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Sample records for vaccinia virus vaccine

  1. Vaccinia virus vaccines: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bertram L; Langland, Jeffrey O; Kibler, Karen V; Denzler, Karen L; White, Stacy D; Holechek, Susan A; Wong, Shukmei; Huynh, Trung; Baskin, Carole R

    2009-10-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used more extensively for human immunization than any other vaccine. For almost two centuries, VACV was employed to provide cross-protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, until the disease was eradicated in the late 1970s. Since that time, continued research on VACV has produced a number of modified vaccines with improved safety profiles. Attenuation has been achieved through several strategies, including sequential passage in an alternative host, deletion of specific genes or genetic engineering of viral genes encoding immunomodulatory proteins. Some highly attenuated third- and fourth-generation VACV vaccines are now being considered for stockpiling against a possible re-introduction of smallpox through bioterrorism. Researchers have also taken advantage of the ability of the VACV genome to accommodate additional genetic material to produce novel vaccines against a wide variety of infectious agents, including a recombinant VACV encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein that is administered orally to wild animals. This review provides an in-depth examination of these successive generations of VACV vaccines, focusing on how the understanding of poxviral replication and viral gene function permits the deliberate modification of VACV immunogenicity and virulence. PMID:19563829

  2. Vaccinia vectors as candidate vaccines: the development of modified vaccinia virus Ankara for antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Gerd; Staib, Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Vaccinia viruses engineered to express foreign genes are powerful vectors for production of recombinant proteins. Originating from highly efficacious vaccines securing world-wide eradication of smallpox, the most appealing use of vaccinia vectors is to serve as vaccine delivery system for heterologous antigens. Concerns about the safety of vaccinia virus have been addressed by the development of vectors based on attenuated viruses. One of them, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can be considered as current vaccinia virus strain of choice for clinical investigation. Historical development and use of MVA as vaccine against smallpox allowed to establish an extraordinary safety profile. MVA can be used under conditions of biosafety level 1 because of its avirulence and its deficiency to productively grow in human cells. In recent years significant progress has been made with regard to the development of MVA vector technologies. Compared to replication competent vaccinia viruses, MVA provides similar levels of recombinant gene expression even in nonpermissive cells. In animal models, MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective against various infectious agents including immunodeficiency viruses, influenza, parainfluenza, measles virus, flaviviruses, or plasmodium parasites. By now first data from clinical trials are becoming available. In this article we briefly review history of MVA and state-of-the art technologies with regard to generation of recombinant MVA vaccines, and describe the progress to develop MVA vector vaccines against important infectious diseases. PMID:14529359

  3. Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, D E

    1990-01-01

    The development and continued refinement of techniques for the efficient insertion and expression of heterologous DNA sequences from within the genomic context of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants are among the most promising current approaches towards effective immunoprophylaxis against a variety of protozoan, viral, and bacterial human pathogens. Because of its medical relevance, this area is the subject of intense research interest and has evolved rapidly during the past several years. This review (i) provides an updated overview of the technology that exists for assembling recombinant vaccinia virus strains, (ii) discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, (iii) outlines the areas of outgoing research directed towards overcoming the limitations of current techniques, and (iv) provides some insight (i.e., speculation) about probable future refinements in the use of vaccinia virus as a vector. PMID:2187593

  5. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  6. Oral vaccination of the fox against rabies using a live recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Blancou, J; Kieny, M P; Lathe, R; Lecocq, J P; Pastoret, P P; Soulebot, J P; Desmettre, P

    Rabies, a viral disease affecting all warm-blooded animals, is prevalent in most parts of the world, where it propagates amongst wild animals, particularly the fox and dog. The public health and economic consequences of infection in man and livestock are well known. Attempts to control the disease by vaccinating wild carnivores with inactivated or attenuated rabies virus remain controversial, and we have instead evaluated here the potential of a recombinant vaccinia virus to protect foxes against the disease. We have found that the administration of vaccinia virus (VV) or a recombinant harbouring the rabies surface antigen gene (VVTGgRAB) is innocuous to foxes. The recombinant virus can elicit the production of titers of rabies-neutralizing antibodies equal or superior to those obtained with conventional vaccine, and 10(8) plaque-forming units (PFU) of VVTGgRAB administered subcutaneously, intradermally or orally confers complete protection to severe challenge infection with street rabies virus. PMID:3736663

  7. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei . E-mail: zchen@adarc.org

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  8. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  9. Active vaccination with vaccinia virus A33 protects mice against lethal vaccinia and ectromelia viruses but not against cowpoxvirus; elucidation of the specific adaptive immune response.

    PubMed

    Paran, Nir; Lustig, Shlomo; Zvi, Anat; Erez, Noam; Israely, Tomer; Melamed, Sharon; Politi, Boaz; Ben-Nathan, David; Schneider, Paula; Lachmi, Batel; Israeli, Ofir; Stein, Dana; Levin, Reuven; Olshevsky, Udy

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus protein A33 (A33VACV) plays an important role in protection against orthopoxviruses, and hence is included in experimental multi-subunit smallpox vaccines. In this study we show that single-dose vaccination with recombinant Sindbis virus expressing A33VACV, is sufficient to protect mice against lethal challenge with vaccinia virus WR (VACV-WR) and ectromelia virus (ECTV) but not against cowpox virus (CPXV), a closely related orthopoxvirus. Moreover, a subunit vaccine based on the cowpox virus A33 ortholog (A33CPXV) failed to protect against cowpox and only partially protected mice against VACV-WR challenge. We mapped regions of sequence variation between A33VACV and A33CPXVand analyzed the role of such variations in protection. We identified a single protective region located between residues 104-120 that harbors a putative H-2Kd T cell epitope as well as a B cell epitope - a target for the neutralizing antibody MAb-1G10 that blocks spreading of extracellular virions. Both epitopes in A33CPXV are mutated and predicted to be non-functional. Whereas vaccination with A33VACV did not induce in-vivo CTL activity to the predicted epitope, inhibition of virus spread in-vitro, and protection from lethal VACV challenge pointed to the B cell epitope highlighting the critical role of residue L118 and of adjacent compensatory residues in protection. This epitope's critical role in protection, as well as its modifications within the orthopoxvirus genus should be taken in context with the failure of A33 to protect against CPXV as demonstrated here. These findings should be considered when developing new subunit vaccines and monoclonal antibody based therapeutics against orthopoxviruses, especially variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox. PMID:23842430

  10. A Human Multi-Epitope Recombinant Vaccinia Virus as a Universal T Cell Vaccine Candidate against Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Alan G.; Heinen, Paul P.; Guerra, Susana; Vijayan, Aneesh; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Gomez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop a universal vaccine against influenza virus infection to avoid developing new formulations of a seasonal vaccine each year. Many of the vaccine strategies for a universal vaccine target strain-conserved influenza virus proteins, such as the matrix, polymerase, and nucleoproteins, rather than the surface hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. In addition, non-disease-causing viral vectors are a popular choice as a delivery system for the influenza virus antigens. As a proof-of-concept, we have designed a novel influenza virus immunogen based on the NP backbone containing human T cell epitopes for M1, NS1, NP, PB1 and PA proteins (referred as NPmix) as well as a construct containing the conserved regions of influenza virus neuraminidase (N-terminal) and hemagglutinin (C-terminal) (referred as NA-HA). DNA vectors and vaccinia virus recombinants expressing NPmix (WR-NP) or both NPmix plus NA-HA (WR-flu) in the cytosol were tested in a heterologous DNA-prime/vaccinia virus-boost vaccine regimen in mice. We observed an increase in the number of influenza virus-specific IFNγ-secreting splenocytes, composed of populations marked by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFNγ or TNFα. Upon challenge with influenza virus, the vaccinated mice exhibited decreased viral load in the lungs and a delay in mortality. These findings suggest that DNA prime/poxvirus boost with human multi-epitope recombinant influenza virus proteins is a valid approach for a general T-cell vaccine to protect against influenza virus infection. PMID:21998725

  11. A vaccinia virus renaissance: new vaccine and immunotherapeutic uses after smallpox eradication.

    PubMed

    Verardi, Paulo H; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J

    2012-07-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

  12. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskiy, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-γ-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  13. Vaccinia Virus LC16m8∆ as a Vaccine Vector for Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kidokoro, Minoru; Shida, Hisatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The LC16m8 strain of vaccinia virus, the active ingredient in the Japanese smallpox vaccine, was derived from the Lister/Elstree strain. LC16m8 is replication-competent and has been administered to over 100,000 infants and 3,000 adults with no serious adverse reactions. Despite this outstanding safety profile, the occurrence of spontaneously-generated large plaque-forming virulent LC16m8 revertants following passage in cell culture is a major drawback. We identified the gene responsible for the reversion and deleted the gene (B5R) from LC16m8 to derive LC16m8Δ. LC16m8∆ is non-pathogenic in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, genetically-stable and does not reverse to a large-plaque phenotype upon passage in cell culture, even under conditions in which most LC16m8 populations are replaced by revertants. Moreover, LC16m8∆ is >500-fold more effective than the non-replicating vaccinia virus (VV), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), at inducing murine immune responses against pathogenic VV. LC16m8∆, which expresses the SIV gag gene, also induced anti-Gag CD8+ T-cells more efficiently than MVA and another non-replicating VV, Dairen I minute-pock variants (DIs). Moreover, LC16m8∆ expressing HIV-1 Env in combination with a Sendai virus vector induced the production of anti-Env antibodies and CD8+ T-cells. Thus, the safety and efficacy of LC16m8∆ mean that it represents an outstanding platform for the development of human vaccine vectors. PMID:26344890

  14. Cross-protective immunity against multiple influenza virus subtypes by a novel modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Brewoo, Joseph N; Powell, Tim D; Jones, Jeremy C; Gundlach, Nancy A; Young, Ginger R; Chu, Haiyan; Das, Subash C; Partidos, Charalambos D; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2013-04-01

    Development of an influenza vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity remains a challenge. Candidate vaccines based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector expressing antigens from influenza (MVA/Flu) viruses were constructed. A vaccine candidate, designated MVA/HA1/C13L/NP, that expresses the hemagglutinin from pandemic H1N1 (A/California/04/09) and the nucleoprotein (NP) from highly pathogenic H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) fused to a secretory signal sequence from vaccinia virus was highly protective. The vaccine elicited strong antibody titers to homologous H1N1 viruses while cross-reactive antibodies to heterologous viruses were not detectable. In mice, this MVA/HA1/C13L/NP vaccine conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1), A/Norway/3487-2/09 (pandemic H1N1) or A/Influenza/Puerto Rico/8/34 (seasonal H1N1) and partial protection (57.1%) against challenge with seasonal H3N2 virus (A/Aichi/68). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was not affected by pre-existing immunity to vaccinia. Our findings highlight MVA as suitable vector to express multiple influenza antigens that could afford broad cross-protective immunity against multiple subtypes of influenza virus. PMID:23376279

  15. Oral vaccination with modified vaccinia virus Ankara attached covalently to TMPEG-modified cationic liposomes overcomes pre-existing poxvirus immunity from recombinant vaccinia immunization

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Toshio; Kaneko, Yutaro; Kozbor, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    Development of a safe and effective vaccine for induction of mucosal immunity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env, gp160) represents the best hope for containing the spread of an HIV epidemic worldwide. The highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a laboratory virus well suited as a safe vaccine vector. However, the presence of pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia virus in the adult population represents a hindrance that limits the application of the MVA vector for inducing immunity to HIV antigens. Here, cationic liposomes were covalently attached to the surface of recombinant MVA expressing the HIV-1 strain IIIB Env glycoprotein and β-galactosidase (MVAIIIB/β-gal) using tresylmonomethoxypolyethylene glycol (TMPEG) grafted into a lipid membrane without compromising viral infectivity in vitro and in vivo. The orally administered MVAIIIB/β-gal–TMPEG/liposome complexes were capable of delivering the transgenes to mucosal tissues in mice with pre-existing poxvirus immunity based on β-galactosidase gene expression in intestinal tissues measured 18 h after infection. Importantly, the MVAIIIB/β-gal–TMPEG/liposome complexes enhanced Env-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in the mucosal and systemic tissues after repeated oral immunization of BALB/c mice. This approach may prove useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in populations with pre-existing immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination. PMID:17170437

  16. Vaccinia virus transcription.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Steven S

    2003-09-01

    Vaccinia virus replication takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The nearly 200 kbp genome owes part of its complexity to encoding most of the proteins involved in genome and mRNA synthesis. The multisubunit vaccinia virus RNA polymerase requires a separate set of virus-encoded proteins for the transcription of the early, intermediate and late classes of genes. Cell fractionation studies have provided evidence for a role for host cell proteins in the initiation and termination of vaccinia virus intermediate and late gene transcription. Vaccinia virus resembles nuclear DNA viruses in the integration of viral and host proteins for viral mRNA synthesis, yet is markedly less reliant on host proteins than its nuclear counterparts. PMID:12917449

  17. Vaccination of BALB/c Mice with Escherichia coli-Expressed Vaccinia Virus Proteins A27L, B5R, and D8L Protects Mice from Lethal Vaccinia Virus Challenge▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Berhanu, Aklile; Wilson, Rebecca L.; Kirkwood-Watts, Dana L.; King, David S.; Warren, Travis K.; Lund, Susan A.; Brown, Lindsay L.; Krupkin, Alex K.; VanderMay, Erin; Weimers, Will; Honeychurch, Kady M.; Grosenbach, Douglas W.; Jones, Kevin F.; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    The potential threat of smallpox use in a bioterrorist attack has heightened the need to develop an effective smallpox vaccine for immunization of the general public. Vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine, Dryvax, produces protective immunity but may result in adverse reactions for some vaccinees. A subunit vaccine composed of protective vaccinia virus proteins should avoid the complications arising from live-virus vaccination and thus provide a safer alternative smallpox vaccine. In this study, we assessed the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a multisubunit vaccine composed of the A27L and D8L proteins from the intracellular mature virus (IMV) form and the B5R protein from the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of vaccinia virus. BALB/c mice were immunized with Escherichia coli-produced A27L, D8L, and B5R proteins in an adjuvant consisting of monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose dicorynomycolate or in TiterMax Gold adjuvant. Following immunization, mice were either sacrificed for analysis of immune responses or lethally challenged by intranasal inoculation with vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. We observed that three immunizations either with A27L, D8L, and B5R or with the A27L and B5R proteins alone induced potent neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge. Several linear B-cell epitopes within the three proteins were recognized by sera from the immunized mice. In addition, protein-specific cellular responses were detected in spleens of immunized mice by a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay using peptides derived from each protein. Our data suggest that a subunit vaccine incorporating bacterially expressed IMV- and EEV-specific proteins can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune responses and providing protection against lethal virus challenge. PMID:18199639

  18. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with Escherichia coli-expressed vaccinia virus proteins A27L, B5R, and D8L protects mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Aklile; Wilson, Rebecca L; Kirkwood-Watts, Dana L; King, David S; Warren, Travis K; Lund, Susan A; Brown, Lindsay L; Krupkin, Alex K; Vandermay, Erin; Weimers, Will; Honeychurch, Kady M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Jones, Kevin F; Hruby, Dennis E

    2008-04-01

    The potential threat of smallpox use in a bioterrorist attack has heightened the need to develop an effective smallpox vaccine for immunization of the general public. Vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine, Dryvax, produces protective immunity but may result in adverse reactions for some vaccinees. A subunit vaccine composed of protective vaccinia virus proteins should avoid the complications arising from live-virus vaccination and thus provide a safer alternative smallpox vaccine. In this study, we assessed the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a multisubunit vaccine composed of the A27L and D8L proteins from the intracellular mature virus (IMV) form and the B5R protein from the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of vaccinia virus. BALB/c mice were immunized with Escherichia coli-produced A27L, D8L, and B5R proteins in an adjuvant consisting of monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose dicorynomycolate or in TiterMax Gold adjuvant. Following immunization, mice were either sacrificed for analysis of immune responses or lethally challenged by intranasal inoculation with vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. We observed that three immunizations either with A27L, D8L, and B5R or with the A27L and B5R proteins alone induced potent neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge. Several linear B-cell epitopes within the three proteins were recognized by sera from the immunized mice. In addition, protein-specific cellular responses were detected in spleens of immunized mice by a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay using peptides derived from each protein. Our data suggest that a subunit vaccine incorporating bacterially expressed IMV- and EEV-specific proteins can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune responses and providing protection against lethal virus challenge. PMID:18199639

  19. Vaccinia Virus Infections in Martial Arts Gym, Maryland, USA, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Blythe, David; Li, Yu; Reddy, Ramani; Jordan, Carol; Edwards, Cindy; Adams, Celia; Conners, Holly; Rasa, Catherine; Wilby, Sue; Russell, Jamaal; Russo, Kelly S.; Somsel, Patricia; Wiedbrauk, Danny L.; Dougherty, Cindy; Allen, Christopher; Frace, Mike; Emerson, Ginny; Olson, Victoria A.; Smith, Scott K.; Braden, Zachary; Abel, Jason; Davidson, Whitni; Reynolds, Mary; Damon, Inger K.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infections can be transmissible and can cause severe complications in those with weakened immune systems. We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym. PMID:21470473

  20. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising. PMID:26697713

  1. Genomic analysis of the vaccinia virus strain variants found in Dryvax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Upton, Chris; Hazes, Bart; Evans, David H

    2011-12-01

    Smallpox was eradicated using variant forms of vaccinia virus-based vaccines. One of these was Dryvax, a calf lymph vaccine derived from the New York City Board of Health strain. We used genome-sequencing technology to examine the genetic diversity of the population of viruses present in a sample of Dryvax. These studies show that the conserved cores of these viruses exhibit a lower level of sequence variation than do the telomeres. However, even though the ends of orthopoxviruses are more genetically plastic than the cores, there are still many telomeric genes that are conserved as intact open reading frames in the 11 genomes that we, and 4 genomes that others, have sequenced. Most of these genes likely modulate inflammation. Our sequencing also detected an evolving pattern of mutation, with some genes being highly fragmented by randomly assorting mutations (e.g., M1L), while other genes are intact in most viruses but have been disrupted in individual strains (e.g., I4L in strain DPP17). Over 85% of insertion and deletion mutations are associated with repeats, and a rare new isolate bearing a large deletion in the right telomere was identified. All of these strains cluster in dendrograms consistent with their origin but which also surprisingly incorporate horsepox virus. However, these viruses also exhibit a "patchy" pattern of polymorphic sites characteristic of recombinants. There is more genetic diversity detected within a vial of Dryvax than between variola virus major and minor strains, and our study highlights how propagation methods affect the genetics of orthopoxvirus populations. PMID:21976639

  2. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Lülf, Anna; Marr, Lisa; Jany, Sylvia; Deeg, Cornelia A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells non-permissive for MVA replication. Prime-boost immunizations in BALB/c mice readily induced circulating serum antibodies binding to recombinant WNV E protein and neutralizing WNV in tissue culture infections. Vaccinations in HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice elicited WNV E-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Moreover, the MVA-WNV candidate vaccines protected C57BL/6 mice against lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV infection and induced heterologous neutralizing antibodies. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate these recombinant MVA-WNV vaccines in other preclinical models and use them as candidate vaccine in humans. PMID:26939903

  3. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector. PMID:23593246

  4. Induction of Antibody Responses to African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) in Ponies after Vaccination with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Sushila; Rao, Shujing; Mertens, Peter; Blacklaws, Barbara; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Wood, James; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. Methodology/Principal Findings VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2). MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen–specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable. PMID:19543394

  5. DNA and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Encoding Multiple Cytotoxic and Helper T-Lymphocyte Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Safe but Weakly Immunogenic in HIV-1-Uninfected, Vaccinia Virus-Naive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243

  6. Induction of protective immunity in animals vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia viruses that express PreM and E glycoproteins of Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, A; Kimura-Kuroda, J; Ogimoto, M; Miyamoto, M; Sata, T; Sato, T; Takamura, C; Kurata, T; Kojima, A; Yasui, K

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA clone representing the genome of structural proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus strains LC16mO and WR under the control of a strong early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. Indirect immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated flow cytometric analysis revealed that the recombinant vaccinia viruses expressed JEV E protein on the membrane surface, as well as in the cytoplasm, of recombinant-infected cells. In addition, the E protein expressed from the JEV recombinants reacted to nine different characteristic monoclonal antibodies, some of which have hemagglutination-inhibiting and JEV-neutralizing activities. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that two major proteins expressed in recombinant-infected cells were processed and glycosylated as the authentic PreM and E glycoproteins of JEV. Inoculation of rabbits with the infectious recombinant vaccinia virus resulted in rapid production of antiserum specific for the PreM and E glycoproteins of JEV. This antiserum had both hemagglutination-inhibiting and virus-neutralizing activities against JEV. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with the recombinant also produced JEV-neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to challenge with JEV. Images PMID:2159544

  7. Failure of the Smallpox Vaccine To Develop a Skin Lesion in Vaccinia Virus-Naïve Individuals Is Related to Differences in Antibody Profiles before Vaccination, Not After

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaolin; Chun, Sookhee; Pablo, Jozelyn; Felgner, Philip; Liang, Xiaowu

    2012-01-01

    Successful vaccination against smallpox with conventional vaccinia virus is usually determined by the development of a vesicular skin lesion at the site of vaccinia inoculation, called a “take.” Although previous vaccination is known to be associated with attenuation of the take, the immunology that underlies a no-take in vaccinia-naïve individuals is not well understood. We hypothesized that antibody profiling of individuals before and after receiving vaccinia virus would reveal differences between takes and no-takes that may help better explain the phenomenon. Using vaccinia virus proteome microarrays and recombinant protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we first examined the antibody response in vaccinia-naïve individuals that failed to take after receiving different doses of the replication-competent DryVax and Aventis Pasteur (APSV) smallpox vaccines. Most that received diluted vaccine failed to respond, although four no-takes receiving diluted vaccine and four receiving undiluted vaccine mounted an antibody response. Interestingly, their antibody profiles were not significantly different from those of controls that did show a take. However, we did find elevated antibody titers in no-takes prior to receiving DryVax that were significantly different from those of takes. Although the sample size studied was small, we conclude the failure to take in responders correlates with preexisting immunity of unknown etiology that may attenuate the skin reaction in a way similar to previous smallpox vaccination. PMID:22258709

  8. Protection of Mice from Fatal Measles Encephalitis by Vaccination with Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Encoding Either the Hemagglutinin or the Fusion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drillien, Robert; Spehner, Daniele; Kirn, Andre; Giraudon, Pascale; Buckland, Robin; Wild, Fabian; Lecocq, Jean-Pierre

    1988-02-01

    Vaccinia virus recombinants encoding the hemagglutinin or fusion protein of measles virus have been constructed. Infection of cell cultures with the recombinants led to the synthesis of authentic measles proteins as judged by their electrophoretic mobility, recognition by antibodies, glycosylation, proteolytic cleavage, and presentation on the cell surface. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of the recombinant encoding the hemagglutinin protein developed antibodies capable of both inhibiting hemagglutination activity and neutralizing measles virus, whereas animals vaccinated with the recombinant encoding the fusion protein developed measles neutralizing antibodies. Mice vaccinated with either of the recombinants resisted a normally lethal intracerebral inoculation of a cell-associated measles virus subacute sclerosing panencephalitis strain.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Vaccinia Virus Strain L-IVP

    PubMed Central

    Shvalov, Alexander N.; Sivolobova, Galina F.; Kuligina, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the live vaccine doses of vaccinia virus donated to the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme after 1971 were prepared using the L-IVP strain. A mixture of three clones of the L-IVP strain was sequenced using MySEQ. Consensus sequence similarity with the vaccinia virus Lister strain is 99.5%. PMID:27174282

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Vaccinia Virus Strain L-IVP.

