaccinated according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations. The incident prompted the academic institution to outline biosafety measures for working with biologic agents, such as biosafety training of laboratory personnel, vaccination (if appropriate), and steps in incident reporting. Though vaccination has been shown to be an effective measure in protecting personnel in the laboratory setting, this case report underscores the importance of proper safety measures and incident reporting. PMID:25928468

  12. Evidence for Protection against Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chimpanzees by Immunization with Replicating Recombinant Vaccinia Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Jin-Won; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tricoche, Nancy; Pfahler, Wolfram; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Dreux, Marlene; Cosset, Franois-Loic; Folgori, Antonella; Lee, Dong-Hun; Brotman, Betsy; Prince, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of homologous HCV, the two control animals that had received only the parental VV developed chronic HCV infection. All four immunized animals resolved HCV infection. The difference in the rate of chronicity between the immunized and the control animals was close to statistical significance (P = 0.067). Immunized animals developed vigorous gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot responses and moderate proliferative responses. To investigate cross-genotype protection, the immunized recovered chimpanzees were challenged with a pool of six major HCV genotypes. During the acute phase after the multigenotype challenge, all animals had high-titer viremia in which genotype 4 dominated (87%), followed by genotype 5 (13%). However, after fluctuating low-level viremia, the viremia finally turned negative or persisted at very low levels. This study suggests the potential efficacy of replicating recombinant vaccinia virus-based immunization against chronic HCV infection. PMID:18753204

  13. Evidence for protection against chronic hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees by immunization with replicating recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jin-Won; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tricoche, Nancy; Pfahler, Wolfram; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Dreux, Marlene; Cosset, Franois-Loic; Folgori, Antonella; Lee, Dong-Hun; Brotman, Betsy; Prince, Alfred M

    2008-11-01

    Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of homologous HCV, the two control animals that had received only the parental VV developed chronic HCV infection. All four immunized animals resolved HCV infection. The difference in the rate of chronicity between the immunized and the control animals was close to statistical significance (P = 0.067). Immunized animals developed vigorous gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot responses and moderate proliferative responses. To investigate cross-genotype protection, the immunized recovered chimpanzees were challenged with a pool of six major HCV genotypes. During the acute phase after the multigenotype challenge, all animals had high-titer viremia in which genotype 4 dominated (87%), followed by genotype 5 (13%). However, after fluctuating low-level viremia, the viremia finally turned negative or persisted at very low levels. This study suggests the potential efficacy of replicating recombinant vaccinia virus-based immunization against chronic HCV infection. PMID:18753204

  14. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  15. General method for production and selection of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants expressing foreign genes.

    PubMed Central

    Mackett, M; Smith, G L; Moss, B

    1984-01-01

    The production and selection of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants expressing foreign genes was facilitated by the construction of plasmid vectors. These vectors contain all or part of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene interrupted by multiple unique restriction endonuclease sites placed adjacent to the TK promoter or another promoter translocated within the TK gene. The insertion of a continuous coding sequence for a foreign protein at one of the unique restriction endonuclease sites juxtaposes the transcriptional start site of a vaccinia promoter and the translational start site of a foreign gene. After transfection of vaccinia virus-infected cells with such plasmids, homologous recombination occurs between the vaccinia virus sequences flanking the chimeric gene and the same sequences within the virus genome. Recombinants formed in this manner have the chimeric gene inserted within the body of the vaccinia virus TK gene under control of a vaccinia virus promoter. Since recombinants have an interrupted TK gene, they are selected on the basis of their TK- phenotype and then checked for the presence and expression of the foreign gene. Infectious recombinant viruses expressing the procaryotic enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase were constructed to optimize the system. The absence of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in uninfected cells or in cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus and the availability of a sensitive and quantitative enzyme assay allowed an estimation of the relative strengths of various promoter constructs. The expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was detected within 1 h after infection of cells with recombinant virus, reflecting the early nature of the promoters used. Images PMID:6321770

  16. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors: oncolytic virus efficiency predicted by boolean models.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains. Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start. PMID:25482233

  17. The generation of CD8+ T-cell population specific for vaccinia virus epitope involved in the antiviral protection against ectromelia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Gierynska, Malgorzata; Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Golke, Anna; Schollenberger, Ada

    2015-12-01

    Eradication of smallpox has led to cessation of vaccination programs. This has rendered the human population increasingly susceptible not only to variola virus infection but also to infections with other representatives of Poxviridae family that cause zoonotic variola-like diseases. Thus, new approaches for designing improved vaccine against smallpox are required. Discovering that orthopoxviruses, e.g. variola virus, vaccinia virus, ectromelia virus, share common immunodominant antigen, may result in the development of such a vaccine. In our study, the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice during the acute and memory phase of the immune response was induced using the vaccinia virus immunodominant TSYKFESV epitope and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants. The role of the generated TSYKFESV-specific CD8(+) T cells was evaluated in mice during ectromelia virus infection using systemic and mucosal model. Moreover, the involvement of dendritic cells subsets in the adaptive immune response stimulation was assessed. Our results indicate that the TSYKFESV epitope/TLR9 agonist approach, delivered systemically or mucosally, generated strong CD8(+) T-cell response when measured 10 days after immunization. Furthermore, the TSYKFESV-specific cell population remained functionally active 2 months post-immunization, and gave cross-protection in virally challenged mice, even though the numbers of detectable antigen-specific T cells decreased. PMID:26474845

  18. Rabbitpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Infection of Rabbits as a Model for Human Smallpox?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mathew M.; Rice, Amanda D.; Moyer, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    The threat of smallpox release and use as a bioweapon has encouraged the search for new vaccines and antiviral drugs, as well as development of new small-animal models in which their efficacy can be determined. Here, we reinvestigate a rabbit model in which the intradermal infection of rabbits with very low doses of either rabbitpox virus (RPV) or vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VV-WR) recapitulates many of the clinical features of human smallpox. Following intradermal inoculation with RPV, rabbits develop systemic disease characterized by extensive viremia, numerous secondary lesions on the skin and mucocutaneous tissues, severe respiratory disease, death by 9 days postinfection, and, importantly, natural aerosol transmission between animals. Contrary to previous reports, intradermal infection with VV-WR also resulted in a very similar lethal systemic disease in rabbits, again with natural aerosol transmission between animals. When sentinel and index animals were cohoused, transmission rates approached 100% with either virus, with sentinel animals exhibiting a similar, severe disease. Lower rates of transmission were observed when index and sentinel animals were housed in separate cages. Sentinel animals infected with RPV with one exception succumbed to the disease. However, the majority of VV-WR-infected sentinel animals, while becoming seriously ill, survived. Finally, we tested the efficacy of the drug 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir in the RPV/rabbit model and found that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days beginning 1 day before infection was able to completely protect rabbits from lethal disease. PMID:17686856

  19. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, “natural” oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  20. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain.

    PubMed

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, "natural" oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  1. Antigen Gene Transfer to Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Using Recombinant Adenovirus and Vaccinia Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bontkes, Hetty J.; Ruizendaal, Janneke J.; Schreurs, Marco W. J.; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Hooijberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses (RAd) and recombinant vaccinia viruses (RVV) expressing tumour-associated antigens (TAA) are used as anti-tumour vaccines. It is important that these vaccines deliver the TAA to dendritic cells (DC) for the induction of a strong immune response. Infection of myeloid DC (MDC) with RAd alone is relatively inefficient but CD40 retargeting significantly increases transduction efficiency and DC maturation. Infection with RVV is efficient without DC maturation. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) play a role in the innate immune response to viral infections through the secretion of IFN? but may also play a role in specific T-cell induction. The aim of our study was to investigate whether PDC are better targets for RAd and RVV based vaccines. RAd alone hardly infected PDC (2%) while CD40 retargeting did not improve transduction efficiency, but it did increase PDC maturation (25% CD83 positive cells). Accordingly, specific CTL activation by RAd infected PDC was limited (the number of IFN? producing CTL was reduced by 75% compared to stimulation with peptide loaded PDC). RVV infected PDC specifically stimulated CTL but PDC were not activated. These Results indicate that PDC are not ideal targets for RAd and RVV based vaccines. However, PDC induced specific CTL activation after pulsing with recombinant protein, indicating that PDC can also cross-present antigens released from surrounding infected cells. PMID:16037638

  2. Construction of Poxviruses as Cloning Vectors: Insertion of the Thymidine Kinase Gene from Herpes Simplex Virus into the DNA of Infectious Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicali, Dennis; Paoletti, Enzo

    1982-08-01

    We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus. The gene was inserted into the genome of a variant of vaccinia virus that had undergone spontaneous deletion as well as into the 120-megadalton genome of the large prototypic vaccinia variant. This was accomplished via in vivo recombination by contransfection of eukaryotic tissue culture cells with cloned BamHI-digested thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus containing flanking vaccinia virus DNA sequences and infectious rescuing vaccinia virus. Pure populations of the recombinant viruses were obtained by replica filter techniques or by growth of the recombinant virus in biochemically selective medium. The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, as an insert in vaccinia virus, is transcribed in vivo and in vitro, and the fidelity of in vivo transcription into a functional gene product was detected by the phosphorylation of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxycytidine.

  3. Vaccinia virus strain NYVAC induces substantially lower and qualitatively different human antibody responses compared with strains Lister and Dryvax

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Claire M.; Putz, Mike M.; Weber, Jonathan N.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    The antibody responses elicited by immunization of humans with vaccinia virus (VACV) strains Lister, Dryvax and NYVAC have been determined and compared. Neutralizing antibodies against intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV), and binding antibody titres (ELISA) against the EEV protein B5, the IMV proteins A27 and H3, and VACV-infected cell lysate were measured. Lister and Dryvax induced broadly similar antibody titres, consistent with the fact that these vaccines each protected against smallpox. In contrast, antibody titres induced by NYVAC were significantly lower than those induced by both Lister and Dryvax. Moreover, there were qualitative differences with NYVAC-immunized subjects failing to induce A27-specific antibodies. These observations suggest that although NYVAC is a safer VACV strain, it does not induce an optimal VACV-specific antibody response. However, NYVAC strains engineered to express antigens from other pathogens remain promising candidate vaccines for immunization against other diseases. PMID:19008384

  4. Primary Human Macrophages Serve as Vehicles for Vaccinia Virus Replication and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Daniel; Shepherd, Nicole; Lan, Jie; Hu, Ningjie; Amet, Tohti; Yang, Kai; Desai, Mona

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human monocytic and professional antigen-presenting cells have been reported only to exhibit abortive infections with vaccinia virus (VACV). We found that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), including granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-polarized M1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-polarized M2, but not human AB serum-derived cells, were permissive to VACV replication. The titers of infectious virions in both cell-free supernatants and cellular lysates of infected M1 and M2 markedly increased in a time-dependent manner. The majority of virions produced in permissive MDMs were extracellular enveloped virions (EEV), a secreted form of VACV associated with long-range virus dissemination, and were mainly found in the culture supernatant. Infected MDMs formed VACV factories, actin tails, virion-associated branching structures, and cell linkages, indicating that MDMs are able to initiate de novo synthesis of viral DNA and promote virus release. VACV replication was sensitive to inhibitors against the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways that can be activated by VACV infection and M-CSF stimulation. Classical activation of MDMs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus gamma interferon (IFN-γ) stimulation caused no effect on VACV replication, while alternative activation of MDMs by interleukin-10 (IL-10) or LPS-plus-IL-1β treatment significantly decreased VACV production. The IL-10-mediated suppression of VACV replication was largely due to Stat3 activation, as a Stat3 inhibitor restored virus production to levels observed without IL-10 stimulation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that primary human macrophages are permissive to VACV replication. After infection, these cells produce EEV for long-range dissemination and also form structures associated with virions which may contribute to cell-cell spread. IMPORTANCE Our results provide critical information to the burgeoning fields of cancer-killing (oncolytic) virus therapy with vaccinia virus (VACV). One type of macrophage (M2) is considered a common presence in tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Our results demonstrate a preference for VACV replication in M2 macrophages and could assist in designing treatments and engineering poxviruses with special considerations for their effect on M2 macrophage-containing tumors. Additionally, this work highlights the importance of macrophages in the field of vaccine development using poxviruses as vectors. The understanding of the dynamics of poxvirus-infected foci is central in understanding the effectiveness of the immune response to poxvirus-mediated vaccine vectors. Monocytic cells have been found to be an important part of VACV skin lesions in mice in controlling the infection as well as mediating virus transport out of infected foci. PMID:24696488

  5. Replication of modified vaccinia virus Ankara in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts requires expression of the interferon resistance gene E3L.

    PubMed

    Hornemann, Simone; Harlin, Olof; Staib, Caroline; Kisling, Sigrid; Erfle, Volker; Kaspers, Bernd; Hcker, Georg; Sutter, Gerd

    2003-08-01

    Highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) serves as a candidate vaccine to immunize against infectious diseases and cancer. MVA was randomly obtained by serial growth in cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), resulting in the loss of substantial genomic information including many genes regulating virus-host interactions. The vaccinia virus interferon (IFN) resistance gene E3L is among the few conserved open reading frames encoding viral immune defense proteins. To investigate the relevance of E3L in the MVA life cycle, we generated the deletion mutant MVA-DeltaE3L. Surprisingly, we found that MVA-DeltaE3L had lost the ability to grow in CEF, which is the first finding of a vaccinia virus host range phenotype in this otherwise highly permissive cell culture. Reinsertion of E3L led to the generation of revertant virus MVA-E3rev and rescued productive replication in CEF. Nonproductive infection of CEF with MVA-DeltaE3L allowed viral DNA replication to occur but resulted in an abrupt inhibition of viral protein synthesis at late times. Under these nonpermissive conditions, CEF underwent apoptosis starting as early as 6 h after infection, as shown by DNA fragmentation, Hoechst staining, and caspase activation. Moreover, we detected high levels of active chicken alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) in supernatants of MVA-DeltaE3L-infected CEF, while moderate IFN quantities were found after MVA or MVA-E3rev infection and no IFN activity was present upon infection with wild-type vaccinia viruses. Interestingly, pretreatment of CEF with similar amounts of recombinant chicken IFN-alpha inhibited growth of vaccinia viruses, including MVA. We conclude that efficient propagation of MVA in CEF, the tissue culture system used for production of MVA-based vaccines, essentially requires conserved E3L gene function as an inhibitor of apoptosis and/or IFN induction. PMID:12857909

  6. Vaccinia virus infection & temporal analysis of virus gene expression: part 1.

    PubMed

    Yen, Judy; Golan, Ron; Rubins, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The family Poxviridae consists of large double-stranded DNA containing viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (approximately 200 kb) vaccinia genome, three classes of genes are encoded: early, intermediate, and late. While all three classes are transcribed by virally-encoded RNA polymerases, each class serves a different function in the life cycle of the virus. Poxviruses utilize multiple strategies for modulation of the host cellular environment during infection. In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze transcript abundance from both virus and host cells. Here, we demonstrate time course infections of HeLa cells with Vaccinia virus and sampling RNA at several time points post-infection. Both host and viral total RNA is isolated and amplified for hybridization to microarrays for analysis of gene expression. PMID:19488021

  7. Vaccinia virus infection & temporal analysis of virus gene expression: Part 3.

    PubMed

    Yen, Judy; Golan, Ron; Rubins, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The family Poxviridae consists of large double-stranded DNA containing viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (approximately 200 kb) vaccinia genome, three classes of genes are encoded: early, intermediate, and late. While all three classes are transcribed by virally-encoded RNA polymerases, each class serves a different function in the life cycle of the virus. Poxviruses utilize multiple strategies for modulation of the host cellular environment during infection. In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze transcript abundance from both virus and host cells. Here, we demonstrate time course infections of HeLa cells with Vaccinia virus and sampling RNA at several time points post-infection. Both host and viral total RNA is isolated and amplified for hybridization to microarrays for analysis of gene expression. PMID:19365326

  8. Vaccinia virus infection & temporal analysis of virus gene expression: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Yen, Judy; Golan, Ron; Rubins, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The family Poxviridae consists of large double-stranded DNA containing viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (approximately 200 kb) vaccinia genome, three classes of genes are encoded: early, intermediate, and late. While all three classes are transcribed by virally-encoded RNA polymerases, each class serves a different function in the life cycle of the virus. Poxviruses utilize multiple strategies for modulation of the host cellular environment during infection. In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze transcript abundance from both virus and host cells. Here, we demonstrate time course infections of HeLa cells with Vaccinia virus and sampling RNA at several time points post-infection. Both host and viral total RNA is isolated and amplified for hybridization to microarrays for analysis of gene expression. PMID:19363464

  9. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  10. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  11. Immunogenicity and virulence of attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan encoding HIV-1 muti-epitope genes, p24 and cholera toxin B subunit in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Shouwen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Cunxia; Wang, Maopeng; Zhu, Yilong; Tan, Peng; Ren, Dayong; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Yin, Ronglan; Li, Chang; Jin, Ningyi

    2015-07-01

    No effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HIV-1 in humans is currently available. This study analyzes the immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus. A chimeric gene of HIV-1 multi-epitope genes containing CpG ODN and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was inserted into Chinese vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) mutant strain. The recombinant virus rddVTT(-CCMp24) was assessed for immunogenicity and safety in mice. Results showed that the protein CCMp24 was expressed stably in BHK-21 infected with rddVTT(-CCMp24). And the recombinant virus induced the production of HIV-1 p24 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IL-2 and IL-4. The recombinant vaccine induced ?-interferon secretion against HIV peptides, and elicited a certain levels of immunological memory. Results indicated that the recombinant virus had certain immunogenicity to HIV-1. Additionally, the virulence of the recombinant virus was been attenuated in vivo of mice compared with wild type VTT (wtVTT), and the introduction of CTB and HIV Mp24 did not alter the infectivity and virulence of defective vaccinia virus. PMID:25796990

  12. Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread.

    PubMed

    Cush, Stephanie S; Reynoso, Glennys V; Kamenyeva, Olena; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Hickman, Heather D

    2016-03-01

    Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec.) VV infection and found a large increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ex vivo analyses revealed that T cells in the skin were the primary IL-10-producing cells. To understand the distribution of IL-10-producing T cells in vivo, we performed multiphoton intravital microscopy (MPM) of VV-infected mice, assessing the location and dynamic behavior of IL-10 producing cells. Although virus-specific T cells were distributed throughout areas of the inflamed skin lacking overt virus-infection, IL-10+ cells closely associated with large keratinocytic foci of virus replication where they exhibited similar motility patterns to bulk antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, neutralizing secreted IL-10 in vivo with an anti-IL-10 antibody increased viral lesion size and viral replication. Additional analyses demonstrated that IL-10 antibody administration decreased recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which were important for reducing viral burden in the infected skin. Based upon these findings, we conclude that spatially concentrated IL-10 production limits cutaneous viral replication and dissemination, likely through modulation of the innate immune repertoire at the site of viral growth. PMID:26991092

  13. Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Cush, Stephanie S.; Reynoso, Glennys V.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Hickman, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec.) VV infection and found a large increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ex vivo analyses revealed that T cells in the skin were the primary IL-10-producing cells. To understand the distribution of IL-10-producing T cells in vivo, we performed multiphoton intravital microscopy (MPM) of VV-infected mice, assessing the location and dynamic behavior of IL-10 producing cells. Although virus-specific T cells were distributed throughout areas of the inflamed skin lacking overt virus-infection, IL-10+ cells closely associated with large keratinocytic foci of virus replication where they exhibited similar motility patterns to bulk antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, neutralizing secreted IL-10 in vivo with an anti-IL-10 antibody increased viral lesion size and viral replication. Additional analyses demonstrated that IL-10 antibody administration decreased recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which were important for reducing viral burden in the infected skin. Based upon these findings, we conclude that spatially concentrated IL-10 production limits cutaneous viral replication and dissemination, likely through modulation of the innate immune repertoire at the site of viral growth. PMID:26991092

  14. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  15. Generation and characterization of a large panel of murine monoclonal antibodies against vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Zhong, Youmin; Embry, Addie; Yan, Bo; Lu, Shan; Zhong, Guangming; Xiang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), the vaccine for smallpox, induces an antibody response that is largely responsible for conferring protection. Here, we studied the antibody response to VACV by generating and characterizing B cell hybridomas from a mouse immunized with VACV. Antibodies from 66 hybridomas were found to recognize 11 VACV antigens (D8, A14, WR148, D13, H3, A56, A33, C3, B5, A10 and F13), 10 of which were previously recognized as major antigens in smallpox vaccine by a microarray of VACV proteins produced with a prokaryotic expression system. VACV C3 protein, which was not detected as a target of antibody response by the proteome array, was recognized by two hybridomas, suggesting that selection of hybridomas based on immune recognition of infected cells has the advantage of detecting additional antibody response to native VACV antigens. In addition, these monoclonal antibodies are valuable reagents for studying poxvirus biology and protective mechanism of smallpox vaccine. PMID:21056889

  16. A comparison of the antigens present on the surface of virus released artificially from chick cells infected with vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus and its white pock mutant

    PubMed Central

    Baxby, Derrick

    1972-01-01

    Antisera prepared against vaccinia and cowpox viruses were absorbed with purified suspensions of vaccinia virus, red cowpox and white cowpox viruses. They were then tested for their ability to neutralize the viruses, and to precipitate the virus soluble antigens. The results showed that some virus specific antigens were not virus surface components and that some components were present on the surface of all three viruses. However, certain components were detected on the surface of vaccinia virus but not on the surface of cowpox virus, and vice versa. Some evidence for the existence of a vaccinia-specific surface component was also obtained. Comparisons between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization. ImagesFig. AFig. BFig. CFig. DFig. EFig. FFig. G PMID:4624399

  17. Measurement of antibody responses to Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Dryvax(®) using proteome microarrays and development of recombinant protein ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Gary; Chun, Sookhee; Felgner, Jiin; Tan, Xiaolin; Pablo, Jozelyn; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Molina, Douglas M; Felgner, Philip L; Liang, Xiaowu; Davies, D Huw

    2012-01-11

    Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that is being considered as a safer alternative to replicating vaccinia vaccine strains such as Dryvax(®) and ACAM2000. Its excellent safety profile and large genome also make it an attractive vector for the delivery of heterologous genes from other pathogens. MVA was attenuated by prolonged passage through chick embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. In human and most mammalian cells, production of infectious progeny is aborted in the late stage of infection. Despite this, MVA provides high-level gene expression and is immunogenic in humans and other animals. A key issue for vaccine developers is the ability to be able to monitor an immune response to MVA in both vaccinia naïve and previously vaccinated individuals. To this end we have used antibody profiling by proteome microarray to compare profiles before and after MVA and Dryvax vaccination to identify candidate serodiagnostic antigens. Six antigens with diagnostic utility, comprising three membrane and three non-membrane proteins from the intracellular mature virion, were purified and evaluated in ELISAs. The membrane protein WR113/D8L provided the best sensitivity and specificity of the six antigens tested for monitoring both MVA and Dryvax vaccination, whereas the A-type inclusion protein homolog, WR148, provided the best discrimination. The ratio of responses to membrane protein WR132/A13L and core protein WR070/I1L also provided good discrimination between primary and secondary responses to Dryvax, whereas membrane protein WR101/H3L and virion assembly protein WR118/D13L together provided the best sensitivity for detecting antibody in previously vaccinated individuals. These data will aid the development novel MVA-based vaccines. PMID:22100890

  18. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extreme response at the vaccination or inoculation site that results in a significant scar that is serious... vaccination or inoculation site that generally occurs with smallpox vaccinations or inoculations. Minor... of redness at the vaccination site that exceeds 7.5 cm in diameter with associated swelling,...

  19. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extreme response at the vaccination or inoculation site that results in a significant scar that is serious... vaccination or inoculation site that generally occurs with smallpox vaccinations or inoculations. Minor... of redness at the vaccination site that exceeds 7.5 cm in diameter with associated swelling,...

  20. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extreme response at the vaccination or inoculation site that results in a significant scar that is serious... vaccination or inoculation site that generally occurs with smallpox vaccinations or inoculations. Minor... of redness at the vaccination site that exceeds 7.5 cm in diameter with associated swelling,...

  1. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extreme response at the vaccination or inoculation site that results in a significant scar that is serious... vaccination or inoculation site that generally occurs with smallpox vaccinations or inoculations. Minor... of redness at the vaccination site that exceeds 7.5 cm in diameter with associated swelling,...

  2. Comparison on Virulence and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccines, Tian Tan and Guang9 Strains, Expressing the HIV-1 Envelope Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Wenbo; Liu, Qiang; Nie, Jianhui; Meng, Shufang; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background The vaccinia virus Guang9 strain (VG9), derived from the vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) has been found to be less virulent than VTT. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether VG9 could be a potential replicating virus vector, the TK genes in VG9 and VTT were replaced with the HIV-1 envelope gene via homologous recombination, resulting in the recombinant viruses, VG9-E and VTT-E. The biology, virulence, humoral and cellular immunological responses of VG9-E and VTT-E were evaluated. Our results indicated no obvious difference in range of host cells and diffusion between two recombinant viruses. Neurovirulence for VG9-E in weanling and suckling mice, and skin virulence in rabbits, were lower than that of VTT-E. The humoral immune responses, including binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses, induced by VG9-E were not significantly different from those for VTT-E whilst IFN-γ response which represented cellular immune response induced by VG9-E was significantly higher than that did by VTT-E. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicated that VG9-E was less virulent, yet induced higher cellular immune response than VTT-E. Therefore, it could be an ideal replicating vaccinia vector for HIV vaccine research and development. PMID:23139778

  3. Initial characterization of vaccinia virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread.

    PubMed

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H; Buller, R Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. PMID:24889230

  4. Doxycycline Inducible Melanogenic Vaccinia Virus as Theranostic Anti-Cancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Kirscher, Lorenz; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luis; Scadeng, Miriam; Zaremba, Angelika; Zhang, Qian; Kober, Christina; Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Stritzker, Jochen; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    We reported earlier the diagnostic potential of a melanogenic vaccinia virus based system in magnetic resonance (MRI) and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging (MSOT). Since melanin overproduction lead to attenuated virus replication, we constructed a novel recombinant vaccinia virus strain (rVACV), GLV-1h462, which expressed the key enzyme of melanogenesis (tyrosinase) under the control of an inducible promoter-system. In this study melanin production was detected after exogenous addition of doxycycline in two different tumor xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, it was confirmed that this novel vaccinia virus strain still facilitated signal enhancement as detected by MRI and optoacoustic tomography. At the same time we demonstrated an enhanced oncolytic potential compared to the constitutively melanin synthesizing rVACV system. PMID:26199644

  5. Virulence in Murine Model Shows the Existence of Two Distinct Populations of Brazilian Vaccinia virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Oliveira, Fernando Meireles; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2008-01-01

    Brazilian Vaccinia virus had been isolated from sentinel mice, rodents and recently from humans, cows and calves during outbreaks on dairy farms in several rural areas in Brazil, leading to high economic and social impact. Some phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the existence of two different populations of Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains circulating in nature, but little is known about their biological characteristics. Therefore, our goal was to study the virulence pattern of seven Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains. Infected BALB/c mice were monitored for morbidity, mortality and viral replication in organs as trachea, lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, brain and spleen. Based on the virulence potential, the Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains were grouped into two groups. One group contained GP1V, VBH, SAV and BAV which caused disease and death in infected mice and the second one included ARAV, GP2V and PSTV which did not cause any clinical signals or death in infected BALB/c mice. The subdivision of Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains into two groups is in agreement with previous genetic studies. Those data reinforce the existence of different populations circulating in Brazil regarding the genetic and virulence characteristics. PMID:18725979

  6. Induction of multifunctional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T cells capable of proliferation in healthy subjects by using a prime-boost regimen of DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored vaccines expressing HIV-1 Gag coupled to CD8+ T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Goonetilleke, Nilu; Moore, Stephen; Dally, Len; Winstone, Nicola; Cebere, Inese; Mahmoud, Abdul; Pinheiro, Susana; Gillespie, Geraldine; Brown, Denise; Loach, Vanessa; Roberts, Joanna; Guimaraes-Walker, Ana; Hayes, Peter; Loughran, Kelley; Smith, Carole; De Bont, Jan; Verlinde, Carl; Vooijs, Danii; Schmidt, Claudia; Boaz, Mark; Gilmour, Jill; Fast, Pat; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomas; McMichael, Andrew J

    2006-05-01

    A double-blind randomized phase I trial was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-negative subjects receiving vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 p24/p17 gag linked to a string of CD8(+) T-cell epitopes. The trial had two groups. One group received either two doses of MVA.HIVA (2x MVA.HIVA) (n=8) or two doses of placebo (2x placebo) (n=4). The second group received 2x pTHr.HIVA followed by one dose of MVA.HIVA (n=8) or 3x placebo (n=4). In the pTHr.HIVA-MVA.HIVA group, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses peaked 1 week after MVA.HIVA vaccination in both ex vivo gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT (group mean, 210 spot-forming cells/10(6) cells) and proliferation (group mean stimulation index, 37), with assays detecting positive responses in four out of eight and five out of eight subjects, respectively. No HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detected in either assay in the 2x MVA.HIVA group or subjects receiving placebo. Using a highly sensitive and reproducible cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay, positive responses mainly mediated by CD4(+) T cells were detected in eight out of eight vaccinees in the pTHr.HIVA-MVA.HIVA group and four out of eight vaccinees in the 2x MVA.HIVA group. Importantly, no false-positive responses were detected in the eight subjects receiving placebo. Of the 12 responders, 11 developed responses to previously identified immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, with 6 volunteers having responses to more than one epitope. Five out of 12 responders also developed CD8(+) T-cell responses to the epitope string. Induced T cells produced a variety of anti-viral cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta. These data demonstrate that prime-boost vaccination with recombinant DNA and MVA vectors can induce multifunctional HIV-1-specific T cells in the majority of vaccinees. PMID:16641265

  7. Induction of Multifunctional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Specific T Cells Capable of Proliferation in Healthy Subjects by Using a Prime-Boost Regimen of DNA- and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Vectored Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Gag Coupled to CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Goonetilleke, Nilu; Moore, Stephen; Dally, Len; Winstone, Nicola; Cebere, Inese; Mahmoud, Abdul; Pinheiro, Susana; Gillespie, Geraldine; Brown, Denise; Loach, Vanessa; Roberts, Joanna; Guimaraes-Walker, Ana; Hayes, Peter; Loughran, Kelley; Smith, Carole; De Bont, Jan; Verlinde, Carl; Vooijs, Danii; Schmidt, Claudia; Boaz, Mark; Gilmour, Jill; Fast, Pat; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomas; McMichael, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    A double-blind randomized phase I trial was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-negative subjects receiving vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 p24/p17 gag linked to a string of CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The trial had two groups. One group received either two doses of MVA.HIVA (2 MVA.HIVA) (n = 8) or two doses of placebo (2 placebo) (n = 4). The second group received 2 pTHr.HIVA followed by one dose of MVA.HIVA (n = 8) or 3 placebo (n = 4). In the pTHr.HIVA-MVA.HIVA group, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses peaked 1 week after MVA.HIVA vaccination in both ex vivo gamma interferon (IFN-?) ELISPOT (group mean, 210 spot-forming cells/106 cells) and proliferation (group mean stimulation index, 37), with assays detecting positive responses in four out of eight and five out of eight subjects, respectively. No HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detected in either assay in the 2 MVA.HIVA group or subjects receiving placebo. Using a highly sensitive and reproducible cultured IFN-? ELISPOT assay, positive responses mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells were detected in eight out of eight vaccinees in the pTHr.HIVA-MVA.HIVA group and four out of eight vaccinees in the 2 MVA.HIVA group. Importantly, no false-positive responses were detected in the eight subjects receiving placebo. Of the 12 responders, 11 developed responses to previously identified immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitopes, with 6 volunteers having responses to more than one epitope. Five out of 12 responders also developed CD8+ T-cell responses to the epitope string. Induced T cells produced a variety of anti-viral cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein 1?. These data demonstrate that prime-boost vaccination with recombinant DNA and MVA vectors can induce multifunctional HIV-1-specific T cells in the majority of vaccinees. PMID:16641265

  8. Oncolytic Immunotherapy Using Recombinant Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68 Efficiently Kills Sorafenib-Resistant Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Justin W.; Heffner, Jacqueline; Mojica, Kelly; Johnsen, Clark; Belin, Laurence J.; Love, Damon; Pugalenthi, Amudhan; Klein, Elizabeth; Chen, Nanhai G.; Yu, Yong A.; Szalay, Aladar A.; Fong, Yuman

    2014-01-01

    Background Sorafenib is the standard systemic therapy for un-resectable or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with minimal increase in survival. Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel therapies for advanced or recurrent HCC. One emerging field of cancer treatment involves oncolytic viruses that specifically infect, replicate within, and kill cancer cells. In this study we look at the ability of GLV-1h68, a recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the vaccine strain that was used to eradicate smallpox, to kill sorafenib-resistant HCC. Methods Four sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines were generated by repeated passage in the presence of sorafenib. Median inhibitory concentration was determined for all cell lines. The infectivity, viral replication and cytotoxicity of GLV-1h68 were assayed for both parental and sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. Results Infectivity increased in a time and concentration dependent manner in all cell lines. All cell lines supported efficient replication of virus. No significant difference between the rates of cell death between the parental and sorafenib-resistant cell lines was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 efficiently kills both parental and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines. This study indicates that patients who have failed treatment with sorafenib remain viable candidates for oncolytic therapy. PMID:24957667

  9. Systemically administered DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing four vaccinia virus genes although immunogenic do not protect mice against the highly pathogenic IHD-J vaccinia strain.