    PubMed

    Shvalov, Alexander N; Sivolobova, Galina F; Kuligina, Elena V; Kochneva, Galina V

    2016-01-01

    Most of the live vaccine doses of vaccinia virus donated to the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme after 1971 were prepared using the L-IVP strain. A mixture of three clones of the L-IVP strain was sequenced using MySEQ. Consensus sequence similarity with the vaccinia virus Lister strain is 99.5%. PMID:27174282

  11. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  12. Broad Immunogenicity of a Multigene, Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Vaccine Boosted with Heterologous HIV-1 Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, Eric; Nilsson, Charlotta; Hejdeman, Bo; Bråve, Andreas; Bratt, Göran; Robb, Merlin; Cox, Josephine; VanCott, Thomas; Marovich, Mary; Stout, Richard; Aboud, Said; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; Ljungberg, Karl; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia; Michael, Nelson; Birx, Deborah; Mhalu, Fred; Wahren, Britta; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Background A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine that limits disease and transmission is urgently needed. This clinical trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV vaccine that combines a plasmid-DNA priming vaccine and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boosting vaccine. Methods Forty healthy volunteers were injected with DNA plasmids containing gp160 of HIV-1 subtypes A, B, and C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A and B, and RTmut B by use of a needle-free injection system. The vaccine was administered intradermally or intramuscularly, with or without recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and boosted with a heterologous MVA containing env, gag, and pol of CRF01A_E. Immune responses were monitored with HIV-specific interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)–2 ELISpot and lymphoproliferative assays (LPAs). Results Vaccine-related adverse events were mild and tolerable. After receipt of the DNA priming vaccine, 11 (30%) of 37 vaccinees had HIV-specific IFN-γ responses. After receipt of the MVA boosting vaccine, ELISpot assays showed that 34 (92%) of 37 vaccinees had HIV-specific IFN-γ responses, 32 (86%) to Gag and 24 (65%) to Env. IFN-γ production was detected in both the CD8+ T cell compartment (5 of 9 selected vaccinees) and the CD4+ T cell compartment (9 of 9). ELISpot results showed that 25 (68%) of 37 vaccinees had a positive IL-2 response and 35 (92%) of 38 had a positive LPA response. Of 38 subjects, a total of 37 (97%) were responders. One milligram of HIV-1 DNA administered intradermally was as effective as 4 mg administered intramuscularly in priming for the MVA boosting vaccine. Conclusion This HIV-DNA priming–MVA boosting approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Trials registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial number: ISRCTN32604572. PMID:18808335

  13. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Background.  First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods.  An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results.  Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions.  Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  14. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A.; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods. An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results. Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  15. Protective Efficacy of the Conserved NP, PB1, and M1 Proteins as Immunogens in DNA- and Vaccinia Virus-Based Universal Influenza A Virus Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenling; Li, Renqing; Deng, Yao; Lu, Ning; Chen, Hong; Meng, Xin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Xiuping; Yan, Kexia; Qi, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Xin, Wei; Lu, Zhenhua; Li, Xueren; Bian, Tao; Gao, Yingying; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The conventional hemagglutinin (HA)- and neuraminidase (NA)-based influenza vaccines need to be updated most years and are ineffective if the glycoprotein HA of the vaccine strains is a mismatch with that of the epidemic strain. Universal vaccines targeting conserved viral components might provide cross-protection and thus complement and improve conventional vaccines. In this study, we generated DNA plasmids and recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the conserved proteins nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), and matrix 1 (M1) from influenza virus strain A/Beijing/30/95 (H3N2). BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with a single vaccine based on NP, PB1, or M1 alone or a combination vaccine based on all three antigens and were then challenged with lethal doses of the heterologous influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Vaccines based on NP, PB1, and M1 provided complete or partial protection against challenge with 1.7 50% lethal dose (LD50) of PR8 in mice. Of the three antigens, NP-based vaccines induced protection against 5 LD50 and 10 LD50 and thus exhibited the greatest protective effect. Universal influenza vaccines based on the combination of NP, PB1, and M1 induced a strong immune response and thus might be an alternative approach to addressing future influenza virus pandemics. PMID:25834017

  16. Extent of Systemic Spread Determines CD8+ T Cell Immunodominance for Laboratory Strains, Smallpox Vaccines, and Zoonotic Isolates of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Inge E A; Hollett, Natasha A; Wong, Yik Chun; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Howard, Debbie; da Fonseca, Flávio G; Tscharke, David C

    2015-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I are vital antiviral effectors. Such peptides presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity, allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we show across a range of vaccinia virus strains, including the current clonal smallpox vaccine, that the ability of a strain to spread systemically correlated with reduced immunodominance. Reduction in immunodominance was observed both in the lymphoid system and at the primary site of infection. Mechanistically, reduced immunodominance was associated with more robust priming and especially priming in the spleen. Finally, we show this is not just a property of vaccine and laboratory strains of virus, because an association between virulence and immunodominance was also observed in isolates from an outbreak of zoonotic vaccinia virus that occurred in Brazil. PMID:26195812

  17. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses. PMID:26985679

  18. Deletion of Major Nonessential Genomic Regions in the Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain Enhances Attenuation without Altering Vaccine Efficacy in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Dimier, Julie; Ferrier-Rembert, Audrey; Pradeau-Aubreton, Karine; Hebben, Matthias; Spehner, Danièle; Favier, Anne-Laure; Gratier, Danielle; Garin, Daniel; Crance, Jean-Marc; Drillien, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) Lister strain was one of the vaccine strains that enabled smallpox eradication. Although the strain is most often harmless, there have been numerous incidents of mild to life-threatening accidents with this strain and others. In an attempt to further attenuate the Lister strain, we investigated the role of 5 genomic regions known to be deleted in the modified VACV Ankara (MVA) genome in virulence in immunodeficient mice, immunogenicity in immunocompetent mice, and vaccine efficacy in a cowpox virus challenge model. Lister mutants were constructed so as to delete each of the 5 regions or various combinations of these regions. All of the mutants replicated efficiently in tissue culture except region I mutants, which multiplied more poorly in human cells than the parental strain. Mutants with single deletions were not attenuated or only moderately so in athymic nude mice. Mutants with multiple deletions were more highly attenuated than those with single deletions. Deleting regions II, III, and V together resulted in total attenuation for nude mice and partial attenuation for SCID mice. In immunocompetent mice, the Lister deletion mutants induced VACV specific humoral responses equivalent to those of the parental strain but in some cases lower cell-mediated immune responses. All of the highly attenuated mutants protected mice from a severe cowpox virus challenge at low vaccine doses. The data suggest that several of the Lister mutants combining multiple deletions could be used in smallpox vaccination or as live virus vectors at doses equivalent to those used for the traditional vaccine while displaying increased safety. PMID:21367889

  19. Strong, but Age-Dependent, Protection Elicited by a Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Kannanganat, Sunil; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Nabi, Rafiq; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Wrammert, Jens; Keele, Brandon F.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Santra, Sampa; Basu, Rahul; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L.; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Methods. The tested vaccine used a DNA immunogen mutated to mimic the human vaccine and a regimen with DNA deliveries at weeks 0 and 8 and MVA deliveries at weeks 16 and 32. Twelve weekly rectal challenges with 0.3 animal infectious doses of SIV sootey mangabey E660 (SIVsmE660) were administered starting at 6 months after the last immunization. Results. Over the first 6 rectal exposures to SIVsmE660, <10-year-old tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)α-permissive rhesus macaques showed an 80% reduction in per-exposure risk of infection as opposed to a 46% reduction in animals over 10 years old; and, over the 12 challenges, they showed a 72% as opposed to a 10% reduction. Analyses of elicited immune responses suggested that higher antibody responses in the younger animals had played a role in protection. Conclusions. The simian analogue of the GOVX-B11 HIV provided strong protection against repeated rectal challenges in young adult macaques. PMID:27006959

  20. Strong, but Age-Dependent, Protection Elicited by a Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Kannanganat, Sunil; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Nabi, Rafiq; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Montefiori, David C; LaBranche, Celia C; Wrammert, Jens; Keele, Brandon F; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Santra, Sampa; Basu, Rahul; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background.  In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Methods.  The tested vaccine used a DNA immunogen mutated to mimic the human vaccine and a regimen with DNA deliveries at weeks 0 and 8 and MVA deliveries at weeks 16 and 32. Twelve weekly rectal challenges with 0.3 animal infectious doses of SIV sootey mangabey E660 (SIVsmE660) were administered starting at 6 months after the last immunization. Results.  Over the first 6 rectal exposures to SIVsmE660, <10-year-old tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)α-permissive rhesus macaques showed an 80% reduction in per-exposure risk of infection as opposed to a 46% reduction in animals over 10 years old; and, over the 12 challenges, they showed a 72% as opposed to a 10% reduction. Analyses of elicited immune responses suggested that higher antibody responses in the younger animals had played a role in protection. Conclusions.  The simian analogue of the GOVX-B11 HIV provided strong protection against repeated rectal challenges in young adult macaques. PMID:27006959

  1. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR −/−) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

  2. Correlation of immunogenicities and in vitro expression levels of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara HIV vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Linda S.; Earl, Patricia L.; Vogt, Jennifer; Eller, Leigh Anne; Chandran, Dev; Liu, Jinyan; Robinson, Harriet L.; Moss, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to correlate the in vitro level of HIV Env expression by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) with immunogenicity in mice. A 5-fold difference in Env synthesis was achieved at the translational level by the presence or absence of an out-of-frame initiation codon upstream of the env gene. This perturbation had no effect on the size or processing of Env. In contrast to the variation in Env synthesis, the rMVAs produced similar amounts of HIV Gag, which were expressed from identical cassettes. Mice immunized with the higher Env expressing rMVAs had about 15-fold higher titers of Env antibodies and several fold higher frequencies of Env-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells than mice immunized with the low expresser. The greater immune response achieved by high expression was maintained over a 100-fold dose range. Importantly, enhanced Env immune responses did not come at the expense of lower Gag T cell responses. These data suggest that for high immunogenicity, rMVAs should be engineered to produce the most recombinant protein that can be achieved without compromising the growth and stability of the rMVA. PMID:18155813

  3. Broad and Potent Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After a Second Late HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccination in HIV-DNA-Primed and HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Boosted Swedish Vaccinees

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Hejdeman, Bo; Bråve, Andreas; Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Hallengärd, David; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Hasselrot, Klara; Earl, Patricia L.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Marovich, Mary A.; Robb, Merlin L.; Sandström, Eric; Wahren, Britta; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown that an HIV vaccine regimen including three HIV-DNA immunizations and a single HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost was safe and highly immunogenic in Swedish volunteers. A median 38 months after the first HIV-MVA vaccination, 24 volunteers received 108 plaque-forming units of HIV-MVA. The vaccine was well tolerated. Two weeks after this HIV-MVA vaccination, 18 (82%) of 22 evaluable vaccinees were interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) reactive: 18 to Gag and 10 (45%) to Env. A median minimal epitope count of 4 to Gag or Env was found in a subset of 10 vaccinees. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses in 23 (95%) of 24 vaccinees, 19 to Gag and 19 to Env. The frequency of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses was equally high (75%). A high proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Gag was polyfunctional with production of three or more cytokines (40% and 60%, respectively). Of the Env-specific CD4+ T cells 40% were polyfunctional. Strong lymphoproliferative responses to Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-treated subtype A, B, C, and A_E virus were demonstrable in 21 (95%) of 22 vaccinees. All vaccinees developed binding antibodies to Env and Gag. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assay against subtype B and CRF01_AE viruses. The neutralizing antibody response rates were influenced by the vaccine dose and/or mode of delivery used at the previous HIV-MVA vaccination. Thus, a second late HIV-MVA boost induced strong and broad cellular immune responses and improved antibody responses. The data support further exploration of this vaccine concept. PMID:24090081

  4. Unusual Features of Vaccinia Virus Extracellular Virion Form Neutralization Resistance Revealed in Human Antibody Responses to the Smallpox Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Benhnia, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi; Maybeno, Matthew; Blum, David; Aguilar-Sino, Rowena; Matho, Michael; Meng, Xiangzhi; Head, Steven; Felgner, Philip L.; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Koriazova, Lilia; Kato, Shinichiro; Burton, Dennis R.; Xiang, Yan; Crowe, James E.; Peters, Bjoern

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular virion form (EV) of vaccinia virus (VACV) is essential for viral pathogenesis and is difficult to neutralize with antibodies. Why this is the case and how the smallpox vaccine overcomes this challenge remain incompletely understood. We previously showed that high concentrations of anti-B5 antibodies are insufficient to directly neutralize EV (M. R. Benhnia, et al., J. Virol. 83:1201–1215, 2009). This allowed for at least two possible interpretations: covering the EV surface is insufficient for neutralization, or there are insufficient copies of B5 to allow anti-B5 IgG to cover the whole surface of EV and another viral receptor protein remains active. We endeavored to test these possibilities, focusing on the antibody responses elicited by immunization against smallpox. We tested whether human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the three major EV antigens, B5, A33, and A56, could individually or together neutralize EV. While anti-B5 or anti-A33 (but not anti-A56) MAbs of appropriate isotypes were capable of neutralizing EV in the presence of complement, a mixture of anti-B5, anti-A33, and anti-A56 MAbs was incapable of directly neutralizing EV, even at high concentrations. This remained true when neutralizing the IHD-J strain, which lacks a functional version of the fourth and final known EV surface protein, A34. These immunological data are consistent with the possibility that viral proteins may not be the active component of the EV surface for target cell binding and infectivity. We conclude that the protection afforded by the smallpox vaccine anti-EV response is predominantly mediated not by direct neutralization but by isotype-dependent effector functions, such as complement recruitment for antibodies targeting B5 and A33. PMID:23152530

  5. Protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccinia virus in vaccinia-immune mice.

    PubMed

    Andrew, M E

    1989-10-01

    Recombinant viral vectors offer a potential means of vaccinating against diseases for which there are no current safe vaccines. One of the criteria on which a viral vaccine vector would be selected is that it either circulates in the human or livestock population without producing overt disease (e.g. adenovirus) or has a history as a safe vaccine (e.g. vaccinia virus). However, this selection criterion also means that the target population is likely to have circulating antibodies that are specific to the vaccine vector. Since a percentage of the world's population has been vaccinated during the World Health Organization's Smallpox Eradication Campaign, such antibody titres, which are likely to lower vaccine efficacy, have been raised as an objection to the use of recombinant vaccinia viruses as vaccines. We have tested the effect of vaccinia-specific immunity on the protective efficacy of a recombinant virus, VV-PR8-HA6 (1) which expresses the haemagglutinin of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34. PMID:2613281

  6. Protective immunity against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Berinstein, A; Tami, C; Taboga, O; Smitsaart, E; Carrillo, E

    2000-04-28

    We report the construction of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the precursor for the four structural proteins of FMD virus (FMDV) (P1) strain C3Arg85 using a procedure for isolation of recombinant vaccinia viruses based solely on plaque formation. Adult mice vaccinated with this recombinant vaccinia virus elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies against both the homologous FMDV and vaccinia virus, measured by neutralization assays. Liquid phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using whole virus as antigen showed high total antibody titers against homologous FMDV, similar to those induced by the conventional inactivated vaccine. When ELISAs were carried out with heterologous strains A79 or O1Caseros as antigens, sera from animals vaccinated with the recombinant virus cross-reacted. Mice boosted once with the recombinant vaccinia virus were protected against challenge with infectious homologous virus. These results indicate that recombinant vaccinia viruses are efficient immunogens against FMDV when used as a live vaccine in a mouse model. PMID:10717342

  7. Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin

    2013-01-11

    Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938

  8. Neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.C.; Eschete, M.L.; Cox, M.E.; King, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.

  9. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  10. Chimpanzee/human mAbs to vaccinia virus B5 protein neutralize vaccinia and smallpox viruses and protect mice against vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaochun; Earl, Patricia; Americo, Jeffrey; Damon, Inger; Smith, Scott K.; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yu, Fujuan; Sebrell, Andrew; Emerson, Suzanne; Cohen, Gary; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Svitel, Juraj; Schuck, Peter; Satterfield, William; Moss, Bernard; Purcell, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Chimpanzee Fabs against the B5 envelope glycoprotein of vaccinia virus were isolated and converted into complete mAbs with human γ1 heavy chain constant regions. The two mAbs (8AH8AL and 8AH7AL) displayed high binding affinities to B5 (Kd of 0.2 and 0.7 nM). The mAb 8AH8AL inhibited the spread of vaccinia virus as well as variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) in vitro, protected mice from subsequent intranasal challenge with virulent vaccinia virus, protected mice when administered 2 days after challenge, and provided significantly greater protection than that afforded by a previously isolated rat anti-B5 mAb (19C2) or by vaccinia immune globulin. The mAb bound to a conformational epitope between amino acids 20 and 130 of B5. These chimpanzee/human anti-B5 mAbs may be useful in the prevention and treatment of vaccinia virus-induced complications of vaccination against smallpox and may also be effective in the immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of smallpox. PMID:16436502

  11. A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine encoding Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) target antigens: a phase I trial in UK patients with EBV-positive cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Graham S.; Jia, Hui; Harrington, Kevin; Lee, Lip Wai; Turner, James; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Tanday, Manjit; Matthews, Jen; Roberts, Claudia; Edwards, Ceri; McGuigan, Lesley; Hartley, Andrew; Wilson, Steve; Hui, Edwin P.; Chan, Anthony T. C.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Steven, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumour cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumour antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses. Experimental Design Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5×107 and 5×108 plaque forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFNγ ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations. Results Vaccination was generally well-tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8/14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments respectively. Conclusions MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5×108 pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials. PMID:25124688

  12. Fighting cancer with vaccinia virus: teaching new tricks to an old dog.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuqiao; Nemunaitis, John

    2005-02-01

    Vaccinia virus has played a huge part in human beings' victory over smallpox. With smallpox being eradicated and large-scale vaccination stopped worldwide, vaccinia has assumed a new role in our fight against another serious threat to human health: cancer. Recent advances in molecular biology, virology, immunology, and cancer genetics have led to the design of novel cancer therapeutics based on vaccinia virus backbones. With the ability to infect efficiently a wide range of host cells, a genome that can accommodate large DNA inserts and express multiple genes, high immunogenicity, and cytoplasmic replication without the possibility of chromosomal integration, vaccinia virus has become the platform of many exploratory approaches to treat cancer. Vaccinia virus has been used as (1) a delivery vehicle for anti-cancer transgenes, (2) a vaccine carrier for tumor-associated antigens and immunoregulatory molecules in cancer immunotherapy, and (3) an oncolytic agent that selectively replicates in and lyses cancer cells. PMID:15668130

  13. Highly immunogenic variant of attenuated vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskyi, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2016-01-01

    The LIVPΔ6 strain of vaccinia virus (VACV) was created by genetic engineering on the basis of previously obtained attenuated 1421ABJCN strain by target deletion of the A35R gene encoding an inhibitor of antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex class II. 1421ABJCN is the LIVP strain of VACV with five inactivated virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), γ-interferon-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), complement-binding protein (C3L), and Bcl2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). The highly immunogenic LIVPΔ6 strain could be an efficient fourth-generation attenuated vaccine against smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:27025484

  14. Pre-Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Experimental Vaccines Based on Non-Replicating Vaccinia Vectors against Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Birgit; Holzer, Georg W.; Joachimsthaler, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Sogue; Schwendinger, Michael; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 105 TCID50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. PMID:21931732

  15. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors expressing structural components of the AHS virion. However, ethical and financial considerations, relating to the use of infected horses in high biosecurity installations, have made progress very slow. We have therefore assessed the potential of an experimental mouse-model for AHSV infection for vaccine and immunology research. We initially characterised AHSV infection in this model, then tested the protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing AHS-4 VP2 (MVA-VP2). PMID:21298069

  16. Evaluation of fowlpox-vaccinia virus prime-boost vaccine strategies for high-level mucosal and systemic immunity against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Charani; Medveczky, Jill C; Woltring, Donna; Gao, Ke; Thomson, Scott; Coupar, Barbara E H; Boyle, David B; Ramsay, Alistair J; Ramshaw, Ian A

    2006-07-26

    We have tested the efficacy of recombinant fowl pox (rFPV) and recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding antigens of AE clade HIV-1 in a prime-boost strategy, using both systemic and mucosal delivery routes. Of the various vaccine routes tested, intranasal/intramuscular (i.n./i.m.) AE FPV/AE VV prime-boosting generated the highest mucosal and systemic T cell responses. Peak mucosal T cell responses occurred as early as 3 days post-boost vaccination. In contrast only low systemic responses were observed at this time with the peak response occurring at day 7. Current data also revealed that, due to better uptake of the rFPV, intranasal viral priming was much more effective than intranasal rDNA priming tested previously. The i.m./i.m. prime-boost delivery also generated strong systemic but poor mucosal responses to Gag peptides. Interestingly, the oral administration of AE FPV followed by i.m. AE VV delivery elicited strong systemic responses to sub-dominant Pol 1 peptides that were absent in mice that received vaccine by other routes. Moreover, priming with AE FPV co-expressing cytokine IL-12 significantly enhanced the T cell responses to target antigens, whilst co-expression of IFNgamma decreased these responses. The results also indicated that the route of inoculation and the vaccine vector combination could radically influence not only the magnitude but also the antigen specificity of the immune response generated. Further, in contrast to the generally protracted HIV rDNA/rFPV multiple delivery prime-boosting, this single rFPV prime and rVV boost approach was more flexible and generated excellent mucosal and systemic immune responses to HIV vaccine antigens. PMID:16759767

  17. Recombinant vaccinia virus/Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus protects mice from peripheral VEE virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, R M; Esposito, J J; Mathews, J H; Johnson, B J; Roehrig, J T; Barrett, A D; Trent, D W

    1988-01-01

    Mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACC) expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus capsid protein and glycoproteins E1 and E2 or with attenuated VEE TC-83 virus vaccine developed VEE-specific neutralizing antibody and survived intraperitoneal challenge with virulent VEE virus strains including Trinidad donkey (subtype 1AB), P676 (subtype 1C), 3880 (subtype 1D), and Everglades (subtype 2). However, unlike immunization with TC-83 virus, immunization with the recombinant VACC/VEE virus did not protect mice from intranasal challenge with VEE Trinidad donkey virus. These results suggest that recombinant VACC/VEE virus is a vaccine candidate for equines and humans at risk of mosquito-transmitted VEE disease but not for laboratory workers at risk of accidental exposure to aerosol infection with VEE virus. PMID:3184276

  18. Heat shock response to vaccinia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sedger, L; Ruby, J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mice infected with vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus replicates to high levels in the ovaries of infected mice and causes a significant inhibition of host cell DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Many HSPs are constitutively expressed in murine ovarian tissue at low levels, consistent with their obligatory role in normal physiological events. In contrast with these events, HSP expression was augmented in virus-infected mouse ovaries 6 days postinfection. In particular, there was a dramatic increase in the expression of a protein identified as the inducible 72-kDa HSP. Analysis of cellular mRNA confirmed this protein to be the major mouse inducible HSP70 and demonstrated its presence within virus-infected cells. Hence, we have demonstrated the expression of stress proteins during poxvirus infection in vivo. Images PMID:8207845

  19. Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Artois, M; Charlton, K M; Tolson, N D; Casey, G A; Knowles, M K; Campbell, J B

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (Marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. Each of ten coyotes (Canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. Several voles and most of the gulls died from diseases unrelated to vaccination during the observation period, but all other animals remained healthy and survived. These deaths from causes other than vaccination and the absence of any lesions suggestive of vaccinia infection indicate that it is unlikely that any animal suffered or died as a result of V-RG administration. In addition several animals showed an unexpected high level of rabies neutralizing antibodies. PMID:2249183

  20. Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Artois, M; Charlton, K M; Tolson, N D; Casey, G A; Knowles, M K; Campbell, J B

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (Marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. Each of ten coyotes (Canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. Several voles and most of the gulls died from diseases unrelated to vaccination during the observation period, but all other animals remained healthy and survived. These deaths from causes other than vaccination and the absence of any lesions suggestive of vaccinia infection indicate that it is unlikely that any animal suffered or died as a result of V-RG administration. In addition several animals showed an unexpected high level of rabies neutralizing antibodies. PMID:2249183

  1. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA-B) lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV-1-specific T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Garca-Arriaza, Juan; Njera, Jos Luis; Gmez, Carmen E; Tewabe, Nolawit; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B ?C6L) had no effect on virus growth kinetics; therefore C6 protein is not essential for virus replication. The innate immune signals elicited by MVA-B ?C6L in human macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are characterized by the up-regulation of the expression of IFN-? and IFN-?/?-inducible genes. In a DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol in mice, flow cytometry analysis revealed that MVA-B ?C6L enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by the CD8+ T-cell compartment with an effector phenotype. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env- and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ?C6L induced more Gag-Pol-Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Furthermore, MVA-B ?C6L enhanced the levels of antibodies against Env in comparison with MVA-B. These findings revealed that C6 can be considered as an immunomodulator and that deleting C6L gene in MVA-B confers an immunological benefit by enhancing IFN-?-dependent responses and increasing the magnitude and quality of the T-cell memory immune responses to HIV-1 antigens. Our observations are relevant for the improvement of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:21909386

  2. A Single Immunization With Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara–Based Influenza Virus H7 Vaccine Affords Protection in the Influenza A(H7N9) Pneumonia Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Wiersma, Lidewij C. M.; De Gruyter, Heidi L. M.; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E.; van Amerongen, Geert; Stittelaar, Koert J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Sutter, Gerd; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first reports in early 2013, >440 human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported including 122 fatalities. After the isolation of the first A(H7N9) viruses, the nucleotide sequences became publically available. Based on the coding sequence of the influenza virus A/Shanghai/2/2013 hemagglutinin gene, a codon-optimized gene was synthesized and cloned into a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). This MVA-H7-Sh2 viral vector was used to immunize ferrets and proved to be immunogenic, even after a single immunization. Subsequently, ferrets were challenged with influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 via the intratracheal route. Unprotected animals that were mock vaccinated or received empty vector developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by a marked alveolitis, accompanied by loss of appetite, weight loss, and heavy breathing. In contrast, animals vaccinated with MVA-H7-Sh2 were protected from severe disease. PMID:25246535

  3. Evolution of and Evolutionary Relationships between Extant Vaccinia Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Favis, Nicole; Famulski, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although vaccinia virus (VACV) was once used as a vaccine to eradicate smallpox on a worldwide scale, the biological origins of VACV are uncertain, as are the historical relationships between the different strains once used as smallpox vaccines. Here, we sequenced additional VACV strains that either represent relatively pristine examples of old vaccines (e.g., Dryvax, Lister, and Tashkent) or have been subjected to additional laboratory passage (e.g., IHD-W and WR). These genome sequences were compared with those previously reported for other VACVs as well as other orthopoxviruses. These extant VACVs do not always cluster in simple phylogenetic trees that are aligned with the known historical relationships between these strains. Rather, the pattern of deletions suggests that all existing strains likely come from a complex stock of viruses that has been passaged, distributed, and randomly sampled over time, thus obscuring simple historical or geographic links. We examined surviving nonclonal vaccine stocks, like Dryvax, which continue to harbor larger and now rare variants, including one that we have designated “clone DPP25.” DPP25 encodes genes not found in most VACV strains, including an ankyrin-F-box protein, a homolog of the variola virus (Bangladesh) B18R gene which we show can be deleted without affecting virulence in mice. We propose a simple common mechanism by which recombination of a larger and hypothetical DPP25-like ancestral strain, combined with selection for retention of critically important genes near the terminal inverted repeat boundaries (vaccinia virus growth factor gene and an interferon alpha/beta receptor homolog), could produce all known VACV variants. IMPORTANCE Smallpox was eradicated by using a combination of intensive disease surveillance and vaccination using vaccinia virus (VACV). Interestingly, little is known about the historical relationships between different strains of VACV and how these viruses may have evolved from a common ancestral strain. To understand these relationships, additional strains were sequenced and compared to existing strains of VACV as well as other orthopoxviruses by using whole-genome sequence alignments. Extant strains of VACV did not always cluster in simple phylogenetic trees based on known historical relationships between these strains. Based on these findings, it is possible that all existing strains of VACV are derived from a single complex stock of viruses that has been passaged, distributed, and sampled over time. PMID:25410873

  4. Antiserum from mice vaccinated with modified vaccinia Ankara virus expressing African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VP2 provides protection when it is administered 48h before, or 48h after challenge.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; de la Poza, Francisco; Gubbins, Simon; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement; Ortego, Javier; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies show that a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 (MVA-VP2) induced virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against challenge. Follow up experiments indicated that passive transfer of antiserum, from MVA-VP2 immune donors to recipient mice 1h before challenge, conferred complete clinical protection and significantly reduced viraemia. These studies have been extended to determine the protective effect of MVA-VP2 vaccine-induced antiserum, when administered 48h before, or 48h after challenge. In addition, passive transfer of splenocytes was undertaken to assess if they confer any degree of immunity to immunologically naïve recipient mice. Thus, antisera and splenocytes were collected from groups of mice that had been vaccinated with MVA-VP2, or wild type MVA (MVA-wt), for passive immunisation of recipient mice. The latter were subsequently challenged with AHSV-4 (together with appropriate vaccinated or unvaccinated control animals) and protection was assessed by comparing clinical signs, lethality and viraemia between treated and control groups. All antiserum recipients showed high protection against disease (100% survival rates even in mice that were immunised 48h after challenge) and statistically significant reduction or viraemia in comparison with the control groups. The mouse group receiving splenocytes from MVA-VP2 vaccinates, showed only a 40% survival rate, with a small reduction in viraemia, compared to those mice that had received splenocytes from MVA-wt vaccinates. These results confirm the primarily humoral nature of protective immunity conferred by MVA-VP2 vaccination and show the potential of administering MVA-VP2 specific antiserum as an emergency treatment for AHSV. PMID:25643968

  5. Vaccinia virus proteolysis--a review.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, must use their hosts' metabolic machinery in order to replicate their genomes and form infectious progeny virions. What is less well known are the details of how viruses make sure that once all the necessary proteins are made, that they assume the correct configuration at the proper time in order to catalyse the efficient assembly of infectious virions. One of the methods employed by viruses to regulate this process is the proteolytic cleavage of viral proteins. Over the past several decades, studies in numerous laboratories have demonstrated that morphogenic proteolysis plays a major and essential role during the assembly and maturation of infectious poxvirus virions. In this review we describe the history of vaccinia virus proteolysis as a prototypic viral system. PMID:16710840

  6. Age distribution for T cell reactivity to vaccinia virus in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Szu-Min; Pan, Sung-Ching; Chen, Shey-Ying; Huang, Pei-Fang; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2004-01-01

    The potential for bioterrorism involving smallpox has led to a debate about the durability of protective immunity against smallpox from vaccination. By assessing the T cell reactivity to vaccinia virus in a healthy population, we show that subjects who were vaccinated within the past 3 decades and who have a visible vaccination scar had remarkable T cell reactivity. However, person who were vaccinated within the past 3 decades but who do not have a scar and those who were vaccinated >4 decades ago had responses as low as those in unvaccinated subjects. Thus, we estimate that the significant T cell memory response to vaccinia virus from successful vaccination may persist for only 20-30 years. Furthermore, we found the vaccinia-specific cellular immunity could be easily assessed by determination of the frequencies of vaccinia-specific CD69 expression on T cell subsets. These data may help in the development of public health strategies to counter bioterrorism threats associated with smallpox. PMID:14679452

  7. Vaccinia Virus Requires Glutamine but Not Glucose for Efficient Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Krystal A.; Camarda, Roman

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses require host cell metabolism to provide the necessary energy and biosynthetic precursors for successful viral replication. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of the Poxviridae family, and its use as a vaccine enabled the eradication of variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox. A global metabolic screen of VACV-infected primary human foreskin fibroblasts suggested that glutamine metabolism is altered during infection. Glutamine and glucose represent the two main carbon sources for mammalian cells. Depriving VACV-infected cells of exogenous glutamine led to a substantial decrease in infectious virus production, whereas starving infected cells of exogenous glucose had no significant impact on replication. Viral yield in glutamine-deprived cells or in cells treated with an inhibitor of glutaminolysis, the pathway of glutamine catabolism, could be rescued by the addition of multiple tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Thus, VACV infection induces a metabolic alteration to fully rely on glutamine to anaplerotically maintain the TCA cycle. VACV protein synthesis, but not viral transcription, was decreased in glutamine-deprived cells, which corresponded with a dramatic reduction in all VACV morphogenetic intermediates. This study reveals the unique carbon utilization program implemented during poxvirus infection and provides a potential metabolic pathway to target viral replication. IMPORTANCE Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for critical processes including genome replication, viral protein synthesis, and membrane production. This study investigates how vaccinia virus (VACV) infection alters global cellular metabolism, providing the first metabolomic analysis for a member of the poxvirus family. Unlike most viruses examined to date, VACV does not activate glycolysis, and exogenous glucose is not required for maximal virus production. Instead, VACV requires exogenous glutamine for efficient replication, and inhibition of glutamine metabolism effectively blocks VACV protein synthesis. This study defines a major metabolic perturbation essential for the replication of a poxvirus and may lead to the discovery of novel antiviral therapies based on metabolic inhibitors. PMID:24501408

  8. Complement inhibition prevents oncolytic vaccinia virus neutralization in immune humans and cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Evgin, Laura; Acuna, Sergio A; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Marguerie, Monique; Lemay, Chantal G; Ilkow, Carolina S; Findlay, C Scott; Falls, Theresa; Parato, Kelley A; Hanwell, David; Goldstein, Alyssa; Lopez, Roberto; Lafrance, Sandra; Breitbach, Caroline J; Kirn, David; Atkins, Harold; Auer, Rebecca C; Thurman, Joshua M; Stahl, Gregory L; Lambris, John D; Bell, John C; McCart, J Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown promising clinical activity when administered by direct intratumoral injection. However, natural barriers in the blood, including antibodies and complement, are likely to limit the ability to repeatedly administer OVs by the intravenous route. We demonstrate here that for a prototype of the clinical vaccinia virus based product Pexa-Vec, the neutralizing activity of antibodies elicited by smallpox vaccination, as well as the anamnestic response in hyperimmune virus treated cancer patients, is strictly dependent on the activation of complement. In immunized rats, complement depletion stabilized vaccinia virus in the blood and led to improved delivery to tumors. Complement depletion also enhanced tumor infection when virus was directly injected into tumors in immunized animals. The feasibility and safety of using a complement inhibitor, CP40, in combination with vaccinia virus was tested in cynomolgus macaques. CP40 pretreatment elicited an average 10-fold increase in infectious titer in the blood early after the infusion and prolonged the time during which infectious virus was detectable in the blood of animals with preexisting immunity. Capitalizing on the complement dependence of antivaccinia antibody with adjunct complement inhibitors may increase the infectious dose of oncolytic vaccinia virus delivered to tumors in virus in immune hosts. PMID:25807289

  9. Low-Resolution Structure of Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sèle, Céleste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P.

    2013-01-01

    Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages. PMID:23175373

  10. Cardiac Safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for Vaccination against Smallpox in a Young, Healthy Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zitzmann-Roth, Eva-Maria; von Sonnenburg, Frank; de la Motte, Stephan; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Uebler, Nadine; Vollmar, Jens; Virgin, Garth; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI) were monitored after each injection. Results A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia) were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE) was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis). The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions. Conclusions Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524 PMID:25879867

  11. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. PMID:24856783

  12. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  13. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Delivering Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Asisa; Kupke, Alexandra; Song, Fei; Jany, Sylvia; Fux, Robert; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schmidt, Jörg; Becker, Christin; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. We tested a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein by immunizing BALB/c mice with either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. In all cases, MVA-MERS-S induced MERS-CoV-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice were protected against MERS-CoV challenge infection after transduction with the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor. This MERS-CoV infection model demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the candidate vaccine. PMID:26018172

  14. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... inoculation site leading to a large destructive ulcer. PV is seen in people with an impaired immune system... of the Table, an autoimmune central nervous system injury. In rare cases, the vaccinia virus is isolated from the central nervous system. Manifestations usually occur abruptly and may include...

  15. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inoculation site leading to a large destructive ulcer. PV is seen in people with an impaired immune system... of the Table, an autoimmune central nervous system injury. In rare cases, the vaccinia virus is isolated from the central nervous system. Manifestations usually occur abruptly and may include...

  16. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inoculation site leading to a large destructive ulcer. PV is seen in people with an impaired immune system... of the Table, an autoimmune central nervous system injury. In rare cases, the vaccinia virus is isolated from the central nervous system. Manifestations usually occur abruptly and may include...

  17. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inoculation site leading to a large destructive ulcer. PV is seen in people with an impaired immune system... of the Table, an autoimmune central nervous system injury. In rare cases, the vaccinia virus is isolated from the central nervous system. Manifestations usually occur abruptly and may include...

  18. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... inoculation site leading to a large destructive ulcer. PV is seen in people with an impaired immune system... of the Table, an autoimmune central nervous system injury. In rare cases, the vaccinia virus is isolated from the central nervous system. Manifestations usually occur abruptly and may include...

  19. Vaccinia Virus Infection Requires Maturation of Macropinosomes.

    PubMed

    Rizopoulos, Zaira; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Kilcher, Samuel; Martin, Caroline K; Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Helenius, Ari; Mercer, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The prototypic poxvirus, vaccinia virus (VACV), occurs in two infectious forms, mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). Both enter HeLa cells by inducing macropinocytic uptake. Using confocal microscopy, live-cell imaging, targeted RNAi screening and perturbants of endosome maturation, we analyzed the properties and maturation pathway of the macropinocytic vacuoles containing VACV MVs in HeLa cells. The vacuoles first acquired markers of early endosomes [Rab5, early endosome antigen 1 and phosphatidylinositol(3)P]. Prior to release of virus cores into the cytoplasm, they contained markers of late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7a, lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and sorting nexin 3). RNAi screening of endocytic cell factors emphasized the importance of late compartments for VACV infection. Follow-up perturbation analysis showed that infection required Rab7a and PIKfyve, confirming that VACV is a late-penetrating virus dependent on macropinosome maturation. VACV EV infection was inhibited by depletion of many of the same factors, indicating that both infectious particle forms share the need for late vacuolar conditions for penetration. PMID:25869659

  20. Complement-bound human antibodies to vaccinia virus B5 antigen protect mice from virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Paran, Nir; Lustig, Shlomo

    2010-03-01

    The mechanism of protection afforded by vaccinia virus (VACV) - the smallpox vaccine - is a key issue for the development of modern vaccines and countermeasures. Antibodies to VACV antigens of the extracellular virion (EV) form play a central role in protection against poxvirus diseases in animal models, and contribute to the protection of immunized humans against poxviruses. B5, a viral EV protein, is conserved among different orthopoxviruses and antibodies to B5 that protect mice against VACV challenge. Antibodies to B5 are primarily responsible for neutralization of vaccinia EVs, yet the mechanism of EV neutralization by antibodies to B5 is not fully understood. The paper under evaluation demonstrates that most of the neutralization in vitro and protection in vivo in a mouse model, by monoclonal human anti-B5 IgGs, is heavily dependent on the ability of the IgGs to bind complement (C3 and C1q). Similarly, IgGs capable of complement binding control complement-dependent cytotoxicity of VACV-infected cells. Human polyclonal antibodies induced by the smallpox vaccine were similarly dependent on complement for EV neutralization and the complement-dependent destruction of infected cells. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of protection by antibodies, but might also help in the development and evaluation of newly-developed therapeutic and prophylactic antibody-based products against virulent orthopoxviruses, and for the prevention or treatment of smallpox vaccine-related post-vaccinal adverse effects. PMID:20218853

  1. Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Cyrklaff, Marek; Risco, Cristina; Fernández, Jose Jesús; Jiménez, Maria Victoria; Estéban, Mariano; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Carrascosa, José L.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of cryo-microscopy and electron tomographic reconstruction has allowed us to determine the structure of one of the more complex viruses, intracellular mature vaccinia virus, at a resolution of 4–6 nm. The tomographic reconstruction allows us to dissect the different structural components of the viral particle, avoiding projection artifacts derived from previous microscopic observations. A surface-rendering representation revealed brick-shaped viral particles with slightly rounded edges and dimensions of ≈360 × 270 × 250 nm. The outer layer was consistent with a lipid membrane (5–6 nm thick), below which usually two lateral bodies were found, built up by a heterogeneous material without apparent ordering or repetitive features. The internal core presented an inner cavity with electron dense coils of presumptive DNA–protein complexes, together with areas of very low density. The core was surrounded by two layers comprising an overall thickness of ≈18–19 nm; the inner layer was consistent with a lipid membrane. The outer layer was discontinuous, formed by a periodic palisade built by the side interaction of T-shaped protein spikes that were anchored in the lower membrane and were arranged into small hexagonal crystallites. It was possible to detect a few pore-like structures that communicated the inner side of the core with the region outside the layer built by the T-shaped spike palisade. PMID:15699328

  2. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Encoding Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Induces Heterosubtypic Immunity in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Florek, Nicholas W.; Weinfurter, Jason T.; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Powell, Tim D.; Young, Ginger R.; Das, Subash C.; Hatta, Masato; Broman, Karl W.; Hungnes, Olav; Dudman, Susanne G.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kent, Stephen J.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current influenza virus vaccines primarily aim to induce neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a safe and well-characterized vector for inducing both antibody and cellular immunity. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MVA encoding influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and/or nucleoprotein (NP) in cynomolgus macaques. Animals were given 2 doses of MVA-based vaccines 4 weeks apart and were challenged with a 2009 pandemic H1N1 isolate (H1N1pdm) 8 weeks after the last vaccination. MVA-based vaccines encoding HA induced potent serum antibody responses against homologous H1 or H5 HAs but did not stimulate strong T cell responses prior to challenge. However, animals that received MVA encoding influenza virus HA and/or NP had high frequencies of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses within the first 7 days of H1N1pdm infection, while animals vaccinated with MVA encoding irrelevant antigens did not. We detected little or no H1N1pdm replication in animals that received vaccines encoding H1 (homologous) HA, while a vaccine encoding NP from an H5N1 isolate afforded no protection. Surprisingly, H1N1pdm viral shedding was reduced in animals vaccinated with MVA encoding HA and NP from an H5N1 isolate. This reduced shedding was associated with cross-reactive antibodies capable of mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector functions. Our results suggest that ADCC plays a role in cross-protective immunity against influenza. Vaccines optimized to stimulate cross-reactive antibodies with ADCC function may provide an important measure of protection against emerging influenza viruses when NAbs are ineffective. IMPORTANCE Current influenza vaccines are designed to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Vaccine-induced NAbs typically are effective but highly specific for particular virus strains. Consequently, current vaccines are poorly suited for preventing the spread of newly emerging pandemic viruses. Therefore, we evaluated a vaccine strategy designed to induce both antibody and T cell responses, which may provide more broadly cross-protective immunity against influenza. Here, we show in a translational primate model that vaccination with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding hemagglutinin from a heterosubtypic H5N1 virus was associated with reduced shedding of a pandemic H1N1 virus challenge, while vaccination with MVA encoding nucleoprotein, an internal viral protein, was not. Unexpectedly, this reduced shedding was associated with nonneutralizing antibodies that bound H1 hemagglutinin and activated natural killer cells. Therefore, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) may play a role in cross-protective immunity to influenza virus. Vaccines that stimulate ADCC antibodies may enhance protection against pandemic influenza virus. PMID:25210172

  3. Successive site translocating inoculation potentiates DNA/recombinant vaccinia vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Na; Hu, Weiguo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing; Wan, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines have advantages over traditional vaccine modalities; however the relatively low immunogenicity restrains its translation into clinical use. Further optimizations are needed to get the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine closer to the level required for human use. Here we show that intramuscularly inoculating into a different limb each time significantly improves the immunogenicities of both DNA and recombinant vaccinia vaccines during multiple vaccinations, compared to repeated vaccination on the same limb. We term this strategy successive site translocating inoculation (SSTI). SSTI could work in synergy with genetic adjuvant and DNA prime-recombinant vaccinia boost regimen. By comparing in vivo antigen expression, we found that SSTI avoided the specific inhibition of in vivo antigen expression, which was observed in the limbs being repeatedly inoculated. Employing in vivo T cell depletion and passive IgG transfer, we delineated that the inhibition was not mediated by CD8+ T cells but by specific antibodies. Finally, by using C3−/− mouse model and in vivo NK cells depletion, we identified that specific antibodies negatively regulated the in vivo antigen expression primarily in a complement depended way. PMID:26667202

  4. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Tod J.; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K.; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Mosca, Joseph D.; Perera, Liyanage P.

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain as to the deployability of these vaccines, especially in the aftermath of a bioterror attack involving these pathogens. We have developed a single vaccine (Wyeth/IL-15/PA) using the licensed Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain that is efficacious against both smallpox and anthrax due to the integration of immune-enhancing cytokine IL-15 and the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis into the Wyeth vaccinia virus. Integration of IL-15 renders Wyeth vaccinia avirulent in immunodeficient mice and enhances anti-vaccinia immune responses. Wyeth/IL-15/PA conferred sterile protection against a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames strain spores in rabbits. A single dose of Wyeth/IL-15/PA protected 33% of the vaccinated A/J mice against a lethal spore challenge 72 h later whereas a single dose of licensed anthrax vaccine protected only 10%. Our dual vaccine Wyeth/IL-15/PA remedies the inadequacies associated with the licensed vaccines, and the inherent ability of Wyeth vaccinia virus to be lyophilized without loss of potency makes it cold-chain independent, thus simplifying the logistics of storage, stockpiling, and field delivery in the event of a bioterror attack involving smallpox or anthrax. PMID:20921397

  5. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Tod J; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N; Waldmann, Thomas A; Mosca, Joseph D; Perera, Liyanage P

    2010-10-19

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain as to the deployability of these vaccines, especially in the aftermath of a bioterror attack involving these pathogens. We have developed a single vaccine (Wyeth/IL-15/PA) using the licensed Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain that is efficacious against both smallpox and anthrax due to the integration of immune-enhancing cytokine IL-15 and the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis into the Wyeth vaccinia virus. Integration of IL-15 renders Wyeth vaccinia avirulent in immunodeficient mice and enhances anti-vaccinia immune responses. Wyeth/IL-15/PA conferred sterile protection against a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames strain spores in rabbits. A single dose of Wyeth/IL-15/PA protected 33% of the vaccinated A/J mice against a lethal spore challenge 72 h later whereas a single dose of licensed anthrax vaccine protected only 10%. Our dual vaccine Wyeth/IL-15/PA remedies the inadequacies associated with the licensed vaccines, and the inherent ability of Wyeth vaccinia virus to be lyophilized without loss of potency makes it cold-chain independent, thus simplifying the logistics of storage, stockpiling, and field delivery in the event of a bioterror attack involving smallpox or anthrax. PMID:20921397

  6. Vaccinia virus, a promising new therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Yaghchi, Chadwan; Zhang, Zhongxian; Alusi, Ghassan; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-12-01

    The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients signifies a need for radically new therapeutic strategies. Tumor-targeted oncolytic viruses have emerged as attractive therapeutic candidates for cancer treatment due to their inherent ability to specifically target and lyse tumor cells as well as induce antitumor effects by multiple action mechanisms. Vaccinia virus has several inherent features that make it particularly suitable for use as an oncolytic agent. In this review, we will discuss the potential of vaccinia virus in the management of pancreatic cancer in light of our increased understanding of cellular and immunological mechanisms involved in the disease process as well as our extending knowledge in the biology of vaccinia virus. PMID:26595180

  7. A Novel High-Throughput Vaccinia Virus Neutralization Assay and Preexisting Immunity in Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Nie, Jianhui; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Dongying; Song, Aijing; Meng, Shufang; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-existing immunity to Vaccinia Tian Tan virus (VTT) resulting from a large vaccination campaign against smallpox prior to the early 1980s in China, has been a major issue for application of VTT-vector based vaccines. It is essential to establish a sensitive and high-throughput neutralization assay to understand the epidemiology of Vaccinia-specific immunity in current populations in China. Methodology/Principal Findings A new anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV) neutralization assay that used the attenuated replication-competent VTT carrying the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis (rTV-Fluc) was established and standardized for critical parameters that included the choice of cell line, viral infection dose, and the infection time. The current study evaluated the maintenance of virus-specific immunity after smallpox vaccination by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis of antiviral antibody-mediated immune responses in volunteers examined 30–55 years after vaccination. The rTV-Fluc neutralization assay was able to detect neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against Vaccinia virus without the ability to differentiate strains of Vaccinia virus. We showed that the neutralizing titers measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Using this assay, we found a low prevalence of NAb to VTT (7.6%) in individuals born before 1980 from Beijing and Anhui provinces in China, and when present, anti-VTT NAb titers were low. No NAbs were detected in all 222 samples from individuals born after 1980. There was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender, age range and geographic origin. Conclusion A simplified, sensitive, standardized, reproducible, and high-throughput assay was developed for the quantitation of NAbs against different Vaccinia strains. The current study provides useful insights for the future development of VTT-based vaccination in Beijing and Anhui provinces of China. PMID:22438922

  8. A prime/boost DNA/Modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine expressing recombinant Leishmania DNA encoding TRYP is safe and immunogenic in outbred dogs, the reservoir of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Connor; Antoniou, Maria; Ruiz-Argüello, Maria Begoña; Alcami, Antonio; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Courtenay, Orin

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) prime/boost vaccines expressing tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP) and Leishmania homologue of the mammalian receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) against Leishmania major challenge in mice, which was consistent with results from TRYP protein/adjuvant combinations in non-human primates. This study aimed to conduct safety and immunogenicity trials of these DNA/MVA vaccines in dogs, the natural reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, followed-up for 4 months post-vaccination. In a cohort of 22 uninfected outbred dogs, blinded randomised administration of 1000 μg (high dose) or 100 μg (low dose) DNA prime (day 0) and 1 × 108 pfu MVA boost (day 28) was shown to be safe and showed no clinical side effects. High dose DNA/MVA vaccinated TRYP dogs produced statistically higher mean levels of the type-1 pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ than controls in whole blood assays (WBA) stimulated with the recombinant vaccine antigen TRYP, up to the final sampling at day 126, and in the absence of challenge with Leishmania. TRYP vaccinated dogs also demonstrated significantly higher TRYP-specific total IgG and IgG2 subtype titres than in controls, and positive in vivo intradermal reactions at day 156 in the absence of natural infection, observed in 6/8 TRYP vaccinated dogs. No significant increases in IFN-γ in LACK-stimulated WBA, or in LACK-specific IgG levels, were detected in LACK vaccinated dogs compared to controls, and only 2/9 LACK vaccinated dogs demonstrated DTH responses at day 156. In all groups, IgG1 subclass responses and antigen-specific stimulation of IL-10 were similar to controls demonstrating an absence of Th2/Treg response, as expected in the absence of in vivo restimulation or natural/experimental challenge with Leishmania. These collective results indicate significant antigen-specific type-1 responses and in vivo memory phase cellular immune responses, consistent with superior potential for protective vaccine immunogenicity of DNA/MVA TRYP over LACK. PMID:19095029

  9. Vaccinia virus as a subhelper for AAV replication and packaging

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Andrea R; Dong, Biao; Chen, Lingxia; Xiao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been widely used as a gene therapy vector to treat a variety of disorders. While these vectors are increasingly popular and successful in the clinic, there is still much to learn about the viruses. Understanding the biology of these viruses is essential in engineering better vectors and generating vectors more efficiently for large-scale use. AAV requires a helper for production and replication making this aspect of the viral life cycle crucial. Vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely cited as a helper virus for AAV. However, to date, there are no detailed analyses of its helper function. Here, the helper role of VV was studied in detail. In contrast to common belief, we demonstrated that VV was not a sufficient helper virus for AAV replication. Vaccinia failed to produce rAAV and activate AAV promoters. While this virus could not support rAAV production, Vaccinia could initiate AAV replication and packaging when AAV promoter activation is not necessary. This activity is due to the ability of Vaccinia-driven Rep78 to transcribe in the cytoplasm and subsequently translate in the nucleus and undergo typical functions in the AAV life cycle. As such, VV is subhelper for AAV compared to complete helper functions of adenovirus. PMID:26636113

  10. Oncolytic and immunologic cancer therapy with GM-CSF-armed vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lili; Fan, Jun; Guo, Mingming; Huang, Biao

    2016-03-28

    Targeted oncolytic vaccinia viruses are being developed as a novel strategy in cancer therapy. Arming vaccinia viruses with immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance antitumor efficacy. Such engineered oncolytic viruses, like JX-594, a Wyeth strain vaccinia virus modified with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have shown promising results and have proceeded rapidly in clinical trials. However, the oncolytic potential of the Chinese vaccine strain Tian Tan (VTT) has not been explored. In this study, we constructed a targeted oncolytic vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9 (VG9) expressing murine GM-CSF (VG9-GMCSF) and evaluated the antitumor effect of this recombinant vaccinia virus in a murine melanoma model. In vitro, viral replication and cytotoxicity of VG9-GMCSF was as potent as VG9; in vivo, VG9-GMCSF significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted melanoma tumors, prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and produced an antitumor cytotoxic response. Such antitumor effect may be due to the lytic nature of virus as well as the stimulation of immune activity by GM-CSF production. Our results indicate that VG9-GMCSF induces strong tumoricidal activity, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. PMID:26803055

  11. Use of Reporter Genes in the Generation of Vaccinia Virus-Derived Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Al Ali, Sally; Baldanta, Sara; Fernández-Escobar, Mercedes; Guerra, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is one of the most extensively-studied viruses of the Poxviridae family. It is easy to genetically modify, so it has become a key tool for many applications. In this context, reporter genes facilitate the study of the role of foreign genes introduced into the genome of VACV. In this review, we describe the type of reporter genes that have been used to generate reporter-expressing VACV and the applications of the recombinant viruses obtained. Reporter-expressing VACV are currently employed in basic and immunology research, in the development of vaccines and cancer treatment. PMID:27213433

  12. Vaccinia Virus Induces Programmed Necrosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Archibald, Kyra M; Kulbe, Hagen; Balkwill, Frances R; Öberg, Daniel; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which oncolytic vaccinia virus induces tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have evaluated cell death pathways following infection of ovarian cancer cells with both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deleted (dTK) Lister strain vaccinia. We show that death does not rely upon classical apoptosis despite the appearances of some limited apoptotic features, including phosphatidylserine externalization and appearance of sub-G1 DNA populations. Vaccinia infection induces marked lipidation of LC3 proteins, but there is no general activation of the autophagic process and cell death does not rely upon autophagy induction. We show that vaccinia induces necrotic morphology on transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by marked by reductions in intracellular adenosine triphosphate, altered mitochondrial metabolism, and release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. This necrotic cell death appears regulated, as infection induces formation of a receptor interacting protein (RIP1)/caspase-8 complex. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of both RIP1 and substrates downstream of RIP1, including MLKL, significantly attenuate cell death. Blockade of TNF-α, however, does not alter virus efficacy, suggesting that necrosis does not result from autocrine cytokine release. Overall, these results show that, in ovarian cancer cells, vaccinia virus causes necrotic cell death that is mediated through a programmed series of events. PMID:23985697

  13. Protection against Friend retrovirus-induced leukemia by recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the gag gene.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, M; Nishio, J; Chesebro, B

    1992-01-01

    High sequence variability in the envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus has provoked interest in nonenvelope antigens as potential immunogens against retrovirus infection. However, the role of core protein antigens encoded by the gag gene in protective immunity against retroviruses is unclear. By using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the Friend murine leukemia helper virus (F-MuLV) gag gene, we could prime CD4+ T-helper cells and protectively immunize susceptible strains of mice against Friend retrovirus infection. Recovery from leukemic splenomegaly developed more slowly after immunization with vaccinia virus-F-MuLV gag than with vaccinia virus-F-MuLV env; however, genetic nonresponders to the envelope protein could be partially protected with Gag vaccines. Class switching of F-MuLV-neutralizing antibodies from immunoglobulin M to immunoglobulin G after challenge with Friend virus complex was facilitated in mice immunized with the Gag antigen. Sequential deletion of the gag gene revealed that the major protective epitope was located on the N-terminal hydrophobic protein p15. Images PMID:1534853

  14. Resistance to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Induced by Immunization of Cotton Rats with a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the RSV G Glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Narayanasamy; Prince, Gregory A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Venkatesan, Sundararajan; Chanock, Robert M.; Moss, Bernard

    1986-03-01

    A cDNA copy of the G glycoprotein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was placed under control of a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the thymidine kinase locus of the vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and expressed a 93-kDa protein that migrated with the authentic RSV G glycoprotein upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycosylation of the expressed protein and transport to the cell surface were demonstrated in the absence of other RSV proteins. Cotton rats that were inoculated intradermally with the infectious recombinant virus produced serum antibody to the G glycoprotein that neutralized RSV in vitro. Furthermore, the vaccinated animals were resistant to lower respiratory tract infection upon intranasal inoculation with RSV and had reduced titers of RSV in the nose.