    PubMed

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Pacchioni, Sole Maria; Zanotto, Carlo; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Illiano, Elena; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Broggi, Achille; Radaelli, Antonia

    2013-12-26

    The first-generation smallpox vaccine was based on live vaccinia virus (VV) and it successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. Therefore, it was not administered any more after 1980, as smallpox no longer existed as a natural infection. However, emerging threats by terrorist organisations has prompted new programmes for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains, which have been shown to cause rare but serious adverse events in immunocompromised patients. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that might also be used as bioweapons, and the increasing number of unvaccinated young people and AIDS-affected immunocompromised subjects, a safer and more effective smallpox vaccine is still required. New avipoxvirus-based vectors should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from newly emerging zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases and from the threat of deliberate release of variola or monkeypox virus in a bioterrorist attack. In this study, DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing the L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R genes were constructed and evaluated in a pre-clinical trial in mouse, following six prime/boost immunisation regimens, to compare their immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a challenge with the lethal VV IHD-J strain. Although higher numbers of VV-specific IFN?-producing T lymphocytes were observed in the protected mice, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and the presence of neutralising antibodies did not always correlate with protection. In spite of previous successful results in mice, rabbits and monkeys, where SIV/HIV transgenes were expressed by the fowlpox vector, the immune response elicited by these recombinants was low, and most of the mice were not protected. PMID:24050999

  10. Biochemical and Biophysical Properties of a Putative Hub Protein Expressed by Vaccinia Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Nicole E.; Bainbridge, Travis W.; Condit, Richard C.; Bubb, Michael R.; Judd, Reuben E.; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; McKenna, Robert; D'Costa, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    H5 is a constitutively expressed, phosphorylated vaccinia virus protein that has been implicated in viral DNA replication, post-replicative gene expression, and virus assembly. For the purpose of understanding the role of H5 in vaccinia biology, we have characterized its biochemical and biophysical properties. Previously, we have demonstrated that H5 is associated with an endoribonucleolytic activity. In this study, we have shown that this cleavage results in a 3?-OH end suitable for polyadenylation of the nascent transcript, corroborating a role for H5 in vaccinia transcription termination. Furthermore, we have shown that H5 is intrinsically disordered, with an elongated rod-shaped structure that preferentially binds double-stranded nucleic acids in a sequence nonspecific manner. The dynamic phosphorylation status of H5 influences this structure and has implications for the role of H5 in multiple processes during virus replication. PMID:23476017

  11. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard C; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-01

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a "pre-nucleocapsid", and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. PMID:25863879

  12. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches. PMID:24373316

  13. CD4+ T Cell Help Is Dispensable for Protective CD8+ T Cell Memory against Mousepox Virus following Vaccinia Virus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Remakus, Sanda; Roscoe, Felicia; Ma, Xueying

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been shown in various infection models that CD4+ T cell help (TH) is necessary for the conditioning, maintenance, and/or recall responses of memory CD8+ T cells (CD8M). Yet, in the case of vaccinia virus (VACV), which constitutes the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox and is a candidate vector for other infectious diseases, the issue is controversial because different groups have shown either TH dependence or independence of CD8M conditioning, maintenance, and/or recall response. In agreement with some of these groups, we show that TH plays a role in, but is not essential for, the maintenance, proliferation, and effector differentiation of polyclonal memory CD8+ T cells after infection with wild-type VACV strain Western Reserve. More important, we show that unhelped and helped anti-VACV memory CD8+ T cells are similarly efficient at protecting susceptible mice from lethal mousepox, the mouse equivalent of human smallpox. Thus, TH is not essential for the conditioning and maintenance of memory CD8+ T cells capable of mounting a recall response strong enough to protect from a lethal natural pathogen. Our results may partly explain why the VACV vaccine is so effective. IMPORTANCE We used vaccinia virus (VACV)a gold standard vaccineas the immunogen and ectromelia virus (ECTV) as the pathogen to demonstrate that the conditioning and maintenance of anti-VACV memory CD8+ T cells and their ability to protect against an orthopoxvirus (OPV) infection in its natural host can develop in the absence of CD4+ T cell help. Our results provide important insight to our basic knowledge of the immune system. Further, because VACV is used as a vaccine in humans, our results may help us understand how this vaccine induces protective immunity in this species. In addition, this work may partly explain why VACV is so effective as a vaccine. PMID:25355885

  14. Vaccine strategies against Babesia bovis based on prime-boost immunizations in mice with modified vaccinia Ankara vector and recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo Ortiz, Jos Manuel; Del Mdico Zajac, Mara Paula; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Molinari, Mara Paula; Gravisaco, Mara Jos; Calamante, Gabriela; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing a chimeric multi-antigen was obtained and evaluated as a candidate vaccine in homologous and heterologous prime-boost immunizations with a recombinant protein cocktail. The chimeric multi-antigen comprises immunodominant B and T cell regions of three Babesia bovis proteins. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated in mice to compare the immunogenicity induced by different immunization schemes. The best vaccination scheme was achieved with a prime of protein cocktail and a boost with the recombinant virus. This scheme induced high level of specific IgG antibodies and secreted IFN and a high degree of activation of IFN?(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) specific T cells. This is the first report in which a novel vaccine candidate was constructed based on a rationally designed multi-antigen and evaluated in a prime-boost regime, optimizing the immune response necessary for protection against bovine babesiosis. PMID:24968152

  15. Identification of Non-Nucleoside DNA Synthesis Inhibitors of Vaccinia Virus by High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Shudofsky, Abigail M. Druck; Ricciardi, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is a potential bio-weapon. The development of new antiviral compounds for smallpox prophylaxis and treatment is critical, especially since the virus can acquire resistance to the drugs that are currently available. We have identified novel small chemical inhibitors that target DNA synthesis of vaccinia, the prototypical poxvirus. Robotic high-throughput screening of 49,663 compounds and follow-up studies identified very potent inhibitors of vaccinia DNA synthesis, with IC50 values as low as 0.5 ?M. Cell-based assays showed that 16 inhibitors effectively blocked vaccinia infection with minimal cytotoxicity. Three inhibitors had selectivity indexes that approximate that of cidofovir. These new non-nucleoside inhibitors are expected to interfere with components of the vaccinia DNA synthesis apparatus that are distinct from cidofovir. Based on the high sequence similarity between the proteins of vaccinia and variola viruses, these new inhibitors are anticipated to be equally effective against smallpox. PMID:18808105

  16. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  17. Oncolytic vaccinia virus synergizes with irinotecan in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Acuna, Sergio A; Angarita, Fernando A; Sellers, Clara; Zerhouni, Siham; Tang, Nan; McCart, J Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is complex clinical challenge for which there are limited treatment options. Chemotherapy with or without surgery provides moderate improvements in overall survival and quality of life; nevertheless the 5-year survival remains below 30%. Oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) shows strong anti-tumour activity in models of CRC, however transient delays in disease progression are insufficient to lead to long-term survival. Here we examined the efficacy of VV with oxaliplatin or SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan) in CRC cell lines in vitro and VV with irinotecan in an orthotopic model of metastatic CRC. Synergistic improvements in in vitro cell killing were observed in multiple cell lines. Combination therapy was well tolerated in tumour-bearing mice and the median survival was significantly increased relative to monotherapy despite a drug-dependent decrease in the mean tumour titer. Increased apoptosis following in vitro and in vivo combination therapy was observed. In vitro cell cycle analysis showed increases in S-phase cells following infection occurred in both infected and uninfected cell populations. This corresponded to a 4-fold greater increase in apoptosis in the uninfected compared to infected cells following combination therapy. Combination treatment strategies are among the best options for patients with advanced cancers. VV is currently under clinical investigation in patients with CRC and the data presented here suggest that its combination with irinotecan may provide benefit to a subset of CRC patients. Further, investigation of this combination is necessary to determine the tumour characteristics responsible for mediating synergy. PMID:26004084

  18. Rift Valley fever virus M segment: use of recombinant vaccinia viruses to study Phlebovirus gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kakach, L T; Wasmoen, T L; Collett, M S

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant vaccinia viruses were constructed and used in conjunction with site-specific antisera to study the coding capacity and detailed expression strategy of the M segment of the Phlebovirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). The M segment could be completely and faithfully expressed in recombinant RVFV-vaccinia virus-infected cells, the gene products apparently being correctly processed and modified in the absence of the RVFV L and S genomic segments. The proteins encoded by the RVFV M segment included, in addition to the viral glycoproteins G2 and G1, two previously uncharacterized polypeptides of 78 and 14 kilodaltons (kDa). By manipulation of RVFV sequences present in the recombinant vaccinia viruses and use of specific antibody reagents, it was found that the 78-kDa protein initiated at the first initiation codon of the open reading frame and encompassed the entire preglycoprotein and glycoprotein G2 coding sequences. The 14-kDa protein appeared to begin from the second in-phase ATG and was composed of only the preglycoprotein sequences. Both viral glycoproteins G2 and G1 could be synthesized and correctly processed in the absence of the 78- and 14-kDa proteins, as well as a large portion of the preglycoprotein sequences. However, the hydrophobic amino acid sequence immediately preceding the mature glycoprotein coding sequences was required for authentic glycoprotein production. The M-segment expression strategy involving aspects of translational initiation and protein processing are discussed. The functional roles of the 78- and 14-kDa proteins remain unclear. Images PMID:3339714

  19. Unpolarized Release of Vaccinia Virus and HIV Antigen by Colchicine Treatment Enhances Intranasal HIV Antigen Expression and Mucosal Humoral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jingyi; Bao, Rong; Chen, Yaoqing; Zhou, Dihan; He, Benxia; Zhong, Maohua; Li, Yaoming; Liu, Fang; Li, Qiaoli; Yang, Yi; Han, Chen; Sun, Ying; Cao, Yuan; Yan, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol) in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers) and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:21935396

  20. Rapid inactivation of vaccinia virus in suspension and dried on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, A; Garin, D; Crance, J M

    2004-05-01

    A bioterrorist attack with smallpox virus would be disastrous with a 30% disease fatality rate. Such an outbreak would require biomedical laboratories for diagnosis and analyses and extensive use of clinical care facilities for patient quarantine. Safe decontamination procedures will have to be in place in order to limit the spread of the disease. In order to fulfil this need, Sanytex, a new non-corrosive commercial solution containing quaternary ammonium, aldehydes, alcohol and detergent, was tested with a view to using it in decontamination procedures. Vaccinia virus was used in this investigation as a model for smallpox virus. We determined exposure time and the concentration of Sanytex required to inactivate the virus in suspension and dried on surfaces in the presence of protein (up to 70 mg/mL). After 3 min incubation, Sanytex at a concentration of 3% led to a complete inactivation (virus titre reduction >10(4)-fold of vaccinia virus in suspension containing protein up to 30 mg/mL. A virus suspension containing 70 mg protein/mL, simulating biological fluids, was decontaminated with 10% Sanytex after 3 min. After 10 min, Sanytex at a concentration of 30%, applied on to a dried vaccinia virus contaminated surface in the presence of protein (10 mg/mL before desiccation), led to complete decontamination of the surface. Thirty minutes exposure with 30% Sanytex was necessary for a virus titre reduction of >10(4)-fold on a surface contaminated with a dried suspension of vaccinia virus in the presence of protein at 70 mg/mL. Sanytex is not corrosive, not toxic to environment and stable for up to three months even diluted. Its virucidal effect was preserved when used under pressure in a fire-hose nozzle. These results support the use of Sanytex for decontamination of biological fluids and surfaces contaminated by the smallpox virus. PMID:15142719

  1. The role of vaccinia termination factor and cis-acting elements in vaccinia virus early gene transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jessica; Gollnick, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus early gene transcription termination requires the virion form of the viral RNA polymerase (vRNAP), Nucleoside Triphosphate Phosphohydrolase I (NPHI), ATP, the vaccinia termination factor (VTF), and a U5NU termination signal in the nascent transcript. VTF, also the viral mRNA capping enzyme, binds U5NU, and NPHI hydrolyzes ATP to release the transcript. NPHI can release transcripts independent of VTF and U5NU if vRNAP is not actively elongating. However, VTF and U5NU are required for transcript release from an elongating vRNAP, suggesting that the function of VTF and U5NU may be to stall the polymerase. Here we demonstrate that VTF inhibits transcription elongation by enhancing vRNAP pausing. Hence VTF provides the connection between the termination signal in the RNA transcript and viral RNA polymerase to initiate transcription termination. We also provide evidence that a second cis-acting element downstream of U5NU influences the location and efficiency of early gene transcription termination. PMID:26280468

  2. Coated microneedle arrays for transcutaneous delivery of live virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Anto; McGrath, Marie G; Carey, John B; Draper, Simon J; Hill, Adrian V S; O'Mahony, Conor; Crean, Abina M; Moore, Anne C

    2012-04-10

    Vaccines are sensitive biologics that require continuous refrigerated storage to maintain their viability. The vast majority of vaccines are also administered using needles and syringes. The need for cold chain storage and the significant logistics surrounding needle-and-syringe vaccination is constraining the success of immunization programs. Recombinant live viral vectors are a promising platform for the development of vaccines against a number of infectious diseases, however these viruses must retain infectivity to be effective. Microneedles offer an effective and painless method for delivery of vaccines directly into skin that in the future could provide solutions to current vaccination issues. Here we investigated methods of coating live recombinant adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors onto solid microneedle arrays. An effective spray-coating method, using conventional pharmaceutical processes, was developed, in tandem with suitable sugar-based formulations, which produces arrays with a unique coating of viable virus in a dry form around the shaft of each microneedle on the array. Administration of live virus-coated microneedle arrays successfully resulted in virus delivery, transcutaneous infection and induced an antibody or CD8(+) T cell response in mice that was comparable to that obtained by needle-and-syringe intradermal immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful vaccination with recombinant live viral vectored vaccines coated on microneedle delivery devices. PMID:22245683

  3. Intranodal Immunization With a Vaccinia Virus Encoding Multiple Antigenic Epitopes and Costimulatory Molecules in Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Adamina, Michel; Rosenthal, Rachel; Weber, Walter P; Frey, Daniel M; Viehl, Carsten T; Bolli, Martin; Huegli, Rolf W; Jacob, Augustinus L; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Marti, Walter; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Zajac, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and adhesion or costimulatory molecules may represent important immunogenic reagents for cancer immunotherapy. Recently, intranodal (IN) antigen administration was suggested to be more immunogenic than intradermal (ID) vaccination. However, IN rVV administration has not been attempted so far. We used a rVV encoding gp100280288, Melan-A/MART-12735 and tyrosinase19 HLA-A0201 restricted epitopes and CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules in stage III and IV melanoma patients in a phase 1/2 trial. Of 15 patients initiating treatment, including two cycles of IN immunization, each comprising one rVV administration and three recall injections of the corresponding peptides, accompanied by subcutaneous granulocyte macrophagecolony stimulating factor supplementation, five withdrew due to progressing disease. Of 10 remaining patients seven showed evidence of induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directed against at least one epitope under investigation, as detectable by limiting dilution analysis (LDA) of specific precursors and multimer staining. Adverse reactions were mild (National Cancer Institute (NCI) grade 12) and mainly represented by fever, skin rashes, and pruritus. These data indicate that IN administration of rVV encoding melanoma-associated epitopes and costimulatory molecules is safe and immunogenic. PMID:19935776

  4. Delivery of Echinococcus granulosus antigen EG95 to mice and sheep using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Dutton, S; Fleming, S B; Ueda, N; Heath, D D; Hibma, M H; Mercer, A A

    2012-06-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease and affects sheep, cattle, dogs and humans worldwide. It has a two-stage life cycle existing as worms in the gut of infected dogs (definitive host) and as cysts in herbivores and humans (intermediate host). The disease is debilitating and can be life threatening where the cysts interfere with organ function. Interruption of the hydatid life cycle in the intermediate host by vaccination may be a way to control the disease, and a protective oncosphere antigen EG95 has been shown to protect animals against challenge with E.granulosus eggs. We explored the use of recombinant vaccinia virus as a delivery vehicle for EG95. Mice and sheep were immunized with the recombinant vector, and the result monitored at the circulating antibody level. In addition, sera from immunized mice were assayed for the ability to kill E.granulosus oncospheres in vitro. Mice immunized once intranasally developed effective oncosphere-killing antibody by day 42 post-infection. Antibody responses and oncosphere killing were correlated and were significantly enhanced by boosting mice with either EG95 protein or recombinant vector. Sheep antibody responses to the recombinant vector or to EG95 protein mirrored those in mice. PMID:22404504

  5. Vaccinia virus infection induces dendritic cell maturation but inhibits antigen presentation by MHC class II

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yongxue; Li, Ping; Singh, Pratibha; Thiele, Allison T.; Wilkes, David S.; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Luker, Gary D.; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Blum, Janice S.; Chang, Cheong-Hee

    2007-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) infection is known to inhibit dendritic cells (DC) functions in vitro. Paradoxically, VV is also highly immunogenic and thus has been used as a vaccine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an in vivo VV infection on DC function by focusing on early innate immunity. Our data indicated that DC are activated upon in vivo VV infection of mice. Splenic DC from VV-infected mice expressed elevated levels of MHC class I and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface and exhibited the enhanced potential to produce cytokines upon LPS stimulation. DC from VV-infected mice also expressed a high level of interferon-?. However, a VV infection resulted in the down-regulation of MHC class II expression and the impairment of antigen presentation to CD4 T cells by DC. Thus, during the early stage of a VV infection, although DC are impaired in some of the critical antigen presentation functions, they can promote innate immune defenses against viral infection. PMID:17678637

  6. Enhancement of CD8+ T-cell memory by removal of a vaccinia virus nuclear factor-?B inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J; de Motes, Carlos Maluquer; Sumner, Rebecca P; Harman, Laura E R; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing T-cell responses are important for vaccine development but are incompletely understood. Here, vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is shown to impair the development of both effector and memory CD8+ T cells and this correlates with its inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Infection with VACVs that either have the N1L gene deleted (v?N1) or contain a I6E mutation (vN1.I6E) that abrogates its inhibition of NF-?B resulted in increased central and memory CD8+ T-cell populations, increased CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity and lower virus titres after challenge. Furthermore, CD8+ memory T-cell function was increased following infection with vN1.I6E, with more interferon-? production and greater protection against VACV infection following passive transfer to naive mice, compared with CD8+ T cells from mice infected with wild-type virus (vN1.WT). This demonstrates the importance of NF-?B activation within infected cells for long-term CD8+ T-cell memory and vaccine efficacy. Further, it provides a rationale for deleting N1 from VACV vectors to enhance CD8+ T-cell immunogenicity, while simultaneously reducing virulence to improve vaccine safety. PMID:25382035

  7. Eczema vaccinatum resulting from the transmission of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccinee: an investigation of potential fomites in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Edith; Miramontes, Roque; Openshaw, John; Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Marcinak, John; Panares, Rodrigo; Staggs, Wayne; Allen, Donna; Weber, Stephen G; Vora, Surabhi; Gerber, Susan I; Hughes, Christine M; Regnery, Russell; Collins, Limone; Diaz, Pamela S; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger

    2009-01-14

    On March 3, 2007, a 2-year-old boy was hospitalized with eczema vaccinatum. His two siblings, one with eczema, were subsequently removed from the home. Swabs of household items obtained on March 13th were analyzed for orthopoxvirus DNA signatures with real-time PCR. Virus culture was attempted on positive specimens. Eight of 25 household samples were positive by PCR for orthopoxvirus; of these, three yielded viable vaccinia virus in culture. Both siblings were found to have serologic evidence of orthopoxvirus exposure. These findings have implications for smallpox preparedness, especially in situations where some household members are not candidates for vaccination. PMID:19027813

  8. Structure of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase in complex with dTTP: insights for drug design

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Kamel; Solaroli, Nicola; Karlsson, Anna; Balzarini, Jan; Stammers, David K

    2006-01-01

    Background Development of countermeasures to bioterrorist threats such as those posed by the smallpox virus (variola), include vaccination and drug development. Selective activation of nucleoside analogues by virus-encoded thymidine (dThd) kinases (TK) represents one of the most successful strategies for antiviral chemotherapy as demonstrated for anti-herpes drugs. Vaccinia virus TK is a close orthologue of variola TK but also shares a relatively high sequence identity to human type 2 TK (hTK), thus achieving drug selectivity relative to the host enzyme is challenging. Results In order to identify any differences compared to hTK that may be exploitable in drug design, we have determined the crystal structure of VVTK, in complex with thymidine 5'-triphosphate (dTTP). Although most of the active site residues are conserved between hTK and VVTK, we observe a difference in conformation of residues Asp-43 and Arg-45. The equivalent residues in hTK hydrogen bond to dTTP, whereas in subunit D of VVTK, Asp-43 and Arg-45 adopt a different conformation preventing interaction with this nucleotide. Asp-43 and Arg-45 are present in a flexible loop, which is disordered in subunits A, B and C. The observed difference in conformation and flexibility may also explain the ability of VVTK to phosphorylate (South)-methanocarbathymine whereas, in contrast, no substrate activity with hTK is reported for this compound. Conclusion The difference in conformation for Asp-43 and Arg-45 could thus be used in drug design to generate VVTK/Variola TK-selective nucleoside analogue substrates and/or inhibitors that have lower affinity for hTK. PMID:17062140

  9. Disparity between levels of in vitro neutralization of vaccinia virus by antibody to the A27 protein and protection of mice against intranasal challenge.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Americo, Jeffrey L; Earl, Patricia L; Resch, Wolfgang; Aldaz-Carroll, Lydia; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Moss, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    Immunization with recombinant proteins may provide a safer alternative to live vaccinia virus for prophylaxis of poxvirus infections. Although antibody protects against vaccinia virus infection, the mechanism is not understood and the selection of immunogens is daunting as there are dozens of surface proteins and two infectious forms known as the mature virion (MV) and the enveloped virion (EV). Our previous studies showed that mice immunized with soluble forms of EV membrane proteins A33 and B5 and MV membrane protein L1 or passively immunized with antibodies to these proteins survived an intranasal challenge with vaccinia virus. The present study compared MV protein A27, which has a role in virus attachment to glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface, to L1 with respect to immunogenicity and protection. Although mice developed similar levels of neutralizing antibody after immunizations with A27 or L1, A27-immunized mice exhibited more severe disease upon an intranasal challenge with vaccinia virus. In addition, mice immunized with A27 and A33 were not as well protected as mice receiving L1 and A33. Polyclonal rabbit anti-A27 and anti-L1 IgG had equivalent MV-neutralizing activities when measured by the prevention of infection of human or mouse cells or cells deficient in glycosaminoglycans or by adding antibody prior to or after virus adsorption. Nevertheless, the passive administration of antibody to A27 was poorly protective compared to the antibody to L1. These studies raise questions regarding the basis for antibody protection against poxvirus disease and highlight the importance of animal models for the early evaluation of vaccine candidates. PMID:18524827

  10. An Overview of the Vaccinia Virus Infectome: a Survey of the Proteins of the Poxvirus-Infected Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wayne; Ngo, Tuan

    2012-01-01

    We have quantitatively profiled the proteins of vaccinia virus-infected HEK293T cells early and late during vaccinia virus infection. Proteins corresponding to 4,326 accessions were identified, the products of 3,798 genes. One hundred thirty-six of the proteins were vaccinia virus-encoded (∼64% of the known vaccinia virus proteome). The remaining accessions were from the host cell. A total of 3,403 of the 4,326 accessions could be confidently quantitated at the precursor peptide level. Although vaccinia virus gene products spanned the entire abundance dynamic range of the cellular proteome, nearly all of the proteome dynamics observed as a result of infection were manifest in the virus gene products with very little plasticity in the host cell proteome. The vaccinia virus gene products could be grouped into four kinetic classes (i.e., four combinations of pre- and postreplicative expression). These protein kinetic classes reflected, almost entirely, the corresponding gene classes within the recently characterized vaccinia virus transcriptome map. The few cellular gene products that showed notable changes in abundance upon vaccinia virus infection were concentrated largely in just a few functional groups. After all of the quantitated cellular gene products were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO)-specific groups, quantitation values for a number of these GO-specific groups were significantly skewed toward over- or underabundance with respect to the global distribution of quantitation values. Quantitative analysis of host cell functions reflected several known facets of virus infection, along with some novel observations. PMID:22090131

  11. Electrical capture and lysis of vaccinia virus particles using silicon nano-scale probe array.

    PubMed

    Park, Kidong; Akin, Demir; Bashir, Rashid

    2007-12-01

    A probe array with nano-scale tips, integrated into a micro-fluidic channel was developed for the capture and lysing of small number of vaccinia virus particles using dielectrophoresis. The nano-scale probe array was fabricated in Silicon on Insulator (SOI) wafers, and sharpened with repeated oxidation steps. The gap between each probe ranged from 100 nm to 1.5 microm depending on fabrication parameters. The probe array was used to capture vaccinia virus using positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) from a flow within the microfluidic channel, and then the same probe array was used to apply high electric field to lyse the virus particles. It was shown that under electric field strengths of about 10(7)V/m, the permeability of ethidium bromide into the vaccinia virus particles was increased. Upon SEM analysis, the particles were found to be damaged and exhibited tubules networks, indicating disintegration of the virus outer layer. In addition, elongated strands of DNA were clearly observed on the chip surface after the application of the high electric field, demonstrating the possibility of electrical lysis of virus particles. PMID:17610069

  12. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein expressed by attenuated vaccinia virus protectively immunizes mice

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Himani; Roberts, Anjeanette; Vogel, Leatrice; Bukreyev, Alexander; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Subbarao, Kanta; Moss, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The spike protein (S), a membrane component of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is anticipated to be an important component of candidate vaccines. We constructed recombinant forms of the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) containing the gene encoding full-length SARS-CoV S with and without a C-terminal epitope tag called MVA/S-HA and MVA/S, respectively. Cells infected with MVA/Sor MVA/S-HA synthesized a 200-kDa protein, which was recognized by antibody raised against a synthetic peptide of SARS-CoV S or the epitope tag in Western blot analyses. Further studies indicated that S was N-glycosylated and migrated in SDS polyacrylamide gels with an apparent mass of ?160 kDa after treatment with peptide N-glycosidase F. The acquisition of resistance to endoglycosidase H indicated trafficking of S to the medial Golgi compartment, and confocal microscopy showed that S was transported to the cell surface. Intranasal or intramuscular inoculations of BALB/c mice with MVA/S produced serum antibodies that recognized the SARS S in ELISA and neutralized SARS-CoV in vitro. Moreover, MVA/S administered by either route elicited protective immunity, as shown by reduced titers of SARS-CoV in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of mice after challenge. Passive transfer of serum from mice immunized with MVA/S to nave mice also reduced the replication of SARS-CoV in the respiratory tract after challenge, demonstrating a role for antibody to S in protection. The attenuated nature of MVA and the ability of MVA/S to induce neutralizing antibody that protects mice support further development of this candidate vaccine. PMID:15096611

  13. Vaccinia virus encodes a thymidylate kinase gene: sequence and transcriptional mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G L; de Carlos, A; Chan, Y S

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of a vaccinia virus gene from the SalI F fragment are shown. The predicted polypeptide shares 42% amino acid identity over a 200 amino acid region with Saccharomyces cerevisiae thymidylate kinase (TmpK) and has low homology with herpes simplex virus deoxypyrimidine kinase. Northern blotting and S1 nuclease protection showed that the TmpK gene is transcribed early during infection and mapped the mRNA 5' end to immediately upstream of the second inframe ATG codon of the open reading frame (ORF). The encoded polypeptide is predicted to be 204 amino acids long (23.2 kD) and is almost colinear with yeast TmpK. Vaccinia virus possesses genes for TK and TmpK, separated by 57 kilobases of DNA, which are co-ordinately expressed and the encoded enzymes perform sequential steps in the same biochemical pathway. Images PMID:2552411

  14. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. Methods In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. Results We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Conclusions Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection. PMID:22011439

  15. Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, J; Singh, O; Chakrabarti, S; Talwar, G P

    1995-01-01

    We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response. PMID:7591154

  16. Induction of Potent Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses by Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Vectors with Deleted Serpin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, Fatema A.; Verardi, Paulo H.; Jones, Leslie A.; Chan, Kenneth S.; Peng, Yue; Yilma, Tilahun D.

    2004-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has been effectively utilized as a live vaccine against smallpox as well as a vector for vaccine development and immunotherapy. Increasingly there is a need for a new generation of highly attenuated and efficacious VV vaccines, especially in light of the AIDS pandemic and the threat of global bioterrorism. We therefore developed recombinant VV (rVV) vaccines that are significantly attenuated and yet elicit potent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. B13R (SPI-2) and B22R (SPI-1) are two VV immunomodulating genes with sequence homology to serine protease inhibitors (serpins) that possess antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. We constructed and characterized rVVs that have the B13R or B22R gene insertionally inactivated (v?B13R and v?B22R) and coexpress the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (v50?B13R and v50?B22R). Virulence studies with immunocompromised BALB/cBy nude mice indicated that B13R or B22R gene deletion decreases viral replication and significantly extends time of survival. Viral pathogenesis studies in immunocompetent CB6F1 mice further demonstrated that B13R or B22R gene inactivation diminishes VV virulence, as measured by decreased levels of weight loss and limited viral spread. Finally, rVVs with B13R and B22R deleted elicited potent humoral, T-helper, and cytotoxic T-cell immune responses, revealing that the observed attenuation did not reduce immunogenicity. Therefore, inactivation of immunomodulating genes such as B13R or B22R represents a general method for enhancing the safety of rVV vaccines while maintaining a high level of immunogenicity. Such rVVs could serve as effective vectors for vaccine development and immunotherapy. PMID:14990697

  17. Prospective Surveillance for Cardiac Adverse Events in Healthy Adults Receiving Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Elizaga, Marnie L.; Vasan, Sandhya; Marovich, Mary A.; Sato, Alicia H.; Lawrence, Dale N.; Chaitman, Bernard R.; Frey, Sharon E.; Keefer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. Methods Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. ‘Routine cardiac investigations’ (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls), and ‘Symptom-driven cardiac investigations’ are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. Results Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12%) had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. Conclusions Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337 PMID:23349878

  18. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, Georg W. . E-mail: falknef@baxter.com

    2005-07-05

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also be used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes.

  19. Apoptin enhances the oncolytic properties of vaccinia virus and modifies mechanisms of tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Kochneva, Galina; Zonov, Evgeniy; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Sibolobova, Galina; Popov, Evgeniy; Taranov, Oleg; Netesov, Sergei; Chumakov, Peter; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant vaccinia virus VVdGF-ApoS24/2 expressing apoptin selectively kills human cancer cells in vitro [Kochneva et al., 2013]. We compared the oncolytic activity of this recombinant with that of the parental strain L-IVP using a model of human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Single intratumoral injections (2107 PFU/mouse) of the viruses produced a dramatic decrease in tumor volumes, which was higher after injection of apoptin-producing virus. The tumor dried out after the injection of recombinant while injection of L-IVP strain resulted in formation of cavities filled with cell debris and liquid. Both viruses rapidly spread in xenografts and replicate exclusively in tumor cells causing their destruction within 8 days. Both viruses induced insignificant level of apoptosis in tumors. Unlike the previously described nuclear localization of apoptin in cancer cells the apoptin produced by recombinant virus was localized to the cytoplasm. The apoptin did not induce a typical apoptosis, but it rather influenced pathway of cell death and thereby caused tumor shrinkage. The replacement of destroyed cells by filamentous material is the main feature of tumor regression caused by the VVdGF-ApoS24/2 virus. The study points the presence of complicated mechanisms of apoptin effects at the background of vaccinia virus replication. PMID:25358248

  20. Targeting of Interferon-Beta to Produce a Specific, Multi-Mechanistic Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kirn, David H; Wang, Yaohe; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Bell, John; Thorne, Steve H

    2007-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viruses hold much promise for clinical treatment of many cancers, but a lack of systemic delivery and insufficient tumor cell killing have limited their usefulness. We have previously demonstrated that vaccinia virus strains are capable of systemic delivery to tumors in mouse models, but infection of normal tissues remains an issue. We hypothesized that interferon-beta (IFN-β) expression from an oncolytic vaccinia strain incapable of responding to this cytokine would have dual benefits as a cancer therapeutic: increased anticancer effects and enhanced virus inactivation in normal tissues. We report the construction and preclinical testing of this virus. Methods and Findings In vitro screening of viral strains by cytotoxicity and replication assay was coupled to cellular characterization by phospho-flow cytometry in order to select a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus. This virus was then examined in vivo in mouse models by non-invasive imaging techniques. A vaccinia B18R deletion mutant was selected as the backbone for IFN-β expression, because the B18R gene product neutralizes secreted type-I IFNs. The oncolytic B18R deletion mutant demonstrated IFN-dependent cancer selectivity and efficacy in vitro, and tumor targeting and efficacy in mouse models in vivo. Both tumor cells and tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells were targeted. Complete tumor responses in preclinical models were accompanied by immune-mediated protection against tumor rechallenge. Cancer selectivity was also demonstrated in primary human tumor explant tissues and adjacent normal tissues. The IFN-β gene was then cloned into the thymidine kinase (TK) region of this virus to create JX-795 (TK−/B18R−/IFN-β+). JX-795 had superior tumor selectivity and systemic intravenous efficacy when compared with the TK−/B18R− control or wild-type vaccinia in preclinical models. Conclusions By combining IFN-dependent cancer selectivity with IFN-β expression to optimize both anticancer effects and normal tissue antiviral effects, we were able to achieve, to our knowledge for the first time, tumor-specific replication, IFN-β gene expression, and efficacy following systemic delivery in preclinical models. PMID:18162040

  1. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by proteins from vaccinia virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Evans, D H

    1993-01-01

    Vaccinia virus infection induces expression of a protein which can catalyze joint molecule formation between a single-stranded circular DNA and a homologous linear duplex. The kinetics of appearance of the enzyme parallels that of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase and suggests it is an early viral gene product. Extracts were prepared from vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells, and the strand exchange assay was used to follow purification of this activity through five chromatographic steps. The most highly purified fraction contained three major polypeptides of 110 +/- 10, 52 +/- 5, and 32 +/- 3 kDa. The purified protein requires Mg2+ for activity, and this requirement cannot be satisfied by Mn2+ or Ca2+. One end of the linear duplex substrate must share homology with the single-stranded circle, although this homology requirement is not very high, as 10% base substitutions had no effect on the overall efficiency of pairing. As with many other eukaryotic strand exchange proteins, there was no requirement for ATP, and ATP analogs were not inhibitors. Electron microscopy was used to show that the joint molecules formed in these reactions were composed of a partially duplex circle of DNA bearing a displaced single-strand and a duplex linear tail. The recovery of these structures shows that the enzyme catalyzes true strand exchange. There is also a unique polarity to the strand exchange reaction. The enzyme pairs the 3' end of the duplex minus strand with the plus-stranded homolog, thus extending hybrid DNA in a 3'-to-5' direction with respect to the minus strand. Which viral gene (if any) encodes the enzyme is not yet known, but analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants shows that activity does not require the D5R gene product. Curiously, v-SEP appears to copurify with vaccinia virus DNA polymerase, although the activities can be partially resolved on phosphocellulose columns. Images PMID:8416369

  2. Isolation of cis-acting vaccinia virus DNA fragments promoting the expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase by recombinant viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Vassef, A; Mars, M; Dru, A; Plucienniczak, A; Streeck, R E; Beaud, G

    1985-01-01

    Recombinant TK- vaccinia viruses containing the pBR322 sequence inserted in either orientation within the coding sequence of the viral thymidine kinase gene were constructed. They were characterized by genomic analysis, hybridization studies, reversion to wild-type virus by in vivo recombination, and rescue from their genomes of plasmids which contained all or parts of the pBR322 sequence. TK- cells were infected with one of these recombinant viruses and then transfected with pools of chimeric plasmids composed of a cloned herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene which contained upstream inserts of different vaccinia DNA fragments prepared by restriction or sonication. Recombination between homologous pBR322 sequences within infected cells generated selectable recombinant viruses in which expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was promoted by the upstream vaccinia insert. These viruses were characterized by genomic analysis, hybridization, and in vivo or in vitro phosphorylation of (5-[125I]deoxycytidine as a specific assay for the expressed herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase. Vaccinia DNA inserts were isolated conveniently for transfer to bacteria by rescuing appropriate plasmids from the genome of recombinant viruses. The sequence of 100 nucleotides adjacent to the upstream region of the herpes simplex virus gene was determined in nine different inserts measuring 0.17 to 1.07 kilobase pairs. Images PMID:2989553

  3. Enteric immunization of mice against influenza with recombinant vaccinia.

    PubMed Central

    Meitin, C A; Bender, B S; Small, P A

    1994-01-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office. PMID:7972032

  4. Enteric Immunization of Mice Against Influenza with Recombinant Vaccinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitin, Catherine A.; Bender, Bradley S.; Small, Parker A., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office.