  15. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    PubMed Central

    Root, J Jeffrey; McLean, Robert G; Slate, Dennis; MacCarthy, Kathleen A; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-01-01

    Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor). The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10) with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1) responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10) and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted. PMID:18834520

  16. GMCSF-armed vaccinia virus induces an antitumor immune response.

    PubMed

    Parviainen, Suvi; Ahonen, Marko; Diaconu, Iulia; Kipar, Anja; Siurala, Mikko; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-03-01

    Oncolytic Western Reserve strain vaccinia virus selective for epidermal growth factor receptor pathway mutations and tumor-associated hypermetabolism was armed with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and a tdTomato fluorophore. As the assessment of immunological responses to human transgenes is challenging in the most commonly used animal models, we used immunocompetent Syrian golden hamsters, known to be sensitive to human GMCSF and semipermissive to vaccinia virus. Efficacy was initially tested in vitro on various human and hamster cell lines and oncolytic potency of transgene-carrying viruses was similar to unarmed virus. The hGMCSF-encoding virus was able to completely eradicate subcutaneous pancreatic tumors in hamsters, and to fully protect the animals from subsequent rechallenge with the same tumor. Induction of specific antitumor immunity was also shown by ex vivo co-culture experiments with hamster splenocytes. In addition, histological examination revealed increased infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in GMCSF-virus-treated tumors. These findings help clarify the mechanism of action of GMCSF-armed vaccinia viruses undergoing clinical trials. PMID:25042001

  17. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Vaccinia Virus Recombinant That Expresses the Influenza Hemagglutinin Gene and Induces Resistance to Influenza Virus Infection in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Moss, Bernard

    1983-12-01

    A DNA copy of the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene, derived from influenza virus A/Jap/305/57 (H2N2) was inserted into the genome of vaccinia virus under the control of an early vaccinia virus promoter. Tissue culture cells infected with the purified recombinant virus synthesized influenza hemagglutinin, which was glycosylated and transported to the cell surface where it could be cleaved with trypsin into HA1 and HA2 subunits. Rabbits and hamsters inoculated intradermally with recombinant virus produced circulating antibodies that inhibited hemagglutination by influenza virus. Furthermore, vaccinated hamsters achieved levels of antibody similar to those obtained upon primary infection with influenza virus and were protected against respiratory infection with the A/Jap/305/57 influenza virus.

  18. Comparison of the replication characteristics of vaccinia virus strains Guang 9 and Tian Tan in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    Vaccinia virus is widely used as a vector in the development of recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus strain Guang 9 (VG9), which was derived from vaccinia virus strain Tian Tan (VTT) by successive plaque-cloning purification, was more attenuated than VTT. In this study, the host cell range and the growth and replication of VG9 were compared with those of VTT. The results showed that both VG9 and VTT could infect permissive cells (Vero, TK-143 and CEF) and semipermissive cells PK (15) and induced a visible cytopathic effect (CPE). Both strains could infect nonpermissive CHO-K1 cells but neither was able to reproduce. The replicative ability of VG9 was a little lower than that of VTT. Additionally, recombinant vaccinia viruses containing a firefly luciferase gene (VG9-L and VTT-L) were constructed, and their expression in vitro and replication and spread in vivo were compared. The expression ability of VG9-L was lower than that of VTT-L. Whole-animal imaging data indicated that VG9-L could reproduce quickly and express the exogenous protein at the site of inoculation, regardless of whether the intramuscular, intracutaneous, subcutaneous or celiac inoculation route was used. VG9-L was better in its ability to express a foreign protein than VTT-L, but the time during which expression occurred was shorter. There was no dissemination of virus in mice inoculated with either strain. In summary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using VG9 for the production of smallpox vaccines or the construction of recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines. PMID:24838849

  19. Modification of promoter spacer length in vaccinia virus as a strategy to control the antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Mauro; Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    Vaccinia viruses (VACVs) with distinct early promoters have been developed to enhance antigen expression and improve antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses. It has not been demonstrated how the length of the spacer between the coding region of the gene and its regulatory early promoter motif influences antigen expression, and whether the timing of gene expression can modify the antigen-specific CD4 T-cell response. We generated several recombinant VACVs based on the attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain, which express GFP or the Leishmania LACK antigen under the control of an optimized promoter, using different spacer lengths. Longer spacer length increased GFP and LACK early expression, which correlated with an enhanced LACK-specific memory CD4 and CD8 T-cell response. These results show the importance of promoter spacer length for early antigen expression by VACV and provide alternative strategies for the design of poxvirus-based vaccines. PMID:25972354

  20. Capturing the Natural Diversity of the Human Antibody Response against Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lantto, Johan; Haahr Hansen, Margit; Rasmussen, Søren Kofoed; Steinaa, Lucilla; Poulsen, Tine R.; Duggan, Jackie; Dennis, Mike; Naylor, Irene; Easterbrook, Linda; Bregenholt, Søren; Haurum, John; Jensen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The eradication of smallpox (variola) and the subsequent cessation of routine vaccination have left modern society vulnerable to bioterrorism employing this devastating contagious disease. The existing, licensed vaccines based on live vaccinia virus (VACV) are contraindicated for a substantial number of people, and prophylactic vaccination of large populations is not reasonable when there is little risk of exposure. Consequently, there is an emerging need to develop efficient and safe therapeutics to be used shortly before or after exposure, either alone or in combination with vaccination. We have characterized the human antibody response to smallpox vaccine (VACV Lister) in immunized volunteers and isolated a large number of VACV-specific antibodies that recognize a variety of different VACV antigens. Using this broad antibody panel, we have generated a fully human, recombinant analogue to plasma-derived vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIG), which mirrors the diversity and specificity of the human antibody immune response and offers the advantage of unlimited supply and reproducible specificity and activity. The recombinant VIG was found to display a high specific binding activity toward VACV antigens, potent in vitro VACV neutralizing activity, and a highly protective efficacy against VACV challenge in the mouse tail lesion model when given either prophylactically or therapeutically. Altogether, the results suggest that this compound has the potential to be used as an effective postexposure prophylaxis or treatment of disease caused by orthopoxviruses. PMID:21147924

  1. Protein Composition of the Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Wolfgang; Hixson, Kim K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Lipton, Mary S.; Moss, Bernard

    2007-02-05

    The protein content of vaccinia virus mature virions, purified by rate zonal and isopycnic centrifugation and solubilized by SDS or a solution of urea and thiourea, was determined by the accurate mass and time tag technology which uses both tandem mass spectrometry and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to detect tryptic peptides separated by high-resolution liquid chromatography. Eighty vaccinia virus-encoded proteins representing 37% of the 218 genes annotated in the complete genome sequence were detected in at least three analyses. Ten proteins accounted for approximately 80% of the mass, while the least abundant proteins made up 1% or less of the mass. Thirteen identified proteins were not previously reported as components of virions. On the other hand, 8 previously described virion proteins were not detected here, presumably due to technical reasons including small size and hydrophobicity. In addition to vaccinia virus-encoded proteins, 24 host proteins omitting isoforms were detected. The most abundant of these were cytoskeletal proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in translation.

  2. A Pilot Study Comparing the Development of EIAV Env-Specific Antibodies Induced by DNA/Recombinant Vaccinia-Vectored Vaccines and an Attenuated Chinese EIAV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinglai; Lin, Yuezhi; Ma, Jian; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Liping; Li, Shenwei; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jianhua; Shen, Rongxian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data from successful attenuated lentiviral vaccine studies indicate that fully mature Env-specific antibodies characterized by high titer, high avidity, and the predominant recognition of conformational epitopes are associated with protective efficacy. Although vaccination with a DNA prime/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccine boost strategy has been found to be effective in some trials with non-human primate/simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models, it remains unclear whether this vaccination strategy could elicit mature equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Env-specific antibodies, thus protecting vaccinated horses against EIAV infection. Therefore, in this pilot study we vaccinated horses using a strategy based on DNA prime/recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV)-vectored vaccines encoding EIAV env and gag genes, and observed the development of Env-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and p26-specific antibodies. Vaccination with DNA induced low titer, low avidity, and the predominant recognition of linear epitopes by Env-specific antibodies, which was enhanced by boosting vaccinations with rTTV vaccines. However, the maturation levels of Env-specific antibodies induced by the DNA/rTTV vaccines were significantly lower than those induced by the attenuated vaccine EIAVFDDV. Additionally, DNA/rTTV vaccines did not elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent EIAV strain, all of the vaccinees and control horses died from EIAV disease. These data indicate that the regimen of DNA prime/rTTV vaccine boost did not induce mature Env-specific antibodies, which might have contributed to immune protection failure. PMID:23171359

  3. Generation of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 Proteins of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Marín-López, Alejandro; Ortego, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental vaccine vector for its lack of replication in mammalian cells and high expression level of foreign/heterologous genes. Recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) are used as platforms for protein production as well as vectors to generate vaccines against a high number of infectious diseases and other pathologies. The portrait of the virus combines desirable elements such as high-level biological safety, the ability to activate appropriate innate immune mediators upon vaccination, and the capacity to deliver substantial amounts of heterologous antigens. Recombinant MVAs encoding proteins of bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that infects domestic and wild ruminants transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species, are excellent vaccine candidates against this virus. In this chapter we describe the methods for the generation of rMVAs encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 proteins of bluetongue virus as a model example for orbiviruses. The protocols included cover the cloning of VP2, NS1, and VP7 BTV-4 genes in a transfer plasmid, the construction of recombinant MVAs, the titration of virus working stocks and the protein expression analysis by immunofluorescence and radiolabeling of rMVA infected cells as well as virus purification. PMID:26458834

  4. Structure of intracellular mature vaccinia virus observed by cryoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Dubochet, J; Adrian, M; Richter, K; Garces, J; Wittek, R

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular mature vaccinia virus, also called intracellular naked virus, and its core envelope have been observed in their native, unfixed, unstained, hydrated states by cryoelectron microscopy of vitrified samples. The virion appears as a smooth rounded rectangle of ca. 350 by 270 nm. The core seems homogeneous and is surrounded by a 30-nm-thick surface domain delimited by membranes. We show that surface tubules and most likely also the characteristic dumbbell-shaped core with the lateral bodies which are generally observed in negatively stained or conventionally embedded samples are preparation artifacts. Images PMID:8107253

  5. Marker gene swapping facilitates recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara production by host-range selection.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Giulia; Soprana, Elisa; Panigada, Maddalena; Palini, Alessio; Erfle, Volker; Staib, Caroline; Sutter, Gerd; Siccardi, Antonio G

    2009-03-01

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental and human vaccine vector for its lack of replication in mammalian cells and high expression of heterologous genes. Recombinant MVA technology can be improved greatly by combining transient host-range selection (based on the restoration in MVA of the deleted vaccinia gene K1L) with the differential expression of fluorescent proteins. Recombinant virus results from swapping a red protein gene (in the acceptor virus) with a cassette of the transfer plasmid comprising the transgene and the green marker K1Lgfp (a chimeric gene comprising K1L and EGFP). Recombinant selection is performed in the selective host RK13. Finally, in the non-selective host BHK-21, a single crossover between identical flanking regions excises the marker gene. The three types of viruses involved (red parental, green intermediate and colourless final recombinant) are visualized differentially by fluorescence microscopy or fluoro-imaging of terminal dilution microcultures, leading to a straightforward and efficient purification protocol. This method (Red-to-Green gene swapping) reduces greatly the time needed to obtain marker-free recombinant MVA and increases the reliability of the construction process. PMID:19038289

  6. Deletion of Fifteen Open Reading Frames from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Fails to Improve Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Gilbert, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, which has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector in many vaccine development programmes. The loss of many immunosuppressive and host-range genes resulted in a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. However it still retains some immunomodulatory genes that may reduce MVA immunogenicity. Earlier reports demonstrated that the deletion of the A41L, B15R, C6L, or C12L open reading frames (ORFs) enhanced cellular immune responses in recombinant MVA (rMVA) by up to 2-fold. However, previously, we showed that deletion of the C12L, A44L, A46R, B7R, or B15R ORFs from rMVA, using MVA-BAC recombineering technology, did not enhance rMVA immunogenicity at either peak or memory cellular immune responses. Here, we extend our previous study to examine the effect of deleting clusters of genes on rMVA cellular immunogenicity. Two clusters of fifteen genes were deleted in one rMVA mutant that encodes either the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or an immunodominant H2-Kd-restricted murine malaria epitope (pb9). The deletion mutants were tested in prime only or prime and boost vaccination regimens. The responses showed no improved peak or memory CD8+ T cell frequencies. Our results suggest that the reported small increases in MVA deletion mutants could not be replicated with different antigens, or epitopes. Therefore, the gene deletion strategy may not be taken as a generic approach for improving the immunogenicity of MVA-based vaccines, and should be carefully assessed for every individual recombinant antigen. PMID:26053118

  7. Deletion of Fifteen Open Reading Frames from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Fails to Improve Immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Spencer, Alexandra J; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, which has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector in many vaccine development programmes. The loss of many immunosuppressive and host-range genes resulted in a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. However it still retains some immunomodulatory genes that may reduce MVA immunogenicity. Earlier reports demonstrated that the deletion of the A41L, B15R, C6L, or C12L open reading frames (ORFs) enhanced cellular immune responses in recombinant MVA (rMVA) by up to 2-fold. However, previously, we showed that deletion of the C12L, A44L, A46R, B7R, or B15R ORFs from rMVA, using MVA-BAC recombineering technology, did not enhance rMVA immunogenicity at either peak or memory cellular immune responses. Here, we extend our previous study to examine the effect of deleting clusters of genes on rMVA cellular immunogenicity. Two clusters of fifteen genes were deleted in one rMVA mutant that encodes either the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or an immunodominant H2-Kd-restricted murine malaria epitope (pb9). The deletion mutants were tested in prime only or prime and boost vaccination regimens. The responses showed no improved peak or memory CD8+ T cell frequencies. Our results suggest that the reported small increases in MVA deletion mutants could not be replicated with different antigens, or epitopes. Therefore, the gene deletion strategy may not be taken as a generic approach for improving the immunogenicity of MVA-based vaccines, and should be carefully assessed for every individual recombinant antigen. PMID:26053118

  8. IL-15 adjuvanted multivalent vaccinia-based universal influenza vaccine requires CD4+ T cells for heterosubtypic protection.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Sophie A; Li, Olive T W; Mak, Polly W Y; Mok, Chris K P; Nicholls, John M; Guan, Yi; Waldmann, Thomas A; Peiris, J S Malik; Perera, Liyanage P; Poon, Leo L M

    2014-04-15

    Current influenza vaccines are ineffective against novel viruses and the source or the strain of the next outbreak of influenza is unpredictable; therefore, establishing universal immunity by vaccination to limit the impact of influenza remains a high priority. To meet this challenge, a novel vaccine has been developed using the immunogenic live vaccinia virus as a vaccine vector, expressing multiple H5N1 viral proteins (HA, NA, M1, M2, and NP) together with IL-15 as a molecular adjuvant. Previously, this vaccine demonstrated robust sterile cross-clade protection in mice against H5 influenza viruses, and herein its use has been extended to mediate heterosubtypic immunity toward viruses from both group 1 and 2 HA lineages. The vaccine protected mice against lethal challenge by increasing survival and significantly reducing lung viral loads against the most recent human H7N9, seasonal H3N2, pandemic-2009 H1N1, and highly pathogenic H7N7 influenza A viruses. Influenza-specific antibodies elicited by the vaccine failed to neutralize heterologous viruses and were unable to confer protection by passive transfer. Importantly, heterologous influenza-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses that were elicited by the vaccine were effectively recalled and amplified following viral challenge in the lungs and periphery. Selective depletion of T-cell subsets in the immunized mice revealed an important role for CD4(+) T cells in heterosubtypic protection, despite low sequence conservation among known MHC-II restricted epitopes across different influenza viruses. This study illustrates the potential utility of our multivalent Wyeth/IL-15/5Flu as a universal influenza vaccine with a correlate of protective immunity that is independent of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24706798

  9. Deoxyadenosine reverses hydroxyurea inhibition of vaccinia virus growth.

    PubMed Central

    Slabaugh, M B; Howell, M L; Wang, Y; Mathews, C K

    1991-01-01

    Hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, blocks replication of vaccinia virus. However, when medium containing hydroxyurea and dialyzed serum was supplemented with deoxyadenosine, the block to viral reproduction was circumvented, provided that an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase was also present. Deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine, and deoxythymidine were ineffective alone and did not augment the deoxyadenosine effect. In fact, increasing concentrations of deoxyguanosine and deoxythymidine, but not deoxycytidine, eliminated the deoxyadenosine rescue, an effect that was reversed by the addition of low concentrations of deoxycytidine. These results suggested that the inhibition of viral replication by hydroxyurea was primarily due to a deficiency of dATP. Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in vaccinia virus-infected cells were measured at the height of viral DNA synthesis after a synchronous infection. With 0.5 mM hydroxyurea, the dATP pool was greater than 90% depleted, the dCTP and dGTP pools were 40 to 50% reduced, and the dTTP pool was increased. Assay of ribonucleotide reductase activity in intact virus-infected cells suggested that hydroxyurea may differentially affect reduction of the various substrates of the enzyme. PMID:2016760

  10. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    SciTech Connect

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H.; Buller, R. Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-05-15

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus.

  11. Efficacy and safety of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored plague vaccine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brewoo, Joseph N.; Powell, Tim D.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of plague vaccines based on the modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector was evaluated. MVA recombinants were constructed expressing Yersinia pestis antigens under the translational control of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and/or fused to the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) secretory signal. A MVA/Y. pestis recombinant that expressed a truncated version of the low-calcium response V antigen (MVA/IRES/tPA/V307), conferred significant protection (87.5%–100%) against intranasal or intraperitoneal challenge with CO92 (encapsulated) or Java 9 (non-encapsulated) strains of Y pestis, respectively. In contrast, a MVA/Y. pestis recombinant that expressed the full-length V antigen provided only 37.5% protection against challenge with CO92 or Java 9 strains, respectively. Interestingly, a MVA/Y. pestis recombinant that expressed the capsular protein (F1) did not elicit significant antibody titers but still conferred 50% and 25% protection against CO92 or Java 9 challenge, respectively. The MVA/Y. pestis recombinant viruses did not demonstrate any mortality or morbidity in SCID mice. Based on their safety and efficacy in mice, these MVA/Y. pestis recombinants are candidates for further development as biodefense and public health vaccines. PMID:20638759

  12. Vaccinia virus strain differences in cell attachment and entry

    SciTech Connect

    Bengali, Zain; Townsley, Alan C.; Moss, Bernard

    2009-06-20

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain WR can enter cells by a low pH endosomal pathway or direct fusion with the plasma membrane at neutral pH. Here, we compared attachment and entry of five VACV strains in six cell lines and discovered two major patterns. Only WR exhibited pH 5-enhanced rate of entry following neutral pH adsorption to cells, which correlated with sensitivity to bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification. Entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree strains were neither accelerated by pH 5 treatment nor prevented by bafilomycin A1. Entry of the Wyeth strain, although not augmented by pH 5, was inhibited by bafilomycin A1. WR and Wyeth were both relatively resistant to the negative effects of heparin on entry, whereas the other strains were extremely sensitive due to inhibition of cell binding. The relative sensitivities of individual vaccinia virus strains to heparin correlated inversely with their abilities to bind to and enter glycosaminoglycan-deficient sog9 cells but not other cell lines tested. These results suggested that that IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree have a more limited ability than WR and Wyeth to use the low pH endosomal pathway and are more dependent on binding to glycosaminoglycans for cell attachment.

  13. In vivo effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen.

    PubMed Central

    Krummenacher, C; Diggelmann, H; Acha-Orbea, H

    1996-01-01

    Early after infection, the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expresses a superantigen (SAg) at the surface of B lymphocytes. Interaction with the T-cell receptor Vbeta domain induces a polyclonal proliferative response of the SAg-reactive T cells. Stimulated T cells become anergic and are deleted from the T-cell repertoire. We have used a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the MMTV(GR) SAg to dissect the effects of the retroviral SAg during an unrelated viral infection. Subcutaneous infection with this recombinant vaccinia virus induces a very rapid increase of Vbeta14 T cells in the draining lymph node. This stimulation does not require a large Plumber of infectious particles and is not strictly dependent on the expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II I-E molecule, as it is required after MMTV(GR) infection. In contrast to MMTV infection during which B cells are infected, we do not observe any clonal deletion of the reactive T cells following the initial stimulation phase. Our data show that contrary to the case with MMTV, macrophages but not B cells are the targets of infection by vaccinia virus in the lymph node, indicating the ability of these cells to present a retroviral SAg. The altered SAg expression in a different target cell observed during recombinant vaccinia virus infection therefore results in significant changes in the SAg response. PMID:8627779

  14. Potent Neutralization of Vaccinia Virus by Divergent Murine Antibodies Targeting a Common Site of Vulnerability in L1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kaever, Thomas; Meng, Xiangzhi; Matho, Michael H.; Schlossman, Andrew; Li, Sheng; Sela-Culang, Inbal; Ofran, Yanay; Buller, Mark; Crump, Ryan W.; Parker, Scott; Frazier, April; Crotty, Shane; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Peters, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) L1 is an important target for viral neutralization and has been included in multicomponent DNA or protein vaccines against orthopoxviruses. To further understand the protective mechanism of the anti-L1 antibodies, we generated five murine anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which clustered into 3 distinct epitope groups. While two groups of anti-L1 failed to neutralize, one group of 3 MAbs potently neutralized VACV in an isotype- and complement-independent manner. This is in contrast to neutralizing antibodies against major VACV envelope proteins, such as H3, D8, or A27, which failed to completely neutralize VACV unless the antibodies are of complement-fixing isotypes and complement is present. Compared to nonneutralizing anti-L1 MAbs, the neutralization antibodies bound to the recombinant L1 protein with a significantly higher affinity and also could bind to virions. By using a variety of techniques, including the isolation of neutralization escape mutants, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, the epitope of the neutralizing antibodies was mapped to a conformational epitope with Asp35 as the key residue. This epitope is similar to the epitope of 7D11, a previously described potent VACV neutralizing antibody. The epitope was recognized mainly by CDR1 and CDR2 of the heavy chain, which are highly conserved among antibodies recognizing the epitope. These antibodies, however, had divergent light-chain and heavy-chain CDR3 sequences. Our study demonstrates that the conformational L1 epitope with Asp35 is a common site of vulnerability for potent neutralization by a divergent group of antibodies. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus, the live vaccine for smallpox, is one of the most successful vaccines in human history, but it presents a level of risk that has become unacceptable for the current population. Studying the immune protection mechanism of smallpox vaccine is important for understanding the basic principle of successful vaccines and the development of next-generation, safer vaccines for highly pathogenic orthopoxviruses. We studied antibody targets in smallpox vaccine by developing potent neutralizing antibodies against vaccinia virus and comprehensively characterizing their epitopes. We found a site in vaccinia virus L1 protein as the target of a group of highly potent murine neutralizing antibodies. The analysis of antibody-antigen complex structure and the sequences of the antibody genes shed light on how these potent neutralizing antibodies are elicited from immunized mice. PMID:25031354

  15. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  16. Laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection in a recently immunized person--Massachusetts, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christopher H; Farland, Julien; Winters, Thomas; Gunn, Julia; Caron, Donna; Evans, Jennifer; Osadebe, Lynda; Bethune, Leon; McCollum, Andrea M; Patel, Nishi; Wilkins, Kimberly; Davidson, Whitni; Petersen, Brett; Barry, M Anita

    2015-05-01

    On November 26, 2013, the CDC poxvirus laboratory was notified by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) of an inadvertent inoculation of a recently vaccinated (ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine) laboratory worker with wild type vaccinia virus (VACV) Western Reserve. A joint investigation by CDC and BPHC confirmed orthopoxvirus infection in the worker, who had reported a needle stick in his thumb while inoculating a mouse with VACV. He experienced a non-tender, red rash on his arm, diagnosed at a local emergency department as cellulitis. He subsequently developed a necrotic lesion on his thumb, diagnosed as VACV infection. Three weeks after the injury, the thumb lesion was surgically debrided and at 2 months post-injury, the skin lesion had resolved. The investigation confirmed that the infection was the first reported VACV infection in the United States in a laboratory worker vaccinated according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations. The incident prompted the academic institution to outline biosafety measures for working with biologic agents, such as biosafety training of laboratory personnel, vaccination (if appropriate), and steps in incident reporting. Though vaccination has been shown to be an effective measure in protecting personnel in the laboratory setting, this case report underscores the importance of proper safety measures and incident reporting. PMID:25928468

  17. The generation of CD8+ T-cell population specific for vaccinia virus epitope involved in the antiviral protection against ectromelia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Gierynska, Malgorzata; Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Golke, Anna; Schollenberger, Ada

    2015-12-01

    Eradication of smallpox has led to cessation of vaccination programs. This has rendered the human population increasingly susceptible not only to variola virus infection but also to infections with other representatives of Poxviridae family that cause zoonotic variola-like diseases. Thus, new approaches for designing improved vaccine against smallpox are required. Discovering that orthopoxviruses, e.g. variola virus, vaccinia virus, ectromelia virus, share common immunodominant antigen, may result in the development of such a vaccine. In our study, the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice during the acute and memory phase of the immune response was induced using the vaccinia virus immunodominant TSYKFESV epitope and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants. The role of the generated TSYKFESV-specific CD8(+) T cells was evaluated in mice during ectromelia virus infection using systemic and mucosal model. Moreover, the involvement of dendritic cells subsets in the adaptive immune response stimulation was assessed. Our results indicate that the TSYKFESV epitope/TLR9 agonist approach, delivered systemically or mucosally, generated strong CD8(+) T-cell response when measured 10 days after immunization. Furthermore, the TSYKFESV-specific cell population remained functionally active 2 months post-immunization, and gave cross-protection in virally challenged mice, even though the numbers of detectable antigen-specific T cells decreased. PMID:26474845

  18. Rabbitpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Infection of Rabbits as a Model for Human Smallpox▿

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mathew M.; Rice, Amanda D.; Moyer, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    The threat of smallpox release and use as a bioweapon has encouraged the search for new vaccines and antiviral drugs, as well as development of new small-animal models in which their efficacy can be determined. Here, we reinvestigate a rabbit model in which the intradermal infection of rabbits with very low doses of either rabbitpox virus (RPV) or vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VV-WR) recapitulates many of the clinical features of human smallpox. Following intradermal inoculation with RPV, rabbits develop systemic disease characterized by extensive viremia, numerous secondary lesions on the skin and mucocutaneous tissues, severe respiratory disease, death by 9 days postinfection, and, importantly, natural aerosol transmission between animals. Contrary to previous reports, intradermal infection with VV-WR also resulted in a very similar lethal systemic disease in rabbits, again with natural aerosol transmission between animals. When sentinel and index animals were cohoused, transmission rates approached 100% with either virus, with sentinel animals exhibiting a similar, severe disease. Lower rates of transmission were observed when index and sentinel animals were housed in separate cages. Sentinel animals infected with RPV with one exception succumbed to the disease. However, the majority of VV-WR-infected sentinel animals, while becoming seriously ill, survived. Finally, we tested the efficacy of the drug 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir in the RPV/rabbit model and found that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days beginning 1 day before infection was able to completely protect rabbits from lethal disease. PMID:17686856

  19. Analysis of canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Xuan, X; Kojima, A; Murata, T; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1997-01-01

    The genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein B (gB), gC and gD homologues have been reported already. However, products of these genes have not been identified yet. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp 145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gB, gC or gD, the putative genes of gB, gC, and gD of CHV were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus LC16mO strain under the control of the early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. We demonstrated here that gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 were the translation products of the CHV gB, gC and gD genes, respectively. The antigenic authenticity of recombinant gB, gC and gD were confirmed by a panel of MAbs specific for each glycoprotein produced in CHV-infected cells. Immunization of mice with these recombinants produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against CHV. These results suggest that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing CHV gB, gC and gD may be useful to develop a vaccine to control CHV infection. PMID:9191864

  20. Transcriptional complexity of vaccinia virus in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, E; Grady, L J

    1977-01-01

    The transcriptional complexity of vaccinia virus both in vivo and in vitro has been measured by using DNA:RNA hybridization with RNA in excess. In vivo, "early" or prereplicative RNA was found to saturate at 25% or one-half of the viral genome. "Late" or postreplicative RNA from infected HeLa cells saturated at 52% or essentially the entire genome. This well-regulated transcriptional pattern of the virus in vivo was not maintained in vitro. In a number of experiments a range of saturation values from 40 to 50% was obtained for in vitro synthesized RNA. The complexity of polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated RNA, as well as total purified 8 to 12S RNA released from the virus, was indistinguishable from purified high-molecular-weight virion-associated RNA with a sedimentation value of greater than 20S and equivalent to total in vitro synthesized RNA. No additional hybrid formation was observed in experiments in which total in vitro RNA and late in vivo RNA from infected HeLa cells were combined, suggesting that the virus does not transcribe in vitro DNA sequences that are not also transcribed during productive infection. Approximately 15% complementary RNA was detected when radiolabeled total in vitro RNA was allowed to reanneal with late in vivo RNA, while as much as 8% of the in vitro synthesized RNA was found to be complementary. PMID:894791

  1. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain.

    PubMed

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, "natural" oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  2. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, “natural” oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  3. Structure of intracellular mature vaccinia virus visualized by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Malkin, A J; McPherson, A; Gershon, P D

    2003-06-01

    Vaccinia virus, the basis of the smallpox vaccine, is one of the largest viruses to replicate in humans. We have used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize fully hydrated, intact intracellular mature vaccinia virus (IMV) virions and chemical and enzymatic treatment products thereof. The latter included virion cores, core-enveloping coats, and core substructures. The isolated coats appeared to be composed of a highly cross-linked protein array. AFM imaging of core substructures indicated association of the linear viral DNA genome with a segmented protein sheath forming an extended approximately 16-nm-diameter filament with helical surface topography; enclosure of this filament within a 30- to 40-nm-diameter tubule which also shows helical topography; and enclosure of the folded, condensed 30- to 40-nm-diameter tubule within the core by a wall covered with peg-like projections. Proteins observed attached to the 30- to 40-nm-diameter tubules may mediate folding and/or compaction of the tubules and/or represent vestiges of the core wall and/or pegs. An accessory "satellite domain" was observed protruding from the intact core. This corresponded in size to isolated 70- to 100-nm-diameter particles that were imaged independently and might represent detached accessory domains. AFM imaging of intact virions indicated that IMV underwent a reversible shrinkage upon dehydration (as much as 2.2- to 2.5-fold in the height dimension), accompanied by topological and topographical changes, including protrusion of the satellite domain. As shown here, the chemical and enzymatic dissection of large, asymmetrical virus particles in combination with in situ AFM provides an informative complement to other structure determination techniques. PMID:12743290

  4. Construction of poxviruses as cloning vectors: insertion of the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus into the DNA of infectious vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Panicali, D; Paoletti, E

    1982-01-01

    We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus. The gene was inserted into the genome of a variant of vaccinia virus that had undergone spontaneous deletion as well as into the 120-megadalton genome of the large prototypic vaccinia variant. This was accomplished via in vivo recombination by cotransfection of eukaryotic tissue culture cells with cloned BamHI-digested thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus containing flanking vaccinia virus DNA sequences and infectious rescuing vaccinia virus. Pure populations of the recombinant viruses were obtained by replica filter techniques or by growth of the recombinant virus in biochemically selective medium. The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, as an insert in vaccinia virus, is transcribed in vivo and in vitro, and the fidelity of in vivo transcription into a functional gene product was detected by the phosphorylation of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxycytidine. Images PMID:6289324

  5. Construction of Poxviruses as Cloning Vectors: Insertion of the Thymidine Kinase Gene from Herpes Simplex Virus into the DNA of Infectious Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicali, Dennis; Paoletti, Enzo

    1982-08-01

    We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus. The gene was inserted into the genome of a variant of vaccinia virus that had undergone spontaneous deletion as well as into the 120-megadalton genome of the large prototypic vaccinia variant. This was accomplished via in vivo recombination by contransfection of eukaryotic tissue culture cells with cloned BamHI-digested thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus containing flanking vaccinia virus DNA sequences and infectious rescuing vaccinia virus. Pure populations of the recombinant viruses were obtained by replica filter techniques or by growth of the recombinant virus in biochemically selective medium. The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, as an insert in vaccinia virus, is transcribed in vivo and in vitro, and the fidelity of in vivo transcription into a functional gene product was detected by the phosphorylation of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxycytidine.

  6. The DC receptor DNGR-1 mediates cross-priming of CTLs during vaccinia virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Iborra, Salvador; Izquierdo, Helena M; Martínez-López, María; Blanco-Menéndez, Noelia; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Sancho, David

    2012-05-01

    In order to prime T cells, DCs integrate signals emanating directly from pathogens and from their noxious action on the host. DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) is a DC-restricted receptor that detects dead cells. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that DNGR-1 affects immunity to cytopathic viruses. DNGR-1 was essential for cross-presentation of dying vaccinia virus-infected (VACV-infected) cells to CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Following injection of VACV or VACV-infected cells into mice, DNGR-1 detected the ligand in dying infected cells and mediated cross-priming of anti-VACV CD8(+) T cells. Loss of DNGR-1 impaired the CD8+ cytotoxic response to VACV, especially against those virus strains that are most dependent on cross-presentation. The decrease in total anti-VACV CTL activity was associated with a profound increase in viral load and delayed resolution of the primary lesion. In addition, lack of DNGR-1 markedly diminished protection from infection induced by vaccination with the modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain. DNGR-1 thus contributes to anti-VACV immunity, following both primary infection and vaccination. The non-redundant ability of DNGR-1 to regulate cross-presentation of viral antigens suggests that this form of regulation of antiviral immunity could be exploited for vaccination. PMID:22505455

  7. Vaccinia Virus Tropism for Primary Hematolymphoid Cells Is Determined by Restricted Expression of a Unique Virus Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chahroudi, Ann; Chavan, Rahul; Koyzr, Natalia; Waller, Edmund K.; Silvestri, Guido; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    The presumed broad tropism of poxviruses has stymied attempts to identify both the cellular receptor(s) and the viral determinant(s) for binding. Detailed studies of poxvirus binding to and infection of primary human cells have not been conducted. In particular, the determinants of target cell infection and the consequences of infection for cells involved in the generation of antiviral immune responses are incompletely understood. In this report, we show that vaccinia virus (VV) exhibits a more restricted tropism for primary hematolymphoid human cells than has been previously recognized. We demonstrate that vaccinia virus preferentially infects antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B cells) and activated T cells, but not resting T cells. The infection of activated T cells is permissive, with active viral replication and production of infectious progeny. Susceptibility to infection is determined by restricted expression of a cellular receptor that is induced de novo upon T-cell activation and can be removed from the cell surface by either trypsin or pronase treatment. The VV receptor expressed on activated T cells displays unique characteristics that distinguish it from the receptor used to infect cell lines in culture. The observed restricted tropism of VV may have significant consequences for the understanding of natural poxvirus infection and immunity and for poxvirus-based vaccine development. PMID:16051832

  8. Primary Human Macrophages Serve as Vehicles for Vaccinia Virus Replication and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Daniel; Shepherd, Nicole; Lan, Jie; Hu, Ningjie; Amet, Tohti; Yang, Kai; Desai, Mona

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human monocytic and professional antigen-presenting cells have been reported only to exhibit abortive infections with vaccinia virus (VACV). We found that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), including granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-polarized M1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-polarized M2, but not human AB serum-derived cells, were permissive to VACV replication. The titers of infectious virions in both cell-free supernatants and cellular lysates of infected M1 and M2 markedly increased in a time-dependent manner. The majority of virions produced in permissive MDMs were extracellular enveloped virions (EEV), a secreted form of VACV associated with long-range virus dissemination, and were mainly found in the culture supernatant. Infected MDMs formed VACV factories, actin tails, virion-associated branching structures, and cell linkages, indicating that MDMs are able to initiate de novo synthesis of viral DNA and promote virus release. VACV replication was sensitive to inhibitors against the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways that can be activated by VACV infection and M-CSF stimulation. Classical activation of MDMs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus gamma interferon (IFN-γ) stimulation caused no effect on VACV replication, while alternative activation of MDMs by interleukin-10 (IL-10) or LPS-plus-IL-1β treatment significantly decreased VACV production. The IL-10-mediated suppression of VACV replication was largely due to Stat3 activation, as a Stat3 inhibitor restored virus production to levels observed without IL-10 stimulation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that primary human macrophages are permissive to VACV replication. After infection, these cells produce EEV for long-range dissemination and also form structures associated with virions which may contribute to cell-cell spread. IMPORTANCE Our results provide critical information to the burgeoning fields of cancer-killing (oncolytic) virus therapy with vaccinia virus (VACV). One type of macrophage (M2) is considered a common presence in tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Our results demonstrate a preference for VACV replication in M2 macrophages and could assist in designing treatments and engineering poxviruses with special considerations for their effect on M2 macrophage-containing tumors. Additionally, this work highlights the importance of macrophages in the field of vaccine development using poxviruses as vectors. The understanding of the dynamics of poxvirus-infected foci is central in understanding the effectiveness of the immune response to poxvirus-mediated vaccine vectors. Monocytic cells have been found to be an important part of VACV skin lesions in mice in controlling the infection as well as mediating virus transport out of infected foci. PMID:24696488

  9. Identification of Novel Antipoxviral Agents: Mitoxantrone Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Replication by Blocking Virion Assembly▿

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Liang; Dai, Peihong; Ciro, Anthony; Smee, Donald F.; Djaballah, Hakim; Shuman, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    The bioterror threat of a smallpox outbreak in an unvaccinated population has mobilized efforts to develop new antipoxviral agents. By screening a library of known drugs, we identified 13 compounds that inhibited vaccinia virus replication at noncytotoxic doses. The anticancer drug mitoxantrone is unique among the inhibitors identified in that it has no apparent impact on viral gene expression. Rather, it blocks processing of viral structural proteins and assembly of mature progeny virions. The isolation of mitoxantrone-resistant vaccinia strains underscores that a viral protein is the likely target of the drug. Whole-genome sequencing of mitoxantrone-resistant viruses pinpointed missense mutations in the N-terminal domain of vaccinia DNA ligase. Despite its favorable activity in cell culture, mitoxantrone administered intraperitoneally at the maximum tolerated dose failed to protect mice against a lethal intranasal infection with vaccinia virus. PMID:17928345

  10. What to Do After You've Gotten the Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Do After You’ve Gotten the Smallpox Vaccine The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus called vaccinia. After vaccination, this live virus is present at the vaccine site and can be spread to other parts ...

  11. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  12. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  13. VennVax, a DNA-prime, peptide-boost multi-T-cell epitope poxvirus vaccine, induces protective immunity against vaccinia infection by T cell response alone

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Leonard; Buller, R. Mark; Schriewer, Jill; Lee, Jinhee; Frey, Sharon; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for smallpox to be disseminated in a bioterror attack has prompted development of new, safer smallpox vaccination strategies. We designed and evaluated immunogenicity and efficacy of a T-cell epitope vaccine based on conserved and antigenic vaccinia/variola sequences, identified using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Vaccination in HLA transgenic mice using a DNA-prime/peptide-boost strategy elicited significant T cell responses to multiple epitopes. No antibody response pre-challenge was observed, neither against whole vaccinia antigens nor vaccine epitope peptides. Remarkably, 100% of vaccinated mice survived lethal vaccinia challenge, demonstrating that protective immunity to vaccinia does not require B cell priming. PMID:21055490

  14. VennVax, a DNA-prime, peptide-boost multi-T-cell epitope poxvirus vaccine, induces protective immunity against vaccinia infection by T cell response alone.

    PubMed

    Moise, Leonard; Buller, R Mark; Schriewer, Jill; Lee, Jinhee; Frey, Sharon E; Weiner, David B; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S

    2011-01-10

    The potential for smallpox to be disseminated in a bioterror attack has prompted development of new, safer smallpox vaccination strategies. We designed and evaluated immunogenicity and efficacy of a T-cell epitope vaccine based on conserved and antigenic vaccinia/variola sequences, identified using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Vaccination in HLA transgenic mice using a DNA-prime/peptide-boost strategy elicited significant T cell responses to multiple epitopes. No antibody response pre-challenge was observed, neither against whole vaccinia antigens nor vaccine epitope peptides. Remarkably, 100% of vaccinated mice survived lethal vaccinia challenge, demonstrating that protective immunity to vaccinia does not require B cell priming. PMID:21055490

  15. Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Cush, Stephanie S.; Reynoso, Glennys V.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Hickman, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec.) VV infection and found a large increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ex vivo analyses revealed that T cells in the skin were the primary IL-10-producing cells. To understand the distribution of IL-10-producing T cells in vivo, we performed multiphoton intravital microscopy (MPM) of VV-infected mice, assessing the location and dynamic behavior of IL-10 producing cells. Although virus-specific T cells were distributed throughout areas of the inflamed skin lacking overt virus-infection, IL-10+ cells closely associated with large keratinocytic foci of virus replication where they exhibited similar motility patterns to bulk antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, neutralizing secreted IL-10 in vivo with an anti-IL-10 antibody increased viral lesion size and viral replication. Additional analyses demonstrated that IL-10 antibody administration decreased recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which were important for reducing viral burden in the infected skin. Based upon these findings, we conclude that spatially concentrated IL-10 production limits cutaneous viral replication and dissemination, likely through modulation of the innate immune repertoire at the site of viral growth. PMID:26991092

  16. Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread.

    PubMed

    Cush, Stephanie S; Reynoso, Glennys V; Kamenyeva, Olena; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Hickman, Heather D

    2016-03-01

    Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec.) VV infection and found a large increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ex vivo analyses revealed that T cells in the skin were the primary IL-10-producing cells. To understand the distribution of IL-10-producing T cells in vivo, we performed multiphoton intravital microscopy (MPM) of VV-infected mice, assessing the location and dynamic behavior of IL-10 producing cells. Although virus-specific T cells were distributed throughout areas of the inflamed skin lacking overt virus-infection, IL-10+ cells closely associated with large keratinocytic foci of virus replication where they exhibited similar motility patterns to bulk antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, neutralizing secreted IL-10 in vivo with an anti-IL-10 antibody increased viral lesion size and viral replication. Additional analyses demonstrated that IL-10 antibody administration decreased recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which were important for reducing viral burden in the infected skin. Based upon these findings, we conclude that spatially concentrated IL-10 production limits cutaneous viral replication and dissemination, likely through modulation of the innate immune repertoire at the site of viral growth. PMID:26991092

  17. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  18. A comparison of the antigens present on the surface of virus released artificially from chick cells infected with vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus and its white pock mutant

    PubMed Central

    Baxby, Derrick

    1972-01-01

    Antisera prepared against vaccinia and cowpox viruses were absorbed with purified suspensions of vaccinia virus, red cowpox and white cowpox viruses. They were then tested for their ability to neutralize the viruses, and to precipitate the virus soluble antigens. The results showed that some virus specific antigens were not virus surface components and that some components were present on the surface of all three viruses. However, certain components were detected on the surface of vaccinia virus but not on the surface of cowpox virus, and vice versa. Some evidence for the existence of a vaccinia-specific surface component was also obtained. Comparisons between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization. ImagesFig. AFig. BFig. CFig. DFig. EFig. FFig. G PMID:4624399

  19. Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation of Vaccinia Virus Structure▿

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Y.; Gershon, P. D.; McPherson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccinia virus was treated in a controlled manner with various combinations of nonionic detergents, reducing agents, and proteolytic enzymes, and successive products of the reactions were visualized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following removal of the outer lipid/protein membrane, a layer 20 to 40 nm in thickness was encountered that was composed of fibrous elements which, under reducing conditions, rapidly decomposed into individual monomers on the substrate. Beneath this layer was the virus core and its prominent lateral bodies, which could be dissociated or degraded with proteases. The core, in addition to the lateral bodies, was composed of a thick, multilayered shell of proteins of diverse sizes and shapes. The shell, which was readily etched with proteases, was thoroughly permeated with pores, or channels. Prolonged exposure to proteases and reductants produced disgorgement of the viral DNA from the remainders of the cores and also left residual, flattened, protease-resistant sacs on the imaging substrate. The DNA was readily visualized by AFM, which revealed some regions to be “soldered” by proteins, others to be heavily complexed with protein, and yet other parts to apparently exist as bundled, naked DNA. Prolonged exposure to proteases deproteinized the DNA, leaving masses of extended, free DNA. Estimates of the interior core volume suggest moderate but not extreme compaction of the genome. PMID:18508898

  20. Generation and characterization of a large panel of murine monoclonal antibodies against vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Zhong, Youmin; Embry, Addie; Yan, Bo; Lu, Shan; Zhong, Guangming; Xiang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), the vaccine for smallpox, induces an antibody response that is largely responsible for conferring protection. Here, we studied the antibody response to VACV by generating and characterizing B cell hybridomas from a mouse immunized with VACV. Antibodies from 66 hybridomas were found to recognize 11 VACV antigens (D8, A14, WR148, D13, H3, A56, A33, C3, B5, A10 and F13), 10 of which were previously recognized as major antigens in smallpox vaccine by a microarray of VACV proteins produced with a prokaryotic expression system. VACV C3 protein, which was not detected as a target of antibody response by the proteome array, was recognized by two hybridomas, suggesting that selection of hybridomas based on immune recognition of infected cells has the advantage of detecting additional antibody response to native VACV antigens. In addition, these monoclonal antibodies are valuable reagents for studying poxvirus biology and protective mechanism of smallpox vaccine. PMID:21056889

  1. Measurement of antibody responses to Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Dryvax(®) using proteome microarrays and development of recombinant protein ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Gary; Chun, Sookhee; Felgner, Jiin; Tan, Xiaolin; Pablo, Jozelyn; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Molina, Douglas M; Felgner, Philip L; Liang, Xiaowu; Davies, D Huw

    2012-01-11

    Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that is being considered as a safer alternative to replicating vaccinia vaccine strains such as Dryvax(®) and ACAM2000. Its excellent safety profile and large genome also make it an attractive vector for the delivery of heterologous genes from other pathogens. MVA was attenuated by prolonged passage through chick embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. In human and most mammalian cells, production of infectious progeny is aborted in the late stage of infection. Despite this, MVA provides high-level gene expression and is immunogenic in humans and other animals. A key issue for vaccine developers is the ability to be able to monitor an immune response to MVA in both vaccinia naïve and previously vaccinated individuals. To this end we have used antibody profiling by proteome microarray to compare profiles before and after MVA and Dryvax vaccination to identify candidate serodiagnostic antigens. Six antigens with diagnostic utility, comprising three membrane and three non-membrane proteins from the intracellular mature virion, were purified and evaluated in ELISAs. The membrane protein WR113/D8L provided the best sensitivity and specificity of the six antigens tested for monitoring both MVA and Dryvax vaccination, whereas the A-type inclusion protein homolog, WR148, provided the best discrimination. The ratio of responses to membrane protein WR132/A13L and core protein WR070/I1L also provided good discrimination between primary and secondary responses to Dryvax, whereas membrane protein WR101/H3L and virion assembly protein WR118/D13L together provided the best sensitivity for detecting antibody in previously vaccinated individuals. These data will aid the development novel MVA-based vaccines. PMID:22100890