  5. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Generating Excess Early Double-Stranded RNA Transiently Activates Protein Kinase R and Triggers Enhanced Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolfersttter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Spth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-? in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-? induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-?, IFN-?, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. IMPORTANCE Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral transcription. We found that inhibition of cellular dsRNA recognition established by the virus-encoded proteins E3 and K3 can be overcome by directing viral overexpression of dsRNA early in infection without compromising replication of MVA in permissive cells. Early dsRNA induced transient activation of the cellular dsRNA sensor protein kinase R (PKR), resulting in enhanced production of interferons and cytokines in cells and mice. Enhancing the capacity of MVA to activate the innate immune system is an important approach to further improve the immunogenicity of this promising vaccine vector. PMID:25297997

  6. Vaccinia virus protein C4 inhibits NF-?B activation and promotes virus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ember, Stuart W. J.; Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C4 has been characterized and its function and contribution to virus virulence assessed. Bioinformatic analysis showed that C4 is conserved in six orthopoxvirus species and shares 43?% amino acid identity with VACV protein C16, a known virulence factor. A recombinant VACV expressing a C-terminally tagged version of C4 showed that, like C16, this 37 kDa protein is expressed early during infection and localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Functional assays using a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid under the control of a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)-dependent promoter demonstrated that C4 inhibits NF-?B activation at, or downstream of, the inhibitor of kappa kinase (IKK) complex. Consistent with this, C4 inhibited interleukin-1?-induced translocation of p65 into the nucleus. A VACV lacking the C4L gene (v?C4) showed no significant differences from wild-type virus in growth kinetics or spread in cell culture, but had reduced virulence in a murine intranasal model of infection. v?C4-infected mice exhibited fewer symptoms, lost less weight and recovered 7 days earlier than animals infected with control viruses expressing C4. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from v?C4-infected mice had increased cell numbers at day 5 post-infection, which correlated with reduced lung virus titres from this time onward. C4 represents the ninth VACV protein to inhibit NF-?B activation and remarkably, in every case examined, loss of each protein individually caused an alteration in virus virulence, despite the presence of other NF-?B inhibitors. PMID:22791606

  7. Synthesis of herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and adenovirus DNA in isolated HeLa cell nuclei. I. Effect of viral-specific antisera and phosphonoacetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Bolden, A; Aucker, J; Weissbach, A

    1975-01-01

    Purified nuclei, isolated from appropriately infected HeLa cells, are shown to synthesize large amounts of either herpes simplex virus (HSV) or vaccinia virus DNA in vitro. The rate of synthesis of DNA by nuclei from infected cells is up to 30 times higher than the synthesis of host DNA in vitro by nuclei isolated from uninfected HeLa cells. Thus HSV nuclei obtained from HSV-infected cells make DNA in vitro at a rate comparable to that seen in the intact, infected cell. Molecular hybridization studies showed that 80% of the DNA sequences synthesized in vitro by nuclei from herpesvirus-infected cells are herpesvirus specific. Vaccinia virus nuclei from vaccinia virus-infected cells, also produce comparable percentages of vaccinia virus-specific DNA sequences. Adenovirus nuclei from adenovirus 2-infected HeLa cells, which also synthesize viral DNA in vitro, have been included in this study. Synthesis of DNA by HSV or vaccinia virus nuclei is markedly inhibited by the corresponding viral-specific antisera. These antisera inhibit in a similar fashion the purified herpesvirus-induced or vaccinia virus-induced DNA polymerase isolated from infected cells. Phosphonoacetic acid, reported to be a specific inhibitor of herpesvirus formation and the herpesvirus-induced DNA polymerase, is equally effective as an inhibitor of HSV DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei in vitro. However, we also find phosphonoacetic acid to be an effective inhibitor of vaccinia virus nuclear DNA synthesis and the purified vaccinia virus-induced DNA polymerase. In addition, this compound shows significant inhibition of DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei obtained from adenovirus-infected or uninfected cells and is a potent inhibitor of HeLa cell DNA polymerase alpha. PMID:172658

  8. Advances in virus research

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. ); Murphy, F.A. ); Shatkin, A.J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

  9. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence.

    PubMed

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26334635

  10. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R.; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26334635

  11. Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the intracellular distribution of viral protein p65.

    PubMed Central

    Sodeik, B; Griffiths, G; Ericsson, M; Moss, B; Doms, R W

    1994-01-01

    The cytoplasmic assembly of vaccinia virus is reversibly blocked by the antibiotic rifampin, leading to the accumulation of partially membrane-delineated rifampin bodies in infected cells. Rifampin-resistant vaccinia virus mutants have point mutations in the D13L gene, which is controlled by a late promoter and expresses a 65-kDa protein, designated p65. To further characterize the mechanism of rifampin inhibition and the function of p65 in virus assembly, we raised antibodies to this protein. Immunoreactive p65 was expressed at late times of infection, and neither its expression nor its turnover was affected by rifampin. Virus-associated p65 could be extracted only with denaturing detergents from purified virions, suggesting that it is an integral viral component. Immunofluorescence studies showed that p65 is localized to the sites of virus assembly. Also, immunoelectron microscopy showed p65 to be associated with viral crescents as well as spherical, immature virions, in both cases predominantly on the inner or concave surface. In the presence of rifampin, p65 was found in large, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that were distinct from rifampin bodies. The rifampin bodies themselves were labeled with p65 antibodies only after reversal of the rifampin block, predominantly on the viral crescents which rapidly formed following removal of the drug. We propose that p65 functions as an internal scaffold in the formation of viral crescents and immature virions, analogously to the matrix proteins of other viruses. Images PMID:8289340

  12. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  13. New vaccines against influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

  14. Preclinical Evaluation of Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus for Therapy of Canine Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Josupeit, Rafael; Rudolph, Stephan; Ehrig, Klaas; Donat, Ulrike; Weibel, Stephanie; Chen, Nanhai G.; Yu, Yong A.; Zhang, Qian; Heisig, Martin; Thamm, Douglas; Stritzker, Jochen; MacNeill, Amy; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2012-01-01

    Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is one promising new strategy for canine cancer therapy. In this study we describe the establishment of an in vivo model of canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS) using the new isolated cell line STSA-1 and the analysis of the virus-mediated oncolytic and immunological effects of two different Lister VACV LIVP1.1.1 and GLV-1h68 strains against CSTS. Cell culture data demonstrated that both tested VACV strains efficiently infected and destroyed cells of the canine soft tissue sarcoma line STSA-1. In addition, in our new canine sarcoma tumor xenograft mouse model, systemic administration of LIVP1.1.1 or GLV-1h68 viruses led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control mice. Furthermore, LIVP1.1.1 mediated therapy resulted in almost complete tumor regression and resulted in long-term survival of sarcoma-bearing mice. The replication of the tested VACV strains in tumor tissues led to strong oncolytic effects accompanied by an intense intratumoral infiltration of host immune cells, mainly neutrophils. These findings suggest that the direct viral oncolysis of tumor cells and the virus-dependent activation of tumor-associated host immune cells could be crucial parts of anti-tumor mechanism in STSA-1 xenografts. In summary, the data showed that both tested vaccinia virus strains and especially LIVP1.1.1 have great potential for effective treatment of CSTS. PMID:22615950

  15. N-terminal amino acid sequences of vaccinia virus structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Oie, M; Ichihashi, Y

    1994-08-01

    The N-terminal amino acid sequences of vaccinia virus structural proteins were determined by direct sequencing following separation of the proteins of purified intracellular mature virus by SDS-polyacrylamide gels. By comparing the sequences obtained with the published vaccinia virus DNA sequences, specific open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. The structural proteins were encoded by the ORFs of HindIII, A3L (VP57K, 32K), A10L (VP62K, VP28K, VP22K), A12L (VP10K, VP4K), A13L (VP14K), A14L (VP17-25K), A17L (VP23-29K), A27L (VP13.8K), D8L (VP32K), H3L (VP34-37K), L4R (VP27K), G7L (VP16K), and 15L (VP13K). Four virus membrane proteins contained transmembrane signals. The N-termini of proteins indicated four types of cleavages. Ala-Gly-specific cleavage associated with products of six ORFs. Phe-specific cleavage was found in two, Met-specific in three, and Arg-specific in the product of one ORF. Ala-Gly-specific cleavage processes seven core proteins encoded by five ORFs and one membrane protein. The Met- and Arg-specific cleavages are suggested to be nonessential for virus assembly because the major portions of the target membrane proteins remain unaffected. PMID:8030247

  16. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  17. A Chimeric HIV-1 gp120 Fused with Vaccinia Virus 14K (A27) Protein as an HIV Immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Aneesh; García-Arriaza, Juan; C. Raman, Suresh; Conesa, José Javier; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Santiago, César; Sorzano, Carlos Óscar S.; Carrascosa, José L.; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In the HIV vaccine field, there is a need to produce highly immunogenic forms of the Env protein with the capacity to trigger broad B and T-cell responses. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a chimeric HIV-1 gp120 protein (termed gp120-14K) by fusing gp120 from clade B with the vaccinia virus (VACV) 14K oligomeric protein (derived from A27L gene). Stable CHO cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120-14K protein were generated and the protein purified was characterized by size exclusion chromatography, electron microscopy and binding to anti-Env antibodies. These approaches indicate that gp120-14K protein is oligomeric and reacts with a wide spectrum of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), gp120-14K protein upregulates the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with Th1 innate immune responses (IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, RANTES). Moreover, we showed in a murine model, that a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol consisting of a DNA prime with a plasmid expressing gp120-14K protein followed by a boost with MVA-B [a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 gp120, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B], generates stronger, more polyfunctional, and greater effector memory HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses, than immunization with DNA-gp120/MVA-B. The DNA/MVA protocol was superior to immunization with the combination of protein/MVA and the latter was superior to a prime/boost of MVA/MVA or protein/protein. In addition, these immunization protocols enhanced antibody responses against gp120 of the class IgG2a and IgG3, together favoring a Th1 humoral immune response. These results demonstrate that fusing HIV-1 gp120 with VACV 14K forms an oligomeric protein which is highly antigenic as it activates a Th1 innate immune response in human moDCs, and in vaccinated mice triggers polyfunctional HIV-1-specific adaptive and memory T-cell immune responses, as well as humoral responses. This novel HIV-1 gp120-14K immunogen might be considered as an HIV vaccine candidate for broad T and B-cell immune responses. PMID:26208356

  18. Genome Sequence of WAU86/88-1, a New Variant of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain from Poland.

    PubMed

    Mavian, Carla; Lpez-Bueno, Alberto; Alcam, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The poxviruses Warsaw Agricultural University 86 (WAU86) and 88-1 (WAU88-1) were isolated in 1986 to 1988 from separate outbreaks in laboratory mice in Poland and described as ectromelia virus isolates. The genome sequences of these poxviruses reveal that they are almost identical and represent a novel variant of the vaccinia virus Lister strain. PMID:24407630

  19. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex executes endosomal membrane fission and cargo sorting to the Rab11-positive and Rab22-positive recycling pathway, resulting in membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. PMID:26041286

  20. Incorporation of the B18R gene of vaccinia virus into an oncolytic herpes simplex virus improves antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2012-10-01

    Interferon (IFN) antiviral defense mechanism plays a critical role in controlling virus infection. It thus represents a formidable hurdle for virotherapy. Despite the reported ability of herpes simplex virus (HSV) to counteract this defense, the duration and extent of HSV infection in vivo is still largely dictated by host's IFN activity status. Because the HSV genes that have been reported to block IFN activity mainly act intracellularly, we hypothesized that their inhibitory effect could be enhanced by exploiting a gene whose product acts extracellularly. The B18R gene from vaccinia virus encodes a secreted decoy receptor with a broad antagonizing effect against type I IFNs. We therefore cloned B18R into an HSV-1-based oncolytic virus to generate Synco-B18R. In the presence of increased IFN levels in vitro, Synco-B18R largely retained its oncolytic effect, whereas the tumor-killing ability of the parental virus, Synco-2D, was severely compromised. When injected intratumorally in vivo, Synco-B18R showed significantly greater oncolytic activity than Synco-2D. Our results suggest that incorporation of the vaccinia virus B18R gene can safely potentiate the antitumor effect of an oncolytic HSV, and that similar strategies may be useful with other types of oncolytic viruses. PMID:22692498

  1. Incorporation of the B18R Gene of Vaccinia Virus Into an Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Improves Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) antiviral defense mechanism plays a critical role in controlling virus infection. It thus represents a formidable hurdle for virotherapy. Despite the reported ability of herpes simplex virus (HSV) to counteract this defense, the duration and extent of HSV infection in vivo is still largely dictated by host's IFN activity status. Because the HSV genes that have been reported to block IFN activity mainly act intracellularly, we hypothesized that their inhibitory effect could be enhanced by exploiting a gene whose product acts extracellularly. The B18R gene from vaccinia virus encodes a secreted decoy receptor with a broad antagonizing effect against type I IFNs. We therefore cloned B18R into an HSV-1–based oncolytic virus to generate Synco-B18R. In the presence of increased IFN levels in vitro, Synco-B18R largely retained its oncolytic effect, whereas the tumor-killing ability of the parental virus, Synco-2D, was severely compromised. When injected intratumorally in vivo, Synco-B18R showed significantly greater oncolytic activity than Synco-2D. Our results suggest that incorporation of the vaccinia virus B18R gene can safely potentiate the antitumor effect of an oncolytic HSV, and that similar strategies may be useful with other types of oncolytic viruses. PMID:22692498

  2. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

  3. Nucleotide sequence of a cluster of early and late genes in a conserved segment of the vaccinia virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Plucienniczak, A; Schroeder, E; Zettlmeissl, G; Streeck, R E

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 7.6 kb vaccinia DNA segment from a genomic region conserved among different orthopox virus has been determined. This segment contains a tight cluster of 12 partly overlapping open reading frames most of which can be correlated with previously identified early and late proteins and mRNAs. Regulatory signals used by vaccinia virus have been studied. Presumptive promoter regions are rich in A, T and carry the consensus sequences TATA and AATAA spaced at 20-24 base pairs. Tandem repeats of a CTATTC consensus sequence are proposed to be involved in the termination of early transcription. PMID:2987815

  4. Efficiently editing the vaccinia virus genome by using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Wensheng; Wang, Jun; Al Yaghchi, Chadwan; Ahmed, Jahangir; Chard, Louisa; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-05-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) continues to be used in immunotherapy for the prevention of infectious diseases and treatment of cancer since its use for the eradication of smallpox. However, the current method of editing the VACV genome is not efficient. Here, we demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used to edit the VACV genome rapidly and efficiently. Additionally, a set of 8,964 computationally designed unique guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting all VACV genes will be valuable for the study of VACV gene functions. PMID:25741005

  5. Mapping of a gene coding for a major late structural polypeptide on the vaccinia virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Wittek, R; Hnggi, M; Hiller, G

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free translation of total RNA isolated from vaccinia virus-infected cells late in infection results in a complex mixture of polypeptides. A monospecific antibody directed against one of the major structural proteins of the virus particle immunoprecipitated a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 11,000 (11K) from this mixture. Immunoprecipitation was therefore used to identify the structural polypeptide among the in vitro translation products of RNA purified by hybridization selection to restriction fragments of the vaccinia virus genome. This allowed us to map the mRNA coding for the 11K polypeptide to the extreme left-hand end of the HindIII E fragment. Detailed transcriptional mapping of this region of the genome by nuclease S1 analysis revealed the presence of a late RNA transcribed from the rightward-reading strand. Its 5' end mapped at ca. 130 base pairs to the left of the HindIII site at the junction between the HindIII F and E fragments. The map position of this RNA coincided precisely with the map position of the late message coding for the 11K polypeptide. Images PMID:6319738

  6. Enhancement of Immune Response to an Antigen Delivered by Vaccinia Virus by Displaying the Antigen on the Surface of Intracellular Mature Virion

    PubMed Central

    Embry, Addie; Meng, Xiangzhi; Cantwell, Angelene; Dube, Peter H.; Xiang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the vaccine for smallpox and a widely-used vaccine vector for infectious diseases and cancers. The majority of the antibodies elicited by live VACV vaccination respond to virion structural proteins, including many integral membrane proteins on the intracellular mature virion (MV). Here, we showed that antibody response to an exogenous antigen delivered by VACV was greatly enhanced by incorporating the antigen as an integral membrane protein of MV. We constructed recombinant VACV expressing a Y. pestis protective antigen, LcrV, unmodified or fused with either a signal peptide or with the transmembrane domain of VACV D8 protein (LcrV-TM). Electron microscopy showed that LcrV-TM was displayed on the surface of MV. Importantly, VACV expressing LcrV-TM elicited a significantly higher titer of anti-LcrV antibody in mice than viruses expressing other forms of LcrV. Only mice immunized with LcrV-TM-expressing VACV were protected from lethal Y. pestis and VACV WR challenges. Antigen engineering through fusion with D8 transmembrane domain may be broadly applicable for enhancing the immune response to antigens delivered by a VACV vector. The recombinant virus described here could also serve as the basis for developing a vaccine against both smallpox and plague. PMID:21664218

  7. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. PMID:25462347

  8. CD4 and CD8 T cells participate in the immune memory response againstVaccinia virus after aprevious natural infection?

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros-Silva, Daniela Carla; dos Santos Moreira-Silva, Eduardo Augusto; Assis Silva Gomes, Juliana de; da Fonseca, Flvio Guimares; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients following a natural Vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. A total of 42 individuals were involved in the study being: 22 previously infected individuals (vaccinated or not against smallpox) and 20 non-infected individuals (vaccinated or not). A short-term in vitro stimulation with UV-inactivated VACV of whole blood cells was performed. Our study showed that previously infected individuals have a lower percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing lymph-node homing receptors (CD4+CD62L+CCR7+) and higher percentage of memory CD4+ T cells subsets (CD4+CD45ROHigh) when compared with non-infected subjects, after in vitro viral stimulation. We also showed that infected individuals presented higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T lymphocytes expressing IFN-? when compared to non-infected individuals. We verified that the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T memory cells expressing TNF-? was higher in infected and non-infected vaccinated subjects when compared with non-infected unvaccinated individual. We also observed that previously infected individuals have higher percentages of CD8+ T cells expressing lymph-node homing receptors (CCR7+ and CD62L+) and that the memory T cells expressing IFN-? and TNF-? were at higher percentages in the whole blood cells from infected and non-infected vaccinated individuals, when compared to unvaccinated non-infected subjects. Thus, our findings suggest that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are involved in the immune memory response against Vaccinia virus natural infection. PMID:24600565

  9. Vaccine research efforts for filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hart, Mary Kate

    2003-05-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses belong to the family Filoviridae, and cause acute, frequently fatal, haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. No vaccines are available for human use. This review describes the status of research efforts to develop vaccines for these viruses and to identify the immune mechanisms of protection. The vaccine approaches discussed include DNA-based vaccines, and subunit vaccines vectored by adenovirus, alphavirus replicons, and vaccinia virus. PMID:12782057

  10. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

    PubMed Central

    Grinde, Bjørn; Gayorfar, Marc; Hoddevik, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes. PMID:17338811

  11. Inhibition of Vaccinia virus entry by a broad spectrum antiviral peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Altmann, S.E.; Jones, J.C.; Schultz-Cherry, S.; Brandt, C.R.

    2009-06-05

    Concerns about the possible use of Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as a weapon for bioterrorism have led to renewed efforts to identify new antivirals against orthopoxviruses. We identified a peptide, EB, which inhibited infection by Vaccinia virus with an EC{sub 50} of 15 muM. A control peptide, EBX, identical in composition to EB but differing in sequence, was inactive (EC{sub 50} > 200 muM), indicating sequence specificity. The inhibition was reversed upon removal of the peptide, and EB treatment had no effect on the physical integrity of virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. Viral adsorption was unaffected by the presence of EB, and the addition of EB post-entry had no effect on viral titers or on early gene expression. The addition of EB post-adsorption resulted in the inhibition of beta-galactosidase expression from an early viral promoter with an EC{sub 50} of 45 muM. A significant reduction in virus entry was detected in the presence of the peptide when the number of viral cores released into the cytoplasm was quantified. Electron microscopy indicated that 88% of the virions remained on the surface of cells in the presence of EB, compared to 37% in the control (p < 0.001). EB also blocked fusion-from-within, suggesting that virus infection is inhibited at the fusion step. Analysis of EB derivatives suggested that peptide length may be important for the activity of EB. The EB peptide is, to our knowledge, the first known small molecule inhibitor of Vaccinia virus entry.

  12. Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 1 Is Required for Efficient Recruitment of Neutrophils during Respiratory Infection with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Price, Philip J. R.; Luckow, Bruno; Torres-Domnguez, Lino E.; Brandmller, Christine; Zorn, Julia; Kirschning, Carsten J.; Sutter, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) serves as a versatile platform in vaccine development. This highly attenuated orthopoxvirus, which cannot replicate in mammalian cells, triggers strong innate immune responses, including cell migration. Previously, we have shown that induction of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) by MVA is necessary for the recruitment of monocytes and T cells, but not neutrophils, to the lung. Here, we identified neutrophil-attracting chemokines produced by MVA-infected primary murine lung fibroblasts and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. We demonstrate that MVA, but not vaccinia virus (VACV) strain WR, induces chemokine expression, which is independent of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling. Additionally, we show that both chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 (CCR1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) are involved in MVA-induced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro. Finally, intranasal infection of Ccr1?/? mice with MVA, as well as application of the CCR1 antagonist J-113863, revealed a role for CCR1 in leukocyte recruitment, including neutrophils, into the lung. IMPORTANCE Rapid attraction of leukocytes to the site of inoculation is unique to MVA in comparison to other VACV strains. The findings here extend current knowledge about the regulation of MVA-induced leukocyte migration, particularly regarding neutrophils, which could potentially be exploited to improve other VACV strains currently in development as oncolytic viruses and viral vectors. Additionally, the data presented here indicate that the inflammatory response may vary depending on the cell type infected by MVA, highlighting the importance of the site of vaccine application. Moreover, the rapid recruitment of neutrophils and other leukocytes can directly contribute to the induction of adaptive immune responses elicited by MVA inoculation. Thus, a better understanding of leukocyte migration upon MVA infection is particularly relevant for further development and use of MVA-based vaccines and vectors. PMID:25008920

  13. Progressive vaccinia in a military smallpox vaccinee - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-22

    Progressive vaccinia (PV), previously known as vaccinia necrosum, vaccinia gangrenosum, or disseminated vaccinia, is a rare, often fatal adverse event after vaccination with smallpox vaccine, which is made from live vaccinia virus. During recent vaccination programs potential cases of PV were investigated, but none met standard case definitions. PV has not been confirmed to have occurred in the United States since 1987. On March 2, 2009, a U.S. Navy Hospital contacted the Poxvirus Program at CDC to report a possible case of PV in a male military smallpox vaccinee. The service member had been newly diagnosed with acute mylegenous leukemia M0 (AML M0). During evaluation for a chemotherapy-induced neutropenic fever, he was found to have an expanding and nonhealing painless vaccination site 6.5 weeks after receipt of smallpox vaccine. Clinical and laboratory investigation confirmed that the vaccinee met the Brighton Collaboration and CDC adverse event surveillance guideline case definition for PV. This report summarizes the patient's protracted clinical course and the military and civilian interagency governmental, academic, and industry public health contributions to his complex medical management. The quantities of investigational and licensed therapeutics and diagnostics used were greater than anticipated based on existing smallpox preparedness plans. To support future public health needs adequately, the estimated national supply of therapeutics and diagnostic resources required to care for smallpox vaccine adverse events should be reevaluated. PMID:19478722

  14. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Semliki forest virus replicon-based DNA vaccines encoding goatpox virus structural proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Min; Jin Ningyi; Liu Qi; Huo Xiaowei; Li Yang; Hu Bo; Ma Haili; Zhu Zhanbo; Cong Yanzhao; Li Xiao; Jin Minglan; Zhu Guangze

    2009-08-15

    Goatpox, caused by goatpox virus (GTPV), is an acute feverish and contagious disease in goats often associated with high morbidity and high mortality. To resolve potential safety risks and vaccination side effects of existing live attenuated goatpox vaccine (AV41), two Semliki forest virus (SFV) replicon-based bicistronic expression DNA vaccines (pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA) which encode GTPV structural proteins corresponding to the Vaccinia virus proteins A27, L1, A33, and B5, respectively, were constructed. Then, theirs ability to induce humoral and cellular response in mice and goats, and protect goats against virulent virus challenge were evaluated. The results showed that, vaccination with pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA in combination could elicit strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and goats, provide partial protection against viral challenge in goats, and reduce disease symptoms. Additionally, priming vaccination with the above-mentioned DNA vaccines could significantly reduce the goats' side reactions from boosting vaccinations with current live vaccine (AV41), which include skin lesions at the inoculation site and fevers. Data obtained in this study could not only facilitate improvement of the current goatpox vaccination strategy, but also provide valuable guidance to suitable candidates for evaluation and development of orthopoxvirus vaccines.

  15. Microbiota is an essential element for mice to initiate a protective immunity against Vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maurcio T; Andrade, Ana C S P; Oliveira, Graziele P; Calixto, Rafael S; Oliveira, Danilo B; Souza, ricka L S; Trindade, Giliane S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Kroon, Erna G; Martins, Flaviano S; Abraho, Jnatas S

    2016-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates harbors one of the most complex ecosystems known in microbial ecology and this indigenous microbiota almost always has a profound influence on host-parasite relationships, which can enhance or reduce the pathology of the infection. In this context, the impact of the microbiota during the infection of several viral groups remains poorly studied, including the family Poxviridae. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of this family and is the causative agent of bovine vaccinia, responsible for outbreaks that affect bovines and humans. To determine the influence of the microbiota in the development of the disease caused by VACV, a comparative study using a murine model was performed. Germ-free and conventional, 6- to 7-week-old Swiss NIH mice were infected by tail scarification and intranasally with VACV. Moreover, immunosuppression and microbiota reposition were performed, to establish the interactions among the host's immune system, microbiota and VACV. The data demonstrate that the microbiota is essential for the effective immune response of mice against VACV in intranasal inoculation and to control the virus at the primary site of infection. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that Swiss conventional mice are refractory to the intranasal infection of VACV. PMID:26610433

  16. Evaluation of Imiquimod for Topical Treatment of Vaccinia Virus Cutaneous Infections in Immunosuppressed Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tarbet, E. Bart; Larson, Deanna; Anderson, Bentley J.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Wong, Min-Hui; Smee, Donald F.

    2011-01-01

    Imiquimod is an immune response modifier prescribed as a topical medication for a number of viral and neoplastic conditions. We evaluated the antiviral activity of imiquimod against vaccinia virus (WR strain) cutaneous infections in immunosuppressed (with cyclophosphamide) hairless mice when administered after virus exposure. Primary lesions progressed in severity, satellite lesions developed, and infection eventually killed the mice. Once daily topical treatment with 1% imiquimod cream for three, four, or five days were compared to twice daily topical treatment with 1% cidofovir cream for seven days. Survival time of mice in all treated groups was significantly prolonged compared to placebo controls. The mean day of death for the placebo group, three-day imiquimod, four day imiquimod, five-day imiquimod, and cidofovir groups were 15.5, 20.0, 20.5, 19.5, and 20.5 days post-infection, respectively. All treatment groups showed significant reductions in primary lesion size and in the number of satellite lesions. The cidofovir and 4-day imiquimod treatments delayed the appearance of lung virus titers by 3 and 6 days, respectively, although cutaneous lesion and snout virus titers were not as affected by treatment. Benefits in survival and lesion reduction were observed when imiquimod treatment was delayed from 24, 48 and 72 hours post-infection. However, increasing the treatment dose of imiquimod from 1% to 5% led to a significant decrease in antiviral efficacy. These results demonstrate the protective effects of topically administered imiquimod against a disseminated vaccinia virus infection in this mouse model. PMID:21439326

  17. Structure-function analysis of the triphosphatase component of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Martins, A; Deng, L; Shuman, S

    1997-01-01

    The N-terminal 60 kDa (amino acids 1 to 545) of the D1 subunit of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme is an autonomous bifunctional domain with triphosphatase and guanylyltransferase activities. We previously described two alanine cluster mutations, R77 to A (R77A)-K79A and E192A-E194A, which selectively inactivated the triphosphatase component. Here, we characterize the activities of 11 single alanine mutants-E37A, E39A, Q60A, E61A, T67A, T69A, K75A, R77A, K79A, E192A, and E194A-and a quadruple mutant in which four residues (R77, K79, E192, and E194) were replaced by alanine. We report that Glu-37, Glu-39, Arg-77, Glu-192, and Glu-194 are essential for gamma-phosphate cleavage. The five essential residues are conserved in the capping enzymes of Shope fibroma virus, molluscum contagiosum virus, and African swine fever virus. Probing the structure of D1(1-545) by limited V8 proteolysis suggested a bipartite subdomain structure. The essential residue Glu-192 is the principal site of V8 cleavage. Secondary cleavage by V8 occurs at the essential residue Glu-39. The triphosphatase-defective quadruple mutant transferred GMP to the triphosphate end of poly(A) to form a tetraphosphate cap structure, GppppA. We report that GppppA-capped RNA is a poor substrate for cap methylation by the vaccinia virus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA (guanine-7) methyltransferases. The transcription termination factor activity of the D1-D12 capping enzyme heterodimer was not affected by mutations that abrogated ATPase activity. Thus, the capping enzyme is not responsible for the requirement for ATP hydrolysis during transcription termination. PMID:9371657

  18. Modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara (MVA) priming and fowlpox-virus booster elicit a stronger CD8+ T-cell response in mice against an HIV-1 epitope than does a DNA/poxvirus prime-booster approach.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Blomquist, Dania; Quintana, Diógenes; Duarte, Carlos A

    2004-06-01

    A prime-boost strategy combining FWPV (fowlpox virus) and the MVA (modified vaccinia virus Ankara), both expressing HIV-1 multi-V3 epitope polypeptides, was compared with a DNA-based Semliki Forest virus replicon/poxvirus approach for the induction of a CD8(+) T-cell response. Priming mice with recombinant MVA and boosting with recombinant FWPV, and not in the reverse order, increased the number of specific interferon-gamma-secreting cells in relation to the homologous combinations. Moreover, the improvement of the CD8(+) T-cell response with this combination was remarkably higher than that obtained by priming with a DNA vector containing a Semliki Forest virus replicon expressing the multi-epitope polypeptide and boosting either with recombinant MVA or FWPV. These results open a new and attractive alternative for vaccine preparation against HIV-1 using different immunogens. PMID:15154843

  19. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  20. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  1. Expression of the highly conserved vaccinia virus E6 protein is required for virion morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Wolfgang; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2009-04-10

    The vaccinia virus E6R gene (VACVWR062) is conserved in all members of the poxvirus family and encodes a protein associated with the mature virion. We confirmed this association and provided evidence for an internal location. An inducible mutant that conditionally expresses E6 was constructed. In the absence of inducer, plaque formation and virus production were severely inhibited in several cell lines, whereas some replication occurred in others. This difference could be due to variation in the stringency of repression, since we could not isolate a stable deletion mutant even in the more 'permissive' cells. Under non-permissive conditions, viral late proteins were synthesized but processing of core proteins was inefficient, indicative of an assembly block. Transmission electron microscopy of sections of cells infected with the mutant in the absence of inducer revealed morphogenetic defects with crescents and empty immature virions adjacent to dense inclusions of viroplasm. Mature virions were infrequent and cores appeared to have lucent centers.

  2. The E6 protein from vaccinia virus is required for the formation of immature virions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Olga; Turner, Peter C.; Moyer, Richard W.; Condit, Richard C.; Moussatche, Nissin

    2010-04-10

    An IPTG-inducible mutant in the E6R gene of vaccinia virus was used to study the role of the E6 virion core protein in viral replication. In the absence of the inducer, the mutant exhibited a normal pattern DNA replication, concatemer resolution and late gene expression, but it showed an inhibition of virion structural protein processing it failed to produce infectious particles. Electron microscopic analysis showed that in the absence of IPTG viral morphogenesis was arrested before IV formation: crescents, aberrant or empty IV-like structures, and large aggregated virosomes were observed throughout the cytoplasm. The addition of IPTG to release a 12-h block showed that virus infectious particles could be formed in the absence of de novo DNA synthesis. Our observations show that in the absence of E6 the association of viroplasm with viral membrane crescents is impaired.