  2. Comparison on Virulence and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccines, Tian Tan and Guang9 Strains, Expressing the HIV-1 Envelope Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Wenbo; Liu, Qiang; Nie, Jianhui; Meng, Shufang; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background The vaccinia virus Guang9 strain (VG9), derived from the vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) has been found to be less virulent than VTT. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether VG9 could be a potential replicating virus vector, the TK genes in VG9 and VTT were replaced with the HIV-1 envelope gene via homologous recombination, resulting in the recombinant viruses, VG9-E and VTT-E. The biology, virulence, humoral and cellular immunological responses of VG9-E and VTT-E were evaluated. Our results indicated no obvious difference in range of host cells and diffusion between two recombinant viruses. Neurovirulence for VG9-E in weanling and suckling mice, and skin virulence in rabbits, were lower than that of VTT-E. The humoral immune responses, including binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses, induced by VG9-E were not significantly different from those for VTT-E whilst IFN-γ response which represented cellular immune response induced by VG9-E was significantly higher than that did by VTT-E. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicated that VG9-E was less virulent, yet induced higher cellular immune response than VTT-E. Therefore, it could be an ideal replicating vaccinia vector for HIV vaccine research and development. PMID:23139778

  3. Expanding the Repertoire of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Based Vaccine Vectors via Genetic Complementation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Garber, David A.; O'Mara, Leigh A.; Zhao, Jun; Gangadhara, Sailaja; An, InChul; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a safe, highly attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a recombinant vaccine vector for immunization against a number of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the expression by MVA vectors of large numbers of poxvirus antigens, which display immunodominance over vectored antigens-of-interest for the priming of T cell responses, and the induction of vector-neutralizing antibodies, which curtail the efficacy of subsequent booster immunizations, remain as significant impediments to the overall utility of such vaccines. Thus, genetic approaches that enable the derivation of MVA vectors that are antigenically less complex may allow for rational improvement of MVA-based vaccines. Principal Findings We have developed a genetic complementation system that enables the deletion of essential viral genes from the MVA genome, thereby allowing us to generate MVA vaccine vectors that are antigenically less complex. Using this system, we deleted the essential uracil-DNA-glycosylase (udg) gene from MVA and propagated this otherwise replication-defective variant on a complementing cell line that constitutively expresses the poxvirus udg gene and that was derived from a newly identified continuous cell line that is permissive for growth of wild type MVA. The resulting virus, MVAΔudg, does not replicate its DNA genome or express late viral gene products during infection of non-complementing cells in culture. As proof-of-concept for immunological ‘focusing’, we demonstrate that immunization of mice with MVAΔudg elicits CD8+ T cell responses that are directed against a restricted repertoire of vector antigens, as compared to immunization with parental MVA. Immunization of rhesus macaques with MVAΔudg-gag, a udg− recombinant virus that expresses an HIV subtype-B consensus gag transgene, elicited significantly higher frequencies of Gag-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells following both primary (2–4-fold) and booster (2-fold) immunizations as compared to the udg+ control virus MVA-gag, as determined by intracellular cytokine assay. In contrast, levels of HIV Gag-specific antibodies were elicited similarly in macaques following immunization with MVAΔudg-gag and MVA-gag. Furthermore, both udg− and udg+ MVA vectors induced comparatively similar titers of MVA-specific neutralizing antibody responses following immunization of mice (over a 4-log range: 104–108 PFU) and rhesus macaques. These results suggest that the generation of MVA-specific neutralizing antibody responses are largely driven by input MVA antigens, rather than those that are synthesized de novo during infection, and that the processes governing the generation of antiviral antibody responses are more readily saturated by viral antigen than are those that elicit CD8+ T cell responses. Significance Our identification of a spontaneously-immortalized (but not transformed) chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1) that is fully permissive for MVA growth and that can be engineered to stably express MVA genes provides the basis for a genetic system for MVA. DF-1 cells (and derivatives thereof) constitute viable alternatives, for the manufacture of MVA-based vaccines, to primary CEFs – the conventional cell substrate for MVA vaccines that is not amenable to genetic complementation strategies due to these cells' finite lifespan in culture. The establishment of a genetic system for MVA, as illustrated here to allow udg deletion, enables the generation of novel replication-defective MVA mutants and expands the repertoire of genetic viral variants that can now be explored as improved vaccine vectors. PMID:19421328

  4. Doxycycline Inducible Melanogenic Vaccinia Virus as Theranostic Anti-Cancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Kirscher, Lorenz; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luis; Scadeng, Miriam; Zaremba, Angelika; Zhang, Qian; Kober, Christina; Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Stritzker, Jochen; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    We reported earlier the diagnostic potential of a melanogenic vaccinia virus based system in magnetic resonance (MRI) and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging (MSOT). Since melanin overproduction lead to attenuated virus replication, we constructed a novel recombinant vaccinia virus strain (rVACV), GLV-1h462, which expressed the key enzyme of melanogenesis (tyrosinase) under the control of an inducible promoter-system. In this study melanin production was detected after exogenous addition of doxycycline in two different tumor xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, it was confirmed that this novel vaccinia virus strain still facilitated signal enhancement as detected by MRI and optoacoustic tomography. At the same time we demonstrated an enhanced oncolytic potential compared to the constitutively melanin synthesizing rVACV system. PMID:26199644

  5. Virulence in Murine Model Shows the Existence of Two Distinct Populations of Brazilian Vaccinia virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Oliveira, Fernando Meireles; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2008-01-01

    Brazilian Vaccinia virus had been isolated from sentinel mice, rodents and recently from humans, cows and calves during outbreaks on dairy farms in several rural areas in Brazil, leading to high economic and social impact. Some phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the existence of two different populations of Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains circulating in nature, but little is known about their biological characteristics. Therefore, our goal was to study the virulence pattern of seven Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains. Infected BALB/c mice were monitored for morbidity, mortality and viral replication in organs as trachea, lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, brain and spleen. Based on the virulence potential, the Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains were grouped into two groups. One group contained GP1V, VBH, SAV and BAV which caused disease and death in infected mice and the second one included ARAV, GP2V and PSTV which did not cause any clinical signals or death in infected BALB/c mice. The subdivision of Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains into two groups is in agreement with previous genetic studies. Those data reinforce the existence of different populations circulating in Brazil regarding the genetic and virulence characteristics. PMID:18725979

  6. Systemically administered DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing four vaccinia virus genes although immunogenic do not protect mice against the highly pathogenic IHD-J vaccinia strain.

    PubMed

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Pacchioni, Sole Maria; Zanotto, Carlo; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Illiano, Elena; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Broggi, Achille; Radaelli, Antonia

    2013-12-26

    The first-generation smallpox vaccine was based on live vaccinia virus (VV) and it successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. Therefore, it was not administered any more after 1980, as smallpox no longer existed as a natural infection. However, emerging threats by terrorist organisations has prompted new programmes for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains, which have been shown to cause rare but serious adverse events in immunocompromised patients. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that might also be used as bioweapons, and the increasing number of unvaccinated young people and AIDS-affected immunocompromised subjects, a safer and more effective smallpox vaccine is still required. New avipoxvirus-based vectors should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from newly emerging zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases and from the threat of deliberate release of variola or monkeypox virus in a bioterrorist attack. In this study, DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing the L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R genes were constructed and evaluated in a pre-clinical trial in mouse, following six prime/boost immunisation regimens, to compare their immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a challenge with the lethal VV IHD-J strain. Although higher numbers of VV-specific IFN?-producing T lymphocytes were observed in the protected mice, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and the presence of neutralising antibodies did not always correlate with protection. In spite of previous successful results in mice, rabbits and monkeys, where SIV/HIV transgenes were expressed by the fowlpox vector, the immune response elicited by these recombinants was low, and most of the mice were not protected. PMID:24050999

  7. Biochemical and Biophysical Properties of a Putative Hub Protein Expressed by Vaccinia Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Nicole E.; Bainbridge, Travis W.; Condit, Richard C.; Bubb, Michael R.; Judd, Reuben E.; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; McKenna, Robert; D'Costa, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    H5 is a constitutively expressed, phosphorylated vaccinia virus protein that has been implicated in viral DNA replication, post-replicative gene expression, and virus assembly. For the purpose of understanding the role of H5 in vaccinia biology, we have characterized its biochemical and biophysical properties. Previously, we have demonstrated that H5 is associated with an endoribonucleolytic activity. In this study, we have shown that this cleavage results in a 3?-OH end suitable for polyadenylation of the nascent transcript, corroborating a role for H5 in vaccinia transcription termination. Furthermore, we have shown that H5 is intrinsically disordered, with an elongated rod-shaped structure that preferentially binds double-stranded nucleic acids in a sequence nonspecific manner. The dynamic phosphorylation status of H5 influences this structure and has implications for the role of H5 in multiple processes during virus replication. PMID:23476017

  8. Horizontal study of vaccinia virus infections in an endemic area: epidemiologic, phylogenetic and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe L; Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula M; Paim, Luis M; Oliveira, Graziele P; Pereira, Alexandre F; de Almeida, Gabriel M F; Figueiredo, Leandra B; Tanus, Adriano; Trindade, Giliane S; Ferreira, Paulo P; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), the etiological agent of bovine vaccinia (BV), is widespread in Brazil and present in most of the milk-producing regions. We conducted a horizontal study of BV in Bahia, a state of Brazil in which the production of milk is increasing. During 2011, human and bovine clinical samples were collected during outbreaks for BV diagnosis, virus isolation and molecular analysis. We collected data for epidemiological inferences. Vaccinia virus was detected in 87.7% of the analyzed outbreaks, highlighting the effective circulation of VACV in Bahia. The molecular data showed the spreading of group 1 Brazilian VACV to Bahia. We observed a seasonal profile of BV, with its peak in the drier and cooler season. Manual milking was observed in 96 % of the visited properties, showing its importance to viral spread in herds. Under-notification of BV, ineffective animal trade surveillance, and bad milking practices have contributed to the spread of VACV in Brazil. PMID:26239343

  9. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches. PMID:24373316

  10. DIFFERENTIAL IMMUNOGENICITY OF VACCINIA AND HIV-1 COMPONENTS OF A HUMAN RECOMBINANT VACCINE IN MUCOSAL AND BLOOD COMPARTMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Peter A.; Ibarrondo, F Javier; Boscardin, W. John; Zhou, Ying; Schwartz, Elissa J.; Ng, Hwee L.; Hausner, Mary Ann; Shih, Roger; Elliott, Julie; Hultin, Patricia M.; Hultin, Lance E.; Price, Charles; Fuerst, Marie; Adler, Amy; Wong, Johnson T.; Yang, Otto O.; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2008-01-01

    Mucosal immune responses induced by HIV-1 vaccines are likely critical for prevention. We report a Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trial in 8 participants using the vaccinia-based TBC-3B vaccine given subcutaneously to determine the relationship between HIV-1 specific systemic and gastrointestinal mucosal responses. Across all subjects, detectable levels of blood vaccinia- and HIV-1-specific antibodies were elicited but none were seen mucosally. While the vaccinia component was immunogenic for CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in both blood and mucosa, it was greater in blood. The HIV-1 component of the vaccine was poorly immunogenic in both blood and mucosa. Although only 8 volunteers were studied intensively, the discordance between mucosal and blood responses may highlight mechanisms contributing to recent vaccine failures. PMID:18621451

  11. Identification of Non-Nucleoside DNA Synthesis Inhibitors of Vaccinia Virus by High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Shudofsky, Abigail M. Druck; Ricciardi, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is a potential bio-weapon. The development of new antiviral compounds for smallpox prophylaxis and treatment is critical, especially since the virus can acquire resistance to the drugs that are currently available. We have identified novel small chemical inhibitors that target DNA synthesis of vaccinia, the prototypical poxvirus. Robotic high-throughput screening of 49,663 compounds and follow-up studies identified very potent inhibitors of vaccinia DNA synthesis, with IC50 values as low as 0.5 ∞M. Cell-based assays showed that 16 inhibitors effectively blocked vaccinia infection with minimal cytotoxicity. Three inhibitors had selectivity indexes that approximate that of cidofovir. These new non-nucleoside inhibitors are expected to interfere with components of the vaccinia DNA synthesis apparatus that are distinct from cidofovir. Based on the high sequence similarity between the proteins of vaccinia and variola viruses, these new inhibitors are anticipated to be equally effective against smallpox. PMID:18808105

  12. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  13. Oncolytic vaccinia virus synergizes with irinotecan in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Acuna, Sergio A; Angarita, Fernando A; Sellers, Clara; Zerhouni, Siham; Tang, Nan; McCart, J Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is complex clinical challenge for which there are limited treatment options. Chemotherapy with or without surgery provides moderate improvements in overall survival and quality of life; nevertheless the 5-year survival remains below 30%. Oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) shows strong anti-tumour activity in models of CRC, however transient delays in disease progression are insufficient to lead to long-term survival. Here we examined the efficacy of VV with oxaliplatin or SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan) in CRC cell lines in vitro and VV with irinotecan in an orthotopic model of metastatic CRC. Synergistic improvements in in vitro cell killing were observed in multiple cell lines. Combination therapy was well tolerated in tumour-bearing mice and the median survival was significantly increased relative to monotherapy despite a drug-dependent decrease in the mean tumour titer. Increased apoptosis following in vitro and in vivo combination therapy was observed. In vitro cell cycle analysis showed increases in S-phase cells following infection occurred in both infected and uninfected cell populations. This corresponded to a 4-fold greater increase in apoptosis in the uninfected compared to infected cells following combination therapy. Combination treatment strategies are among the best options for patients with advanced cancers. VV is currently under clinical investigation in patients with CRC and the data presented here suggest that its combination with irinotecan may provide benefit to a subset of CRC patients. Further, investigation of this combination is necessary to determine the tumour characteristics responsible for mediating synergy. PMID:26004084

  14. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, Richard C. Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.

  15. Rapid inactivation of vaccinia virus in suspension and dried on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, A; Garin, D; Crance, J M

    2004-05-01

    A bioterrorist attack with smallpox virus would be disastrous with a 30% disease fatality rate. Such an outbreak would require biomedical laboratories for diagnosis and analyses and extensive use of clinical care facilities for patient quarantine. Safe decontamination procedures will have to be in place in order to limit the spread of the disease. In order to fulfil this need, Sanytex, a new non-corrosive commercial solution containing quaternary ammonium, aldehydes, alcohol and detergent, was tested with a view to using it in decontamination procedures. Vaccinia virus was used in this investigation as a model for smallpox virus. We determined exposure time and the concentration of Sanytex required to inactivate the virus in suspension and dried on surfaces in the presence of protein (up to 70 mg/mL). After 3 min incubation, Sanytex at a concentration of 3% led to a complete inactivation (virus titre reduction >10(4)-fold of vaccinia virus in suspension containing protein up to 30 mg/mL. A virus suspension containing 70 mg protein/mL, simulating biological fluids, was decontaminated with 10% Sanytex after 3 min. After 10 min, Sanytex at a concentration of 30%, applied on to a dried vaccinia virus contaminated surface in the presence of protein (10 mg/mL before desiccation), led to complete decontamination of the surface. Thirty minutes exposure with 30% Sanytex was necessary for a virus titre reduction of >10(4)-fold on a surface contaminated with a dried suspension of vaccinia virus in the presence of protein at 70 mg/mL. Sanytex is not corrosive, not toxic to environment and stable for up to three months even diluted. Its virucidal effect was preserved when used under pressure in a fire-hose nozzle. These results support the use of Sanytex for decontamination of biological fluids and surfaces contaminated by the smallpox virus. PMID:15142719

  16. The role of vaccinia termination factor and cis-acting elements in vaccinia virus early gene transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jessica; Gollnick, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus early gene transcription termination requires the virion form of the viral RNA polymerase (vRNAP), Nucleoside Triphosphate Phosphohydrolase I (NPHI), ATP, the vaccinia termination factor (VTF), and a U5NU termination signal in the nascent transcript. VTF, also the viral mRNA capping enzyme, binds U5NU, and NPHI hydrolyzes ATP to release the transcript. NPHI can release transcripts independent of VTF and U5NU if vRNAP is not actively elongating. However, VTF and U5NU are required for transcript release from an elongating vRNAP, suggesting that the function of VTF and U5NU may be to stall the polymerase. Here we demonstrate that VTF inhibits transcription elongation by enhancing vRNAP pausing. Hence VTF provides the connection between the termination signal in the RNA transcript and viral RNA polymerase to initiate transcription termination. We also provide evidence that a second cis-acting element downstream of U5NU influences the location and efficiency of early gene transcription termination. PMID:26280468

  17. An update on approaches to the development of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B R; Hall, S L; Kulkarni, A B; Crowe, J E; Collins, P L; Connors, M; Karron, R A; Chanock, R M

    1994-04-01

    RSV and PIV3 are responsible for about 30% of severe viral respiratory tract disease leading to hospitalization of infants and children. For this reason, there is a need to develop vaccines effective against these viruses. Since these viruses cause severe disease in early infancy, vaccines must be effective in the presence of maternal antibody. Currently, several strategies for immunization against these viruses are being explored including peptide vaccines, subunit vaccines, vectored vaccines (e.g., vaccinia-RSV or adenovirus-RSV recombinants), and live attenuated virus vaccines. The current status of these approaches is reviewed. In addition, the immunologic basis for the disease potentiation seen in vaccinees immunized with formalin-inactivated RSV during subsequent RSV infection is reviewed. The efficacy of immunization in the presence of maternal antibody is discussed. Much progress for a RSV and PIV3 vaccine has been made and successful immunization against each of these pathogens should be achieved within this decade. PMID:8030364

  18. Intranodal Immunization With a Vaccinia Virus Encoding Multiple Antigenic Epitopes and Costimulatory Molecules in Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Adamina, Michel; Rosenthal, Rachel; Weber, Walter P; Frey, Daniel M; Viehl, Carsten T; Bolli, Martin; Huegli, Rolf W; Jacob, Augustinus L; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Marti, Walter; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Zajac, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and adhesion or costimulatory molecules may represent important immunogenic reagents for cancer immunotherapy. Recently, intranodal (IN) antigen administration was suggested to be more immunogenic than intradermal (ID) vaccination. However, IN rVV administration has not been attempted so far. We used a rVV encoding gp100280288, Melan-A/MART-12735 and tyrosinase19 HLA-A0201 restricted epitopes and CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules in stage III and IV melanoma patients in a phase 1/2 trial. Of 15 patients initiating treatment, including two cycles of IN immunization, each comprising one rVV administration and three recall injections of the corresponding peptides, accompanied by subcutaneous granulocyte macrophagecolony stimulating factor supplementation, five withdrew due to progressing disease. Of 10 remaining patients seven showed evidence of induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directed against at least one epitope under investigation, as detectable by limiting dilution analysis (LDA) of specific precursors and multimer staining. Adverse reactions were mild (National Cancer Institute (NCI) grade 12) and mainly represented by fever, skin rashes, and pruritus. These data indicate that IN administration of rVV encoding melanoma-associated epitopes and costimulatory molecules is safe and immunogenic. PMID:19935776

  19. Enhancement of CD8+ T-cell memory by removal of a vaccinia virus nuclear factor-?B inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J; de Motes, Carlos Maluquer; Sumner, Rebecca P; Harman, Laura E R; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing T-cell responses are important for vaccine development but are incompletely understood. Here, vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is shown to impair the development of both effector and memory CD8+ T cells and this correlates with its inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Infection with VACVs that either have the N1L gene deleted (v?N1) or contain a I6E mutation (vN1.I6E) that abrogates its inhibition of NF-?B resulted in increased central and memory CD8+ T-cell populations, increased CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity and lower virus titres after challenge. Furthermore, CD8+ memory T-cell function was increased following infection with vN1.I6E, with more interferon-? production and greater protection against VACV infection following passive transfer to naive mice, compared with CD8+ T cells from mice infected with wild-type virus (vN1.WT). This demonstrates the importance of NF-?B activation within infected cells for long-term CD8+ T-cell memory and vaccine efficacy. Further, it provides a rationale for deleting N1 from VACV vectors to enhance CD8+ T-cell immunogenicity, while simultaneously reducing virulence to improve vaccine safety. PMID:25382035

  20. Disparity between levels of in vitro neutralization of vaccinia virus by antibody to the A27 protein and protection of mice against intranasal challenge.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Americo, Jeffrey L; Earl, Patricia L; Resch, Wolfgang; Aldaz-Carroll, Lydia; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Moss, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    Immunization with recombinant proteins may provide a safer alternative to live vaccinia virus for prophylaxis of poxvirus infections. Although antibody protects against vaccinia virus infection, the mechanism is not understood and the selection of immunogens is daunting as there are dozens of surface proteins and two infectious forms known as the mature virion (MV) and the enveloped virion (EV). Our previous studies showed that mice immunized with soluble forms of EV membrane proteins A33 and B5 and MV membrane protein L1 or passively immunized with antibodies to these proteins survived an intranasal challenge with vaccinia virus. The present study compared MV protein A27, which has a role in virus attachment to glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface, to L1 with respect to immunogenicity and protection. Although mice developed similar levels of neutralizing antibody after immunizations with A27 or L1, A27-immunized mice exhibited more severe disease upon an intranasal challenge with vaccinia virus. In addition, mice immunized with A27 and A33 were not as well protected as mice receiving L1 and A33. Polyclonal rabbit anti-A27 and anti-L1 IgG had equivalent MV-neutralizing activities when measured by the prevention of infection of human or mouse cells or cells deficient in glycosaminoglycans or by adding antibody prior to or after virus adsorption. Nevertheless, the passive administration of antibody to A27 was poorly protective compared to the antibody to L1. These studies raise questions regarding the basis for antibody protection against poxvirus disease and highlight the importance of animal models for the early evaluation of vaccine candidates. PMID:18524827

  1. Poxviruses as vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Pastoret, P-P; Vanderplasschen, A

    2003-10-01

    The discovery of Jenner in 1798 founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world-wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another poxvirus) and paradoxically, despite the eradication of smallpox, there has been an explosion of interest in vaccinia virus in the eighties. This interest has stemmed in part from the application of molecular genetics to clone and express foreign genes from recombinant vaccinia viruses. Vaccinia is also gaining renewed interest due to bioterrorism. These recombinant viruses have multiple applications in research and vaccinology and led to the development of vectored vaccines, such as the recombinant vaccinia rabies vaccine used to eliminate rabies in Western Europe and, more recently, in the United States. Secondly, alternative poxvirus vectors, such as avipox viruses, were proved to be even safer and efficacious non-replicating vectors (suiciole vectors) when used in non-avian species. PMID:12818621

  2. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Prime and Intramuscular Protein Boost Provides Protection against Intrarectal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Thippeshappa, Rajesh; Tian, Baoping; Cleveland, Brad; Guo, Wenjin; Polacino, Patricia; Hu, Shiu-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition occurs predominantly through mucosal transmission. We hypothesized that greater mucosal immune responses and protective efficacy against mucosal HIV-1 infection may be achieved by prime-boost immunization at mucosal sites. We used a macaque model to determine the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of orally delivered, replication-competent but attenuated recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length HIV-1 SF162 envelope (Env) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol proteins. We examined the dose and route that are suitable for oral immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses. We showed that sublingual inoculation of two vaccinia virus-naive pigtailed macaques with 5 × 10(8) PFU of recombinant vaccinia viruses was safe. However, sublingual inoculation with a higher dose or tonsillar inoculation resulted in secondary oral lesions, indicating the need to optimize the dose and route for oral immunization with replication-competent vaccinia virus vectors. Oral priming alone elicited antibody responses to vaccinia virus and to the SF162 Env protein. Intramuscular immunization with the SF162 gp120 protein at either 20 or 21 weeks postpriming resulted in a significant boost in antibody responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. Furthermore, we showed that immune responses induced by recombinant vaccinia virus priming and intramuscular protein boosting provided protection against intrarectal challenge with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162-P4. PMID:26718849

  3. An Overview of the Vaccinia Virus Infectome: a Survey of the Proteins of the Poxvirus-Infected Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wayne; Ngo, Tuan

    2012-01-01

    We have quantitatively profiled the proteins of vaccinia virus-infected HEK293T cells early and late during vaccinia virus infection. Proteins corresponding to 4,326 accessions were identified, the products of 3,798 genes. One hundred thirty-six of the proteins were vaccinia virus-encoded (∼64% of the known vaccinia virus proteome). The remaining accessions were from the host cell. A total of 3,403 of the 4,326 accessions could be confidently quantitated at the precursor peptide level. Although vaccinia virus gene products spanned the entire abundance dynamic range of the cellular proteome, nearly all of the proteome dynamics observed as a result of infection were manifest in the virus gene products with very little plasticity in the host cell proteome. The vaccinia virus gene products could be grouped into four kinetic classes (i.e., four combinations of pre- and postreplicative expression). These protein kinetic classes reflected, almost entirely, the corresponding gene classes within the recently characterized vaccinia virus transcriptome map. The few cellular gene products that showed notable changes in abundance upon vaccinia virus infection were concentrated largely in just a few functional groups. After all of the quantitated cellular gene products were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO)-specific groups, quantitation values for a number of these GO-specific groups were significantly skewed toward over- or underabundance with respect to the global distribution of quantitation values. Quantitative analysis of host cell functions reflected several known facets of virus infection, along with some novel observations. PMID:22090131

  4. A Differential Role for Macropinocytosis in Mediating Entry of the Two Forms of Vaccinia Virus into Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Kerrie J.; Wilkinson, John; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; McInerney, Gerald M.; Byth-Wilson, Karen; Robinson, Phillip J.; Cunningham, Anthony L.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is being developed as a recombinant viral vaccine vector for several key pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialised antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the initiation of primary immune responses; however, the mechanisms of uptake of VACV by these cells are unclear. Therefore we examined the binding and entry of both the intracellular mature virus (MV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EV) forms of VACV into vesicular compartments of monocyte-derived DCs. Using a panel of inhibitors, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy we have shown that neither MV nor EV binds to the highly expressed C-type lectin receptors on DCs that are responsible for capturing many other viruses. We also found that both forms of VACV enter DCs via a clathrin-, caveolin-, flotillin- and dynamin-independent pathway that is dependent on actin, intracellular calcium and host-cell cholesterol. Both MV and EV entry were inhibited by the macropinocytosis inhibitors rottlerin and dimethyl amiloride and depended on phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K), and both colocalised with dextran but not transferrin. VACV was not delivered to the classical endolysosomal pathway, failing to colocalise with EEA1 or Lamp2. Finally, expression of early viral genes was not affected by bafilomycin A, indicating that the virus does not depend on low pH to deliver cores to the cytoplasm. From these collective results we conclude that VACV enters DCs via macropinocytosis. However, MV was consistently less sensitive to inhibition and is likely to utilise at least one other entry pathway. Definition and future manipulation of these pathways may assist in enhancing the activity of recombinant vaccinia vectors through effects on antigen presentation. PMID:20421949

  5. Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, J; Singh, O; Chakrabarti, S; Talwar, G P

    1995-01-01

    We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response. PMID:7591154

  6. Induction of Potent Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses by Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Vectors with Deleted Serpin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, Fatema A.; Verardi, Paulo H.; Jones, Leslie A.; Chan, Kenneth S.; Peng, Yue; Yilma, Tilahun D.