  3. Epstein–barr virus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and is associated with epithelial cell malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma, as well as lymphoid malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. EBV vaccines to prevent primary infection or disease, or therapeutic vaccines to treat EBV malignancies have not been licensed. Most efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines have focused on EBV gp350, which is the major target of neutralizing antibody. A single phase 2 trial of an EBV gp350 vaccine has been reported; the vaccine reduced the rate of IM but not virus infection. The observation that infusion of EBV-specific T cells can reduce disease due to Hodgkin lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma provides a proof of principle that a therapeutic vaccine for these and other EBV-associated malignancies might be effective. Most therapeutic vaccines have targeted EBV LMP2 and EBV nuclear antigen-1. As EBV is associated with nearly 200 000 new malignancies each year worldwide, an EBV vaccine to prevent these diseases is needed. PMID:25671130

  4. Treating Tumors With a Vaccinia Virus Expressing IFN? Illustrates the Complex Relationships Between Oncolytic Ability and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Chuan S; Lynn, Rachel C; Cheng, Guanjun; Alexander, Edward; Kapoor, Veena; Moon, Edmund K; Sun, Jing; Fridlender, Zvi G; Isaacs, Stuart N; Thorne, Stephen H; Albelda, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Since previous work using a nonreplicating adenovirus-expressing mouse interferon-? (Ad.mIFN?) showed promising preclinical activity, we postulated that a vector-expressing IFN? at high levels that could also replicate would be even more beneficial. Accordingly a replication competent, recombinant vaccinia viral vector-expressing mIFN? (VV.mIFN?) was tested. VV.mIFN?-induced antitumor responses in two syngeneic mouse flank models of lung cancer. Although VV.mIFN? had equivalent in vivo efficacy in both murine tumor models, the mechanisms of tumor killing were completely different. In LKRM2 tumors, viral replication was minimal and the tumor killing mechanism was due to activation of immune responses through induction of a local inflammatory response and production of antitumor CD8 T-cells. In contrast, in TC-1 tumors, the vector replicated well, induced an innate immune response, but antitumor activity was primarily due to a direct oncolytic effect. However, the VV.mIFN? vector was able to augment the efficacy of an antitumor vaccine in the TC-1 tumor model in association with increased numbers of infiltrating CD8 T-cells. These data show the complex relationships between oncolytic viruses and the immune system which, if understood and harnessed correctly, could potentially be used to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy. PMID:22008913

  5. RNAi Screening for Host Factors Involved in Vaccinia Virus Infection using Drosophila Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Theresa S.; Sabin, Leah R.; Cherry, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Viral pathogens represent a significant public health threat; not only can viruses cause natural epidemics of human disease, but their potential use in bioterrorism is also a concern. A better understanding of the cellular factors that impact infection would facilitate the development of much-needed therapeutics. Recent advances in RNA interference (RNAi) technology coupled with complete genome sequencing of several organisms has led to the optimization of genome-wide, cell-based loss-of-function screens. Drosophila cells are particularly amenable to genome-scale screens because of the ease and efficiency of RNAi in this system 1. Importantly, a wide variety of viruses can infect Drosophila cells, including a number of mammalian viruses of medical and agricultural importance 2,3,4. Previous RNAi screens in Drosophila have identified host factors that are required for various steps in virus infection including entry, translation and RNA replication 5. Moreover, many of the cellular factors required for viral replication in Drosophila cell culture are also limiting in human cells infected with these viruses 4,6,7,8, 9. Therefore, the identification of host factors co-opted during viral infection presents novel targets for antiviral therapeutics. Here we present a generalized protocol for a high-throughput RNAi screen to identify cellular factors involved in viral infection, using vaccinia virus as an example. PMID:20834214

  6. [Overview of Ebola virus vaccine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Li, Jing; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes hemorrhagic fever, resulting in mortality rates as high as 90% among infected humans and non-human primates (NHPs). The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa is the severest in history, leading to WHO taking all control measures to stop any possibility of cross-border outbreaks. Because no licensed vaccines or effective therapeutics against EBOV are available, the current outbreak management has been limited to palliative care and barrier methods to prevent transmission. Several promising experimental EBOV vaccines have demonstrated protection in NHPs against lethal EBOV challenge, and some progresses have been made through clinical trials of EBOV vaccine candidates. It is believed there will be some licensed vaccine available in the near future to control EBOV outbreaks. In this review we provide some insights for further development of EBOV vaccines. PMID:26021076

  7. Incomplete protection, but suppression of virus burden, elicited by subunit simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Z R; Edmonson, P F; Maul, D H; O'Neil, S P; Mossman, S P; Thiriart, C; Fabry, L; Van Opstal, O; Bruck, C; Bex, F

    1994-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of immunization with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env glycoprotein (Env), Env plus Gag proteins (Gag-Env), or whole inactivated virus (WIV), with or without recombinant live vaccinia vector (VV) priming, in protecting 23 rhesus macaques (six vaccine and two control groups) from challenge with SIVmac251 clone BK28. Vaccination elicited high titers of syncytium-inhibiting and anti-Env (gp120/gp160) antibodies in all vaccinated macaques and anti-Gag (p27) antibodies in groups immunized with WIV or Gag-Env. Only WIV-immunized macaques developed anticell (HuT78) antibodies. After homologous low-dose intravenous virus challenge, we used frequency of virus isolation, provirus burden, and change in antibody titers to define four levels of resistance to SIV infection as follows. (i) No infection ("sterilizing" immunity) was induced only in WIV-immunized animals. (ii) Abortive infection (strong immunity) was defined when virus or provirus were detected early in the postchallenge period but not thereafter and no evidence of virus or provirus was detected in terminal tissues. This response was observed in two animals (one VV-Env and one Gag-Env). (iii) Suppression of infection (incomplete or partial immunity) described a gradient of virus suppression manifested by termination of viremia, declining postchallenge antibody titers, and low levels (composite mean = 9.1 copies per 10(6) cells) of provirus detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphoid tissues at termination (40 weeks postchallenge). This response occurred in the majority (8 of 12) of subunit-vaccinated animals. (iv) Active infection (no immunity) was characterized by persistent virus isolation from blood mononuclear cells, increasing viral antibody titers postchallenge, and high levels (composite mean = 198 copies per 10(6) cells) of provirus in terminal tissues and blood. Active infection developed in all controls and two of three VV-Gag-Env-immunized animals. The results of this study restate the protective effect of inactivated whole virus vaccines produced in heterologous cells but more importantly demonstrate that a gradient of suppression of challenge virus growth, reflecting partial resistance to SIV infection, is induced by subunit vaccination. The latter finding may be pertinent to studies with human immunodeficiency virus vaccines, in which it is plausible that vaccination may elicit significant suppression of virus infection and pathogenicity rather than sterilizing immunity. Images PMID:8107246

  8. Incomplete protection, but suppression of virus burden, elicited by subunit simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Israel, Z R; Edmonson, P F; Maul, D H; O'Neil, S P; Mossman, S P; Thiriart, C; Fabry, L; Van Opstal, O; Bruck, C; Bex, F

    1994-03-01

    We compared the efficacy of immunization with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env glycoprotein (Env), Env plus Gag proteins (Gag-Env), or whole inactivated virus (WIV), with or without recombinant live vaccinia vector (VV) priming, in protecting 23 rhesus macaques (six vaccine and two control groups) from challenge with SIVmac251 clone BK28. Vaccination elicited high titers of syncytium-inhibiting and anti-Env (gp120/gp160) antibodies in all vaccinated macaques and anti-Gag (p27) antibodies in groups immunized with WIV or Gag-Env. Only WIV-immunized macaques developed anticell (HuT78) antibodies. After homologous low-dose intravenous virus challenge, we used frequency of virus isolation, provirus burden, and change in antibody titers to define four levels of resistance to SIV infection as follows. (i) No infection ("sterilizing" immunity) was induced only in WIV-immunized animals. (ii) Abortive infection (strong immunity) was defined when virus or provirus were detected early in the postchallenge period but not thereafter and no evidence of virus or provirus was detected in terminal tissues. This response was observed in two animals (one VV-Env and one Gag-Env). (iii) Suppression of infection (incomplete or partial immunity) described a gradient of virus suppression manifested by termination of viremia, declining postchallenge antibody titers, and low levels (composite mean = 9.1 copies per 10(6) cells) of provirus detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphoid tissues at termination (40 weeks postchallenge). This response occurred in the majority (8 of 12) of subunit-vaccinated animals. (iv) Active infection (no immunity) was characterized by persistent virus isolation from blood mononuclear cells, increasing viral antibody titers postchallenge, and high levels (composite mean = 198 copies per 10(6) cells) of provirus in terminal tissues and blood. Active infection developed in all controls and two of three VV-Gag-Env-immunized animals. The results of this study restate the protective effect of inactivated whole virus vaccines produced in heterologous cells but more importantly demonstrate that a gradient of suppression of challenge virus growth, reflecting partial resistance to SIV infection, is induced by subunit vaccination. The latter finding may be pertinent to studies with human immunodeficiency virus vaccines, in which it is plausible that vaccination may elicit significant suppression of virus infection and pathogenicity rather than sterilizing immunity. PMID:8107246

  9. Lister strain vaccinia virus with thymidine kinase gene deletion is a tractable platform for development of a new generation of oncolytic virus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Wang, P; Alusi, G; Shi, H; Chu, Y; Wang, J; Bhakta, V; McNeish, I; McCart, A; Lemoine, N R; Wang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has many attractive characteristics as a potential cancer therapeutic. There are several strains of VV. The nonvaccine strain Western Reserve VV with deletion of both the thymidine kinase and the viral growth factor genes (known as WRDD) has been reported as the most potent tumor-targeted oncolytic VV. Other strains, such as the European vaccine Lister strain, are largely untested. This study evaluated the antitumor potency and biodistribution of different VV strains using in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. Lister strain virus with thymidine kinase gene deletion (VVΔTK) demonstrated superior antitumor potency and cancer-selective replication in vitro and in vivo, compared with WRDD, especially in human cancer cell lines and immune-competent hosts. Further investigation of functional mechanisms revealed that Lister VVΔTK presented favorable viral biodistribution within the tumors, with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with WRDD, suggesting that Lister strain may induce a diminished host inflammatory response. This study indicates that the Lister strain VVΔTK may be a particularly promising VV strain for the development of the next generation of tumor-targeted oncolytic therapeutics. PMID:25876464

  10. Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers.

    PubMed

    Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples. PMID:22003377

  11. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ebola virus E. coli Food safety threats Glanders Lassa fever Marburg virus Melioidosis Plague Case Definitions and Report ... Investigation Infection Control Other Resources Typhoid fever Viral hemorrhagic fevers Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ...

  12. Comparison of host cell gene expression in cowpox, monkeypox or vaccinia virus-infected cells reveals virus-specific regulation of immune response genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. They may be explained by the unique repertoire of immune and host cell modulating factors encoded by each virus. In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cell’s gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. Results Despite a dominating non-responsiveness of cellular transcription towards orthopoxvirus infection, we could identify several clusters of infection-modulated genes. These clusters are either commonly regulated by orthopoxvirus infection or are uniquely regulated by infection with a specific orthopoxvirus, with major differences being observed in immune response genes. Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. Conclusion Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles induced by infection with different orthopoxviruses vary significantly. It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species. PMID:23425254

  13. Comparable Polyfunctionality of Ectromelia Virus- and Vaccinia Virus-Specific Murine T Cells despite Markedly Different In Vivo Replication and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hersperger, Adam R.; Siciliano, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) stimulates long-term immunity against highly pathogenic orthopoxvirus infection of humans (smallpox) and mice (mousepox [ectromelia virus {ECTV}]) despite the lack of a natural host-pathogen relationship with either of these species. Previous research revealed that VACV is able to induce polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell responses after immunization of humans. However, the degree to which the functional profile of T cells induced by VACV is similar to that generated during natural poxvirus infection remains unknown. In this study, we monitored virus-specific T-cell responses following the dermal infection of C57BL/6 mice with ECTV or VACV. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we measured levels of degranulation, cytokine expression (gamma interferon [IFN-?], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]), and the cytolytic mediator granzyme B. We observed that the functional capacities of T cells induced by VACV and ECTV were of a similar quality in spite of the markedly different replication abilities and pathogenic outcomes of these viruses. In general, a significant fraction (?50%) of all T-cell responses were positive for at least three functions both during acute infection and into the memory phase. In vivo killing assays revealed that CD8+ T cells specific for both viruses were equally cytolytic (?80% target cell lysis after 4 h), consistent with the similar levels of granzyme B and degranulation detected among these cells. Collectively, these data provide a mechanism to explain the ability of VACV to induce protective T-cell responses against pathogenic poxviruses in their natural hosts and provide further support for the use of VACV as a vaccine platform able to induce polyfunctional T cells. PMID:22532670

  14. Vaccines, viruses, and voodoo.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Silva, Joseph; Gershwin, M Eric

    2002-01-01

    Vaccinations are invaluable in protection from a wide variety of diseases that can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Although a rare complication of vaccination, autoimmune disorders represent one of these morbidities. Recently, widespread public concern has arisen from case reports suggesting that--similar to what has been observed after natural viral infections--there might be an association between specific immunizations and autoimmune diseases. Herein we address the biological plausibility of such a connection, focusing particularly on the examples of hepatitis B, rubella, and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations, and the autoimmune diseases they are potentially associated with. Our review of the available data suggests that, for the general population, the risk: benefit ratio is overwhelmingly in favor of vaccinations. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that, in genetically susceptible individuals, vaccination can result in the unmasking of an autoimmune disease triggered by the immunization. We also critically examine the existing data suggesting a link between immunization against MMR and autism, and briefly discuss the controversial evidence pointing to a possible relationship between mercury exposure from vaccines and autistic disorders. There is a continued urgent need for rigorously designed and executed studies addressing these potential associations, although the use of vaccinations remains a critical public health tool for protection against infectious disease. PMID:12530114

  15. Vaccination with a Fusion Protein That Introduces HIV-1 Gag Antigen into a Multitrimer CD40L Construct Results in Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protection from Viral Challenge by Vaccinia-Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Raffa, Francesca N.; Williams, Cindi-Ann; Kornbluth, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) is a membrane protein that is important for the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-induced CD8+ T cell responses. To be active, CD40L must cluster CD40 receptors on responding cells. To produce a soluble form of CD40L that clusters CD40 receptors necessitates the use of a multitrimer construct. With this in mind, a tripartite fusion protein was made from surfactant protein D (SPD), HIV-1 Gag as a test antigen, and CD40L, where SPD serves as a scaffold for the multitrimer protein complex. This SPD-Gag-CD40L protein activated CD40-bearing cells and bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. Compared to a plasmid for Gag antigen alone (pGag), DNA vaccination of mice with pSPD-Gag-CD40L induced an increased number of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells with increased avidity for major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Gag peptide and improved vaccine-induced protection from challenge by vaccinia-Gag virus. The importance of the multitrimeric nature of the complex was shown using a plasmid lacking the N terminus of SPD that produced a single trimer fusion protein. This plasmid, pTrimer-Gag-CD40L, was only weakly active on CD40-bearing cells and did not elicit strong CD8+ T cell responses or improve protection from vaccinia-Gag challenge. An adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vaccine incorporating SPD-Gag-CD40L was much stronger than Ad5 expressing Gag alone (Ad5-Gag) and induced complete protection (i.e., sterilizing immunity) from vaccinia-Gag challenge. Overall, these results show the potential of a new vaccine design in which antigen is introduced into a construct that expresses a multitrimer soluble form of CD40L, leading to strongly protective CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:24227853

  16. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) effectively boosts DNA-primed HIV-specific immune responses in humans despite pre-existing vaccinia immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Nilsson, Charlotta; Brave, Andreas; Hejdeman, Bo; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Robb, Merlin; Cox, Josephine; Michael, Nelson; Marovich, Mary; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sandström, Eric; Wahren, Britta

    2016-01-01

    The presence of vector-specific immune responses may hamper the induction of responses to a foreign antigen encoded by the vector. We evaluated the impact of pre-existing immunity to vaccinia virus on the induction of HIV-specific responses after immunization of healthy volunteers with a HIV-1 DNA prime-MVA boost vaccine. Following three priming immunizations with HIV-1 DNA plasmids, the volunteers were boosted with a single injection of recombinant MVA encoding HIV-1 proteins. Pre-existing immunity to vaccinia virus did not reduce the proportion of individuals who responded to HIV-1, but did lower the magnitude of responses. Our results suggest that vaccinia-based vectors can be used to efficiently induce immune responses to vectored HIV-1 antigens, even in individuals with pre-existing immunity to vaccinia virus. PMID:19450644

  17. New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Promise Research may also aid in development of Zika virus vaccine, expert suggests To use the sharing features ... of other major health concerns such as the Zika virus. "The dengue virus is closely related to Zika ...

  18. Vaccinia virus binds to the scavenger receptor MARCO on the surface of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Daniel T; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Wang, Zhenping; di Nardo, Anna; Gallo, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with altered skin immunity, such as individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD), can have a life-threatening disruption of the epidermis known as eczema vaccinatum after vaccinia virus (VV) infection of the skin. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanism(s) by which VV associates with keratinocytes. The class A scavenger receptor known as MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) is expressed on human and mouse keratinocytes and found to be abundantly expressed in the skin of patients with AD. VV bound directly to MARCO, and overexpression of MARCO increased susceptibility to VV infection. Furthermore, ligands with affinity for MARCO, or excess soluble MARCO, competitively inhibited VV infection. These findings indicate that MARCO promotes VV infection and highlights potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention of VV infection in the skin. PMID:25089661

  19. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-06-05

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1 - low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2 - the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3 - knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  1. Steroid hormone synthesis by a vaccinia enzyme: a new type of virus virulence factor.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J B; Smith, G L

    1992-01-01

    Vaccinia virus open reading frame (ORF) SalF7L has 31% amino acid identity to human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD). Here we show that SalF7L encodes an active 3 beta-HSD, by the conversion of pregnenolone to the steroid hormone progesterone. The gene is transcribed early during infection into a 1.4 kb mRNA from an initiation site 12 bp upstream of the ORF. An antiserum raised against bacterially expressed SalF7L immunoprecipitated a 38 kDa polypeptide from infected cells, but not from mock infected cells or from cells infected with a mutant virus from which the SalF7L ORF had been removed. Deletion of the gene had no effect on virus replication in CV-1 cells in culture, yet the deletion mutant was attenuated when intranasally inoculated into mice. This steroid hormone synthesizing enzyme is a novel type of virus virulence factor. Images PMID:1582424

  2. Silver nanoparticles inhibit vaccinia virus infection by preventing viral entry through a macropinocytosis-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Trefry, John C; Wooley, Dawn P

    2013-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been shown to inhibit viruses. However, very little is known about the mechanism of antiviral activity. This study tested the hypothesis that 25-nm silver nanoparticles inhibited Vaccinia virus replication by preventing viral entry. Plaque reduction, confocal microscopy, and beta-galactosidase reporter gene assays were used to examine viral attachment and entry in the presence and absence of silver nanoparticles. To explore the mechanism of inhibition, viral entry experiments were conducted with silver nanoparticles and small interfering RNAs designed to silence the gene coding for p21-activated kinase 1, a key mediator of macropinocytosis. The silver nanoparticles caused a 4- to 5-log reduction in viral titer at concentrations that were not toxic to cells. Virus was capable of adsorbing to cells but could not enter cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles. Virus particles that had adsorbed to cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles were found to be infectious upon removal from the cells, indicating lack of direct virucidal effect. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for viral entry in the presence of silver nanoparticles was 27.4+/-3.3 microg/ml. When macropinocytosis was blocked, this inhibition was significantly reduced. Thus, macropinocytosis was required for the full antiviral effect. For the first time, this study points to the novel result that a cellular process involved in viral entry is responsible for the antiviral effects of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23980510

  3. Identification of Complement Regulatory Domains in Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mullick, Jayati; Bernet, John; Panse, Yogesh; Hallihosur, Sharanabasava; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Sahu, Arvind

    2005-01-01

    Vaccinia virus encodes a homolog of the human complement regulators named vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP). It is composed of four contiguous complement control protein (CCP) domains. Previously, VCP has been shown to bind to C3b and C4b and to inactivate the classical and alternative pathway C3 convertases by accelerating the decay of the classical pathway C3 convertase and (to a limited extent) the alternative pathway C3 convertase, as well as by supporting the factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b and C4b (the subunits of C3 convertases). In this study, we have mapped the CCP domains of VCP important for its cofactor activities, decay-accelerating activities, and binding to the target proteins by utilizing a series of deletion mutants. Our data indicate the following. (i) CCPs 1 to 3 are essential for cofactor activity for C3b and C4b; however, CCP 4 also contributes to the optimal activity. (ii) CCPs 1 to 2 are enough to mediate the classical pathway decay-accelerating activity but show very minimal activity, and all the four CCPs are necessary for its efficient activity. (iii) CCPs 2 to 4 mediate the alternative pathway decay-accelerating activity. (iv) CCPs 1 to 3 are required for binding to C3b and C4b, but the presence of CCP 4 enhances the affinity for both the target proteins. These results together demonstrate that the entire length of the protein is required for VCP's various functional activities and suggests why the four-domain structure of viral CCP is conserved in poxviruses. PMID:16160165

  4. From lesions to viral clones: biological and molecular diversity amongst autochthonous Brazilian vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Graziele; Assis, Felipe; Almeida, Gabriel; Albarnaz, Jonas; Lima, Maurício; Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Calixto, Rafael; Oliveira, Cairo; Diomedes Neto, José; Trindade, Giliane; Ferreira, Paulo César; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas

    2015-03-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. PMID:25785515

  5. From Lesions to Viral Clones: Biological and Molecular Diversity amongst Autochthonous Brazilian Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Graziele; Assis, Felipe; Almeida, Gabriel; Albarnaz, Jonas; Lima, Maurício; Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Calixto, Rafael; Oliveira, Cairo; Neto, José Diomedes; Trindade, Giliane; Ferreira, Paulo César; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. PMID:25785515

  6. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit without exhibiting any clinical signs. PMID:26000966

  7. Transcriptional and translational analysis of a strongly expressed early region of the vaccinia virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Golini, F; Kates, J R

    1984-01-01

    A transcriptional and translational map was obtained for a 7-kilobase pair EcoRI fragment of vaccinia virus DNA containing 4% of the viral genome. This particular region contains a cluster of early genes which are transcribed in viral cores in vitro and in infected cells before uncoating of the viral DNA. Expression of this region was characterized by using vaccinia virus DNA sequences cloned in phage and plasmid vectors. Polypeptides encoded on the 7-kilobase pair fragment were identified by cell-free translation of viral mRNA selected by hybridization to immobilized DNA fragments. Early RNA programmed the synthesis of six proteins having apparent molecular weights of 63,000, 38,000, 37,000, 25,000, 15,000, and 13,000. The same result was obtained with RNA synthesized in vitro. A new species of 40 kilodaltons was synthesized in response to late RNA. Of the six "early" polypeptides, only the 13-kilodalton component was synthesized from late mRNA. RNA derived from the 7-kilobase pair region was analyzed by a variety of methods including hybridization blot, in vitro recapping, and S1 nuclease techniques. A surprisingly complex pattern of early transcription was found, indicating the existence of families of overlapping RNA species which share common 5'-proximal sequences. In addition, larger RNAs were identified spanning two or more adjacent genes. These RNAs appear to possess a common 5' terminus with transcripts derived from the first gene and are coterminal at the 3' end with RNAs from the downstream gene. Late RNA encoding the 40-kilodalton protein was shown to be heterogeneous in size. A single 5' terminus but no unique 3' terminus was identified for this class of transcripts. RNA species synthesized by cores in vitro were of similar size to authentic transcripts isolated from infected cells at early times. Images PMID:6319745

  8. Nucleotide sequence of XhoI O fragment of ectromelia virus DNA reveals significant differences from vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Senkevich, T G; Muravnik, G L; Pozdnyakov, S G; Chizhikov, V E; Ryazankina, O I; Shchelkunov, S N; Koonin, E V; Chernos, V I

    1993-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 3913 base pair XhoI O fragment located in an evolutionary variable region adjacent to the right end of the genome of ectromelia virus (EMV) was determined. The sequence contains two long open reading frames coding for putative proteins of 559 amino acid residues (p65) and 344 amino acid residues (p39). Amino acid database searches showed that p39 is closely related to vaccinia virus (VV), strain WR, B22R gene product (C12L gene product of strain Copenhagen), which belongs to the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Despite the overall high conservation, differences were observed in the sequences of p39, B22R, and C12L in the site known to interact with proteases in other serpins, suggesting that the serpins of EMV and two strains of VV may all inhibit proteases with different specificities. The gene coding for the ortholog of p65 is lacking in the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus; the WR strain contains a truncated variant of this gene (B21R) potentially coding for a small protein (p16) corresponding to the C-terminal region of p65. p65 is a new member of the family of poxvirus proteins including vaccinia virus proteins A55R, C2L and F3L, and a group of related proteins of leporipoxviruses, Shope fibroma and myxoma viruses (T6, T8, T9, M9). These proteins are homologous to the Drosophila protein Kelch involved in egg development. Both Kelch protein and the related poxvirus proteins contain two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain is related to the similarly located domains of transcription factors Ttk, Br-C (Drosophila), and KUP (human), and GCL protein involved in early development in Drosophila. The C-terminal domain consists of an array of four to five imperfect repeats and is related to human placental protein MIPP. Phylogenetic analysis of the family of poxvirus proteins showed that their genes have undergone a complex succession of duplications, and complete or partial deletions. PMID:8266721

  9. Control of vaccinia virus skin lesions by long-term-maintained IFN-?+TNF-?+ effector/memory CD4+ lymphocytes in humans

    PubMed Central

    Puissant-Lubrano, Bndicte; Bossi, Philippe; Gay, Frederick; Crance, Jean-Marc; Bonduelle, Olivia; Garin, Daniel; Bricaire, Franois; Autran, Brigitte; Combadire, Behazine

    2010-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) vaccination is used to immunize against smallpox and historically was considered to have been successful if a skin lesion formed at the vaccination site. While antibody responses have been widely proposed as a correlate of efficacy and protection in humans, the role of cellular and humoral immunity in VV-associated skin lesion formation was unknown. We therefore investigated whether long-term residual humoral and cellular immune memory to VV, persisting 30 years after vaccination, could control VV-induced skin lesion in revaccinated individuals. Here, we have shown that residual VV-specific IFN-?+TNF-?+ or IFN-?+IL-2+ CD4+ lymphocytes but not CD8+ effector/memory lymphocytes expressing a skin-homing marker are inversely associated with the size of the skin lesion formed in response to revaccination. Indeed, high numbers of residual effector T cells were associated with lower VV skin lesion size after revaccination. In contrast, long-term residual VV-specific neutralizing antibody (NAbs) titers did not affect skin lesion formation. However, the size of the skin lesion strongly correlated with high levels of NAbs boosted after revaccination. These findings demonstrate a potential role for VV-specific CD4+ responses at the site of VV-associated skin lesion, thereby providing new insight into immune responses at these sites and potentially contributing to the development of new approaches to measure the efficacy of VV vaccination. PMID:20364089

  10. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines. PMID:26596227

  11. Recombinant vaccines against bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Jabbar, Tamara; Ortego, Javier; de la Poza, Francisco; Marín-López, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae and is transmitted via biting midges of the genus Culicoides. BTV can be found on all continents except Antarctica, and up to 26 immunologically distinct BTV serotypes have been identified. Live attenuated and inactivated BTV vaccines have been used over the years with different degrees of success. The multiple outbreaks of BTV in Mediterranean Europe in the last two decades and the incursion of BTV-8 in Northern Europe in 2008 has re-stimulated the interest to develop improved vaccination strategies against BTV. In particular, safer, cross-reactive, more efficacious vaccines with differential diagnostic capability have been pursued by multiple BTV research groups and vaccine manufacturers. A wide variety of recombinant BTV vaccine prototypes have been investigated, ranging from baculovirus-expressed sub-unit vaccines to the use of live viral vectors. This article gives a brief overview of all these modern approaches to develop vaccines against BTV including some recent unpublished data. PMID:24287057

  12. Rapid Expansion of CD8+ T Cells in Wild-Type and Type I Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice Correlates with Protection after Low-Dose Emergency Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Asisa; Langenmayer, Martin; Jany, Sylvia; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can rapidly protect mice against lethal ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection, serving as an experimental model for severe systemic infections. Importantly, this early protective capacity of MVA vaccination completely depends on virus-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. We used MVA vaccination in the mousepox challenge model using ECTV infection to investigate the previously unknown factors required to elicit rapid protective T cell immunity in normal C57BL/6 mice and in mice lacking the interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR?/?). We found a minimal dose of 105 PFU of MVA vaccine fully sufficient to allow robust protection against lethal mousepox, as assessed by the absence of disease symptoms and failure to detect ECTV in organs from vaccinated animals. Moreover, MVA immunization at low dosage also protected IFNAR?/? mice, indicating efficient activation of cellular immunity even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. When monitoring for virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice vaccinated with the minimal protective dose of MVA, we found significantly enhanced levels of antigen-specific T cells in animals that were MVA vaccinated and ECTV challenged compared to mice that were only vaccinated. The initial priming of naive CD8+ T cells by MVA immunization appears to be highly efficient and, even at low doses, mediates a rapid in vivo burst of pathogen-specific T cells upon challenge. Our findings define striking requirements for protective emergency immunization against severe systemic infections with orthopoxviruses. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that single-shot low-dose immunizations with vaccinia virus MVA can rapidly induce T cell-mediated protective immunity against lethal orthopoxvirus infections. Our data provide new evidence for an efficient protective capacity of vaccination with replication-deficient MVA. These data are of important practical relevance for public health, as the effectiveness of a safety-tested, next-generation smallpox vaccine based on MVA is still debated. Furthermore, producing sufficient amounts of vaccine is expected to be a major challenge should an outbreak occur. Moreover, prevention of other infections may require rapidly protective immunization; hence, MVA could be an extremely useful vaccine for delivering heterologous T cell antigens, particularly for infectious diseases that fit a scenario of emergency vaccination. PMID:25008931

  13. Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine using ChAd63 and modified vaccinia Ankara expressing thrombospondin-related anonymous protein as assessed with transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites.

    PubMed

    Bauza, Karolis; Malinauskas, Tomas; Pfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Jones, E Yvonne; Billker, Oliver; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the world's most widely distributed malaria parasite and a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for approximately 2.85 billion people living mainly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Despite this dramatic burden, very few vaccines have been assessed in humans. The clinically relevant vectors modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 are promising delivery systems for malaria vaccines due to their safety profiles and proven ability to induce protective immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development of new recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors expressing P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) and show their ability to induce high antibody titers and T cell responses in mice. In addition, we report a novel way of assessing the efficacy of new candidate vaccines against P. vivax using a fully infectious transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing P. vivax TRAP to allow studies of vaccine efficacy and protective mechanisms in rodents. Using this model, we found that both CD8+ T cells and antibodies mediated protection against malaria using virus-vectored vaccines. Our data indicate that ChAd63 and MVA expressing PvTRAP are good preerythrocytic-stage vaccine candidates with potential for future clinical application. PMID:24379295

  14. Heat shock protein and heat shock factor 1 expression and localization in vaccinia virus infected human monocyte derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Guzik, Krzysztof; Slezak, Kinga; Dziedzic, Jakub; Rokita, Hanna

    2005-01-01

    Background Viruses remain one of the inducers of the stress response in the infected cells. Heat shock response induced by vaccinia virus (VV) infection was studied in vitro in human blood monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) as blood cells usually constitute the primary site of the infection. Methods Human blood monocytes were cultured for 12 – 14 days. The transcripts of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and two viral genes (E3L and F17R) were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the corresponding proteins measured by Western blot. Heat shock factor 1 DNA binding activities were estimated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and its subcellular localization analyzed by immunocytofluorescence. Results It appeared that infection with vaccinia virus leads to activation of the heat shock factor 1. Activation of HSF1 causes increased synthesis of an inducible form of the HSP70 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Although HSP90 mRNA was enhanced in vaccinia virus infected cells, the HSP90 protein content remained unchanged. At the time of maximum vaccinia virus gene expression, an inhibitory effect of the infection on the heat shock protein and the heat shock factor 1 was most pronounced. Moreover, at the early phase of the infection translocation of HSP70 and HSP90 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the infected cells was observed. Conclusion Preferential nuclear accumulation of HSP70, the major stress-inducible chaperone protein, suggests that VV employs this particular mechanism of cytoprotection to protect the infected cell rather than to help viral replication. The results taken together with our previuos data on monocytes or MDMs infected with VV or S. aureus strongly argue that VV employs multiple cellular antiapoptotic/cytoprotective mechanisms to prolong viability and proinflammatory activity of the cells of monocytic-macrophage lineage. PMID:16246258

  15. A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D.; Griffin, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50?% may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1? is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (v?C16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with v?C16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1?. PMID:25351724

  16. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  17. Cryo X-ray nano-tomography of vaccinia virus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Chichn, Francisco Javier; Rodrguez, Maria Josefa; Pereiro, Eva; Chiappi, Michele; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Rehbein, Stefan; Schneider, Gerd; Esteban, Mariano; Carrascosa, Jos L

    2012-02-01

    We have performed full-field cryo X-ray microscopy in the water window photon energy range on vaccinia virus (VACV) infected cells to produce tomographic reconstructions. PtK2 cells were infected with a GFP-expressing VACV strain and frozen by plunge fast freezing. The infected cells were selected by light fluorescence microscopy of the GFP marker and subsequently imaged in the X-ray microscope under cryogenic conditions. Tomographic tilt series of X-ray images were used to yield three-dimensional reconstructions showing different cell organelles (nuclei, mitochondria, filaments), together with other structures derived from the virus infection. Among them, it was possible to detect viral factories and two types of viral particles related to different maturation steps of VACV (immature and mature particles), which were compared to images obtained by standard electron microscopy of the same type of cells. In addition, the effect of radiation damage during X-ray tomographic acquisition was analyzed. Thin sections studied by electron microscopy revealed that the morphological features of the cells do not present noticeable changes after irradiation. Our findings show that cryo X-ray nano-tomography is a powerful tool for collecting three-dimensional structural information from frozen, unfixed, unstained whole cells with sufficient resolution to detect different virus particles exhibiting distinct maturation levels. PMID:22178221

  18. Identification of inhibitors that block vaccinia virus infection by targeting the DNA synthesis processivity factor D4.

    PubMed

    Nuth, Manunya; Huang, Lijuan; Saw, Yih Ling; Schormann, Norbert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish; Ricciardi, Robert P

    2011-05-12

    Smallpox was globally eradicated 30 years ago by vaccination. The recent threat of bioterrorism demands the development of improved vaccines and novel therapeutics to effectively preclude a reemergence of smallpox. One new therapeutic target is the vaccinia poxvirus processivity complex, comprising D4 and A20 proteins that enable the viral E9 DNA polymerase to synthesize extended strands. Five compounds identified from an AlphaScreen assay designed to disrupt A20:D4 binding were shown to be effective in: (i) blocking vaccinia processive DNA synthesis in vitro, (ii) preventing cellular infection with minimal cytotoxicity, and (iii) binding to D4, as evidenced by ThermoFluor. The EC(50) values for inhibition of viral infectivity ranged from 9.6 to 23 ?M with corresponding selectivity indices (cytotoxicity CC(50)/viral infectivity EC(50)) of 3.9 to 17.8. The five compounds are thus potential therapeutics capable of halting smallpox DNA synthesis and infectivity through disruptive action against a component of the vaccinia processivity complex. PMID:21438571

  19. Comparison of the Cowpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion Proteome: Analysis of the Species- and Strain-Specific Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Doellinger, Joerg; Schaade, Lars; Nitsche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) causes most zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe and Northern as well as Central Asia. The virus has the broadest host range of OPV and is transmitted to humans from rodents and other wild or domestic animals. Increasing numbers of human CPXV infections in a population with declining immunity have raised concerns about the virus’ zoonotic potential. While there have been reports on the proteome of other human-pathogenic OPV, namely vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), the protein composition of the CPXV mature virion (MV) is unknown. This study focused on the comparative analysis of the VACV and CPXV MV proteome by label-free single-run proteomics using nano liquid chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The presented data reveal that the common VACV and CPXV MV proteome contains most of the known conserved and essential OPV proteins and is associated with cellular proteins known to be essential for viral replication. While the species-specific proteome could be linked mainly to less genetically-conserved gene products, the strain-specific protein abundance was found to be of high variance in proteins associated with entry, host-virus interaction and protein processing. PMID:26556597

  20. Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine protection in mice challenged with ectromelia virus.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered a first response to a smallpox emergency in subjects of uncertain exposure status or as a means of reduction of the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events. PMID:25128688

  1. The formin FHOD1 and the small GTPase Rac1 promote vaccinia virus actin–based motility

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Diego E.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus dissemination relies on the N-WASP–ARP2/3 pathway, which mediates actin tail formation underneath cell-associated extracellular viruses (CEVs). Here, we uncover a previously unappreciated role for the formin FHOD1 and the small GTPase Rac1 in vaccinia actin tail formation. FHOD1 depletion decreased the number of CEVs forming actin tails and impaired the elongation rate of the formed actin tails. Recruitment of FHOD1 to actin tails relied on its GTPase binding domain in addition to its FH2 domain. In agreement with previous studies showing that FHOD1 is activated by the small GTPase Rac1, Rac1 was enriched and activated at the membrane surrounding actin tails. Rac1 depletion or expression of dominant-negative Rac1 phenocopied the effects of FHOD1 depletion and impaired the recruitment of FHOD1 to actin tails. FHOD1 overexpression rescued the actin tail formation defects observed in cells overexpressing dominant-negative Rac1. Altogether, our results indicate that, to display robust actin-based motility, vaccinia virus integrates the activity of the N-WASP–ARP2/3 and Rac1–FHOD1 pathways. PMID:24062339

  2. Efficient colonization and therapy of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the oncolytic vaccinia virus strain GLV-1h68.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Mller, Meike; Adelfinger, Marion; Weibel, Stephanie; Grummt, Friedrich; Zimmermann, Martina; Bitzer, Michael; Heisig, Martin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yong A; Chen, Nanhai G; Stritzker, Jochen; Lauer, Ulrich M; Szalay, Aladar A

    2011-01-01

    Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains is one of the most promising new strategies for cancer therapy. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 in two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HuH7 and PLC/PRF/5 (PLC) in cell culture and in tumor xenograft models. By viral proliferation assays and cell survival tests, we demonstrated that GLV-1h68 efficiently colonized, replicated in, and did lyse these cancer cells in culture. Experiments with HuH7 and PLC xenografts have revealed that a single intravenous injection (i.v.) of mice with GLV-1h68 resulted in a significant reduction of primary tumor sizes compared to uninjected controls. In addition, replication of GLV-1h68 in tumor cells led to strong inflammatory and oncolytic effects resulting in intense infiltration of MHC class II-positive cells like neutrophils, macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells and in up-regulation of 13 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, GLV-1h68 infection of PLC tumors inhibited the formation of hemorrhagic structures which occur naturally in PLC tumors. Interestingly, we found a strongly reduced vascular density in infected PLC tumors only, but not in the non-hemorrhagic HuH7 tumor model. These data demonstrate that the GLV-1h68 vaccinia virus may have an enormous potential for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma in man. PMID:21779374

  3. Interplay between Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara and Dendritic Cells: Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Bystander Dendritic Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Pascutti, María F.; Rodríguez, Ana M.; Falivene, Juliana; Giavedoni, Luis; Drexler, Ingo; Gherardi, M. Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated poxvirus strain, currently under evaluation as a vaccine vector in various clinical settings. It has been reported that human dendritic cells (DCs) mature after infection with MVA, but reports on the functionality of DCs have so far been controversial. In this work, we studied the phenotype and functionality of MVA-infected DCs. As previously reported, we found that human monocyte-derived DCs upregulated CD86 and HLA-DR in response to MVA infection. Moreover, infected DCs produced a broad array of chemokines and cytokines and were able to activate and induce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production both in CD4+ and in CD8+ allogeneic T cells and in specific autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Analysis of DC maturation following infection with a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing MVA revealed that upregulation of CD86 expression was mainly observed in GFPneg (bystander) cells. While GFPpos (infected) DCs produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), they were unable to produce CXCL10 and were less efficient at inducing IFN-γ production in CEF-specific autologous PBLs. Maturation of bystander DCs could be achieved by incubation with supernatant from infected cultures or with apoptotic infected cells. Type I IFNs were partially responsible for the induction of CXCL10 on bystander DCs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that, in MVA-infected DC cultures, the leading role with respect to functionality and maturation characteristics is achieved by the bystander DCs. PMID:21411535

  4. NFκB activation by modified vaccinia virus as a novel strategy to enhance neutrophil migration and HIV-specific T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Mauro; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Zonca, Manuela; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Trakala, Marianna; Nieto, Jacobo; Nájera, José Luis; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Combadière, Christophe; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Planelles, Lourdes; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-03-17

    Neutrophils are antigen-transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. We generated an attenuated VACV strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens but lacks three specific viral genes (A52R, K7R, and B15R). We found that these genes act together to inhibit the NFκB signaling pathway. Triple ablation in modified virus restored NFκB function in macrophages. After virus infection of mice, NFκB pathway activation led to expression of several cytokines/chemokines that increased the migration of neutrophil populations (Nα and Nβ) to the infection site. Nβ cells displayed features of antigen-presenting cells and activated virus-specific CD8 T cells. Enhanced neutrophil trafficking to the infection site correlated with an increased T-cell response to HIV vector-delivered antigens. These results identify a mechanism for poxvirus-induced immune response and alternatives for vaccine vector design. PMID:25739961

  5. NF?B activation by modified vaccinia virus as a novel strategy to enhance neutrophil migration and HIV-specific T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Di Pilato, Mauro; Mejas-Prez, Ernesto; Zonca, Manuela; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gmez, Carmen Elena; Trakala, Marianna; Nieto, Jacobo; Njera, Jos Luis; S. Sorzano, Carlos Oscar; Combadire, Christophe; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Planelles, Lourdes; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are antigen-transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. We generated an attenuated VACV strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens but lacks three specific viral genes (A52R, K7R, and B15R). We found that these genes act together to inhibit the NF?B signaling pathway. Triple ablation in modified virus restored NF?B function in macrophages. After virus infection of mice, NF?B pathway activation led to expression of several cytokines/chemokines that increased the migration of neutrophil populations (N? and N?) to the infection site. N? cells displayed features of antigen-presenting cells and activated virus-specific CD8 T cells. Enhanced neutrophil trafficking to the infection site correlated with an increased T-cell response to HIV vector-delivered antigens. These results identify a mechanism for poxvirus-induced immune response and alternatives for vaccine vector design. PMID:25739961

  6. Highly efficient expression of proteins encoded by recombinant vaccinia virus in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J M; Rodriguez, J; Viñuela, E; Kroemer, G; Martínez, C

    1991-11-01

    Using a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) that expresses E. coli beta galactosidase (beta-Gal) to infect lymphocytes, we show that enzymometrically or immunologically detectable beta-Gal expression is less pronounced among T cells than among B cells. VV infection caused growth inhibition of B cells, but barely affected T-cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, the production of infectious viral particles was less pronounced in T lymphocytes. Kinetic studies revealed that after an initial dose-dependent growth inhibition, T cells continued to proliferate without the doubling time being affected by VV infection. Nonetheless, the T cells do express proteins encoded by recombinant VV, such as beta-Gal, or secrete soluble proteins such as interleukin-4, though at a lower efficiency at the per cell level than B lymphocytes. In conclusion, the physiology of T cells appears to be less perturbed by VV than that of B cells, although the virus is capable of directing expression of recombinant genes to T lymphocytes. PMID:1947797

  7. Vaccinia virus protein N2 is a nuclear IRF3 inhibitor that promotes virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brian J.; Benfield, Camilla T. O.; Ren, Hongwei; Lee, Vivian H.; Frazer, Gordon L.; Strnadova, Pavla; Sumner, Rebecca P.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) expresses many proteins that are non-essential for virus replication but promote virulence by inhibiting components of the host immune response to infection. These immunomodulators include a family of proteins that have, or are predicted to have, a structure related to the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 protein. Five members of the VACV Bcl-2 family (N1, B14, A52, F1 and K7) have had their crystal structure solved, others have been characterized and a function assigned (C6, A46), and others are predicted to be Bcl-2 proteins but are uncharacterized hitherto (N2, B22, C1). Data presented here show that N2 is a nuclear protein that is expressed early during infection and inhibits the activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3. Consistent with its nuclear localization, N2 inhibits IRF3 downstream of the TANK-binding kinase (TBK)-1 and after IRF3 translocation into the nucleus. A mutant VACV strain Western Reserve lacking the N2L gene (v?N2) showed normal replication and spread in cultured cells compared to wild-type parental (vN2) and revertant (vN2-rev) viruses, but was attenuated in two murine models of infection. After intranasal infection, the v?N2 mutant induced lower weight loss and signs of illness, and virus was cleared more rapidly from the infected tissue. In the intradermal model of infection, v?N2 induced smaller lesions that were resolved more rapidly. In summary, the N2 protein is an intracellular virulence factor that inhibits IRF3 activity in the nucleus. PMID:23761407

  8. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  9. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  10. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  11. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  12. Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

  13. Efficacy of a virus-vectored vaccine against human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine; Thom, Michelle; Capone, Stefania; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Guzman, Efrain; Herbert, Rebecca; Scarselli, Elisa; Napolitano, Federico; Giuliani, Alessandro; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Nicosia, Alfredo; Vitelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-12

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and the elderly for which there is still no effective vaccine. We have previously shown that PanAd3-RSV, which is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate that expresses a secreted form of the HRSV F protein together with the N and M2-1 proteins of HRSV, is immunogenic in rodents and nonhuman primates, and protects mice and cotton rats from HRSV challenge. Because the extent to which protection demonstrated in rodent models will translate to humans is unclear, we have exploited the calf model of bovine RSV (BRSV) infection, which mimics HRSV disease in children more closely than do experimental models of unnatural laboratory hosts, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PanAd3-RSV vaccine. We show that PanAd3-RSV alone and in combination with a modified vaccinia Ankara expressing the same HRSV antigens (MVA-RSV) induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity in young seronegative calves and protected against upper and lower respiratory tract infection and pulmonary disease induced by heterologous BRSV challenge. There was no evidence either of enhanced pulmonary pathology or of enhanced respiratory disease in vaccinated calves after BRSV challenge. These findings support the continued evaluation of the vectored RSV vaccines in man. PMID:26268314

  14. Multiserotype Protection Elicited by a Combinatorial Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategy against Bluetongue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Navasa, Nicols; Anguita, Juan; Ortego, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of novel strategies to develop marker and safe vaccines against BTV. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) expressing VP2, VP7 and NS1 proteins from BTV-4. IFNAR(?/?) mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7-NS1 in an heterologous prime boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of antibodies specific of VP2, VP7, and NS1, including those with neutralizing activity against BTV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific CD8+ T cell responses against these three BTV proteins. Importantly, the vaccine combination expressing NS1, VP2 and VP7 proteins of BTV-4, elicited sterile protection against a lethal dose of homologous BTV-4 infection. Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV. PMID:22514660

  15. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  16. The Vaccinia Virus F1L Protein Interacts with the Proapoptotic Protein Bak and Inhibits Bak Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wasilenko, Shawn T.; Banadyga, Logan; Bond, David; Barry, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Many viruses have evolved strategies to counteract cellular immune responses, including apoptosis. Vaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family, encodes an antiapoptotic protein, F1L. F1L localizes to mitochondria and inhibits apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c by an undetermined mechanism (S. T. Wasilenko, T. L. Stewart, A. F. Meyers, and M. Barry, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:14345-14350, 2003; T. L. Stewart, S. T. Wasilenko, and M. Barry, J. Virol. 79:1084-1098, 2005). Here, we show that in the absence of an apoptotic stimulus, F1L associates with Bak, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that plays a pivotal role in the release of cytochrome c. Cells infected with vaccinia virus were resistant to Bak oligomerization and the initial N-terminal exposure of Bak following the induction of apoptosis with staurosporine. A mutant vaccinia virus missing F1L was no longer able to inhibit apoptosis or Bak activation. In addition, the expression of F1L was essential to inhibit tBid-induced cytochrome c release in both wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and Bax-deficient MEFs, indicating that F1L could inhibit apoptosis in the presence and absence of Bax. tBid-induced Bak oligomerization and N-terminal exposure of Bak in Bax-deficient MEFs were inhibited during virus infection, as assessed by cross-linking and limited trypsin proteolysis. Infection with the F1L deletion virus no longer provided protection from tBid-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Additionally, infection of Jurkat cells with the F1L deletion virus resulted in cellular apoptosis, as measured by loss of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase 3 activation, and cytochrome c release, indicating that the presence of F1L was pivotal for inhibiting vaccinia virus-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that F1L expression during infection inhibits apoptosis and interferes with the activation of Bak. PMID:16254338

  17. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Induces Protective Neutralizing Antibodies Primarily Targeting the Receptor Binding Region

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Linqi; Qin, Chuan; Ba, Lei; Yi, Christopher E.; Zhang, Fengwen; Wei, Qiang; He, Tian; Yu, Wenjie; Yu, Jian; Gao, Hong; Tu, Xinming; Gettie, Agegnehu; Farzan, Michael; Yuen, Kwok-yung; Ho, David D.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization with a killed or inactivated viral vaccine provides significant protection in animals against challenge with certain corresponding pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs). However, the promise of this approach in humans is hampered by serious concerns over the risk of leaking live severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) viruses. In this study, we generated a SARS vaccine candidate by using the live-attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vector. The full-length SARS-CoV envelope Spike (S) glycoprotein gene was introduced into the deletion III region of the MVA genome. The newly generated recombinant MVA, ADS-MVA, is replication incompetent in mammalian cells and highly immunogenic in terms of inducing potent neutralizing antibodies in mice, rabbits, and monkeys. After two intramuscular vaccinations with ADS-MVA alone, the 50% inhibitory concentration in serum was achieved with reciprocal sera dilutions of more than 1,000- to 10,000-fold in these animals. Using fragmented S genes as immunogens, we also mapped a neutralizing epitope in the region of N-terminal 400 to 600 amino acids of the S glycoprotein (S400-600), which overlaps with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-binding region (RBR; S318-510). Moreover, using a recombinant soluble RBR-Fc protein, we were able to absorb and remove the majority of the neutralizing antibodies despite observing that the full S protein tends to induce a broader spectrum of neutralizing activities in comparison with fragmented S proteins. Our data suggest that a major mechanism for neutralizing SARS-CoV likely occurs through blocking the interaction between virus and the cellular receptor ACE2. In addition, ADS-MVA induced potent immune responses which very likely protected Chinese rhesus monkeys from pathogenic SARS-CoV challenge. PMID:15708987

  18. Inducible Gene Expression in Tumors Colonized by Modified Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Huppertz, Sascha; Zhang, Qian; Geissinger, Ulrike; Hrtl, Barbara; Gentschev, Ivaylo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exogenous gene induction of therapeutic, diagnostic, and safety mechanisms could be a considerable improvement in oncolytic virotherapy. Here, we introduced a doxycycline-inducible promoter system (comprised of a tetracycline repressor, several promoter constructs, and a tet operator sequence) into oncolytic recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACV), which were further characterized in detail. Experiments in cell cultures as well as in tumor-bearing mice were analyzed to determine the role of the inducible-system components. To accomplish this, we took advantage of the optical reporter construct, which resulted in the production of click-beetle luciferase as well as a red fluorescent protein. The results indicated that each of the system components could be used to optimize the induction rates and had an influence on the background expression levels. Depending on the given gene to be induced in rVACV-colonized tumors of patients, we discuss the doxycycline-inducible promoter system adjustment and further optimization. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virotherapy of cancer can greatly benefit from the expression of heterologous genes. It is reasonable that some of those heterologous gene products could have detrimental effects either on the cancer patient or on the oncolytic virus itself if they are expressed at the wrong time or if the expression levels are too high. Therefore, exogenous control of gene expression levels by administration of a nontoxic inducer will have positive effects on the safety as well as the therapeutic outcome of oncolytic virotherapy. In addition, it paves the way for the introduction of new therapeutic genes into the genome of oncolytic viruses that could not have been tested otherwise. PMID:25056902

  19. Effect of 5-Iodo-2?-Deoxyuridine on Vaccinia Virus (Orthopoxvirus) Infections in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Neyts, Johan; Verbeken, Erik; De Clercq, Erik

    2002-01-01

    There is a concern that there may be unregistered stocks of smallpox that can be used for bioterrorism or biological warfare. According to the WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Research, there is a need to develop strategies to treat smallpox infections should they reappear. It would also be important to have an effective drug at hand for the treatment of monkeypox disease in humans. We show here that 5-iodo-2?-deoxyuridine (IDU) is a potent inhibitor of vaccinia virus (VV) replication and that IDU inhibits VV DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent way. The in vivo protective effect of IDU was assessed in the VV tail lesion model in immunocompetent mice and in a lethal model for VV infection in SCID (severe combined immune deficiency) mice that had been infected either intranasally, intraperitoneally, or intravenously. Subcutaneous treatment with IDU at 150 and 100 mg/kg of body weight markedly reduced the number of tail lesions in immunocompetent NMRI mice. Untreated intranasally VV-infected SCID mice died at 20.8 3.1 days after infection (mean standard deviation). Treatment with IDU (subcutaneously, 150 mg/kg/day [from day 0 to 4] and 75 mg/kg/day [from day 6 to 11]) delayed-virus induced mortality by 15 days (mean day of death standard deviation, 35.8 6.7; P < 0.0001). This protective effect was associated with (i) an improvement of lung histology and (ii) a marked reduction in lung viral titers. IDU also delayed VV-induced mortality when mice had either been infected intraperitoneally or intravenously. Even when the start of treatment with IDU (in intraperitoneally VV-infected mice) was postponed until 2 or 4 days after infection, an important delay in virus-induced mortality was noted. PMID:12183236

  20. Ectopic expression of vaccinia virus E3 and K3 cannot rescue ectromelia virus replication in rabbit RK13 cells.

    PubMed

    Hand, Erin S; Haller, Sherry L; Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV. PMID:25734776

  1. Ectopic Expression of Vaccinia Virus E3 and K3 Cannot Rescue Ectromelia Virus Replication in Rabbit RK13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV. PMID:25734776

  2. Products and substrate/template usage of vaccinia virus DNA primase

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Frank S.; Paran, Nir; Moss, Bernard

    2009-01-05

    Vaccinia virus encodes a 90-kDa protein conserved in all poxviruses, with DNA primase and nucleoside triphosphatase activities. DNA primase products, synthesized with a single stranded {phi}X174 DNA template, were resolved as dinucleotides and long RNAs on denaturing polyacrylamide and agarose gels. Following phosphatase treatment, the dinucleotides GpC and ApC in a 4:1 ratio were identified by nearest neighbor analysis in which {sup 32}P was transferred from [{alpha}-{sup 32}P]CTP to initiating purine nucleotides. Differences in the nucleotide binding sites for initiation and elongation were suggested by the absence of CpC and UpC dinucleotides as well as the inability of deoxynucleotides to mediate primer synthesis despite their incorporation into mixed RNA/DNA primers. Strong primase activity was detected with an oligo(dC) template. However, there was only weak activity with an oligo(dT) template and none with oligo(dA) or oligo(dG). The absence of stringent template specificity is consistent with a role for the enzyme in priming DNA synthesis at the replication fork.

  3. Mapping vaccinia virus DNA replication origins at nucleotide level by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Senkevich, Tatiana G; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F; Wolf, Yuri I; Moss, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Poxviruses reproduce in the host cytoplasm and encode most or all of the enzymes and factors needed for expression and synthesis of their double-stranded DNA genomes. Nevertheless, the mode of poxvirus DNA replication and the nature and location of the replication origins remain unknown. A current but unsubstantiated model posits only leading strand synthesis starting at a nick near one covalently closed end of the genome and continuing around the other end to generate a concatemer that is subsequently resolved into unit genomes. The existence of specific origins has been questioned because any plasmid can replicate in cells infected by vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. We applied directional deep sequencing of short single-stranded DNA fragments enriched for RNA-primed nascent strands isolated from the cytoplasm of VACV-infected cells to pinpoint replication origins. The origins were identified as the switching points of the fragment directions, which correspond to the transition from continuous to discontinuous DNA synthesis. Origins containing a prominent initiation point mapped to a sequence within the hairpin loop at one end of the VACV genome and to the same sequence within the concatemeric junction of replication intermediates. These findings support a model for poxvirus genome replication that involves leading and lagging strand synthesis and is consistent with the requirements for primase and ligase activities as well as earlier electron microscopic and biochemical studies implicating a replication origin at the end of the VACV genome. PMID:26286988

  4. Dimerization of Vaccinia virus VH1 is essential for dephosphorylation of STAT1 at tyrosine 701.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Adem C; Cingolani, Gino

    2011-04-22

    The gene product of Vaccinia virus gene H1, VH1, is the first identified dual specificity phosphatase (DSP). The human genome encodes 38 different VH1-like DSPs, which include major regulators of signaling pathways, highly dysregulated in disease states. VH1 down-regulates cellular antiviral response by dephosphorylating activated STAT1 in the IFN-?/STAT1 signaling pathway. In this report, we have investigated the molecular basis for VH1 catalytic activity. Using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), we determined that VH1 exists in solution as a boomerang-shaped dimer. Targeted alanine mutations in the dimerization domain (aa 1-27) decrease phosphatase activity while leaving the dimer intact. Deletion of the N-terminal dimer swapped helix (aa 1-20) completely abolishes dimerization and severely reduces phosphatase activity. An engineered chimera of VH1 that contains only one active site retains wild-type levels of catalytic activity. Thus, a dimeric quaternary structure, as opposed to two cooperative active sites within the same dimer is essential for VH1 catalytic activity. Together with laforin, VH1 is the second DSP reported in literature for which dimerization via an N-terminal dimerization domain is necessary for optimal catalytic activity. We propose that dimerization may represent a common mechanism to regulate the activity and substrate recognition of DSPs, often assumed to function as monomers. PMID:21362620

  5. Mapping vaccinia virus DNA replication origins at nucleotide level by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Senkevich, Tatiana G.; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Moss, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses reproduce in the host cytoplasm and encode most or all of the enzymes and factors needed for expression and synthesis of their double-stranded DNA genomes. Nevertheless, the mode of poxvirus DNA replication and the nature and location of the replication origins remain unknown. A current but unsubstantiated model posits only leading strand synthesis starting at a nick near one covalently closed end of the genome and continuing around the other end to generate a concatemer that is subsequently resolved into unit genomes. The existence of specific origins has been questioned because any plasmid can replicate in cells infected by vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. We applied directional deep sequencing of short single-stranded DNA fragments enriched for RNA-primed nascent strands isolated from the cytoplasm of VACV-infected cells to pinpoint replication origins. The origins were identified as the switching points of the fragment directions, which correspond to the transition from continuous to discontinuous DNA synthesis. Origins containing a prominent initiation point mapped to a sequence within the hairpin loop at one end of the VACV genome and to the same sequence within the concatemeric junction of replication intermediates. These findings support a model for poxvirus genome replication that involves leading and lagging strand synthesis and is consistent with the requirements for primase and ligase activities as well as earlier electron microscopic and biochemical studies implicating a replication origin at the end of the VACV genome. PMID:26286988

  6. Study of Vaccinia and Cowpox viruses' replication in Rac1-N17 dominant-negative cells

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Ana Paula Carneiro; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Andrade, Luciana Garcia; Albarnaz, Jonas Dutra; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Interfering with cellular signal transduction pathways is a common strategy used by many viruses to create a propitious intracellular environment for an efficient replication. Our group has been studying cellular signalling pathways activated by the orthopoxviruses Vaccinia (VACV) and Cowpox (CPXV) and their significance to viral replication. In the present study our aim was to investigate whether the GTPase Rac1 was an upstream signal that led to the activation of MEK/ERK1/2, JNK1/2 or Akt pathways upon VACV or CPXV' infections. Therefore, we generated stable murine fibroblasts exhibiting negative dominance to Rac1-N17 to evaluate viral growth and the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt. Our results demonstrated that VACV replication, but not CPXV, was affected in dominant-negative (DN) Rac1-N17 cell lines in which viral yield was reduced in about 10-fold. Viral late gene expression, but not early, was also reduced. Furthermore, our data showed that Akt phosphorylation was diminished upon VACV infection in DN Rac1-N17 cells, suggesting that Rac1 participates in the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway leading to the activation of Akt. In conclusion, our results indicate that while Rac1 indeed plays a role in VACV biology, perhaps another GTPase may be involved in CPXV replication. PMID:23903969

  7. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    SciTech Connect

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  8. Recombinant Swinepox Virus for Veterinary Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Jie; Lin, Hui-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Poxvirus-vectors have been widely used in vaccine development for several important human and animal diseases; some of these vaccines have been licensed and used extensively. Swinepox virus (SPV) is well suited to develop recombinant vaccines because of its large packaging capacity for recombinant DNA, its host range specificity, and its ability to induce appropriate immune responses. PMID:26458836

  9. Newcastle disease virus vaccine potency determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines is determined using vaccination and challenge. If the minimum killed viral antigen necessary for clinical protection can be determined, vaccines meeting or exceeding this dose might be considered of adequate potency. In these studies, c...

  10. The highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified virus Ankara induces apoptosis in melanoma cells and allows bystander dendritic cells to generate a potent anti-tumoral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, S; Humrich, J Y; Thuman, P; Sauter, B; Schuler, G; Jenne, L

    2006-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has been tested as oncolytic virus against malignant melanoma in clinical trials for more than 40 years. Until now, mainly strains comparable to viral strains used for smallpox vaccination have been probed for anti-tumoral therapy. We have shown recently that the wild-type strain Western Reserve (WR) can interfere with crucial functions of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Our aim was to examine whether viral immune evasion mechanisms might be responsible for the ineffectiveness of WR-based vaccination strategies and whether the highly attenuated strain modified virus Ankara (MVA) differs from WR with respect to its possible immunostimulatory capacity after intratumoral injection. Using in vitro experiments, we compared the effect of both strains on melanoma cells and on local bystander DCs. We found that both VV-strains infected melanoma cells efficiently and caused disintegration of the actin cytoskeleton, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, both VV-strains caused apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells after infection. In contrast to MVA, WR underwent a complete viral replication cycle in melanoma cells. Bystander DCs were consecutively infected by newly generated WR virions and lost their capacity to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation. DCs in contact with MVA-infected melanoma cells retained their capacity to induce T cell proliferation. Immature DCs were capable of phagocytosing MVA-infected melanoma cells. Priming of autologous CD8+ T cells by DCs that had phagocytosed MVA-infected, MelanA positive melanoma cells resulted in the induction of T cell clones specifically reactive against the model antigen MelanA as shown by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) analysis. We conclude that the clinical trials with oncolytic wild-type VV failed probably because of suppression of bystander DCs and consecutive suppression of T cell-mediated anti-melanoma immunity. The attenuated VV-strain MVA facilitates the generation of tumour associated antigen (TAA)-specific T cell response as it is oncolytic for melanoma cells, but non-toxic for DC, and should be a promising candidate for intralesional metastatic melanoma therapy. PMID:17034588

  11. [Vaccination against the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Girard, M; Pialoux, G

    1995-06-15

    Much progress has been made in recent years in the development of anti-VIH vaccines. Nearly 20 such vaccines have reached phase 1 clinical study in seronegative volunteers. The responses invoked by these vaccines are, however, mediocre, both in quality (lack of cross over neutralisation in isolated "wild" viruses) and in their levels and length of action. New formulations of vaccines are under study, but their development is long and difficult, and researchers are still disarmed by the problem of the variability of the virus. Several years of study, both clinical and fundamental, will be necessary before an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is available. PMID:7660008

  12. Novel vaccine strategies against emerging viruses

    PubMed Central

    García-Sastre, Adolfo; Mena, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    One of the main public health concerns of emerging viruses is their potential introduction into and sustained circulation among populations of immunologically naïve, susceptible hosts. The induction of protective immunity through vaccination can be a powerful tool to prevent this concern by conferring protection to the population at risk. Conventional approaches to develop vaccines against emerging pathogens have significant limitations: lack of experimental tools for several emerging viruses of concern, poor immunogenicity, safety issues, or lack of cross-protection against antigenic variants. The unpredictability of the emergence of future virus threats demands the capability to rapidly develop safe, effective vaccines. We describe some recent advances in new vaccine strategies that are being explored as alternatives to classical attenuated and inactivated vaccines, and provide examples of potential novel vaccines for emerging viruses. These approaches might be applied to the control of many other emerging pathogens. PMID:23477832

  13. Simultaneous high-resolution analysis of vaccinia virus and host cell transcriptomes by deep RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhilong; Bruno, Daniel P.; Martens, Craig A.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Moss, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Deep RNA sequencing was used to simultaneously analyze vaccinia virus (VACV) and HeLa cell transcriptomes at progressive times following infection. VACV, the prototypic member of the poxvirus family, replicates in the cytoplasm and contains a double-stranded DNA genome with ?200 closely spaced open reading frames (ORFs). The acquisition of a total of nearly 500 million short cDNA sequences allowed construction of temporal strand-specific maps of the entire VACV transcriptome at single-base resolution and analysis of over 14,000 host mRNAs. Before viral DNA replication, transcripts from 118 VACV ORFs were detected; after replication, transcripts from 93 additional ORFs were characterized. The high resolution permitted determination of the precise boundaries of many mRNAs including read-through transcripts and location of mRNA start sites and adjacent promoters. Temporal analysis revealed two clusters of early mRNAs that were synthesized in the presence of inhibitors of protein as well as DNA synthesis, indicating that they do not correspond to separate immediate- and delayed-early classes as defined for other DNA viruses. The proportion of viral RNAs reached 2555% of the total at 4 h. This rapid change, resulting in a relative decrease of the vast majority of host mRNAs, can contribute to the profound shutdown of host protein synthesis and blunting of antiviral responses. At 2 h, however, a minority of cellular mRNAs was increased. The overrepresented functional categories of the up-regulated RNAs were NF-?B cascade, apoptosis, signal transduction, and ligand-mediated signaling, which likely represent the host response to invasion. PMID:20534518

  14. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  15. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  16. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  17. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  18. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  19. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  20. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  1. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  2. Molecular Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Vaccinia Virus I3 Protein, the Replicative Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Greseth, Matthew D.; Boyle, Kathleen A.; Bluma, Matthew S.; Unger, Bethany; Wiebe, Matthew S.; Soares-Martins, Jamaria A.; Wickramasekera, Nadi T.; Wahlberg, James

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, efficiently and faithfully replicates its ?200-kb DNA genome within the cytoplasm of infected cells. This intracellular localization dictates that vaccinia virus encodes most, if not all, of its own DNA replication machinery. Included in the repertoire of viral replication proteins is the I3 protein, which binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with great specificity and stability and has been presumed to be the replicative ssDNA binding protein (SSB). We substantiate here that I3 colocalizes with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled nascent viral genomes and that these genomes accumulate in cytoplasmic factories that are delimited by membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we report on a structure/function analysis of I3 involving the isolation and characterization of 10 clustered charge-to-alanine mutants. These mutants were analyzed for their biochemical properties (self-interaction and DNA binding) and biological competence. Three of the mutant proteins, encoded by the I3 alleles I3-4, -5, and -7, were deficient in self-interaction and unable to support virus viability, strongly suggesting that the multimerization of I3 is biologically significant. Mutant I3-5 was also deficient in DNA binding. Additionally, we demonstrate that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of I3 causes a significant decrease in the accumulation of progeny genomes and that this reduction diminishes the yield of infectious virus. PMID:22438556

  3. Use of an oncolytic vaccinia virus for the treatment of canine breast cancer in nude mice: preclinical development of a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, I; Stritzker, J; Hofmann, E; Weibel, S; Yu, Y A; Chen, N; Zhang, Q; Bullerdiek, J; Nolte, I; Szalay, A A

    2009-04-01

    Mammary cancers together with cancers of the skin account for about 60% of the total cancers occurring in dogs. The veterinary options for therapeutic management of canine mammary cancer are limited and prognosis for such patients is poor. In this study, we analyzed the functionality of the oncolytic vaccinia virus strain GLV-1h68 as a possible therapeutic agent for canine mammary cancer. Cell culture data demonstrated that GLV-1h68 efficiently infected and destroyed cells of the canine mammary adenoma cell line ZMTH3. Furthermore, after systemic administration this attenuated vaccinia virus strain primarily replicated in canine tumor xenografts in nude mice. The efficient tumor colonization process resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and drastic reduction of tumor size. This is the first report demonstrating that vaccinia virus is an effective tool for the therapy of canine mammary cancers, which might next be applied to dogs with breast tumors. PMID:18949014

  4. RNA Virus Reverse Genetics and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24967693

  5. Virotherapy of Canine Tumors with Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h109 Expressing an Anti-VEGF Single-Chain Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Adelfinger, Marion; Donat, Ulrike; Hess, Michael; Weibel, Stephanie; Nolte, Ingo; Frentzen, Alexa; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2012-01-01

    Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. We have previously reported that oncolytic vaccinia virus strains expressing an anti-VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) single-chain antibody (scAb) GLAF-1 exhibited significant therapeutic efficacy for treatment of human tumor xenografts. Here, we describe the use of oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h109 encoding GLAF-1 for canine cancer therapy. In this study we analyzed the virus-mediated delivery and production of scAb GLAF-1 and the oncolytic and immunological effects of the GLV-1h109 vaccinia virus strain against canine soft tissue sarcoma and canine prostate carcinoma in xenograft models. Cell culture data demonstrated that the GLV-1h109 virus efficiently infect, replicate in and destroy both tested canine cancer cell lines. In addition, successful expression of GLAF-1 was demonstrated in virus-infected canine cancer cells and the antibody specifically recognized canine VEGF. In two different xenograft models, the systemic administration of the GLV-1h109 virus was found to be safe and led to anti-tumor and immunological effects resulting in the significant reduction of tumor growth in comparison to untreated control mice. Furthermore, tumor-specific virus infection led to a continued production of functional scAb GLAF-1, resulting in inhibition of angiogenesis. Overall, the GLV-1h109-mediated cancer therapy and production of immunotherapeutic anti-VEGF scAb may open the way for combination therapy concept i.e. vaccinia virus mediated oncolysis and intratumoral production of therapeutic drugs in canine cancer patients. PMID:23091626

  6. Genetic characterisation of attenuated SAD rabies virus strains used for oral vaccination of wildlife.

    PubMed

    Geue, Lutz; Schares, Susann; Schnick, Christina; Kliemt, Jeannette; Beckert, Aline; Freuling, Conrad; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Zanoni, Reto; Marston, Denise; McElhinney, Lorraine; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Tordo, Noel; Mller, Thomas

    2008-06-19

    The elimination of rabies from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Western Europe has been achieved by the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife with a range of attenuated rabies virus strains. With the exception of the vaccinia rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine (VRG), all strains were originally derived from a common ancestor; the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) field strain. However, after more than 30 years of ORV it is still not possible to distinguish these vaccine strains and there is little information on the genetic basis for their attenuation. We therefore sequenced and compared the full-length genome of five commercially available SAD vaccine viruses (SAD B19, SAD P5/88, SAG2, SAD VA1 and SAD Bern) and four other SAD strains (the original SAD Bern, SAD VA1, ERA and SAD 1-3670 Wistar). Nucleotide sequencing allowed identifying each vaccine strain unambiguously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the currently used commercial attenuated rabies virus vaccines appear to be derived from SAD B19 rather than from SAD Bern. One commercially available vaccine virus did not contain the SAD strain mentioned in the product information of the producer. Two SAD vaccine strains appeared to consist of mixed genomic sequences. Furthermore, in-del events targeting A-rich sequences (in positive strand) within the 3' non-coding regions of M and G genes were observed in SAD-derivates developed in Europe. Our data also supports the idea of a possible recombination that had occurred during the derivation of the European branch of SAD viruses. If confirmed, this recombination event would be the first one reported among RABV vaccine strains. PMID:18485548

  7. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... administration. (iii) Observe all animals for signs of rabies until scheduled time to sacrifice. If animals...