    2004-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has been effectively utilized as a live vaccine against smallpox as well as a vector for vaccine development and immunotherapy. Increasingly there is a need for a new generation of highly attenuated and efficacious VV vaccines, especially in light of the AIDS pandemic and the threat of global bioterrorism. We therefore developed recombinant VV (rVV) vaccines that are significantly attenuated and yet elicit potent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. B13R (SPI-2) and B22R (SPI-1) are two VV immunomodulating genes with sequence homology to serine protease inhibitors (serpins) that possess antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. We constructed and characterized rVVs that have the B13R or B22R gene insertionally inactivated (vΔB13R and vΔB22R) and coexpress the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (v50ΔB13R and v50ΔB22R). Virulence studies with immunocompromised BALB/cBy nude mice indicated that B13R or B22R gene deletion decreases viral replication and significantly extends time of survival. Viral pathogenesis studies in immunocompetent CB6F1 mice further demonstrated that B13R or B22R gene inactivation diminishes VV virulence, as measured by decreased levels of weight loss and limited viral spread. Finally, rVVs with B13R and B22R deleted elicited potent humoral, T-helper, and cytotoxic T-cell immune responses, revealing that the observed attenuation did not reduce immunogenicity. Therefore, inactivation of immunomodulating genes such as B13R or B22R represents a general method for enhancing the safety of rVV vaccines while maintaining a high level of immunogenicity. Such rVVs could serve as effective vectors for vaccine development and immunotherapy. PMID:14990697

  7. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, Georg W. . E-mail: falknef@baxter.com

    2005-07-05

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also be used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes.

  8. Prospective Surveillance for Cardiac Adverse Events in Healthy Adults Receiving Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Elizaga, Marnie L.; Vasan, Sandhya; Marovich, Mary A.; Sato, Alicia H.; Lawrence, Dale N.; Chaitman, Bernard R.; Frey, Sharon E.; Keefer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. Methods Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. ‘Routine cardiac investigations’ (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls), and ‘Symptom-driven cardiac investigations’ are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. Results Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12%) had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. Conclusions Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337 PMID:23349878

  9. A Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Live Vaccine Based on Modified Vaccinia Ankara Is Highly Immunogenic and Protects Mice in Active and Passive Immunizations

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Annett; Schwendinger, Michael; Fritz, Daniela; Coulibaly, Sogue; Holzer, Georg W.; Sabarth, Nicolas; Kistner, Otfried; Wodal, Walter; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. Methodology/Principal Findings For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) strain (CA/07) were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus - a safe poxviral live vector – resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-γ-secreting (IFN-γ) CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. Conclusions/Significance The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for pandemic influenza. PMID:20808939

  10. Analysis of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive I7L mutants reveals two potential functional domains

    PubMed Central

    Moerdyk, Megan J; Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    As an approach to initiating a structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L core protein proteinase, a collection of conditional-lethal mutants in which the mutation had been mapped to the I7L locus were subjected to genomic sequencing and phenotypic analyses. Mutations in six vaccinia virus I7L temperature sensitive mutants fall into two groups: changes at three positions at the N-terminal end between amino acids 29 and 37 and two different substitutions at amino acid 344, near the catalytic domain. Regardless of the position of the mutation, mutants at the non-permissive temperature failed to cleave core protein precursors and had their development arrested prior to core condensation. Thus it appears that the two clusters of mutations may affect two different functional domains required for proteinase activity. PMID:16945137

  11. Targeting of Interferon-Beta to Produce a Specific, Multi-Mechanistic Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kirn, David H; Wang, Yaohe; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Bell, John; Thorne, Steve H

    2007-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viruses hold much promise for clinical treatment of many cancers, but a lack of systemic delivery and insufficient tumor cell killing have limited their usefulness. We have previously demonstrated that vaccinia virus strains are capable of systemic delivery to tumors in mouse models, but infection of normal tissues remains an issue. We hypothesized that interferon-beta (IFN-β) expression from an oncolytic vaccinia strain incapable of responding to this cytokine would have dual benefits as a cancer therapeutic: increased anticancer effects and enhanced virus inactivation in normal tissues. We report the construction and preclinical testing of this virus. Methods and Findings In vitro screening of viral strains by cytotoxicity and replication assay was coupled to cellular characterization by phospho-flow cytometry in order to select a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus. This virus was then examined in vivo in mouse models by non-invasive imaging techniques. A vaccinia B18R deletion mutant was selected as the backbone for IFN-β expression, because the B18R gene product neutralizes secreted type-I IFNs. The oncolytic B18R deletion mutant demonstrated IFN-dependent cancer selectivity and efficacy in vitro, and tumor targeting and efficacy in mouse models in vivo. Both tumor cells and tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells were targeted. Complete tumor responses in preclinical models were accompanied by immune-mediated protection against tumor rechallenge. Cancer selectivity was also demonstrated in primary human tumor explant tissues and adjacent normal tissues. The IFN-β gene was then cloned into the thymidine kinase (TK) region of this virus to create JX-795 (TK−/B18R−/IFN-β+). JX-795 had superior tumor selectivity and systemic intravenous efficacy when compared with the TK−/B18R− control or wild-type vaccinia in preclinical models. Conclusions By combining IFN-dependent cancer selectivity with IFN-β expression to optimize both anticancer effects and normal tissue antiviral effects, we were able to achieve, to our knowledge for the first time, tumor-specific replication, IFN-β gene expression, and efficacy following systemic delivery in preclinical models. PMID:18162040

  12. Oncolytic vaccinia virus as a vector for therapeutic sodium iodide symporter gene therapy in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, D C; Kyula, J N; Rosenfelder, N; Chao-Chu, J; Kramer-Marek, G; Khan, A A; Roulstone, V; McLaughlin, M; Melcher, A A; Vile, R G; Pandha, H S; Khoo, V; Harrington, K J

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic strains of vaccinia virus are currently in clinical development with clear evidence of safety and promising signs of efficacy. Addition of therapeutic genes to the viral genome may increase the therapeutic efficacy of vaccinia. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of vaccinia virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in prostate cancer models, combining oncolysis, external beam radiotherapy and NIS-mediated radioiodide therapy. The NIS-expressing vaccinia virus (VV-NIS), GLV-1h153, was tested in in vitro analyzes of viral cell killing, combination with radiotherapy, NIS expression, cellular radioiodide uptake and apoptotic cell death in PC3, DU145, LNCaP and WPMY-1 human prostate cell lines. In vivo experiments were carried out in PC3 xenografts in CD1 nude mice to assess NIS expression and tumor radioiodide uptake. In addition, the therapeutic benefit of radioiodide treatment in combination with viral oncolysis and external beam radiotherapy was measured. In vitro viral cell killing of prostate cancers was dose- and time-dependent and was through apoptotic mechanisms. Importantly, combined virus therapy and iodizing radiation did not adversely affect oncolysis. NIS gene expression in infected cells was functional and mediated uptake of radioiodide both in vitro and in vivo. Therapy experiments with both xenograft and immunocompetent Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse models showed that the addition of radioiodide to VV-NIS-infected tumors was more effective than each single-agent therapy, restricting tumor growth and increasing survival. In conclusion, VV-NIS is effective in prostate cancer models. This treatment modality would be an attractive complement to existing clinical radiotherapy practice. PMID:26814609

  13. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by proteins from vaccinia virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Evans, D H

    1993-01-01

    Vaccinia virus infection induces expression of a protein which can catalyze joint molecule formation between a single-stranded circular DNA and a homologous linear duplex. The kinetics of appearance of the enzyme parallels that of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase and suggests it is an early viral gene product. Extracts were prepared from vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells, and the strand exchange assay was used to follow purification of this activity through five chromatographic steps. The most highly purified fraction contained three major polypeptides of 110 +/- 10, 52 +/- 5, and 32 +/- 3 kDa. The purified protein requires Mg2+ for activity, and this requirement cannot be satisfied by Mn2+ or Ca2+. One end of the linear duplex substrate must share homology with the single-stranded circle, although this homology requirement is not very high, as 10% base substitutions had no effect on the overall efficiency of pairing. As with many other eukaryotic strand exchange proteins, there was no requirement for ATP, and ATP analogs were not inhibitors. Electron microscopy was used to show that the joint molecules formed in these reactions were composed of a partially duplex circle of DNA bearing a displaced single-strand and a duplex linear tail. The recovery of these structures shows that the enzyme catalyzes true strand exchange. There is also a unique polarity to the strand exchange reaction. The enzyme pairs the 3' end of the duplex minus strand with the plus-stranded homolog, thus extending hybrid DNA in a 3'-to-5' direction with respect to the minus strand. Which viral gene (if any) encodes the enzyme is not yet known, but analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants shows that activity does not require the D5R gene product. Curiously, v-SEP appears to copurify with vaccinia virus DNA polymerase, although the activities can be partially resolved on phosphocellulose columns. Images PMID:8416369

  14. The Vaccinia Virus I7L Gene Product Is The Core Protein Proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Chelsea M.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2002-01-01

    Maturation of vaccinia virus (VV) core proteins is required for the production of infectious virions. The VV G1L and I7L gene products are the leading candidates for the viral core protein proteinase (vCPP). Using transient-expression assays, data were obtained to demonstrate that the I7L gene product and its encoded cysteine proteinase activity are responsible for vCPP activity. PMID:12163618

  15. Molecular Dissection of the Vaccinia Virus I7L Core Protein Proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Chelsea M.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2003-01-01

    The vaccinia virus I7L gene product is predicted to be a cysteine proteinase and is demonstrated in this study to be responsible for cleavage of each of the three major core protein precursors (P4a, P4b, and P25K) in vivo. Mutagenesis of the putative catalytic triad of I7L or of the cleavage sites in the core protein precursors inhibits processing. A truncated protein lost the ability to cleave the core protein precursors. PMID:14512576

  16. Oncolytic vaccinia virus as a vector for therapeutic sodium iodide symporter gene therapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, D C; Kyula, J N; Rosenfelder, N; Chao-Chu, J; Kramer-Marek, G; Khan, A A; Roulstone, V; McLaughlin, M; Melcher, A A; Vile, R G; Pandha, H S; Khoo, V; Harrington, K J

    2016-04-01

    Oncolytic strains of vaccinia virus are currently in clinical development with clear evidence of safety and promising signs of efficacy. Addition of therapeutic genes to the viral genome may increase the therapeutic efficacy of vaccinia. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of vaccinia virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in prostate cancer models, combining oncolysis, external beam radiotherapy and NIS-mediated radioiodide therapy. The NIS-expressing vaccinia virus (VV-NIS), GLV-1h153, was tested in in vitro analyzes of viral cell killing, combination with radiotherapy, NIS expression, cellular radioiodide uptake and apoptotic cell death in PC3, DU145, LNCaP and WPMY-1 human prostate cell lines. In vivo experiments were carried out in PC3 xenografts in CD1 nude mice to assess NIS expression and tumor radioiodide uptake. In addition, the therapeutic benefit of radioiodide treatment in combination with viral oncolysis and external beam radiotherapy was measured. In vitro viral cell killing of prostate cancers was dose- and time-dependent and was through apoptotic mechanisms. Importantly, combined virus therapy and iodizing radiation did not adversely affect oncolysis. NIS gene expression in infected cells was functional and mediated uptake of radioiodide both in vitro and in vivo. Therapy experiments with both xenograft and immunocompetent Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse models showed that the addition of radioiodide to VV-NIS-infected tumors was more effective than each single-agent therapy, restricting tumor growth and increasing survival. In conclusion, VV-NIS is effective in prostate cancer models. This treatment modality would be an attractive complement to existing clinical radiotherapy practice. PMID:26814609

  17. Enteric Immunization of Mice Against Influenza with Recombinant Vaccinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitin, Catherine A.; Bender, Bradley S.; Small, Parker A., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office.

  18. Enteric immunization of mice against influenza with recombinant vaccinia.

    PubMed Central

    Meitin, C A; Bender, B S; Small, P A

    1994-01-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office. PMID:7972032

  19. Localization and fine structure of a vaccinia virus gene encoding an envelope antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, P; Hiller, G; Wittek, R

    1986-01-01

    The major antigen on the envelope of extracellular vaccinia virus particles is a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 37,000 (p37K; G. Hiller and K. Weber, J. Virol. 55:651-659, 1985). The gene encoding p37K was mapped in the vaccinia virus genome by hybrid selection of RNA followed by in vitro translation. p37K was then identified among the in vitro translation products by immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody. The gene is located close to the right-hand end of the HindIII F fragment. The corresponding region of the DNA was sequenced, and an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 41,748 daltons was observed. The 5' end of the mRNA, as defined by nuclease S1 analysis, maps within only a few nucleotides of the translation initiation codon. Examination of the DNA sequence around the putative initiation site of transcription revealed a characteristic sequence, TAAATG, which includes the ATG translation initiation codon and which is conserved in all but one late gene so far analyzed. It is therefore likely that this sequence is an important regulatory signal for late gene expression in vaccinia virus. Images PMID:3701927

  20. Seven major genomic deletions of vaccinia virus Tiantan strain are sufficient to decrease pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiquan; Sheng, Yuan; Chu, Yunjie; Ji, Huifan; Jiang, Shuang; Lan, Tian; Li, Min; Chen, Shuang; Fan, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenjie; Li, Xiao; Sun, Lili; Jin, Ningyi

    2016-05-01

    Attenuated strain TTVAC7, as a multi-gene-deleted vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT), was constructed by knocking out parts of non-essential genes related to virulence, host range and immunomodulation of VTT, and by combining double marker screening with exogenous selectable marker knockout techniques. In this study, shuttle vector plasmids pTC-EGFP, pTA35-EGFP, pTA66-EGFP, pTE-EGFP, pTB-EGFP, pTI-EGFP and pTJ-EGFP were constructed, which contained seven pairs of recombinant arms linked to the early and late strong promoter pE/L, as well as to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as an exogenous selectable marker. BHK cells were co-transfected/infected successively with the above plasmids and VTT or gene-deleted VTT, and homologous recombination and fluorescence plaque screening methods were used to knock out the gene fragments (TC: TC7L ∼ TK2L; TA35: TA35L; TA66: TA66R; TE: TE3L ∼ TE4L; TB: TB13R; TI: TI4L; TJ: TJ2R). The Cre/LoxP system was then applied to knock out the exogenous selectable marker, and ultimately the gene-deleted attenuated strain TTVAC7 was obtained. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that not only the host range of TTVAC7 could be narrowed and its toxicity weakened significantly, but its high immunogenicity was maintained at the same time. These results support the potential of TTVAC7 to be developed as a safe viral vector or vaccine. PMID:26821204

  1. Vaccinia virus p37 interacts with host proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yali; Honeychurch, Kady M; Yang, Guang; Byrd, Chelsea M; Harver, Chris; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteins associated with the late endosome (LE) appear to play a central role in the envelopment of a number of taxonomically diverse viruses. How viral proteins interact with LE-associated proteins to facilitate envelopment is not well understood. LE-derived transport vesicles form through the interaction of Rab9 GTPase with cargo proteins, and TIP47, a Rab9-specific effector protein. Vaccinia virus (VV) induces a wrapping complex derived from intracellular host membranes to envelope intracellular mature virus particles producing egress-competent forms of virus. Results We show that VV p37 protein associates with TIP47-, Rab9-, and CI-MPR-containing membranes. Mutation of a di-aromatic motif in p37 blocks association with TIP47 and inhibits plaque formation. ST-246, a specific inhibitor of p37 function, inhibits these interactions and also blocks wrapped virus particle formation. Vaccinia virus expressing p37 variants with reduced ST-246 susceptibility associates with Rab9 and co-localizes with CI-MPR in the presence and absence of compound. Conclusion These results suggest that p37 localizes to the LE and interacts with proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis to facilitate assembly of extracellular forms of virus. PMID:19400954

  2. Advances in virus research

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. ); Murphy, F.A. ); Shatkin, A.J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

  3. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R.; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26334635

  4. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence.

    PubMed

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26334635

  5. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line with altered sensitivity to vaccinia virus killing.

    PubMed Central

    Bair, C H; Chung, C S; Vasilevskaya, I A; Chang, W

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line is nonpermissive for vaccinia virus, and translation of viral intermediate genes was reported to be blocked (A. Ramsey-Ewing and B. Moss, Virology 206:984-993, 1995). However, cells are readily killed by vaccinia virus. A vaccinia virus-resistant CHO mutant, VV5-4, was isolated by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. Parental CHO cells, upon infection with vaccinia virus, die within 2 to 3 days, whereas VV5-4 cells preferentially survive this cytotoxic effect. The survival phenotype of VV5-4 is partial and in inverse correlation with the multiplicity of infection used. In addition, viral infection fails to shut off host protein synthesis in VV5-4. VV5-4 was used to study the relationship of progression of the virus life cycle and cell fate. We found that in parental CHO cells, vaccinia virus proceeds through expression of viral early genes, uncoating, viral DNA replication, and expression of intermediate and late promoters. In contrast, we detect only expression of early genes and uncoating in VV5-4 cells, whereas viral DNA replication appears to be blocked. Consistent with the cascade regulation model of viral gene expression, we detect little intermediate- and late-gene expression in VV5-4 cells. Since vaccinia virus is known to be cytolytic, isolation of this mutant therefore demonstrates a new mode of the cellular microenvironment that affects progression of the virus life cycle, resulting in a different cell fate. This process appears to be mediated by a general mechanism, since VV5-4 is also resistant to Shope fibroma virus and myxoma virus killing. On the other hand, VV5-4 remains sensitive to cowpox virus killing. To examine the mechanism of VV5-4 survival, we investigated whether apoptosis is involved. DNA laddering and staining of apoptotic nuclei with Hoechst 33258 were observed in both CHO and VV5-4 cells infected with vaccinia virus. We concluded that the cellular pathway, which blocks viral DNA replication and allows VV5-4 to survive, is independent of apoptosis. This mutant also provides evidence that an inductive signal for apoptosis upon vaccinia virus infection occurs prior to viral DNA replication. PMID:8676492

  6. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  7. New vaccines against influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

  8. The role of signalling and the cytoskeleton during Vaccinia Virus egress.

    PubMed

    Leite, Flavia; Way, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that are critically dependent on their hosts to replicate and generate new progeny. To achieve this goal, viruses have evolved numerous elegant strategies to subvert and utilise the different cellular machineries and processes of their unwilling hosts. Moreover, they often accomplish this feat with a surprisingly limited number of proteins. Among the different systems of the cell, the cytoskeleton is often one of the first to be hijacked as it provides a convenient transport system for viruses to reach their site of replication with relative ease. At the latter stages of their replication cycle, the cytoskeleton also provides an efficient means for newly assembled viral progeny to reach the plasma membrane and leave the infected cell. In this review we discuss how Vaccinia virus takes advantage of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons of its host to promote the spread of infection into neighboring cells. In particular, we highlight how analysis of actin-based motility of Vaccinia has provided unprecedented insights into how a phosphotyrosine-based signalling network is assembled and functions to stimulate Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization. We also suggest that the formin FHOD1 promotes actin-based motility of the virus by capping the fast growing ends of actin filaments rather than directly promoting filament assembly. We have come a long way since 1976, when electron micrographs of vaccinia-infected cells implicated the actin cytoskeleton in promoting viral spread. Nevertheless, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the role of signalling and the host cytoskeleton in promoting viral spread and pathogenesis. PMID:25681743

  9. Structure and development of viruses observed in the electron microscope. II. Vaccinia and fowl pox viruses.

    PubMed

    MORGAN, C; ELLISON, S A; ROSE, H M; MOORE, D H

    1954-09-01

    Vaccinia and fowl pox viruses were visualized by the electron microscope in sections of infected chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. The viruses were of similar structure and size, averaging 200 x 300 mmicro with considerable individual variation. Intracytoplasmic viral particles contained a dense, nucleus-like body (nucleoid) separated from granular material (viroplasm) by a zone of lesser density. They were enclosed by a single membrane. Near the surface of the host cell and in the extracellular space the particles consisted of a central body of variable shape and density enclosed by a double membrane. The initial sites of development were confined to the cytoplasm of the host cell. Before release from the host cell the viral nucleoids appeared to enlarge and to occupy a central position within the particle, which became enclosed by a double limiting membrane. The brick-shaped forms found after removal of the embedding plastic from thick sections indicated that drying caused characteristic distortion of certain viral particles. PMID:13192254

  10. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  11. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  12. A Chimeric HIV-1 gp120 Fused with Vaccinia Virus 14K (A27) Protein as an HIV Immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Aneesh; García-Arriaza, Juan; C. Raman, Suresh; Conesa, José Javier; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Santiago, César; Sorzano, Carlos Óscar S.; Carrascosa, José L.; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In the HIV vaccine field, there is a need to produce highly immunogenic forms of the Env protein with the capacity to trigger broad B and T-cell responses. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a chimeric HIV-1 gp120 protein (termed gp120-14K) by fusing gp120 from clade B with the vaccinia virus (VACV) 14K oligomeric protein (derived from A27L gene). Stable CHO cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120-14K protein were generated and the protein purified was characterized by size exclusion chromatography, electron microscopy and binding to anti-Env antibodies. These approaches indicate that gp120-14K protein is oligomeric and reacts with a wide spectrum of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), gp120-14K protein upregulates the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with Th1 innate immune responses (IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, RANTES). Moreover, we showed in a murine model, that a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol consisting of a DNA prime with a plasmid expressing gp120-14K protein followed by a boost with MVA-B [a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 gp120, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B], generates stronger, more polyfunctional, and greater effector memory HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses, than immunization with DNA-gp120/MVA-B. The DNA/MVA protocol was superior to immunization with the combination of protein/MVA and the latter was superior to a prime/boost of MVA/MVA or protein/protein. In addition, these immunization protocols enhanced antibody responses against gp120 of the class IgG2a and IgG3, together favoring a Th1 humoral immune response. These results demonstrate that fusing HIV-1 gp120 with VACV 14K forms an oligomeric protein which is highly antigenic as it activates a Th1 innate immune response in human moDCs, and in vaccinated mice triggers polyfunctional HIV-1-specific adaptive and memory T-cell immune responses, as well as humoral responses. This novel HIV-1 gp120-14K immunogen might be considered as an HIV vaccine candidate for broad T and B-cell immune responses. PMID:26208356

  13. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex executes endosomal membrane fission and cargo sorting to the Rab11-positive and Rab22-positive recycling pathway, resulting in membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. PMID:26041286

  14. Incorporation of the B18R gene of vaccinia virus into an oncolytic herpes simplex virus improves antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2012-10-01

    Interferon (IFN) antiviral defense mechanism plays a critical role in controlling virus infection. It thus represents a formidable hurdle for virotherapy. Despite the reported ability of herpes simplex virus (HSV) to counteract this defense, the duration and extent of HSV infection in vivo is still largely dictated by host's IFN activity status. Because the HSV genes that have been reported to block IFN activity mainly act intracellularly, we hypothesized that their inhibitory effect could be enhanced by exploiting a gene whose product acts extracellularly. The B18R gene from vaccinia virus encodes a secreted decoy receptor with a broad antagonizing effect against type I IFNs. We therefore cloned B18R into an HSV-1-based oncolytic virus to generate Synco-B18R. In the presence of increased IFN levels in vitro, Synco-B18R largely retained its oncolytic effect, whereas the tumor-killing ability of the parental virus, Synco-2D, was severely compromised. When injected intratumorally in vivo, Synco-B18R showed significantly greater oncolytic activity than Synco-2D. Our results suggest that incorporation of the vaccinia virus B18R gene can safely potentiate the antitumor effect of an oncolytic HSV, and that similar strategies may be useful with other types of oncolytic viruses. PMID:22692498

  15. Incorporation of the B18R Gene of Vaccinia Virus Into an Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Improves Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) antiviral defense mechanism plays a critical role in controlling virus infection. It thus represents a formidable hurdle for virotherapy. Despite the reported ability of herpes simplex virus (HSV) to counteract this defense, the duration and extent of HSV infection in vivo is still largely dictated by host's IFN activity status. Because the HSV genes that have been reported to block IFN activity mainly act intracellularly, we hypothesized that their inhibitory effect could be enhanced by exploiting a gene whose product acts extracellularly. The B18R gene from vaccinia virus encodes a secreted decoy receptor with a broad antagonizing effect against type I IFNs. We therefore cloned B18R into an HSV-1–based oncolytic virus to generate Synco-B18R. In the presence of increased IFN levels in vitro, Synco-B18R largely retained its oncolytic effect, whereas the tumor-killing ability of the parental virus, Synco-2D, was severely compromised. When injected intratumorally in vivo, Synco-B18R showed significantly greater oncolytic activity than Synco-2D. Our results suggest that incorporation of the vaccinia virus B18R gene can safely potentiate the antitumor effect of an oncolytic HSV, and that similar strategies may be useful with other types of oncolytic viruses. PMID:22692498

  16. Granzyme B inhibits vaccinia virus production through proteolytic cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 gamma 3.