  8. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  9. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... administration. (iii) Observe all animals for signs of rabies until scheduled time to sacrifice. If animals...

  10. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... administration. (iii) Observe all animals for signs of rabies until scheduled time to sacrifice. If animals...

  11. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  12. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  13. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  14. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  15. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  16. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  17. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  18. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  19. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  1. Scientists Piggyback Experimental HIV Vaccine on Cold Viruses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Scientists Piggyback Experimental HIV Vaccine on Cold Viruses Vaccine was well-tolerated, elicited 'moderate' response in ... study, Harvard researchers said they successfully used cold viruses to deliver an experimental HIV vaccine to humans. ...

  2. Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

  3. Genetically engineered poxviruses for recombinant gene expression, vaccination, and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, B

    1996-01-01

    Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure-function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8876137

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of three recombinant mutants of Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Sartmatova, Darika; Nash, Taishayla; Schormann, Norbert; Nuth, Manunya; Ricciardi, Robert; Banerjee, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Amino-acid residues located at a highly flexible area in the uracil DNA glycosylase of Vaccinia virus were mutated. In the crystal structure of wild-type D4 these residues lie at the dimer interface. Specifically, three mutants were generated: (i) residue Arg167 was replaced with an alanine (R167AD4), (ii) residues Glu171, Ser172 and Pro173 were substituted with three glycine residues (3GD4) and (iii) residues Glu171 and Ser172 were deleted (?171-172D4). Mutant proteins were expressed, purified and crystallized in order to investigate the effects of these mutations on the structure of the protein. PMID:23519808

  5. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  6. Biochemical analysis of the multifunctional vaccinia mRNA capping enzyme encoded by a temperature sensitive virus mutant.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jessica; Boldt, Rachel L; McFadden, Baron D; D'Costa, Susan M; Lewandowski, Nicholas M; Shatzer, Amber N; Gollnick, Paul; Condit, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Prior biochemical analysis of the heterodimeric vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme suggests roles not only in mRNA capping but also in early viral gene transcription termination and intermediate viral gene transcription initiation. Prior phenotypic characterization of Dts36, a temperature sensitive virus mutant affecting the large subunit of the capping enzyme was consistent with the multifunctional roles of the capping enzyme in vivo. We report a biochemical analysis of the capping enzyme encoded by Dts36. Of the three enzymatic activities required for mRNA capping, the guanylyltransferase and methyltransferase activities are compromised while the triphosphatase activity and the D12 subunit interaction are unaffected. The mutant enzyme is also defective in stimulating early gene transcription termination and intermediate gene transcription initiation in vitro. These results confirm that the vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme functions not only in mRNA capping but also early gene transcription termination and intermediate gene transcription initiation in vivo. PMID:26496697

  7. Cleavage of Dicer Protein by I7 Protease during Vaccinia Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-I; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chien, Wan-Yu; Syu, Ciao-Ling; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Dicer is the key component in the miRNA pathway. Degradation of Dicer protein is facilitated during vaccinia virus (VV) infection. A C-terminal cleaved product of Dicer protein was detected in the presence of MG132 during VV infection. Thus, it is possible that Dicer protein is cleaved by a viral protease followed by proteasome degradation of the cleaved product. There is a potential I7 protease cleavage site in the C-terminus of Dicer protein. Indeed, reduction of Dicer protein was detected when Dicer was co-expressed with I7 protease but not with an I7 protease mutant protein lack of the protease activity. Mutation of the potential I7 cleavage site in the C-terminus of Dicer protein resisted its degradation during VV infection. Furthermore, Dicer protein was reduced dramatically by recombinant VV vI7Li after the induction of I7 protease. If VV could facilitate the degradation of Dicer protein, the process of miRNA should be affected by VV infection. Indeed, accumulation of precursor miR122 was detected after VV infection or I7 protease expression. Reduction of miR122 would result in the suppression of HCV sub-genomic RNA replication, and, in turn, the amount of viral proteins. As expected, significant reduction of HCVNS5A protein was detected after VV infection and I7 protease expression. Therefore, our results suggest that VV could cleave Dicer protein through I7 protease to facilitate Dicer degradation, and in turn, suppress the processing of miRNAs. Effect of Dicer protein on VV replication was also studied. Exogenous expression of Dicer protein suppresses VV replication slightly while knockdown of Dicer protein does not affect VV replication significantly. PMID:25815818

  8. Participation of Vaccinia Virus L2 Protein in the Formation of Crescent Membranes and Immature Virions?

    PubMed Central

    Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Domi, Arban; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of vaccinia virus begins with the appearance of crescent-shaped membrane precursors of immature virions in cytoplasmic factories. During the initial characterization of the product of the L2R reading frame, we discovered that it plays an important role in crescent formation. The L2 protein was expressed early in infection and was associated with the detergent-soluble membrane fraction of mature virions, consistent with two potential membrane-spanning domains. All chordopoxviruses have L2 homologs, suggesting an important function. Indeed, we were unable to isolate an infectious L2R deletion mutant. Consequently, we constructed an inducible mutant with a conditional lethal phenotype. When L2 expression was repressed, proteolytic processing of the major core proteins and the A17 protein, which is an essential component of the immature virion membrane, failed to occur, suggesting an early block in viral morphogenesis. At 8 h after infection in the presence of inducer, immature and mature virions were abundantly seen by electron microscopy. In contrast, those structures were rare in the absence of inducer and were replaced by large, dense aggregates of viroplasm. A minority of these aggregates had short spicule-coated membranes, which resembled the beginnings of crescent formation, at their periphery. These short membrane segments at the edge of the dense viroplasm increased in number at later times, and some immature virions were seen. Although the L2 protein was not detected under nonpermissive conditions, minute amounts could account for stunted and delayed viral membrane formation. These findings suggested that L2 is required for the formation or elongation of crescent membranes. PMID:21228235

  9. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  10. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This also represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.

  11. An orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Haagmans, Bart L; van den Brand, Judith M A; Raj, V Stalin; Volz, Asisa; Wohlsein, Peter; Smits, Saskia L; Schipper, Debby; Bestebroer, Theo M; Okba, Nisreen; Fux, Robert; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes Foz, David; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Segalés, Joaquim; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections have led to an ongoing outbreak in humans, which was fueled by multiple zoonotic MERS-CoV introductions from dromedary camels. In addition to the implementation of hygiene measures to limit further camel-to-human and human-to-human transmissions, vaccine-mediated reduction of MERS-CoV spread from the animal reservoir may be envisaged. Here we show that a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing the MERS-CoV spike protein confers mucosal immunity in dromedary camels. Compared with results for control animals, we observed a significant reduction of excreted infectious virus and viral RNA transcripts in vaccinated animals upon MERS-CoV challenge. Protection correlated with the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies to MERS-CoV. Induction of MVA-specific antibodies that cross-neutralize camelpox virus would also provide protection against camelpox. PMID:26678878

  12. Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

  13. Mumps vaccine virus strains and aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie-Claude; Dutta, Anil; Weinberger, Clement; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2006-11-30

    Mumps immunization can easily be included in national schedules, particularly if combined with measles or measles and rubella vaccines, but debate continues concerning the relative safety of various licensed mumps vaccine strains. The opportunities for control of mumps are also being affected by differences in the cost of the vaccines prepared with different strains of mumps virus. The present report evaluates available data on the association of the Urabe and other strains of mumps vaccine with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis. We also review the comparative immunogenicity and efficacies of the most widely used mumps vaccines in controlled clinical trials and field evaluations, and briefly examine relative cost as it relates to the implementation of national immunization programs. We conclude that extensive experience with the most widely used mumps vaccine strains in many countries has shown that the risk-benefit ratio of live mumps vaccines is highly favourable for vaccination, despite the occasional occurence of aseptic meningitis. PMID:16884835

  14. De novo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Contributes Significantly to Establishment of a Bioenergetically Favorable Environment for Vaccinia Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Greseth, Matthew D.; Traktman, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and ?-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis). Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial ?-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis) that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia infection, and in particular virion assembly, relies on the synthesis and mitochondrial import of fatty acids, where their ?-oxidation drives robust ATP production. PMID:24651651

  15. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  16. Mutations Conferring Resistance to Viral DNA Polymerase Inhibitors in Camelpox Virus Give Different Drug-Susceptibility Profiles in Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Graciela; Topalis, Dimitri; Krečmerová, Marcela; Crance, Jean-Marc; Garin, Daniel; Snoeck, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cidofovir or (S)-HPMPC is one of the three antiviral drugs that might be used for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections. (S)-HPMPC and its 2,6-diaminopurine counterpart, (S)-HPMPDAP, have been described to select, in vitro, for drug resistance mutations in the viral DNA polymerase (E9L) gene of vaccinia virus (VACV). Here, to extend our knowledge of drug resistance development among orthopoxviruses, we selected, in vitro, camelpox viruses (CMLV) resistant to (S)-HPMPDAP and identified a single amino acid change, T831I, and a double mutation, A314V+A684V, within E9L. The production of recombinant CMLV and VACV carrying these amino acid substitutions (T831I, A314V, or A314V+A684V) demonstrated clearly their involvement in conferring reduced sensitivity to viral DNA polymerase inhibitors, including (S)-HPMPDAP. Both CMLV and VACV harboring the A314V change showed comparable drug-susceptibility profiles to various antivirals and similar impairments in viral growth. In contrast, the single change T831I and the double change A314V+A684V in VACV were responsible for increased levels of drug resistance and for cross-resistance to viral DNA polymerase antivirals that were not observed with their CMLV counterparts. Each amino acid change accounted for an attenuated phenotype of VACV in vivo. Modeling of E9L suggested that the T→I change at position 831 might abolish hydrogen bonds between E9L and the DNA backbone and have a direct impact on the incorporation of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. Our findings demonstrate that drug-resistance development in two related orthopoxvirus species may impact drug-susceptibility profiles and viral fitness differently. PMID:22532673

  17. Vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex subunit A28 is a target of neutralizing and protective antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gretchen E.; Sisler, Jerry R.; Chandran, Dev; Moss, Bernard

    2008-10-25

    The vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex (EFC) is comprised of at least eight transmembrane proteins that are conserved in all poxviruses. However, neither the physical structure of the EFC nor the immunogenicity of the individual components has been determined. We prepared soluble forms of two EFC components, A28 and H2, by replacing the transmembrane domain with a signal peptide and adding a polyhistidine tail. The proteins were expressed by baculoviruses, secreted from insect cells, purified by affinity chromatography and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. The antibodies recognized the viral proteins but only the antibody to recombinant A28 bound intact virions and neutralized infectivity. Analyses with a set of overlapping peptides revealed a neutralizing epitope between residues 73 and 92 of A28. Passive immunization of mice with IgG purified from the anti-A28 serum provided partial protection against a vaccinia virus intranasal challenge, whereas IgG from the anti-H2 serum did not.

  18. First-in-man Study of Western Reserve Strain Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus: Safety, Systemic Spread, and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, Herbert J; Downs-Canner, Stephanie; McCart, J Andrea; Guo, Zong Sheng; Rao, Uma N M; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Thorne, Stephen H; Jones, Heather L; Kalinski, Pawel; Wieckowski, Eva; O'Malley, Mark E; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Hu, Kang; Bell, John C; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Moon, Anne; Breitbach, Caroline J; Kirn, David H; Bartlett, David L

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy utilizes a tumor-selective replicating virus which preferentially infects and destroys cancer cells and triggers antitumor immunity. The Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus (VV) is the most virulent strain of VV in animal models and has been engineered for tumor selectivity through two targeted gene deletions (vvDD). We performed the first-in-human phase 1, intratumoral dose escalation clinical trial of vvDD in 16 patients with advanced solid tumors. In addition to safety, we evaluated signs of vvDD replication and spread to distant tumors, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, clinical and immune responses to vvDD. Dose escalation proceeded without dose-limiting toxicities to a maximum feasible dose of 3??109 pfu. vvDD replication in tumors was reproducible. vvDD genomes and/or infectious particles were recovered from injected (n = 5 patients) and noninjected (n = 2 patients) tumors. At the two highest doses, vvDD genomes were detected acutely in blood in all patients while delayed re-emergence of vvDD genomes in blood was detected in two patients. Fifteen of 16 patients exhibited late symptoms, consistent with ongoing vvDD replication. In summary, intratumoral injection of the oncolytic vaccinia vvDD was well-tolerated in patients and resulted in selective infection of injected and noninjected tumors and antitumor activity. PMID:25292189

  19. CD40 ligand-expressing recombinant vaccinia virus promotes the generation of CD8(+) central memory Tcells.

    PubMed

    Trella, Emanuele; Raafat, Nermin; Mengus, Chantal; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Governa, Valeria; Heidtmann, Swantje; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Zajac, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Central memory CD8(+) Tcells (TCM ) play key roles in the protective immunity against infectious agents, cancer immunotherapy, and adoptive treatments of malignant and viral diseases. CD8(+) TCM cells are characterized by specific phenotypes, homing, and proliferative capacities. However, CD8(+) TCM -cell generation is challenging, and usually requires CD4(+) CD40L(+) T-cell "help" during the priming of nave CD8(+) Tcells. We have generated a replication incompetent CD40 ligand-expressing recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV40L) to promote the differentiation of human nave CD8(+) Tcells into TCM specific for viral and tumor-associated antigens. Soluble CD40 ligand recombinant protein (sCD40L), and vaccinia virus wild-type (VV WT), alone or in combination, were used as controls. Here, we show that, in the absence of CD4(+) Tcells, a single "in vitro" stimulation of nave CD8(+) Tcells by rVV40L-infected nonprofessional CD14(+) antigen presenting cells promotes the rapid generation of viral or tumor associated antigen-specific CD8(+) Tcells displaying TCM phenotypic and functional properties. These observations demonstrate the high ability of rVV40L to fine tune CD8(+) mediated immune responses, and strongly support the use of similar reagents for clinical immunization and adoptive immunotherapy purposes. PMID:26561341

  20. Postchallenge Administration of Brincidofovir Protects Healthy and Immune-Deficient Mice Reconstituted with Limited Numbers of T Cells from Lethal Challenge with IHD-J-Luc Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Kevin Tyler; Cruz, Stephanie; Thomas, Antonia; Diaz, Claudia G.; Keilholz, Laurie; Grossi, Irma M.; Trost, Lawrence C.; Golding, Hana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protection from lethality by postchallenge administration of brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) was studied in normal and immune-deficient (nude, nu/nu) BALB/c mice infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to record total fluxes in the nasal cavity, lungs, spleen, and liver and to enumerate pox lesions on tails of mice infected via the intranasal route with 105 PFU of recombinant IHD-J-Luc VACV expressing luciferase. Areas under the flux curve (AUCs) were calculated for individual mice to assess viral loads. A three-dose regimen of 20 mg/kg BCV administered every 48 h starting either on day 1 or day 2 postchallenge protected 100% of mice. Initiating BCV treatment earlier was more efficient in reducing viral loads and in providing protection from pox lesion development. All BCV-treated mice that survived challenge were also protected from rechallenge with IHD-J-Luc or WRvFire VACV without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV protected animals from lethality and reduced viral loads while animals were on the drug. Viral recrudescence occurred within 4 to 9 days, and mice succumbed ∼10 to 20 days after treatment termination. Nude mice reconstituted with 105 T cells prior to challenge with 104 PFU of IHD-J-Luc and treated with BCV postchallenge survived the infection, cleared the virus from all organs, and survived rechallenge with 105 PFU of IHD-J-Luc VACV without additional BCV treatment. Together, these data suggest that BCV protects immunocompetent and partially T cell-reconstituted immune-deficient mice from lethality, reduces viral dissemination in organs, prevents pox lesion development, and permits generation of VACV-specific memory. IMPORTANCE Mass vaccination is the primary element of the public health response to a smallpox outbreak. In addition to vaccination, however, antiviral drugs are required for individuals with uncertain exposure status to smallpox or for whom vaccination is contraindicated. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to study the effect of brincidofovir (BCV) in normal and immune-deficient (nu/nu) mice infected with vaccinia virus, a model of smallpox. Postchallenge administration of 20 mg/kg BCV rescued normal and immune-deficient mice partially reconstituted with T cells from lethality and significantly reduced viral loads in organs. All BCV-treated mice that survived infection were protected from rechallenge without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV extended survival. The data show that BCV controls viral replication at the site of challenge and reduces viral dissemination to internal organs, thus providing a shield for the developing adaptive immunity that clears the host of virus and builds virus-specific immunological memory. PMID:25589648

  1. Vaccinia Virus Particles Mix Inefficiently, and in a Way That Would Restrict Viral Recombination, in Coinfected Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.-C. James; Evans, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that poxviruses are subjected to genetic recombination, but attempts to map vaccinia virus genes using classical genetic crosses were historically confounded by high levels of experimental noise and a poor correlation between physical and genetic map distances. These virus-by-virus crosses also never produced the 50% recombinant progeny that should be seen in experiments involving distant markers. Poxviruses replicate in membrane-wrapped cytoplasmic structures called virosomes (or factories) and we have developed a method for tracking the development of these structures using live cell imaging and cells expressing phage lambda Cro protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The EGFP-cro protein binds nonspecifically to DNA and permits live cell imaging of developing vaccinia virus factories. Using this method, we see virosomes first appearing about 4 to 5 h postinfection. The early virosomes exhibit a compact appearance and then, after a period of exponential growth lasting several hours, blur and start to dissipate in a process presumably linked to viral packaging. During the growth period, the virosomes migrate toward the nuclear periphery while colliding and fusing at a rate dependent upon the numbers of infecting particles. However, even at high multiplicities of infection (10 PFU/cell), we estimate ?20% of the virosomes never fuse. We have also used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods to study virosomes formed by the fusion of viruses carrying different gene markers. FISH showed that DNA mixes rather poorly within fused virosomes and the amount of mixing is inversely dependent on the time between virosome appearance and fusion. Our studies suggest that the intracellular movement and mixing of virosomes create constraints that reduce opportunities for forming recombinants and that these phenomena create outcomes reflected in classical poxvirus genetics. PMID:20032178

  2. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  3. Evaluation of radiation effects against C6 glioma in combination with vaccinia virus-p53 gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, D. S.; Andres, M. L.; Li, J.; Timiryasova, T.; Chen, B.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of recombinant vaccinia virus-p53 (rVV-p53) in combination with radiation therapy against the C6 rat glioma, a p53 deficient tumor that is relatively radioresistant. VV-LIVP, the parental virus (Lister strain), was used as a control. Localized treatment of subcutaneous C6 tumors in athymic mice with either rVV-p53 or VV-LIVP together with tumor irradiation resulted in low tumor incidence and significantly slower tumor progression compared to the agents given as single modalities. Assays of blood and spleen indicated that immune system activation may account, at least partly, for the enhance tumor inhibition seen with combined treatment. No overt signs of treatment-related toxicity were noted.

  4. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  5. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  6. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  7. Conditional lethal expression of the vaccinia virus L1R myristylated protein reveals a role in virion assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Ravanello, M P; Hruby, D E

    1994-01-01

    Within vaccinia virus-infected cells, the product of the L1R open reading frame is covalently modified by myristic acid at the penultimate NH2-terminal glycine residue. Previously we have shown that while the L1R protein is a constituent of both intracellular mature virus particles and extracellular enveloped virions which are released from the infected cell, it is associated exclusively with the primary membranes surrounding the virion core. Given this rather specific localization, it was of interest to study the potential role of this essential gene in virus replication and morphogenesis. To this end, we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus in which expression of the L1R gene can be transcriptionally repressed. Without the inducer isopropylthiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), synthesis of the L1R protein was blocked, resulting in a total inhibition of plaque formation. Velocity sedimentation of viral particles labeled in the presence of [3H]thymidine, grown in the absence of IPTG, revealed a substantial reduction in viral DNA incorporation into virions. Likewise, proteolysis of the major core proteins p4a, p4b, and p25K, believed to occur during the final stages of virion maturation, was severely impaired. In the absence of L1R expression, only immature virions could be detected by electron microscopy. Transient expression of a plasmid containing the full-length L1R gene driven by its own promoter was able to complement and rescue the defective phenotype. However, a plasmid bearing a mutation in the myristyl acceptor glycine residue was unable to biologically rescue the recombinant, and the protein was not detected in purified virions.trans complementation using a truncated, myristylated form of the L1R protein partially rescued the defective mutant. Collectively, these data suggest that myristic acid mediates essential interactions of the L1R protein with viral membranes and/or other virion components that lead to the productive assembly, maturation, and release of particles. Images PMID:8083978

  8. The 32-kilodalton envelope protein of vaccinia virus synthesized in Escherichia coli binds with specificity to cell surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C F; Gong, S C; Esteban, M

    1991-01-01

    The nature of interaction between vaccinia virus and the surface of host cells as the first step in virus infection is undefined. A 32-kDa virus envelope protein has been identified as a cell surface binding protein (J.-S. Maa, J. F. Rodriguez, and M. Esteban, J. Biol. Chem. 265:1569-1577, 1990). To carry out studies on the structure-function relationship of this protein, the 32-kDa protein was obtained from Escherichia coli cells harboring the expression plasmid pT7Ek32. The recombinant polypeptide was found to have structural properties similar to those of the native virus envelope protein. Binding studies of 125I-labeled 32-kDa protein to cultured cells of various origins revealed that the E. coli-produced 32-kDa protein exhibited selectivity, specificity, and saturability. Scatchard analysis indicated about 4.5 x 10(4) sites per cell with a high affinity (Kd = 1.8 x 10(-9) M), suggesting interaction of the 32-kDa protein with a specific receptor. The availability of large quantities of the 32-kDa virus protein in bacteria will permit further structural and functional studies of this virus envelope protein and facilitate identification of the specific cell surface receptor. Images PMID:1985213

  9. Virus-like particles in vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Roldo, Antnio; Mellado, Maria Candida M; Castilho, Leda R; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2010-10-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multiprotein structures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic native viruses but lack the viral genome, potentially yielding safer and cheaper vaccine candidates. A handful of prophylactic VLP-based vaccines is currently commercialized worldwide: GlaxoSmithKline's Engerix (hepatitis B virus) and Cervarix (human papillomavirus), and Merck and Co., Inc.'s Recombivax HB (hepatitis B virus) and Gardasil (human papillomavirus) are some examples. Other VLP-based vaccine candidates are in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical evaluation, such as, influenza virus, parvovirus, Norwalk and various chimeric VLPs. Many others are still restricted to small-scale fundamental research, despite their success in preclinical tests. This article focuses on the essential role of VLP technology in new-generation vaccines against prevalent and emergent diseases. The implications of large-scale VLP production are discussed in the context of process control, monitorization and optimization. The main up- and down-stream technical challenges are identified and discussed accordingly. Successful VLP-based vaccine blockbusters are briefly presented concomitantly with the latest results from clinical trials and the recent developments in chimeric VLP-based technology for either therapeutic or prophylactic vaccination. PMID:20923267

  10. Destruction of variola virus: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the fate of variola virus stocks which have been kept in two WHO Collaborating Centres, as well as cloned DNA fragments of variola virus genome, smallpox vaccine, and seed vaccinia virus for the production of this vaccine. General and specific recommendations are given concerning destruction of variola virus; storage, distribution and handling of cloned DNA fragments of variola virus genome; and about stocks of smallpox vaccine. PMID:7867128

  11. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.

  12. A capripoxvirus detection PCR and antibody ELISA based on the major antigen P32, the homolog of the vaccinia virus H3L gene.

    PubMed

    Heine, H G; Stevens, M P; Foord, A J; Boyle, D B

    1999-07-30

    Sheeppoxvirus (SPV), goatpoxvirus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of cattle belong to the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. Capripox diagnosis by classical virological methods dependent on live capripox virus is not suitable in countries such as Australia where the virus is exotic and live virus is not available. To develop diagnostic tests based on recombinant material, we cloned and sequenced a 3.7 kb viral DNA fragment of SPV that contained open reading frames homologous to the vaccinia virus J6R, H1L, H2R, H3L and H4L genes. A capripoxvirus specific PCR assay was developed that differentiated between SPV and LSDV on the basis of unique restriction sites in the corresponding PCR fragments. The vaccinia virus H3L homolog was identified as the capripoxvirus P32 antigen. The P32 proteins of SPV and LSDV were expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a poly-histidine tag and affinity purified on metal binding resin. The full-length P32 protein contained a transmembrane region close to the carboxy terminus and was membrane associated but could be solubilised in detergent and used as trapping antigen in an antibody detection ELISA. The ELISA was specific for capripoxvirus as only sera from sheep infected with capripoxvirus but not orf or vaccinia virus reacted with the capripoxvirus P32 antigen. PMID:10485266

  13. Immunization of newborn rhesus macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines prolongs survival after oral challenge with virulent SIVmac251.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, Koen K A; Greenier, Jennifer L; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Pahar, Bapi; Rourke, Tracy; Montelaro, Ronald C; Canfield, Don R; Tarara, Ross P; Miller, Christopher; McChesney, Michael B; Marthas, Marta L

    2003-01-01

    There is an urgent need for active immunization strategies that, if administered shortly after birth, could protect infants in developing countries from acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through breast-feeding. Better knowledge of the immunogenic properties of vaccine candidates in infants and of the effect of maternal antibodies on vaccine efficacy will aid in the development of such a neonatal HIV vaccine. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques is a useful animal model of pediatric HIV infection with which to address these questions. Groups of infant macaques were immunized at birth and 3 weeks of age with either modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing SIV Gag, Pol, and Env (MVA-SIVgpe) or live-attenuated SIVmac1A11. One MVA-SIVgpe-immunized group had maternally derived anti-SIV antibodies prior to immunization. Animals were challenged orally at 4 weeks of age with a genetically heterogeneous stock of virulent SIVmac251. Although all animals became infected, the immunized animals mounted better antiviral antibody responses, controlled virus levels more effectively, and had a longer disease-free survival than the unvaccinated infected monkeys. Maternal antibodies did not significantly reduce the efficacy of the MVA-SIVgpe vaccine. In conclusion, although the tested vaccines delayed the onset of AIDS, further studies are warranted to determine whether a vaccine that elicits stronger early immune responses at the time of virus exposure may be able to prevent viral infection or AIDS in infants. PMID:12477823

  14. Functional hyper-IL-6 from vaccinia virus-colonized tumors triggers platelet formation and helps to alleviate toxicity of mitomycin C enhanced virus therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Combination of oncolytic vaccinia virus therapy with conventional chemotherapy has shown promise for tumor therapy. However, side effects of chemotherapy including thrombocytopenia, still remain problematic. Methods Here, we describe a novel approach to optimize combination therapy of oncolytic virus and chemotherapy utilizing virus-encoding hyper-IL-6, GLV-1h90, to reduce chemotherapy-associated side effects. Results We showed that the hyper-IL-6 cytokine was successfully produced by GLV-1h90 and was functional both in cell culture as well as in tumor-bearing animals, in which the cytokine-producing vaccinia virus strain was well tolerated. When combined with the chemotherapeutic mitomycin C, the anti-tumor effect of the oncolytic virotherapy was significantly enhanced. Moreover, hyper-IL-6 expression greatly reduced the time interval during which the mice suffered from chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. Conclusion Therefore, future clinical application would benefit from careful investigation of additional cytokine treatment to reduce chemotherapy-induced side effects. PMID:22236378

  15. Phase 1 study of intratumoral Pexa-Vec (JX-594), an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus, in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Timothy P; Ngo, Minhtran C; Geller, James I; Louis, Chrystal U; Currier, Mark A; Racadio, John M; Towbin, Alexander J; Rooney, Cliona M; Pelusio, Adina; Moon, Anne; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Burke, James M; Bell, John C; Kirn, David H; Breitbach, Caroline J

    2015-03-01

    Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirepvec, JX-594) is an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus designed to destroy cancer cells through viral lysis and induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-driven tumor-specific immunity. Pexa-Vec has undergone phase 1 and 2 testing alone and in combination with other therapies in adult patients, via both intratumoral and intravenous administration routes. We sought to determine the safety of intratumoral administration in pediatric patients. In a dose-escalation study using either 10(6) or 10(7) plaque-forming units per kilogram, we performed one-time injections in up to three tumor sites in five pediatric patients and two injections in one patient. Ages at study entry ranged from 4 to 21 years, and their cancer diagnoses included neuroblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and Ewing sarcoma. All toxicities were ? grade 3. The most common side effects were sinus fever and sinus tachycardia. All three patients at the higher dose developed asymptomatic grade 1 treatment-related skin pustules that resolved within 3-4 weeks. One patient showed imaging evidence suggestive of antitumor biological activity. The two patients tested for cellular immunoreactivity to vaccinia antigens showed strong responses. Overall, our study suggests Pexa-Vec is safe to administer to pediatric patients by intratumoral administration and could be studied further in this patient population. PMID:25531693

  16. West Nile virus seroconversion in penguins after vaccination with a killed virus vaccine or a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Johnson, Yvette J; Ritchie, Branson W; Van Bonn, William

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the serologic response of penguins to West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines, four species of exclusively indoor-housed penguins, negative for WNV by serology, were evaluated: Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus), Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), and Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysoscome) penguins. Birds were inoculated with either a killed virus vaccine or a plasmid-mediated DNA WNV vaccine, and postinoculation serology was evaluated. Both vaccines induced seroconversion in all four species, and no adverse reactions were noted. Postvaccination serology results varied across species and vaccine types. However, in all four species, the killed virus vaccine resulted in a greater seroconversion rate than the DNA vaccine and in a significantly shorter time period. Additionally, the duration of the seropositive titer was significantly longer in those birds vaccinated with the killed virus vaccine compared with those vaccinated with the DNA vaccine. A subset of unvaccinated penguins serving as negative controls remained negative throughout the duration of the study despite the presence of WNV in the geographic locations of the study, suggesting that indoor housing may minimize exposure to the virus and may be an additional means of preventing WNV infection in penguins. PMID:19110700

  17. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Infected Dendritic Cells Present CD4+ T-Cell Epitopes by Endogenous Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Presentation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Frank; Tao, Sha; Zhang, Yi; Muschaweckh, Andreas; Zollmann, Tina; Protzer, Ulrike; Abele, Rubert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ T lymphocytes play a central role in the immune system and mediate their function after recognition of their respective antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Conventionally, phagocytosed antigens are loaded on MHCII for stimulation of CD4+ T cells. Certain epitopes, however, can be processed directly from intracellular antigens and are presented on MHCII (endogenous MHCII presentation). Here we characterized the MHCII antigen presentation pathways that are possibly involved in the immune response upon vaccination with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a promising live viral vaccine vector. We established CD4+ T-cell lines specific for MVA-derived epitopes as tools for in vitro analysis of MHCII antigen processing and presentation in MVA-infected APCs. We provide evidence that infected APCs are able to directly transfer endogenous viral proteins into the MHCII pathway to efficiently activate CD4+ T cells. By using knockout mice and chemical inhibitory compounds, we further elucidated the molecular basis, showing that among the various subcellular pathways investigated, proteasomes and autophagy are key players in the endogenous MHCII presentation during MVA infection. Interestingly, although proteasomal processing plays an important role, neither TAP nor LAMP-2 was found to be involved in the peptide transport. Defining the molecular mechanism of MHCII presentation during MVA infection provides a basis for improving MVA-based vaccination strategies by aiming for enhanced CD4+ T-cell activation by directing antigens into the responsible pathways. IMPORTANCE This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the immunogenic properties of pathogens by deciphering antigen processing pathways contributing to efficient activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We identified autophagosome formation, proteasomal activity, and lysosomal integrity as being crucial for endogenous CD4+ T-cell activation. Since poxvirus vectors such as MVA are already used in clinical trials as recombinant vaccines, the data provide important information for the future design of optimized poxviral vaccines for the study of advanced immunotherapy options. PMID:25520512

  18. Modulation of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats by recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the human 60-kilodalton heat shock protein.

    PubMed Central

    López-Guerrero, J A; López-Bote, J P; Ortiz, M A; Gupta, R S; Páez, E; Bernabeu, C

    1993-01-01

    The immune response to the mycobacterial 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) is considered an important event in the induction of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats; this induction probably occurs through a molecular mimicry mechanism involving cross-reactivity against the rat homolog hsp60. To analyze the role of mammalian molecule hsp60 in arthritis, we generated a recombinant vaccinia virus (hsp60-VV) carrying the human hsp60 gene inserted into the thymidine kinase locus under the control of the 7.5k vaccinia virus promoter. Human hsp60 is almost identical to its rat homolog (97.4% linear amino acid homology) and shares about 50% of amino acid positions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis hsp65. The latter supposedly carries a critical epitope for AA induction that is not present in human hsp60. Infections with hsp60-VV of monkey cell cultures led to the expression of the human hsp60 molecule, as evidenced by immunoblotting analysis with specific monoclonal antibodies. Also, Lewis rats infected with hsp60-VV produced specific antibodies, demonstrating the in vivo expression of human hsp60 in the infected animals. Therefore, we used hsp60-VV to analyze whether the delivery of hsp60 could affect the induction of AA in Lewis rats. hsp60-VV clearly reduced and retarded arthritic symptoms when administered to rats at day 7 after AA induction. In contrast, inoculation of rats with a control recombinant vaccinia virus did not affect the course of the disease. The improvement in AA with hsp60-VV administration was associated with a specific immune response, as determined by the presence of antibodies to hsp60 in the sera and the proliferation induced by hsp60 of T cells from popliteal lymph nodes. These results support a critical role for immunity to heat shock proteins in AA. Since the protective construct is virtually identical to rat homolog hsp60, we conclude that immunity directed to conserved areas of this family of proteins is directly involved in the pathogenesis of AA. Images PMID:8406810

  19. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    PubMed Central

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopox-viruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. PMID:23816434

  20. Vaccine for Deadly Respiratory Virus Shows Promise in Early Trial

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155524.html Vaccine for Deadly Respiratory Virus Shows Promise in Early Trial Researcher hopes ... reporting progress toward developing a vaccine to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common lung infection that ...

  1. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  2. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  3. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  4. Protection of IFNAR (?/?) Mice against Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, by Heterologous (DNA/rMVA) and Homologous (rMVA/rMVA) Vaccination, Expressing Outer-Capsid Protein VP2

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Tamara Kusay; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Mateos, Francisco; Gubbins, Simon; Bin-Tarif, Abdelghani; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Alpar, Oya; Ortego, Javier; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The protective efficacy of recombinant vaccines expressing serotype 8 bluetongue virus (BTV-8) capsid proteins was tested in a mouse model. The recombinant vaccines comprised plasmid DNA or Modified Vaccinia Ankara viruses encoding BTV VP2, VP5 or VP7 proteins. These constructs were administered alone or in combination using either a homologous prime boost vaccination regime (rMVA/rMVA) or a heterologous vaccination regime (DNA/rMVA). The DNA/rMVA or rMVA/rMVA prime-boost were administered at a three week interval and all of the animals that received VP2 generated neutralising antibodies. The vaccinated and non-vaccinated-control mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of BTV-8. Mice vaccinated with VP7 alone were not protected. However, mice vaccinated with DNA/rMVA or rMVA/rMVA expressing VP2, VP5 and VP7 or VP2 alone were all protected. PMID:23593251

  5. Kinetics and intracellular location of intramolecular disulfide bond formation mediated by the cytoplasmic redox system encoded by vaccinia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Bisht, Himani; Brown, Erica; Moss, Bernard

    2010-03-15

    Poxviruses encode a redox system for intramolecular disulfide bond formation in cytoplasmic domains of viral proteins. Our objectives were to determine the kinetics and intracellular location of disulfide bond formation. The vaccinia virus L1 myristoylated membrane protein, used as an example, has three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Reduced and disulfide-bonded forms of L1 were distinguished by electrophoretic mobility and reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Because disulfide bonds formed during 5 min pulse labeling with radioactive amino acids, a protocol was devised in which dithiothreitol was present at this step. Disulfide bond formation was detected by 2 min after removal of reducing agent and was nearly complete in 10 min. When the penultimate glycine residue was mutated to prevent myristoylation, L1 was mistargeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and disulfide bond formation failed to occur. These data suggested that viral membrane association was required for oxidation of L1, providing specificity for the process.

  6. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Milk: Evidence of a Systemic and Persistent Infection in Experimentally Infected Cows.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Trcia Moreira Ludolfo; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Rivetti, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Cerqueira, Mnica Maria Oliveira Pinho; Abraho, Jnatas Santos; Lobato, Zlia Ins Portela

    2015-11-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects lactating cows and milkers. VACV DNA and infectious particles have been detected in milk of naturally infected cows. However, the period and pattern of VACV shedding in milk is unknown, as is whether the presence of VACV in milk is due to a localized or a systemic infection. To address those questions, eight lactating cows were inoculated with VACV in previously scarified teats. The experiment was divided in two phases. In Phase 1, milk samples were collected daily for 33 days, and in Phase 2, four animals from the first phase were immunosuppressed. In both phases, milk was collected with a sterile catheter on even days and by hand milking on odd days. All animals showed typical BV lesions in the inoculated teats. All milk samples were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR to detect VACV DNA. PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation. VACV DNA was intermittently detected in milk in both phases and infectious viral particles could be detected only in phase 2, on the 69th, 73rd, 74th, 77th, 79th, and 81st days postinfection. Despite the possibility of propagation of VACV through milk, it is known that milk continues to be drawn and marketed normally during outbreaks of the disease. The detection of both VACV DNA and infectious particles in milk samples draws attention to the potential public health risk associated with the consumption of milk from BV outbreaks. Detection of VACV in the milk from noninfected teats demonstrated that VACV shedding in milk might be related to a systemic infection. Moreover, it was shown that VACV DNA and viral infectious particles could be detected in milk even after healing of the lesions, demonstrating that VACV may cause a persistent infection in cattle. PMID:26545169

  7. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of A17 during Vaccinia Virus Infection: Involvement of the H1 Phosphatase and the F10 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Derrien, M.; Punjabi, A.; Khanna, M.; Grubisha, O.; Traktman, P.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccinia virus encodes two protein kinases (B1 and F10) and a dual-specificity phosphatase (VH1), suggesting that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of substrates on serine/threonine and tyrosine residues are important in regulating diverse aspects of the viral life cycle. Using a recombinant in which expression of the H1 phosphatase can be regulated experimentally (vindH1), we have previously demonstrated that repression of H1 leads to the maturation of noninfectious virions that contain several hyperphosphorylated substrates (K. Liu et al., J. Virol. 69:78237834). In this report, we demonstrate that among these is a 25-kDa protein that is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in H1-deficient virions and can be dephosphorylated by recombinant H1. We demonstrate that the 25-kDa phosphoprotein represents the product of the A17 gene and that A17 is phosphorylated on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues during infection. Detection of phosphotyrosine within A17 is abrogated when Tyr203 (but not Tyr3, Tyr6, or Tyr7) is mutated to phenylalanine, suggesting strongly that this amino acid is the site of tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of A17 fails to occur during nonpermissive infections performed with temperature-sensitive mutants defective in the F10 kinase. Our data suggest that this enzyme, which was initially characterized as a serine/threonine kinase, might in fact have dual specificity. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that Escherichia coli induced to express F10 contain multiple proteins which are recognized by antiphosphotyrosine antiserum. This study presents the first evidence for phosphotyrosine signaling during vaccinia virus infection and implicates the F10 kinase and the H1 phosphatase as the dual-specificity enzymes that direct this cycle of reversible phosphorylation. PMID:10438817

  8. Vaccinia Virus Mutations in the L4R Gene Encoding a Virion Structural Protein Produce Abnormal Mature Particles Lacking a Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron micrographs from the 1960s revealed the presence of an S-shaped tubular structure in the center of the vaccinia virion core. Recently, we showed that packaging of virus transcription enzymes is necessary for the formation of the tubular structure, suggesting that the structure is equivalent to a nucleocapsid. Based on this study and on what is known about nucleocapsids of other viruses, we hypothesized that in addition to transcription enzymes, the tubular structure also contains the viral DNA and a structural protein as a scaffold. The vaccinia virion structural protein L4 stands out as the best candidate for the role of a nucleocapsid structural protein because it is abundant, it is localized in the center of the virion core, and it binds DNA. In order to gain more insight into the structure and relevance of the nucleocapsid, we analyzed thermosensitive and inducible mutants in the L4R gene. Using a cryo-fixation method for electron microscopy (high-pressure freezing followed by freeze-substitution) to preserve labile structures like the nucleocapsid, we were able to demonstrate that in the absence of functional L4, mature particles with defective internal structures are produced under nonpermissive conditions. These particles do not contain a nucleocapsid. In addition, the core wall of these virions is abnormal. This suggests that the nucleocapsid interacts with the core wall and that the nucleocapsid structure might be more complex than originally assumed. IMPORTANCE The vaccinia virus nucleocapsid has been neglected since the 1960s due to a lack of electron microscopy techniques to preserve this labile structure. With the advent of cryo-fixation techniques, like high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, we are now able to consistently preserve and visualize the nucleocapsid. Because vaccinia virus early transcription is coupled to the viral core structure, detailing the structure of the nucleocapsid is indispensable for determining the mechanisms of vaccinia virus core-directed transcription. The present study represents our second attempt to understand the structure and biological significance of the nucleocapsid. We demonstrate the importance of the protein L4 for the formation of the nucleocapsid and reveal in addition that the nucleocapsid and the core wall may be associated, suggesting a higher level of complexity of the nucleocapsid than predicted. In addition, we prove the utility of high-pressure freezing in preserving the vaccinia virus nucleocapsid. PMID:25253347

  9. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J.S.; Nidom, Chairul A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A.; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  10. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Nidom, Chairul A; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  11. [Vaccination against varicella-zoster virus].

    PubMed

    Silenzi, M

    1984-01-01

    The live varicella virus vaccine which was developed by Takahashi et al, in Japan in 1974 is under study in many countries. This vaccine is able to induce a high degree of immunity in the absence of acute reactions, and therefore it appears to be an effective help in the prevention of VZ infection. The capacity of VZV to become latent in neuronal cells represents a major difficulty in developing strategies for extensive vaccination. Other potential problems are summarized. More extensive studies and clinical trials are required, on the assumption that benefits will outweigh hypothetical risks, before this new immunization is started in children with or without underlying disease. PMID:6099549

  12. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of poxvirus-based vector vaccines expressing the haemagglutinin gene of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Constantinos S; De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Barb, Filip; Bublot, Michel; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of different pox-vector vaccines expressing the haemagglutinin of a highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/chicken/Indonesia/7/03) in pigs. Pigs were vaccinated twice, with a 4-week interval, with a fowlpox (TROVAC), a canarypox (ALVAC), or a vaccinia (NYVAC) vector vaccine combined with an oil-in-water adjuvant, with the unadjuvanted NYVAC, or left unvaccinated. Six weeks after the second vaccination, all pigs were challenged intra-tracheally with low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV A/chicken/Belgium/150/99. Sera were examined in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests against the H5N1 AIV from which the vaccine haemagglutinin derived, the challenge virus and the human A/Vietnam/1194/04 HPAIV. After challenge pigs were compared for H5N2 virus replication in the trachea and 4 lung lobes at 24 or 72h post-challenge. Vaccination was well tolerated by all animals. Antibody titres peaked 2 weeks after the second vaccination and were 2- to 4-fold higher against the vaccine virus than heterologous H5 viruses. The NYVAC and ALVAC adjuvanted vaccines consistently induced higher antibody titres than TROVAC or NYVAC without adjuvant. Following challenge, the H5N2 challenge virus was isolated from all unvaccinated pigs, while 19 out of 21 vaccinates showed complete virological protection. Pox-vector vaccines were safe, immunogenic and efficacious against challenge with a heterologous H5 AIV, offering an alternative to classical inactivated vaccines. It remains to be seen whether they would protect against a swine-adapted H5 virus, which may replicate 100-1000 times better than our challenge virus. PMID:19428840

  13. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. I thought vaccination for smallpox ended decades ago. Who is still ... after vaccination. How is vaccinia transmitted from the vaccination site? Vaccinia is spread by touching a vaccination ...

  14. Prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia Ankara encoding TRAP provides partial protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in Kenyan adults

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nick J.; Roberts, Rachel; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Njuguna, Patricia; Viebig, Nicola K.; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gitau, Evelyn; Douglas, Sandy; Illingworth, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Lawrie, Alison; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B.; Ewer, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. We randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both encoding the malaria peptide sequence ME-TRAP (the multiple epitope string and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein), or to vaccination with rabies vaccine as a control. We gave antimalarials to clear parasitemia and conducted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis on blood samples three times a week to identify infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. On Cox regression, vaccination reduced the risk of infection by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33 to 83%; P = 0.002] during 8 weeks of monitoring. T cell responses to TRAP peptides 21 to 30 were significantly associated with protection (hazard ratio,0.24; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.75; P = 0.016). PMID:25947165

  15. Prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia Ankara encoding TRAP provides partial protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in Kenyan adults.

    PubMed

    Ogwang, Caroline; Kimani, Domtila; Edwards, Nick J; Roberts, Rachel; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly; Hodgson, Susanne H; Njuguna, Patricia; Viebig, Nicola K; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gitau, Evelyn; Douglas, Sandy; Illingworth, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Lawrie, Alison; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ewer, Katie; Urban, Britta C; S Hill, Adrian V; Bejon, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. We randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both encoding the malaria peptide sequence ME-TRAP (the multiple epitope string and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein), or to vaccination with rabies vaccine as a control. We gave antimalarials to clear parasitemia and conducted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis on blood samples three times a week to identify infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. On Cox regression, vaccination reduced the risk of infection by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33 to 83%; P = 0.002] during 8 weeks of monitoring. T cell responses to TRAP peptides 21 to 30 were significantly associated with protection (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.75; P = 0.016). PMID:25947165

  16. Vaccinia Virus N1l Protein Resembles a B Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Family Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, M.; Zhai, D.; Jin, C.; Aleshin, A.E.; Stec, B.; Reed, J.C.; Liddington, R.C.; /Burnham Inst.

    2007-07-03

    Poxviruses encode immuno-modulatory proteins capable of subverting host defenses. The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence. We report the crystal structure of N1L, which reveals an unexpected but striking resemblance to host apoptotic regulators of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Although N1L lacks detectable Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs at the sequence level, we show that N1L binds with high affinity to the BH3 peptides of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in vitro, consistent with a role for N1L in modulating host antiviral defenses.

  17. A marker-free system for highly efficient construction of vaccinia virus vectors using CRISPR Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ming; Gao, Xuefei; Chard, Louisa S; Ali, Zarah; Ahmed, Jahangir; Li, Yunqing; Liu, Pentao; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-01-01

    The current method for creation of vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors involves using a selection and purification marker, however inclusion of a gene without therapeutic value in the resulting vector is not desirable for clinical use. The Cre-LoxP system has been used to make marker-free Poxviruses, but the efficiency was very low. To obtain a marker-free VACV vector, we developed marker gene excision systems to modify the thymidine kinase (TK) region and N1L regions using Cre-Loxp and Flp-FRET systems respectively. CRISPR-Cas9 system significantly resulted in a high efficiency (~90%) in generation of marker gene-positive TK-mutant VACV vector. The marker gene (RFP) could be excised from the recombinant virus using Cre recombinase. To make a marker-free VV vector with double gene deletions targeting the TK and N1L gene, we constructed a donor repair vector targeting the N1L gene, which can carry a therapeutic gene and the marker (RFP) that could be excised from the recombinant virus using Flp recombinase. The marker-free system developed here can be used to efficiently construct VACV vectors armed with any therapeutic genes in the TK region or N1L region without marker genes. Our marker-free system platform has significant potential for development of new marker-free VACV vectors for clinical application. PMID:26417609

  18. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  19. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  20. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  1. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  2. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  3. Structure-Function Analysis of Vaccinia Virus H7 Protein Reveals a Novel Phosphoinositide Binding Fold Essential for Poxvirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kolli, Swapna; Meng, Xiangzhi; Wu, Xiang; Shengjuler, Djoshkun; Cameron, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play a critical role in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Their critical role in replication of cytoplasmic viruses has just begun to be understood. Poxviruses, a family of large cytoplasmic DNA viruses, rely on the intracellular membranes to develop their envelope, and poxvirus morphogenesis requires enzymes from the cellular phosphoinositide metabolic pathway. However, the role of phosphoinositides in poxvirus replication remains unclear, and no poxvirus proteins show any homology to eukaryotic phosphoinositide binding domains. Recently, a group of poxvirus proteins, termed viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs), were identified as essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. A key component of VMAPs is the H7 protein. Here we report the crystal structure of the H7 protein from vaccinia virus. The H7 structure displays a novel fold comprised of seven ?-helices and a highly curved three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet. We identified a phosphoinositide binding site in H7, comprised of basic residues on a surface patch and the flexible C-terminal tail. These residues were found to be essential for viral replication and for binding of H7 to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Our studies suggest that phosphoinositide binding by H7 plays an essential role in poxvirus membrane biogenesis. IMPORTANCE Poxvirus viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs) were recently shown to be essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. One of the key components of VMAPs is the H7 protein. However, no known structural motifs could be identified from its sequence, and there are no homologs of H7 outside the poxvirus family to suggest a biochemical function. We have determined the crystal structure of the vaccinia virus (VACV) H7 protein. The structure displays a novel fold with a distinct and positively charged surface. Our data demonstrate that H7 binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and that the basic surface patch is indeed required for phosphoinositide binding. In addition, mutation of positively charged residues required for lipid binding disrupted VACV replication. Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play critical roles in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Our study demonstrates that VACV H7 displays a novel fold for phosphoinositide binding, which is essential for poxvirus replication. PMID:25473060

  4. Assessment of the Protective Effect of Imvamune and Acam2000 Vaccines against Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Victoria A.; Bewley, Kevin R.; Dennis, Mike; Taylor, Irene; Funnell, Simon G. P.; Bate, Simon R.; Steeds, Kimberley; Tipton, Thomas; Bean, Thomas; Hudson, Laura; Atkinson, Deborah J.; McLuckie, Gemma; Charlwood, Melanie; Roberts, Allen D. G.; Vipond, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To support the licensure of a new and safer vaccine to protect people against smallpox, a monkeypox model of infection in cynomolgus macaques, which simulates smallpox in humans, was used to evaluate two vaccines, Acam2000 and Imvamune, for protection against disease. Animals vaccinated with a single immunization of Imvamune were not protected completely from severe and/or lethal infection, whereas those receiving either a prime and boost of Imvamune or a single immunization with Acam2000 were protected completely. Additional parameters, including clinical observations, radiographs, viral load in blood, throat swabs, and selected tissues, vaccinia virus-specific antibody responses, immunophenotyping, extracellular cytokine levels, and histopathology were assessed. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the levels of neutralizing antibody in animals vaccinated with a single immunization of Acam2000 (132 U/ml) and the prime-boost Imvamune regime (69 U/ml) prior to challenge with monkeypox virus. After challenge, there was evidence of viral excretion from the throats of 2 of 6 animals in the prime-boost Imvamune group, whereas there was no confirmation of excreted live virus in the Acam2000 group. This evaluation of different human smallpox vaccines in cynomolgus macaques helps to provide information about optimal vaccine strategies in the absence of human challenge studies. PMID:23658452

  5. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  6. Powerful Populations Respond to Viruses and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Petter

    2015-12-15

    In this issue of Immunity, Andres-Terre etal. (2015) and Nakaya etal. (2015) perform multi-cohort meta-analysesof immune responses to viruses and vaccines. With increased statistical power and more diverse sampling populations, their findings promise to be more generally applicable and suggestive of novel mechanisms for regulating immunity. PMID:26682979

  7. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Ursula J.; Collins, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines offer several advantages for immunization of infants and young children: (1) they do not cause vaccine-associated enhanced RSV disease; (2) they broadly stimulate innate, humoral, and cellular immunity, both systemically and locally in the respiratory tract; (3) they are delivered intranasally; and (4) they replicate in the upper respiratory tract of young infants despite the presence of passively acquired maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibody. This chapter describes early efforts to develop vaccines through the classic methods of serial cold-passage and chemical mutagenesis, and recent efforts using reverse genetics to derive attenuated derivatives of wild-type (WT) RSV and to develop parainfluenza vaccine vectors that express RSV surface glycoproteins. PMID:24362694

  8. Efficacy and safety/toxicity study of recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 in two immunocompetent animal models of glioma.

    PubMed

    Lun, XueQing; Chan, Jennifer; Zhou, Hongyuan; Sun, Beichen; Kelly, John J P; Stechishin, Owen Owen; Bell, John C; Parato, Kelley; Hu, Kang; Vaillant, Dominique; Wang, Jiahu; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Breitbach, Caroline; Kirn, David; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oncolytic potential of the recombinant, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing vaccinia virus (VV) JX-594 in experimental malignant glioma (MGs) in vitro and in immunocompetent rodent models. We have found that JX-594 killed all MG cell lines tested in vitro. Intratumoral (i.t.) administration of JX-594 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in rats-bearing RG2 intracranial (i.c.) tumors and mice-bearing GL261 brain tumors. Combination therapy with JX-594 and rapamycin significantly increased viral replication and further prolonged survival in both immunocompetent i.c. MG models with several animals considered "cured" (three out of seven rats >120 days, terminated experiment). JX-594 infected and killed brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from patient samples grown ex vivo, and did so more efficiently than other oncolytic viruses MYXV, Reovirus type-3, and VSV(ΔM51). Additional safety/toxicity studies in nontumor-bearing rodents treated with a supratherapeutic dose of JX-594 demonstrated GM-CSF-dependent inflammation and necrosis. These results suggest that i.c. administered JX-594 triggers a predictable GM-CSF-mediated inflammation in murine models. Before proceeding to clinical trials, JX-594 should be evaluated in the brains of nonhuman primates and optimized for the viral doses, delivery routes as well as the combination agents (e.g., mTOR inhibitors). PMID:20808290

  9. Characterization and evaluation of a new oncolytic Vaccinia Virus strain LIVP6.1.1 for canine cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Adelfinger, Marion; Weibel, Stephanie; Geissinger, Ulrike; Frentzen, Alexa; Chen, Nanhai G.; Yu, Yong A.; Zhang, Qian; Ogilvie, Gregory; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2013-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is one novel approach for canine cancer therapy. In this study we described for the first time the characterization and the use of new VACV strain LIVP6.1.1 as an oncolytic agent against canine cancer in a panel of four canine cancer cell lines including: soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1), melanoma (CHAS), osteosarcoma (D-17) and prostate carcinoma (DT08/40). Cell culture data demonstrated that LIVP6.1.1 efficiently infected and destroyed all four tested canine cancer cell lines. In two different xenograft models on the basis of the canine soft tissue sarcoma STSA-1 and the prostate carcinoma DT08/40 cell lines, a systemic administration of the LIVP6.1.1 virus was found to be safe and led to anti-tumor and immunological effects resulting in the significant reduction of tumor growth in comparison to untreated control mice. In summary, the pre-clinical evaluation has demonstrated the efficacy of LIVP6.1.1 for canine cancer therapy. Furthermore, a clinical trial with canine cancer patients has already been started. PMID:23093804

  10. Vaccinia virus F16 protein, a predicted catalytically inactive member of the prokaryotic serine recombinase superfamily, is targeted to nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    Senkevich, Tatiana G.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The F16L gene of vaccinia virus (VACV) is conserved in all chordopoxviruses except avipoxviruses. The crocodile poxvirus F16 protein ortholog has highly significant similarity to prokaryotic serine recombinases and contains all amino acids that comprise the catalytic site. In contrast, F16 orthologs encoded by other poxviruses show only marginally significant similarity to serine recombinases, lack essential amino acids of the active site and are most likely inactive derivatives of serine recombinases. Nevertheless, the conservation of F16L in non-avian poxviruses suggested an important function. However, a VACV mutant with the F16L gene knocked out replicated normally in dividing and quiescent cells. The F16 protein was synthesized early after infection and detected in virus cores. When expressed in infected or uninfected cells, F16 accumulated in nucleoli depending on the level of expression and confluency of cells. Evidence was obtained that F16 forms multimers, which might regulate concentration-dependent intracellular localization. PMID:21752417

  11. A vaccinia virus-driven interplay between the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway and cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anna C T C; Leite, Flvia G G; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Soares-Martins, Jamaria A P; Torres, Alice A; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Souto-Padrn, Thas; Traktman, Paula; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G; Bonjardim, Cludio A

    2012-01-01

    Viral manipulation of transduction pathways associated with key cellular functions such as survival, response to microbial infection, and cytoskeleton reorganization can provide the supportive milieu for a productive infection. Here, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus (VACV) infection leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 4/7 (MKK4/7)-c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) pathway; further, the stimulation of this pathway requires postpenetration, prereplicative events in the viral replication cycle. Although the formation of intracellular mature virus (IMV) was not affected in MKK4/7- or JNK1/2-knockout (KO) cells, we did note an accentuated deregulation of microtubule and actin network organization in infected JNK1/2-KO cells. This was followed by deregulated viral trafficking to the periphery and enhanced enveloped particle release. Furthermore, VACV infection induced alterations in the cell contractility and morphology, and cell migration was reduced in the JNK-KO cells. In addition, phosphorylation of proteins implicated with early cell contractility and cell migration, such as microtubule-associated protein 1B and paxillin, respectively, was not detected in the VACV-infected KO cells. In sum, our findings uncover a regulatory role played by the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway in cytoskeleton reorganization during VACV infection. PMID:22031940

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Promotes Vaccinia Virus Entry into Host Cells via Activation of the Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hiley, Crispin T.; Chard, Louisa S.; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Tysome, James R.; Briat, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) is an enveloped DNA virus from the poxvirus family and has played a crucial role in the eradication of smallpox. It continues to be used in immunotherapy for the prevention of infectious diseases and treatment of cancer. However, the mechanisms of poxvirus entry, the host factors that affect viral virulence, and the reasons for its natural tropism for tumor cells are incompletely understood. By studying the effect of hypoxia on VV infection, we found that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) augments oncolytic VV cytotoxicity. VEGF derived from tumor cells acts to increase VV internalization, resulting in increased replication and cytotoxicity in an AKT-dependent manner in both tumor cells and normal respiratory epithelial cells. Overexpression of VEGF also enhances VV infection within tumor tissue in vivo after systemic delivery. These results highlight the importance of VEGF expression in VV infection and have potential implications for the design of new strategies to prevent poxvirus infection and the development of future generations of oncolytic VV in combination with conventional or biological therapies. PMID:23269798

  13. Antiviral immunity and virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As obligate intracellular organisms, viruses have co-evolved with their respective host species, which in turn have evolved diverse and sophisticated capabilities to protect themselves against viral infections and their associated diseases. Viruses have also evolved a remarkable variety of strategie...

  14. Preferential Replication of Vaccinia Virus in the Ovaries is Independent of Immune Regulation Through IL-10 and TGF-?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Adams, Yan Fei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vaccinia virus (VACV) exhibits a strong tropism for ovarian tissue and can cause ovary pathology and sterility. Why VACV preferentially accumulates in this organ is not known. Here we show that multiple immune cell populations infiltrated the ovaries following VACV infection, including virus-specific CD8 T cells making both IFN-? and TNF. This was also accompanied by the induction of interleukin (IL)-10 and TGF-?, suggesting that VACV may exploit the ovarian environment for immune evasion via induction of these suppressive cytokines. To test this we used several strategies, including neutralizing these cytokines, and exogenous targeting of the T-cell response, to determine if this inhibited virus replication in the ovaries. We found that the VACV-specific CD8 T-cell immunity and the clearance of virus were not enhanced in the ovaries of infected mice in which IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) was blocked with antagonist antibody. VACV replication was also only moderately affected in the ovaries of infected IL-10 knockout mice. Similarly, blockade of TGF-? with antagonist antibody demonstrated no effect on CD8 T-cell immunity or VACV replication. Lastly, an agonist antibody targeting the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member OX40 (TNFRSF4) enhanced the number of VACV-specific CD8 T cells producing IFN-? in lymphoid tissue, but had no effect on CD8 T-cell infiltration of the ovaries or on the viral load. Collectively, the results indicate that preferential replication of VACV in the ovaries may not be dependent on immune suppressive mechanisms in this tissue. PMID:21958373

  15. Responses of volunteers to inactivated influenza virus vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R.; Potter, C. W.; Massey, P. M.; Duerden, B. I.; Martin, J.; Bevan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Three different types of bivalent influenza virus vaccine, a whole virus, an aqueous-surface-antigen vaccine and an adsorbed-surface-antigen vaccine were tested at three dosage levels in volunteers primed with respect to only one of the haemagglutinin antigens present in the vaccines. The local and systemic reactions to all three vaccine types were mild in nature and, following first immunization, the aqueous-surface-antigen vaccine was the least reactogenic. The serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody response to the A/Victoria/75 component of the vaccines to which the volunteer population was primed, was greatest following immunization with the aqueous-surface-antigen vaccine; the greatest antibody response to the A/New Jersey/76 component of the vaccines was observed following immunization with whole virus vaccine. PMID:7007488

  16. Human papilloma virus vaccines: Current scenario.

    PubMed

    Pandhi, Deepika; Sonthalia, Sidharth

    2011-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 9-13% and approximately 6 million people being infected each year. Mostly acquired during adolescence or young adulthood, HPV presents clinically as anogenital warts and may progress to precancerous lesions and cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis and anus, and oropharynx. HPV infection is considered to contribute to almost 100% cervical cancers and at least 80% of anal and 40-60% of vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. At present, two prophylactic HPV vaccines are commercially available and both are prepared from purified L1 structural proteins. These proteins self-assemble to form virus-like particles that induce a protective immunity. Gardasil() is a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 and is recommended for use in females 9-26 years of age, for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers and intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma acuminata and recently for vaccination in boys and men 9-26 years of age for the prevention of genital warts. Cervarix is a bivalent vaccine approved for the prevention of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions caused by HPV 16 and 18, in females 10-25 years. HPV vaccines are safe and efficacious against type-specific HPV-induced anogenital warts, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer. The vaccines are most effective when given before the onset of sexual activity and provide long-term protection. Effective vaccination coverage in young adolescent females will substantially reduce the incidence of these anogenital malignancy-related morbidity and mortality. There is need to generate India-specific data on HPV epidemiology and HPV vaccination efficacy as well as continue worldwide surveillance and development of newer vaccines. PMID:22021967

  17. Polyadenylated RNA sequences from vaccinia virus-infected cells selectively inhibit translation in a cell-free system: structural properties and mechanism of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Su, M J; Bablanian, R

    1990-12-01

    The mechanism of vaccinia virus-induced selective inhibition of host cell protein synthesis was studied in a nonpermissive (Chinese hamster ovary, CHO) and in a permissive mouse cell line ( L cells). Small polyadenylated RNAs obtained from uninfected and infected cells were fractionated into six size classes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The RNAs from the first two largest fractions (greater than 500 nucleotide, nt) were translated into some low-molecular-weight polypeptides, whereas, the RNAs from the remaining fractions (400-500, 300-400, 200-300, and 100-200 nt) had no translational activity in reticulocyte lysates. When these nontranslating polyadenylated short sequences (POLADS) were added to the cell-free system together with HeLa cell mRNAs, translation was inhibited from 70%, by the 400- to 500-nt fraction, to about 20%, by the 100- to 200-nt fraction. The degree of inhibition of protein synthesis was clearly dependent on the size of POLADS. The translation of vaccinia virus mRNAs in the cell-free system was inhibited by about 25% with the 400- to 500-nt fraction, by 5% with the 300- to 400-nt fraction, while the smaller size POLADS had no inhibitory effect. The inhibition of HeLa cell and vaccinia virus mRNA translation by POLADS was reversed by the simultaneous addition of oligo(dT) to the cell-free system. POLADS were also obtained from uninfected cells, but they inhibited the translation of HeLa cell and vaccinia virus mRNAs to a much lesser extent. The removal of the poly(A) moiety from POLADS by treatment with ribonuclease H and oligo(dT) abolished their inhibitory effect on HeLa cell mRNA translation. The average length of the poly(A) tails of POLADS obtained from infected cells was longer than that of POLADS from normal cells. Inhibition of HeLa cell mRNA translation mediated by POLADS in the cell-free system was reversed (approximately 70%) by addition of crude initiation factors (ribosomal salt wash, RSW). Significantly, inhibition of translation of POLADS was reversed (greater than 90%) by addition of purified poly(A) binding protein (PAB). Purified initiation factor 4A (eIF-4A) also reversed this inhibition, but to a lesser extent than RSW and PAB. Our results show that the translation of vaccinia virus mRNAs is resistant to POLADS, suggesting that POLADS, by virtue of their long poly(A) tails, may sequester PAB and thus, play a role in selective inhibition. PMID:1700540

  18. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  19. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  20. In silico-accelerated identification of conserved and immunogenic variola/vaccinia T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Moise, Leonard; McMurry, Julie A; Buus, Soren; Frey, Sharon; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2009-10-30

    Epitopes shared by the vaccinia and variola viruses underlie the protective effect of vaccinia immunization against variola infection. We set out to identify a subset of cross-reactive epitopes using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Putative T-cell epitopes were computationally predicted from highly conserved open reading frames from seven complete vaccinia and variola genomes using EpiMatrix. Over 100 epitopes bearing low human sequence homology were selected and assessed in HLA binding assays and in T-cell antigenicity assays using PBMCs isolated from Dryvax-immunized subjects. This experimental validation of computational predictions illustrates the potential for immunoinformatics methods to identify candidate immunogens for a new, safer smallpox vaccine. PMID:19559119

  1. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amy H.; Ivens, Alasdair; Gordon, Katrina; Craig, Nicola; Houzelle, Alexandre; Roche, Alice; Turnbull, Neil; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A) polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A) tails to the 3’ end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi). Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h) and late (24 h) times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p) whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p). Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication. PMID:26161560

  2. The Membrane Fusion Step of Vaccinia Virus Entry Is Cooperatively Mediated by Multiple Viral Proteins and Host Cell Components

    PubMed Central

    Laliberte, Jason P.; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    For many viruses, one or two proteins allow cell attachment and entry, which occurs through the plasma membrane or following endocytosis at low pH. In contrast, vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by both neutral and low pH routes; four proteins mediate cell attachment and twelve that are associated in a membrane complex and conserved in all poxviruses are dedicated to entry. The aim of the present study was to determine the roles of cellular and viral proteins in initial stages of entry, specifically fusion of the membranes of the mature virion and cell. For analysis of the role of cellular components, we used well characterized inhibitors and measured binding of a recombinant VACV virion containing Gaussia luciferase fused to a core protein; viral and cellular membrane lipid mixing with a self-quenching fluorescent probe in the virion membrane; and core entry with a recombinant VACV expressing firefly luciferase and electron microscopy. We determined that inhibitors of tyrosine protein kinases, dynamin GTPase and actin dynamics had little effect on binding of virions to cells but impaired membrane fusion, whereas partial cholesterol depletion and inhibitors of endosomal acidification and membrane blebbing had a severe effect at the later stage of core entry. To determine the role of viral proteins, virions lacking individual membrane components were purified from cells infected with members of a panel of ten conditional-lethal inducible mutants. Each of the entry protein-deficient virions had severely reduced infectivity and except for A28, L1 and L5 greatly impaired membrane fusion. In addition, a potent neutralizing L1 monoclonal antibody blocked entry at a post-membrane lipid-mixing step. Taken together, these results suggested a 2-step entry model and implicated an unprecedented number of viral proteins and cellular components involved in signaling and actin rearrangement for initiation of virus-cell membrane fusion during poxvirus entry. PMID:22194690

  3. Vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 in combination with 131I shows increased efficiency in treating triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Sepideh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Lou, Emil; Belin, Laurence J.; Fujisawa, Sho; Longo, Valerie A.; Chen, Nanhai G.; Gönen, Mithat; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Szalay, Aladar A.; Fong, Yuman

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a replication-competent oncolytic vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, carrying human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), in combination with radioiodine in an orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. In vitro viral infection was confirmed by immunoblotting and radioiodine uptake assays. Orthotopic xenografts (MDA-MB-231 cells) received intratumoral injection of GLV-1h153 or PBS. One week after viral injection, xenografts were randomized into 4 treatment groups: GLV-1h153 alone, GLV-1h153 and 131I (∼5 mCi), 131I alone, or PBS, and followed for tumor growth. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were performed for statistical analysis. Radiouptake assay showed a 178-fold increase of radioiodine uptake in hNIS-expressing infected cells compared with PBS control. Systemic 131I-iodide in combination with GLV-1h153 resulted in a 6-fold increase in tumor regression (24 compared to 146 mm3 for the virus-only treatment group; P<0.05; d 40). We demonstrated that a novel vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, expresses hNIS, increases the expression of the symporter in TNBC cells, and serves both as a gene marker for noninvasive imaging of virus and as a vehicle for targeted radionuclide therapy with 131I.—Gholami, S., Chen, C-H., Lou, E., Belin, L. J., Fujisawa, S., Longo, V. A. Chen, N. G., Gönen, M., Zanzonico, P. B., Szalay, A. A., Fong, Y. Vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 in combination with 131I shows increased efficiency in treating triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:24186964

  4. Recombinant vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 is a promising oncolytic vector in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pugalenthi, Amudhan; Mojica, Kelly; Ady, Justin W; Johnsen, Clark; Love, Damon; Chen, Nanhai G; Aguilar, Richard J; Szalay, Aladar A; Fong, Yuman

    2015-12-01

    Although early stage cholangiocarcinoma (CC) can be cured by surgical extirpation, the options for treatment of advanced stage CC are very few and suboptimal. Oncolytic virotherapy using replication-competent vaccinia virus (VACV) is a promising new strategy to treat human cancers. The ability of oncolytic VACV GLV-1h68 to infect, replicate in, and lyse three human CC cell lines was assayed in vitro and in subcutaneous flank xenografts in athymic nude mice. In this study, we have demonstrated that GLV-1h68 effectively infects and lyses three CC cell lines (KMC-1, KMBC, and KMCH-1) in vitro. Expression of the viral marker gene ruc-gfp facilitated real-time monitoring of infection and replication. Furthermore in athymic nude mice, a single dose of GLV-1h68 significantly suppressed tumor growth. The treatment was well tolerated in all animals. Recombinant VACV GLV-1h68 has significant oncolytic ability against CC both in vitro and in vivo. GLV-1h68 has the potential to be used clinically as a therapeutic agent against CC. PMID:26584530

  5. NK Cell-extrinsic IL-18 Signaling Is Required for Efficient NK Cell Activation to Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brandstadter, Joshua D.; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Summary NK cells are important for the control of vaccinia virus (VV) in vivo. Recent studies have shown that multiple pathways are required for effective activation of NK cells. These include both TLR-dependent and -independent pathways, as well as the NKG2D activating receptor that recognizes host stress-induced NKG2D ligands. However, it remains largely unknown what controls the upregulation of NKG2D ligands in response to VV infection. In this study, we first showed that IL-18 is critical for NK cell activation and viral clearance. We then demonstrated that IL-18 signaling on both NK cells and DCs is required for efficient NK cell activation upon VV infection in vitro. We further showed in vivo that efficient NK cell activation to VV is dependent on DCs and IL-18 signaling in non-NK cells, suggesting an essential role for NK cell-extrinsic IL-18 signaling in NK cell activation. Mechanistically, IL-18 signaling in DCs promotes expression of Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand. Collectively, our data reveal a previously unrecognized role for NK cell-extrinsic IL-18 signaling in NK cell activation through upregulation of NKG2D ligands. These observations may provide insights into the design of effective NK cell-based therapies for viral infections and cancer. PMID:24846540

  6. Interaction between the G3 and L5 proteins of the vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Cindy L.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-04-10

    The vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex (EFC) consists of 10 to 12 proteins that are embedded in the viral membrane and individually required for fusion with the cell and entry of the core into the cytoplasm. The architecture of the EFC is unknown except for information regarding two pair-wise interactions: A28 with H2 and A16 with G9. Here we used a technique to destabilize the EFC by repressing the expression of individual components and identified a third pair-wise interaction: G3 with L5. These two proteins remained associated under several different EFC destabilization conditions and in each case were immunopurified together as demonstrated by Western blotting. Further evidence for the specific interaction of G3 and L5 was obtained by mass spectrometry. This interaction also occurred when G3 and L5 were expressed in uninfected cells, indicating that no other viral proteins were required. Thus, the present study extends our knowledge of the protein interactions important for EFC assembly and stability.

  7. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. PMID:25728134

  8. Ns1 Is a Key Protein in the Vaccine Composition to Protect Ifnar(?/?) Mice against Infection with Multiple Serotypes of African Horse Sickness Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lpez-Gil, Elena; Marn-Lpez, Alejandro; Mateos, Francisco; Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Lorenzo, Gema; Ortego, Javier

    2013-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) belongs to the genus Orbivirus. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) expressing VP2 and NS1 proteins from AHSV-4. IFNAR(?/?) mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-NS1 from AHSV-4 in an heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of neutralizing antibodies specific of AHSV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific T cell responses against the virus. The vaccine elicited partial protection against an homologous AHSV-4 infection and induced cross-protection against the heterologous AHSV-9. Similarly, IFNAR(?/?) mice vaccinated with an homologous prime-boost strategy with rMVA-VP2-NS1 from AHSV-4 developed neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against AHSV-4. Furthermore, the levels of immunity were very high since none of vaccinated animals presented viraemia when they were challenged against the homologous AHSV-4 and very low levels when they were challenged against the heterologous virus AHSV-9. These data suggest that the immunization with rMVA/rMVA was more efficient in protection against a virulent challenge with AHSV-4 and both strategies, DNA/rMVA and rMVA/rMVA, protected against the infection with AHSV-9. The inclusion of the protein NS1 in the vaccine formulations targeting AHSV generates promising multiserotype vaccines. PMID:23894615

  9. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  10. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Sparger, Ellen E. Dubie, Robert A.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Cole, Kelly S.; Chang, W.L.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2008-05-10

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus.

  11. Evidence of pestivirus RNA in human virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Harasawa, R; Tomiyama, T

    1994-06-01

    We examined live virus vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella for the presence of pestivirus RNA or of pestiviruses by reverse transcription PCR. Pestivirus RNA was detected in two measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccines and in two monovalent vaccines against mumps and rubella. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated that a modified live vaccine strain used for immunization of cattle against bovine viral diarrhea is not responsible for the contamination of the vaccines. PMID:8077414

  12. Long term immunity in African cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ngichabe, C K; Wamwayi, H M; Ndungu, E K; Mirangi, P K; Bostock, C J; Black, D N; Barrett, T

    2002-04-01

    Cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (RPV) or lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. Approximately 50% of the cattle were solidly protected from challenge with a lethal dose of virulent RPV 2 years after vaccination while at 3 years approx. 30% were fully protected. In the case of LSDV, all of 4 vaccinated cattle challenged with virulent LSDV at 2 years were completely protected from clinical disease while 2 of 5 vaccinated cattle were completely protected at 3 years. The recombinant vaccine showed no loss of potency when stored lyophylized at 4 degrees C for up to 1 year. These results indicate that capripoxvirus is a suitable vector for the development of safe, effective and stable recombinant vaccines for cattle. PMID:12002554

  13. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Meseda, Clement A.; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P.

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines inoculated by scarification can elicit protective immune responses that are comparable to subcutaneous vaccination, and may allow for antigen sparing when vaccine supply is limited. PMID:26895072

  14. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines inoculated by scarification can elicit protective immune responses that are comparable to subcutaneous vaccination, and may allow for antigen sparing when vaccine supply is limited. PMID:26895072

  15. Relationship between intracellular concentration of S-adenosylhomocysteine and inhibition of vaccinia virus replication and inhibition of murine L-929 cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Hasobe, M; McKee, J G; Borchardt, R T

    1989-01-01

    9-(trans-2',trans-3'-Dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)-adenine (compound 1) and -3-deazaadenine (compound 2), which are specific inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase, were reported earlier by our laboratory (M. Hasobe, J. G. McKee, D. R. Borcherding, and R. T. Borchardt, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1849-1851, 1987) to have anti-vaccinia virus activity with reduced murine L-929 cell toxicity compared with the prototype compound neplanocin A. In this study, we showed that the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of compounds 1 and 2 can be related to intracellular concentrations of AdoHey, which are elevated in cells treated with these inhibitors of AdoHcy hydrolase. For example, concentrations of analogs 1 and 2 that produce 50% inhibition of vaccinia virus replication caused only slight elevations in intracellular levels of AdoHcy (from 50 [controls] to 100 to 125 [drug-treated cells] pmol/mg of protein) and elevations in the ratios of AdoHcy/S-adenosylmethionine (from 0.05 to 0.1 [controls] to 0.15 to 0.19 [drug-treated cells]). In contrast to the extreme susceptibility of virus replication to slight elevations in intracellular AdoHcy, cell viability was quite tolerant to higher levels of this metabolite. For example, concentrations of analogs 1 and 2 that produced 50% inhibition of L-929 cell replication caused significant increases in intracellular levels of AdoHcy (to 825 to 950 pmol/mg of protein) and elevations in AdoHcy/S-adenosylmethionine ratios (approximately 1.3). These data make it possible to assign a therapeutic index of 7 to 8 to these compounds on the basis of the comparison of intracellular levels of AdoHcy that caused 50% inhibition of vaccinia virus replication with those that caused 50% inhibition of L-929 cell replication. PMID:2764532

  16. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease. PMID:26350598

  17. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease. PMID:26350598

  18. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Poliana de Oliveira; da Silva-Fernandes, André Tavares; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Borges, Iara Apolinário; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Braga, Erika Martins; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks. PMID:26517662

  19. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Poliana de Oliveira; Silva-Fernandes, André Tavares da; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Borges, Iara Apolinário; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Braga, Erika Martins; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks. PMID:26517662

  20. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... titrations shall be conducted on a sample of the vaccine virus dilution used. (3) At least once during a... shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph (c)(2) of this section....

  1. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... titrations shall be conducted on a sample of the vaccine virus dilution used. (3) At least once during a... shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph (c)(2) of this section....

  2. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... titrations shall be conducted on a sample of the vaccine virus dilution used. (3) At least once during a... shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph (c)(2) of this section....

  3. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... titrations shall be conducted on a sample of the vaccine virus dilution used. (3) At least once during a... shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph (c)(2) of this section....

  4. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... titrations shall be conducted on a sample of the vaccine virus dilution used. (3) At least once during a... shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph (c)(2) of this section....

  5. Mucosal Immunization with Newcastle Disease Virus Vector Coexpressing HIV-1 Env and Gag Proteins Elicits Potent Serum, Mucosal, and Cellular Immune Responses That Protect against Vaccinia Virus Env and Gag Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Sunil K.; Manoharan, Vinoth; Bhattarai, Bikash; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Newcastle disease virus (NDV) avirulent strain LaSota was used to coexpress gp160 Env and p55 Gag from a single vector to enhance both Env-specific and Gag-specific immune responses. The optimal transcription position for both Env and Gag genes in the NDV genome was determined by generating recombinant NDV (rNDV)-Env-Gag (gp160 located between the P and M genes and Gag between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Gag-Env (Gag located between the P and M genes and gp160 between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Env/Gag (gp160 followed by Gag located between the P and M genes), and rNDV-Gag/Env (Gag followed by gp160 located between the P and M genes). All the recombinant viruses replicated at levels similar to those seen with parental NDV in embryonated chicken eggs and in chicken fibroblast cells. Both gp160 and Gag proteins were expressed at high levels in cell culture, with gp160 found to be incorporated into the envelope of NDV. The Gag and Env proteins expressed by all the recombinants except rNDV-Env-Gag self-assembled into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs by the intranasal route with these rNDVs produced long-lasting Env- and Gag-specific humoral immune responses. The Env-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and Gag-specific humoral immune responses were higher in rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag than in the other recombinants. rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag were also more efficient in inducing cellular as well as protective immune responses to challenge with vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Env and Gag in mice. These results suggest that vaccination with a single rNDV coexpressing Env and Gag represents a promising strategy to enhance immunogenicity and protective efficacy against HIV. PMID:26199332

  6. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  7. Improvement of BCG protective efficacy with a novel chimpanzee adenovirus and a modified vaccinia Ankara virus both expressing Ag85A

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, E.; Griffiths, K.L.; Poyntz, H.C.; Harrington-Kandt, R.; Dicks, M.D.; Stockdale, L.; Betts, G.; McShane, H.

    2015-01-01

    A replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus expressing Ag85A (ChAdOx1.85A) was assessed, both alone and in combination with modified vaccinia Ankara also expressing Ag85A (MVA85A), for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) challenge in mice. Naïve and BCG-primed mice were vaccinated or boosted with ChAdOx1.85A and MVA85A in different combinations. Although intranasally administered ChAdOx1.85A induced strong immune responses in the lungs, it failed to consistently protect against aerosol M.tb challenge. In contrast, ChAdOx1.85A followed by MVA85A administered either mucosally or systemically, induced strong immune responses and was able to improve the protective efficacy of BCG. This vaccination regime has consistently shown superior protection over BCG alone and should be evaluated further. PMID:26478198

  8. Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Scott C; Osorio, Jorge E; Livengood, Jill A; Chen, Rubing; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged from East Africa to cause devastating epidemics of debilitating and often chronic arthralgia that have affected millions of people in the Indian Ocean Basin and Asia. More limited epidemics initiated by travelers subsequently occurred in Italy and France, as well as human cases exported to most regions of the world, including the Americas where CHIKV could become endemic. Because CHIKV circulates during epidemics in an urban mosquito-human cycle, control of transmission relies on mosquito abatement, which is rarely effective. Furthermore, there is no antiviral treatment for CHIKV infection and no licensed vaccine to prevent disease. Here, we discuss the challenges to the development of a safe, effective and affordable chikungunya vaccine and recent progress toward this goal. PMID:23151166

  9. Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Scott C; Osorio, Jorge E; Livengood, Jill A; Chen, Rubing; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged from East Africa to cause devastating epidemics of debilitating and often chronic arthralgia that have affected millions of people in the Indian Ocean Basin and Asia. More limited epidemics initiated by travelers subsequently occurred in Italy and France, as well as human cases exported to most regions of the world, including the Americas where CHIKV could become endemic. Because CHIKV circulates during epidemics in an urban mosquitohuman cycle, control of transmission relies on mosquito abatement, which is rarely effective. Furthermore, there is no antiviral treatment for CHIKV infection and no licensed vaccine to prevent disease. Here, we discuss the challenges to the development of a safe, effective and affordable chikungunya vaccine and recent progress toward this goal. PMID:23151166

  10. [Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].

    PubMed

    Us, Drdal

    2006-10-01

    The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without causing human disease. An example for this strategy was the development of a live attenuated vaccine from which neurovirulence gene (gamma1 34.5) has been removed. Another promising one was the replication-defective DISC virus HSV vaccine which is derived from a virus with an essential gene (e.g. gH gene) deleted, so the replication has been limited only to a single cycle. As a result, intensive HSV vaccine trials are currently underway, although all the previous attempts to produce an effective vaccine for the prophylaxis and immunotherapy against HSV have been largely unsuccessful. In this review the history of HSV vaccine development together with the preclinical and clinical studies from past to present has been summarized and recent progress for an effective HSV vaccine together with the further improvements required for an immunogenic vaccine have been discussed. PMID:17205702

  11. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus

    PubMed Central

    Carulei, Olivia; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L were sequenced and phylogenetic trees (Neighbour-Joining and UPGMA) constructed from MUSCLE nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the equivalent sequences from several different poxviruses. Based on this analysis, PEPV was confirmed to belong to the genus Avipoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2 and to be most closely related to Turkeypox virus (TKPV), Ostrichpox virus (OSPV)and Pigeonpox virus (PGPV). PMID:19426497

  13. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  14. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  15. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  16. Development of an AIDS vaccine using Sendai virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Matano, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Development of an effective AIDS vaccine is crucial for the control of global human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevalence. We have developed a novel AIDS vaccine using a Sendai virus (SeV) vector and investigated its efficacy in a macaque AIDS model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy have been shown, indicating that the SeV vector is a promising delivery tool for AIDS vaccines. Here, we describe the potential of SeV vector as a vaccine antigen delivery tool to induce effective immune responses against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26232346

  17. Biological and immunological properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: analysis of proteins with truncations and deletions expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Earl, P L; Koenig, S; Moss, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of C-terminal and internal deletions on the synthesis, transport, biological properties, and antigenicity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein were determined. A family of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express N-terminal overlapping env proteins of 204, 287, 393, 502 (full-length gp120), 635, 747, and 851 (full-length gp160) amino acids was constructed. All of the proteins were detected in intra- and extracellular forms which differed in the extent of glycosylation. The 747- and 851-amino-acid proteins were cleaved, were expressed on the surface of infected cells, and bound CD4. The 635-amino-acid env protein was cleaved inefficiently, and both the precursor and product were secreted, indicating absence of the transmembrane sequence. The 635- as well as the 502-amino-acid protein, which was also largely secreted, could still bind CD4. Unexpectedly, the 393-amino-acid protein was anchored in the plasma membrane, but neither it nor smaller proteins bound to soluble CD4. When amino acids at the gp120-gp41 junction were deleted, proteolytic cleavage of gp160 did not occur. Nevertheless, gp160 was inserted into the plasma membrane and bound soluble CD4. The predominant conserved B-cell epitopes were mapped to gp41 and the C terminus of gp120, whereas cytotoxic T-cell epitopes were distributed throughout the length of the glycoproteins. Images PMID:1985202

  18. Biological and immunological properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: analysis of proteins with truncations and deletions expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Earl, P L; Koenig, S; Moss, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of C-terminal and internal deletions on the synthesis, transport, biological properties, and antigenicity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein were determined. A family of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express N-terminal overlapping env proteins of 204, 287, 393, 502 (full-length gp120), 635, 747, and 851 (full-length gp160) amino acids was constructed. All of the proteins were detected in intra- and extracellular forms which differed in the extent of glycosylation. The 747- and 851-amino-acid proteins were cleaved, were expressed on the surface of infected cells, and bound CD4. The 635-amino-acid env protein was cleaved inefficiently, and both the precursor and product were secreted, indicating absence of the transmembrane sequence. The 635- as well as the 502-amino-acid protein, which was also largely secreted, could still bind CD4. Unexpectedly, the 393-amino-acid protein was anchored in the plasma membrane, but neither it nor smaller proteins bound to soluble CD4. When amino acids at the gp120-gp41 junction were deleted, proteolytic cleavage of gp160 did not occur. Nevertheless, gp160 was inserted into the plasma membrane and bound soluble CD4. The predominant conserved B-cell epitopes were mapped to gp41 and the C terminus of gp120, whereas cytotoxic T-cell epitopes were distributed throughout the length of the glycoproteins. PMID:1985202

  19. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B sub 1

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamano, Shigeru; Gelboin, H.V.; Gonzalez, F.J. ); Guzelian, P.S. )

    1990-06-01

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B{sub 1} to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, and IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B{sub 1} as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B{sub 1} activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450.

  20. The Myristate Moiety and Amino Terminus of Vaccinia Virus L1 Constitute a Bipartite Functional Region Needed for Entry

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce-de-Len, Manuel; Saw, Wan Ting; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) L1 is a myristoylated envelope protein which is required for cell entry and the fusion of infected cells. L1 associates with members of the entry-fusion complex (EFC), but its specific role in entry has not been delineated. We recently demonstrated (Foo CH, et al., Virology 385:368382, 2009) that soluble L1 binds to cells and blocks entry, suggesting that L1 serves as the receptor-binding protein for entry. Our goal is to identify the structural domains of L1 which are essential for its functions in VACV entry. We hypothesized that the myristate and the conserved residues at the N terminus of L1 are critical for entry. To test our hypothesis, we generated mutants in the N terminus of L1 and used a complementation assay to evaluate their ability to rescue infectivity. We also assessed the myristoylation efficiency of the mutants and their ability to interact with the EFC. We found that the N terminus of L1 constitutes a region that is critical for the infectivity of VACV and for myristoylation. At the same time, the nonmyristoylated mutants were incorporated into mature virions, suggesting that the myristate is not required for the association of L1 with the viral membrane. Although some of the mutants exhibited altered structural conformations, two mutants with impaired infectivity were similar in conformation to wild-type L1. Importantly, these two mutants, with changes at A4 and A5, undergo myristoylation. Overall, our results imply dual differential roles for myristate and the amino acids at the N terminus of L1. We propose a myristoyl switch model to describe how L1 functions. PMID:22398293

  1. Vaccinia virus protein A49 is an unexpected member of the B-cell Lymphoma (Bcl)-2 protein family.

    PubMed

    Neidel, Sarah; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Mansur, Daniel S; Strnadova, Pavla; Smith, Geoffrey L; Graham, Stephen C

    2015-03-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes several proteins that inhibit activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B). VACV protein A49 prevents translocation of NF-?B to the nucleus by sequestering cellular ?-TrCP, a protein required for the degradation of the inhibitor of ?B. A49 does not share overall sequence similarity with any protein of known structure or function. We solved the crystal structure of A49 from VACV Western Reserve to 1.8 resolution and showed, surprisingly, that A49 has the same three-dimensional fold as Bcl-2 family proteins despite lacking identifiable sequence similarity. Whereas Bcl-2 family members characteristically modulate cellular apoptosis, A49 lacks a surface groove suitable for binding BH3 peptides and does not bind proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax or Bak. The N-terminal 17 residues of A49 do not adopt a single well ordered conformation, consistent with their proposed role in binding ?-TrCP. Whereas pairs of A49 molecules interact symmetrically via a large hydrophobic surface in crystallo, A49 does not dimerize in solution or in cells, and we propose that this hydrophobic interaction surface may mediate binding to a yet undefined cellular partner. A49 represents the eleventh VACV Bcl-2 family protein and, despite these proteins sharing very low sequence identity, structure-based phylogenetic analysis shows that all poxvirus Bcl-2 proteins are structurally more similar to each other than they are to any cellular or herpesvirus Bcl-2 proteins. This is consistent with duplication and diversification of a single BCL2 family gene acquired by an ancestral poxvirus. PMID:25605733

  2. Vaccinia Virus Protein A49 Is an Unexpected Member of the B-cell Lymphoma (Bcl)-2 Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    Neidel, Sarah; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Mansur, Daniel S.; Strnadova, Pavla; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Graham, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes several proteins that inhibit activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B). VACV protein A49 prevents translocation of NF-?B to the nucleus by sequestering cellular ?-TrCP, a protein required for the degradation of the inhibitor of ?B. A49 does not share overall sequence similarity with any protein of known structure or function. We solved the crystal structure of A49 from VACV Western Reserve to 1.8 ? resolution and showed, surprisingly, that A49 has the same three-dimensional fold as Bcl-2 family proteins despite lacking identifiable sequence similarity. Whereas Bcl-2 family members characteristically modulate cellular apoptosis, A49 lacks a surface groove suitable for binding BH3 peptides and does not bind proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax or Bak. The N-terminal 17 residues of A49 do not adopt a single well ordered conformation, consistent with their proposed role in binding ?-TrCP. Whereas pairs of A49 molecules interact symmetrically via a large hydrophobic surface in crystallo, A49 does not dimerize in solution or in cells, and we propose that this hydrophobic interaction surface may mediate binding to a yet undefined cellular partner. A49 represents the eleventh VACV Bcl-2 family protein and, despite these proteins sharing very low sequence identity, structure-based phylogenetic analysis shows that all poxvirus Bcl-2 proteins are structurally more similar to each other than they are to any cellular or herpesvirus Bcl-2 proteins. This is consistent with duplication and diversification of a single BCL2 family gene acquired by an ancestral poxvirus. PMID:25605733

  3. Gene Therapy Using Therapeutic and Diagnostic Recombinant Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h153 for Management of Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Eveno, Clarisse; Mojica, Kelly; Ady, Justin W.; Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Longo, Valerie; Belin, Laurence J.; Gholami, Sepideh; Johnsen, Clark; Zanzonico, Pat; Chen, Nanhai; Yu, Tony; Szalay, Aladar A.; Fong, Yuman

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a terminal progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Poor response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy, coupled with the inability to reliably track disease progression using established diagnostic methods make this a deadly disease. This paper examines the effectiveness of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 as a therapeutic and diagnostic vehicle. We believe that viral expression of the human sodium iodide transporter (hNIS) can provide both real-time monitoring of viral therapy and effective treatment of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC). Methods Infectivity and cytotoxic effect of GLV-1h153 on CRC cell lines was assayed in-vitro. Viral replication was examined by standard viral plaque assays. Orthotopic CRPC xenografts were generated in athymic nude mice, and subsequently administered GLV-1h153 intraperitoneally. Reduction of tumor burden was assessed by mass. Orthotopic tumors were visualized by SPECT/CT after Iodine (131I) administration and by fluorescence optical imaging. Results GLV-1h153 infected and killed CRC cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. Viral replication demonstrated greater than a 2.35 log increase in titer over 4 days. Intraperitoneal treatment of orthotopic CRPC xenografts resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden. Infection of orthotopic xenografts was both therapeutic and facilitated monitoring by 131I-SPECT/CT via expression of hNIS in infected tissue. Conclusions GLV-1h153 effectively kills CRC in-vitro and dramatically reduces tumor burden in-vivo. We demonstrate that GLV-1h153 can be used as an agent to provide accurate delineation of tumor burden in-vivo. These findings indicate that GLV-1h153 has significant potential for use as theragnostic agent in the treatment of CRPC. PMID:25616946

  4. Variola virus F1L is a Bcl-2-like protein that unlike its vaccinia virus counterpart inhibits apoptosis independent of Bim.

    PubMed

    Marshall, B; Puthalakath, H; Caria, S; Chugh, S; Doerflinger, M; Colman, P M; Kvansakul, M

    2015-01-01

    Subversion of host cell apoptosis is an important survival strategy for viruses to ensure their own proliferation and survival. Certain viruses express proteins homologous in sequence, structure and function to mammalian pro-survival B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, which prevent rapid clearance of infected host cells. In vaccinia virus (VV), the virulence factor F1L was shown to be a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that functions primarily be engaging pro-apoptotic Bim. Variola virus (VAR), the causative agent of smallpox, harbors a homolog of F1L of unknown function. We show that VAR F1L is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and unlike all other characterized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members lacks affinity for the Bim Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain. Instead, VAR F1L engages Bid BH3 as well as Bak and Bax BH3 domains. Unlike its VV homolog, variola F1L only protects against Bax-mediated apoptosis in cellular assays. Crystal structures of variola F1L bound to Bid and Bak BH3 domains reveal that variola F1L forms a domain-swapped Bcl-2 fold, which accommodates Bid and Bak BH3 in the canonical Bcl-2-binding groove, in a manner similar to VV F1L. Despite the observed conservation of structure and sequence, variola F1L inhibits apoptosis using a startlingly different mechanism compared with its VV counterpart. Our results suggest that unlike during VV infection, Bim neutralization may not be required during VAR infection. As molecular determinants for the human-specific tropism of VAR remain essentially unknown, identification of a different mechanism of action and utilization of host factors used by a VAR virulence factor compared with its VV homolog suggest that studying VAR directly may be essential to understand its unique tropism. PMID:25766319

  5. Variola virus F1L is a Bcl-2-like protein that unlike its vaccinia virus counterpart inhibits apoptosis independent of Bim

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, B; Puthalakath, H; Caria, S; Chugh, S; Doerflinger, M; Colman, P M; Kvansakul, M

    2015-01-01

    Subversion of host cell apoptosis is an important survival strategy for viruses to ensure their own proliferation and survival. Certain viruses express proteins homologous in sequence, structure and function to mammalian pro-survival B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, which prevent rapid clearance of infected host cells. In vaccinia virus (VV), the virulence factor F1L was shown to be a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that functions primarily be engaging pro-apoptotic Bim. Variola virus (VAR), the causative agent of smallpox, harbors a homolog of F1L of unknown function. We show that VAR F1L is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and unlike all other characterized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members lacks affinity for the Bim Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain. Instead, VAR F1L engages Bid BH3 as well as Bak and Bax BH3 domains. Unlike its VV homolog, variola F1L only protects against Bax-mediated apoptosis in cellular assays. Crystal structures of variola F1L bound to Bid and Bak BH3 domains reveal that variola F1L forms a domain-swapped Bcl-2 fold, which accommodates Bid and Bak BH3 in the canonical Bcl-2-binding groove, in a manner similar to VV F1L. Despite the observed conservation of structure and sequence, variola F1L inhibits apoptosis using a startlingly different mechanism compared with its VV counterpart. Our results suggest that unlike during VV infection, Bim neutralization may not be required during VAR infection. As molecular determinants for the human-specific tropism of VAR remain essentially unknown, identification of a different mechanism of action and utilization of host factors used by a VAR virulence factor compared with its VV homolog suggest that studying VAR directly may be essential to understand its unique tropism. PMID:25766319

  6. A propagation model of computer virus with nonlinear vaccination probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Wanping; Zhu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine the effect of vaccination on the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a novel computer virus propagation model, which incorporates a nonlinear vaccination probability, is proposed. A qualitative analysis of this model reveals that, depending on the value of the basic reproduction number, either the virus-free equilibrium or the viral equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. The results of simulation experiments not only demonstrate the validity of our model, but also show the effectiveness of nonlinear vaccination strategies. Through parameter analysis, some effective strategies for eradicating viruses are suggested.

  7. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine intake evaluation by detection of virus amplification in feather pulps of vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Davidson, I; Raibshtein, I; Altori, A; Elkin, N

    2016-03-18

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus, ILTV. The live vaccine is applied worldwide by drinking water or by the respiratory route, and by the vent application in Israel. No system of direct evaluation of the efficacy of vaccination exists today, except of antibody elicitation, which is an indirect indication of vaccination intake and might happen due to environment exposure. We suggest for the first time an assay for evaluating the accuracy of the vaccination process by spotting the spread of the live vaccine systemically, namely by virus detection in the feather shafts of the vaccinated birds. The feathers are particularly beneficial as they are easy to collect, non-lethal for the bird, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. Moreover, the continuous survey of the vaccine virus unveiled the different kinetics of viremia by the different vaccination routes; while after the vent vaccination the systemic viremia peaks during the first week afterwards, after two consecutive vaccine administration by drinking water with 6 day interval, the vireamia peaks only after the second administration. A robust amplification was needed because the vaccine ILTV was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. For the vaccine virus identification in feather shafts a nested real-time PCR for the TK ILTV gene was developed. The sensitivity of detection of the nested rtPCR was greater by 1000 compared to conventional nested PCR and 10 times that real-time PCR. PMID:26784685

  8. Barrier to Autointegration Factor (BAF) Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Intermediate Transcription in the Absence of the Viral B1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nouhou; Wicklund, April; Jamin, Augusta; Wiebe, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF/BANF1) is a cellular DNA-binding protein found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic BAF binds to foreign DNA and can act as a defense against vaccinia DNA replication. To evade BAF, vaccinia expresses the B1 kinase, which phosphorylates BAF and blocks its ability to bind DNA. Interestingly, B1 is also needed for viral intermediate gene expression via an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of B1-BAF signaling on vaccinia transcription. Strikingly, the decrease in vaccinia transcription caused by loss of B1 can be rescued by depletion of BAF. The repressive action of BAF is greatest on a viral promoter, and is more modest when non-vaccinia promoters are employed, which suggests BAF acts in a gene specific manner. These studies expand our understanding of the role of the B1 kinase during infection and provide the first evidence that BAF is a defense against viral gene expression. PMID:23891157

  9. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein subunit vaccine elicits vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous del...

  10. Probable Congenital Transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Caused by Vaccination with Contaminated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2012-01-01

    Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872

  11. Structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (rA27L) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic Indian vaccinia-like virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati

    2015-10-01

    Buffalopox virus (BPXV), an Indian variant of vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonotic agent and affects buff