    PubMed

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Duggan, Brenda Lee; Shostak, Irene; Barry, Michele; Geskes, Tracy; Wilkins, John A; Yanagiya, Akiko; Sonenberg, Nahum; Bleackley, R Chris

    2011-12-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the major killer of virus-infected cells. Granzyme B (GrB) from CTLs induces apoptosis in target cells by cleavage and activation of substrates like caspase-3 and Bid. However, while undergoing apoptosis, cells are still capable of producing infectious viruses unless a mechanism exists to specifically inhibit viral production. Using proteomic approaches, we identified a novel GrB target that plays a major role in protein synthesis: eukaryotic initiation factor 4 gamma 3 (eIF4G3). We hypothesized a novel role for GrB in translation of viral proteins by targeting eIF4G3, and showed that GrB cleaves eIF4G3 specifically at the IESD(1408)S sequence. Both GrB and human CTL treatment resulted in degradation of eIF4G3 and reduced rates of translation. When Jurkat cells infected with vaccinia virus were treated with GrB, there was a halt in viral protein synthesis and a decrease in production of infectious new virions. The GrB-induced inhibition of viral translation was independent of the activation of caspases, as inhibition of protein synthesis still occurred with addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. This demonstrated for the first time that GrB prevents the production of infectious vaccinia virus by targeting the host translational machinery. PMID:22194691

  17. Granzyme B Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Production through Proteolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4 Gamma 3

    PubMed Central

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Duggan, Brenda Lee; Shostak, Irene; Barry, Michele; Geskes, Tracy; Wilkins, John A.; Yanagiya, Akiko; Sonenberg, Nahum; Bleackley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the major killer of virus-infected cells. Granzyme B (GrB) from CTLs induces apoptosis in target cells by cleavage and activation of substrates like caspase-3 and Bid. However, while undergoing apoptosis, cells are still capable of producing infectious viruses unless a mechanism exists to specifically inhibit viral production. Using proteomic approaches, we identified a novel GrB target that plays a major role in protein synthesis: eukaryotic initiation factor 4 gamma 3 (eIF4G3). We hypothesized a novel role for GrB in translation of viral proteins by targeting eIF4G3, and showed that GrB cleaves eIF4G3 specifically at the IESD1408S sequence. Both GrB and human CTL treatment resulted in degradation of eIF4G3 and reduced rates of translation. When Jurkat cells infected with vaccinia virus were treated with GrB, there was a halt in viral protein synthesis and a decrease in production of infectious new virions. The GrB-induced inhibition of viral translation was independent of the activation of caspases, as inhibition of protein synthesis still occurred with addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. This demonstrated for the first time that GrB prevents the production of infectious vaccinia virus by targeting the host translational machinery. PMID:22194691

  18. Aptamers recognize glycosylated hemagglutinin expressed on the surface of vaccinia virus-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parag; Tang, Zhiwen; Turner, Peter C.; Moyer, Richard W.; Tan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection and identification of pathogenic viruses or bacteria tend to be slow and cumbersome. We have developed aptamer probes with the capacity to rapidly detect the presence of viral infection with specificity and sensitivity. Vaccinia virus (VV) was chosen as the model because it is closely related to variola virus that causes smallpox. A method known as cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) was used to generate very selective and highly specific aptamers designed to recognize proteins expressed on the surface of VV-infected cells. Characterization of the aptamers showed that the virus-encoded hemagglutinin, a protein expressed on the surface of infected cells, is the preferential binding target. These studies show the feasibility of generating aptamers against a given specific infectious agent and will enable further development of aptamers as diagnostic and/or therapeutic tools against a broad range of infectious agents. PMID:20873781

  19. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

  20. Nipah Virus: Vaccination and Passive Protection Studies in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, V.; Contamin, H.; Loth, P.; Georges-Courbot, M.-C.; Lefeuvre, A.; Marianneau, P.; Chua, K. B.; Lam, S. K.; Buckland, R.; Deubel, V.; Wild, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    Nipah virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family, was first isolated and identified in 1999 when the virus crossed the species barrier from fruit bats to pigs and then infected humans, inducing an encephalitis with up to 40% mortality. At present there is no prophylaxis for Nipah virus. We investigated the possibility of vaccination and passive transfer of antibodies as interventions against this disease. We show that both of the Nipah virus glycoproteins (G and F) when expressed as vaccinia virus recombinants induced an immune response in hamsters which protected against a lethal challenge by Nipah virus. Similarly, passive transfer of antibody induced by either of the glycoproteins protected the animals. In both the active and passive immunization studies, however, the challenge virus was capable of hyperimmunizing the vaccinated animals, suggesting that although the virus replicates under these conditions, the immune system can eventually control the infection. PMID:14694115

  1. Efficiently editing the vaccinia virus genome by using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Wensheng; Wang, Jun; Al Yaghchi, Chadwan; Ahmed, Jahangir; Chard, Louisa; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-05-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) continues to be used in immunotherapy for the prevention of infectious diseases and treatment of cancer since its use for the eradication of smallpox. However, the current method of editing the VACV genome is not efficient. Here, we demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used to edit the VACV genome rapidly and efficiently. Additionally, a set of 8,964 computationally designed unique guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting all VACV genes will be valuable for the study of VACV gene functions. PMID:25741005

  2. Vaccine research efforts for filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hart, Mary Kate

    2003-05-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses belong to the family Filoviridae, and cause acute, frequently fatal, haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. No vaccines are available for human use. This review describes the status of research efforts to develop vaccines for these viruses and to identify the immune mechanisms of protection. The vaccine approaches discussed include DNA-based vaccines, and subunit vaccines vectored by adenovirus, alphavirus replicons, and vaccinia virus. PMID:12782057

  3. Inhibition of Vaccinia virus entry by a broad spectrum antiviral peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Altmann, S.E.; Jones, J.C.; Schultz-Cherry, S.; Brandt, C.R.

    2009-06-05

    Concerns about the possible use of Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as a weapon for bioterrorism have led to renewed efforts to identify new antivirals against orthopoxviruses. We identified a peptide, EB, which inhibited infection by Vaccinia virus with an EC{sub 50} of 15 muM. A control peptide, EBX, identical in composition to EB but differing in sequence, was inactive (EC{sub 50} > 200 muM), indicating sequence specificity. The inhibition was reversed upon removal of the peptide, and EB treatment had no effect on the physical integrity of virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. Viral adsorption was unaffected by the presence of EB, and the addition of EB post-entry had no effect on viral titers or on early gene expression. The addition of EB post-adsorption resulted in the inhibition of beta-galactosidase expression from an early viral promoter with an EC{sub 50} of 45 muM. A significant reduction in virus entry was detected in the presence of the peptide when the number of viral cores released into the cytoplasm was quantified. Electron microscopy indicated that 88% of the virions remained on the surface of cells in the presence of EB, compared to 37% in the control (p < 0.001). EB also blocked fusion-from-within, suggesting that virus infection is inhibited at the fusion step. Analysis of EB derivatives suggested that peptide length may be important for the activity of EB. The EB peptide is, to our knowledge, the first known small molecule inhibitor of Vaccinia virus entry.

  4. Identification of the major membrane and core proteins of vaccinia virus by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, O N; Houthaeve, T; Shevchenko, A; Cudmore, S; Ashford, T; Mann, M; Griffiths, G; Krijnse Locker, J

    1996-01-01

    Vaccinia virus assembly has been well studied at the ultrastructural level, but little is known about the molecular events that occur during that process. Towards this goal, we have identified the major membrane and core proteins of the intracellular mature virus (IMV). Pure IMV preparations were subjected to Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) and dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment to separate the core proteins from the membrane proteins. These proteins were subsequently separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and the major polypeptide spots, as detected by silver staining and 35S labeling, were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, or immunoprecipitation with defined antibodies. Sixteen major spots that partitioned into the NP-40-DTT-soluble fraction were identified; 11 of these were previously described virally encoded proteins and 5 were cellular proteins, mostly of mitochondrial origin. The core fraction revealed four major spots of previously described core proteins, two of which were also detected in the membrane fraction. Subsequently, the NP-40-DTT-soluble and -insoluble fractions from purified virus preparations, separated by 2D gels, were compared with postnuclear supernatants of infected cells that had been metabolically labeled at late times (6 to 8 h) postinfection. This relatively short labeling period as well as the apparent shutoff of host protein synthesis allowed the selective detection in such postnuclear supernatants of virus-encoded proteins. These postnuclear supernatants were subsequently treated with Triton X-114 or with sodium carbonate to distinguish the membrane proteins from the soluble proteins. We have identified the major late membrane and nonmembrane proteins of the IMV as they occur in the virus as well as in infected cells. This 2D gel map should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of vaccinia virus morphogenesis. PMID:8892867

  5. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

    PubMed Central

    Grinde, Bjørn; Gayorfar, Marc; Hoddevik, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes. PMID:17338811

  6. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Semliki forest virus replicon-based DNA vaccines encoding goatpox virus structural proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Min; Jin Ningyi; Liu Qi; Huo Xiaowei; Li Yang; Hu Bo; Ma Haili; Zhu Zhanbo; Cong Yanzhao; Li Xiao; Jin Minglan; Zhu Guangze

    2009-08-15

    Goatpox, caused by goatpox virus (GTPV), is an acute feverish and contagious disease in goats often associated with high morbidity and high mortality. To resolve potential safety risks and vaccination side effects of existing live attenuated goatpox vaccine (AV41), two Semliki forest virus (SFV) replicon-based bicistronic expression DNA vaccines (pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA) which encode GTPV structural proteins corresponding to the Vaccinia virus proteins A27, L1, A33, and B5, respectively, were constructed. Then, theirs ability to induce humoral and cellular response in mice and goats, and protect goats against virulent virus challenge were evaluated. The results showed that, vaccination with pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA in combination could elicit strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and goats, provide partial protection against viral challenge in goats, and reduce disease symptoms. Additionally, priming vaccination with the above-mentioned DNA vaccines could significantly reduce the goats' side reactions from boosting vaccinations with current live vaccine (AV41), which include skin lesions at the inoculation site and fevers. Data obtained in this study could not only facilitate improvement of the current goatpox vaccination strategy, but also provide valuable guidance to suitable candidates for evaluation and development of orthopoxvirus vaccines.

  7. Microbiota is an essential element for mice to initiate a protective immunity against Vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maurício T; Andrade, Ana C S P; Oliveira, Graziele P; Calixto, Rafael S; Oliveira, Danilo B; Souza, Éricka L S; Trindade, Giliane S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Kroon, Erna G; Martins, Flaviano S; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2016-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates harbors one of the most complex ecosystems known in microbial ecology and this indigenous microbiota almost always has a profound influence on host-parasite relationships, which can enhance or reduce the pathology of the infection. In this context, the impact of the microbiota during the infection of several viral groups remains poorly studied, including the family Poxviridae. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of this family and is the causative agent of bovine vaccinia, responsible for outbreaks that affect bovines and humans. To determine the influence of the microbiota in the development of the disease caused by VACV, a comparative study using a murine model was performed. Germ-free and conventional, 6- to 7-week-old Swiss NIH mice were infected by tail scarification and intranasally with VACV. Moreover, immunosuppression and microbiota reposition were performed, to establish the interactions among the host's immune system, microbiota and VACV. The data demonstrate that the microbiota is essential for the effective immune response of mice against VACV in intranasal inoculation and to control the virus at the primary site of infection. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that Swiss conventional mice are refractory to the intranasal infection of VACV. PMID:26610433

  8. Modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara (MVA) priming and fowlpox-virus booster elicit a stronger CD8+ T-cell response in mice against an HIV-1 epitope than does a DNA/poxvirus prime-booster approach.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Blomquist, Dania; Quintana, Diógenes; Duarte, Carlos A

    2004-06-01

    A prime-boost strategy combining FWPV (fowlpox virus) and the MVA (modified vaccinia virus Ankara), both expressing HIV-1 multi-V3 epitope polypeptides, was compared with a DNA-based Semliki Forest virus replicon/poxvirus approach for the induction of a CD8(+) T-cell response. Priming mice with recombinant MVA and boosting with recombinant FWPV, and not in the reverse order, increased the number of specific interferon-gamma-secreting cells in relation to the homologous combinations. Moreover, the improvement of the CD8(+) T-cell response with this combination was remarkably higher than that obtained by priming with a DNA vector containing a Semliki Forest virus replicon expressing the multi-epitope polypeptide and boosting either with recombinant MVA or FWPV. These results open a new and attractive alternative for vaccine preparation against HIV-1 using different immunogens. PMID:15154843

  9. Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Against Dryvax® Challenge in Vaccinia-Naïve and Vaccinia-Immune Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Parrino, Janie; McCurdy, Lewis H.; Larkin, Brenda D.; Gordon, Ingelise J.; Rucker, Steven E.; Enama, Mary E.; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario; Bailer, Robert T.; Moodie, Zoe; Gu, Lin; Yan, Lihan; Graham, Barney S.

    2007-01-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) was evaluated as an alternative to Dryvax® in vaccinia-naïve and immune adult volunteers. Subjects received intramuscular MVA or placebo followed by Dryvax® challenge at 3 months. Two or more doses of MVA prior to Dryvax® reduced severity of lesion formation, decreased magnitude and duration of viral shedding, and augmented post-Dryvax® vaccinia-specific CD8+ T cell responses and extracellular enveloped virus protein-specific antibody responses. MVA vaccination is safe and immunogenic and improves the safety and immunogenicity of subsequent Dryvax® vaccination supporting the potential for using MVA as a vaccine in the general population to improve immunity to orthopoxviruses. PMID:17126963

  10. Structure-function analysis of the triphosphatase component of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Martins, A; Deng, L; Shuman, S

    1997-01-01

    The N-terminal 60 kDa (amino acids 1 to 545) of the D1 subunit of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme is an autonomous bifunctional domain with triphosphatase and guanylyltransferase activities. We previously described two alanine cluster mutations, R77 to A (R77A)-K79A and E192A-E194A, which selectively inactivated the triphosphatase component. Here, we characterize the activities of 11 single alanine mutants-E37A, E39A, Q60A, E61A, T67A, T69A, K75A, R77A, K79A, E192A, and E194A-and a quadruple mutant in which four residues (R77, K79, E192, and E194) were replaced by alanine. We report that Glu-37, Glu-39, Arg-77, Glu-192, and Glu-194 are essential for gamma-phosphate cleavage. The five essential residues are conserved in the capping enzymes of Shope fibroma virus, molluscum contagiosum virus, and African swine fever virus. Probing the structure of D1(1-545) by limited V8 proteolysis suggested a bipartite subdomain structure. The essential residue Glu-192 is the principal site of V8 cleavage. Secondary cleavage by V8 occurs at the essential residue Glu-39. The triphosphatase-defective quadruple mutant transferred GMP to the triphosphate end of poly(A) to form a tetraphosphate cap structure, GppppA. We report that GppppA-capped RNA is a poor substrate for cap methylation by the vaccinia virus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA (guanine-7) methyltransferases. The transcription termination factor activity of the D1-D12 capping enzyme heterodimer was not affected by mutations that abrogated ATPase activity. Thus, the capping enzyme is not responsible for the requirement for ATP hydrolysis during transcription termination. PMID:9371657

  11. Deletion of C7L and K1L Genes Leads to Significantly Decreased Virulence of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus TianTan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Shuhui; Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongmin; Liu, Chang; Ji, Xu; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector. PMID:23840887

  12. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  13. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  14. Epstein–barr virus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and is associated with epithelial cell malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma, as well as lymphoid malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. EBV vaccines to prevent primary infection or disease, or therapeutic vaccines to treat EBV malignancies have not been licensed. Most efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines have focused on EBV gp350, which is the major target of neutralizing antibody. A single phase 2 trial of an EBV gp350 vaccine has been reported; the vaccine reduced the rate of IM but not virus infection. The observation that infusion of EBV-specific T cells can reduce disease due to Hodgkin lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma provides a proof of principle that a therapeutic vaccine for these and other EBV-associated malignancies might be effective. Most therapeutic vaccines have targeted EBV LMP2 and EBV nuclear antigen-1. As EBV is associated with nearly 200 000 new malignancies each year worldwide, an EBV vaccine to prevent these diseases is needed. PMID:25671130

  15. Expression of the highly conserved vaccinia virus E6 protein is required for virion morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Wolfgang; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2009-04-10

    The vaccinia virus E6R gene (VACVWR062) is conserved in all members of the poxvirus family and encodes a protein associated with the mature virion. We confirmed this association and provided evidence for an internal location. An inducible mutant that conditionally expresses E6 was constructed. In the absence of inducer, plaque formation and virus production were severely inhibited in several cell lines, whereas some replication occurred in others. This difference could be due to variation in the stringency of repression, since we could not isolate a stable deletion mutant even in the more 'permissive' cells. Under non-permissive conditions, viral late proteins were synthesized but processing of core proteins was inefficient, indicative of an assembly block. Transmission electron microscopy of sections of cells infected with the mutant in the absence of inducer revealed morphogenetic defects with crescents and empty immature virions adjacent to dense inclusions of viroplasm. Mature virions were infrequent and cores appeared to have lucent centers.

  16. The E6 protein from vaccinia virus is required for the formation of immature virions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Olga; Turner, Peter C.; Moyer, Richard W.; Condit, Richard C.; Moussatche, Nissin

    2010-04-10

    An IPTG-inducible mutant in the E6R gene of vaccinia virus was used to study the role of the E6 virion core protein in viral replication. In the absence of the inducer, the mutant exhibited a normal pattern DNA replication, concatemer resolution and late gene expression, but it showed an inhibition of virion structural protein processing it failed to produce infectious particles. Electron microscopic analysis showed that in the absence of IPTG viral morphogenesis was arrested before IV formation: crescents, aberrant or empty IV-like structures, and large aggregated virosomes were observed throughout the cytoplasm. The addition of IPTG to release a 12-h block showed that virus infectious particles could be formed in the absence of de novo DNA synthesis. Our observations show that in the absence of E6 the association of viroplasm with viral membrane crescents is impaired.

  17. Vaccinia viruses with a serpin gene deletion and expressing IFN-γ induce potent immune responses without detectable replication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, Fatema A.; Verardi, Paulo H.; Chan, Kenneth S.; Peng, Yue; Jones, Leslie A.; Yilma, Tilahun D.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop safe and efficacious vaccine and immunotherapeutic vectors, we constructed recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) vaccines lacking either the B13R (SPI-2) or the B22R (SPI-1) immune-modulating gene and coexpressing IFN-γ. B13R and B22R are nonessential VV immune-modulating genes that have antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory properties with sequence homology to serine protease inhibitors (serpins). IFN-γ is a cytokine with potent immunoregulatory, antineoplastic, and antiviral properties. We observed that these rVVs with a deletion in a serpin gene and expressing IFN-γ replicated to high titers in tissue culture yet were avirulent in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice with no detectable viral replication in these animals. A single immunization elicited potent humoral, T helper, and cytotoxic T cell immune responses in mice despite the absence of any detectable virus replication in vivo. IFN-γ coexpression and the inactivation of one or more VV immune-modulating genes provide an optimized method for increasing the safety while maintaining the efficacy of rVV vaccines. This strategy provides a method for developing highly safe and efficacious vaccines for smallpox and other diseases and immunotherapeutic vectors. PMID:15705716

  18. RNAi Screening for Host Factors Involved in Vaccinia Virus Infection using Drosophila Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Theresa S.; Sabin, Leah R.; Cherry, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Viral pathogens represent a significant public health threat; not only can viruses cause natural epidemics of human disease, but their potential use in bioterrorism is also a concern. A better understanding of the cellular factors that impact infection would facilitate the development of much-needed therapeutics. Recent advances in RNA interference (RNAi) technology coupled with complete genome sequencing of several organisms has led to the optimization of genome-wide, cell-based loss-of-function screens. Drosophila cells are particularly amenable to genome-scale screens because of the ease and efficiency of RNAi in this system 1. Importantly, a wide variety of viruses can infect Drosophila cells, including a number of mammalian viruses of medical and agricultural importance 2,3,4. Previous RNAi screens in Drosophila have identified host factors that are required for various steps in virus infection including entry, translation and RNA replication 5. Moreover, many of the cellular factors required for viral replication in Drosophila cell culture are also limiting in human cells infected with these viruses 4,6,7,8, 9. Therefore, the identification of host factors co-opted during viral infection presents novel targets for antiviral therapeutics. Here we present a generalized protocol for a high-throughput RNAi screen to identify cellular factors involved in viral infection, using vaccinia virus as an example. PMID:20834214

  19. Inactivation of vaccinia virus by natural sunlight and by artificial UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Voss, Luzie; Marschall, Hans-Juergen; Lytle, Carl David

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the sensitivity of vaccinia virus, an orthopox virus commonly used as a surrogate for variola virus (etiological agent of smallpox), exposed to UVB radiation emitted by a solar simulator, or to direct natural sunlight. The data obtained indicate that: (1) the virucidal effect of natural sunlight can be mimicked adequately by an artificial light source with similar spectral characteristics in the UVB, (2) viral sensitivity to UVB or to solar radiation can be correlated with experimental data previously obtained with UVC, (3) the correlation factor between virus inactivation by solar radiation (measured at 300 ± 5 nm) and by UVC (254 nm) is between 33 and 60, and (4) the sensitivity of viruses either dry on glass surfaces or in liquid suspension is similar when in the presence of similar amounts of cellular debris and growth media. The findings reported in this study should assist in estimating the threat posed by the persistence of virus during epidemics or after an accidental or intentional release. PMID:22816993

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of vaccinia virus H1L phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Laura; Knowles, Phillip P.; Fox, Gavin; Juanhuix, Jordi; Scaplehorn, Nicki; Way, Michael; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2008-01-01

    The cysteine-based protein phosphatase H1L was the first reported dual-specificity protein phosphatase. H1L is encapsidated within the vaccinia virus and is required for successful host infection and for the production of viable vaccinia progeny. H1L has therefore been proposed as a target candidate for antiviral compounds. Recombinant H1L has been expressed in a catalytically inactive form using an Escherichia coli host, leading to purification and crystallization by the microbatch method. The crystals diffract to 2.1 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. These crystals belong to space group P422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.31, c = 169.15 Å, and are likely to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. A sulfur SAD data set was collected to 2.8 Å resolution on beamline BM14 at the ESRF to facilitate structure determination. Attempts to derivatize these crystals with xenon gas changed the space group to I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 63.28, c = 169.68 Å and a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. The relationship between these two crystal forms is discussed. PMID:18323605

  1. Incomplete protection, but suppression of virus burden, elicited by subunit simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Z R; Edmonson, P F; Maul, D H; O'Neil, S P; Mossman, S P; Thiriart, C; Fabry, L; Van Opstal, O; Bruck, C; Bex, F

    1994-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of immunization with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env glycoprotein (Env), Env plus Gag proteins (Gag-Env), or whole inactivated virus (WIV), with or without recombinant live vaccinia vector (VV) priming, in protecting 23 rhesus macaques (six vaccine and two control groups) from challenge with SIVmac251 clone BK28. Vaccination elicited high titers of syncytium-inhibiting and anti-Env (gp120/gp160) antibodies in all vaccinated macaques and anti-Gag (p27) antibodies in groups immunized with WIV or Gag-Env. Only WIV-immunized macaques developed anticell (HuT78) antibodies. After homologous low-dose intravenous virus challenge, we used frequency of virus isolation, provirus burden, and change in antibody titers to define four levels of resistance to SIV infection as follows. (i) No infection ("sterilizing" immunity) was induced only in WIV-immunized animals. (ii) Abortive infection (strong immunity) was defined when virus or provirus were detected early in the postchallenge period but not thereafter and no evidence of virus or provirus was detected in terminal tissues. This response was observed in two animals (one VV-Env and one Gag-Env). (iii) Suppression of infection (incomplete or partial immunity) described a gradient of virus suppression manifested by termination of viremia, declining postchallenge antibody titers, and low levels (composite mean = 9.1 copies per 10(6) cells) of provirus detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphoid tissues at termination (40 weeks postchallenge). This response occurred in the majority (8 of 12) of subunit-vaccinated animals. (iv) Active infection (no immunity) was characterized by persistent virus isolation from blood mononuclear cells, increasing viral antibody titers postchallenge, and high levels (composite mean = 198 copies per 10(6) cells) of provirus in terminal tissues and blood. Active infection developed in all controls and two of three VV-Gag-Env-immunized animals. The results of this study restate the protective effect of inactivated whole virus vaccines produced in heterologous cells but more importantly demonstrate that a gradient of suppression of challenge virus growth, reflecting partial resistance to SIV infection, is induced by subunit vaccination. The latter finding may be pertinent to studies with human immunodeficiency virus vaccines, in which it is plausible that vaccination may elicit significant suppression of virus infection and pathogenicity rather than sterilizing immunity. Images PMID:8107246

  2. Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers.

    PubMed

    Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples. PMID:22003377

  3. Lister strain vaccinia virus with thymidine kinase gene deletion is a tractable platform for development of a new generation of oncolytic virus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Wang, P; Alusi, G; Shi, H; Chu, Y; Wang, J; Bhakta, V; McNeish, I; McCart, A; Lemoine, N R; Wang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has many attractive characteristics as a potential cancer therapeutic. There are several strains of VV. The nonvaccine strain Western Reserve VV with deletion of both the thymidine kinase and the viral growth factor genes (known as WRDD) has been reported as the most potent tumor-targeted oncolytic VV. Other strains, such as the European vaccine Lister strain, are largely untested. This study evaluated the antitumor potency and biodistribution of different VV strains using in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. Lister strain virus with thymidine kinase gene deletion (VVΔTK) demonstrated superior antitumor potency and cancer-selective replication in vitro and in vivo, compared with WRDD, especially in human cancer cell lines and immune-competent hosts. Further investigation of functional mechanisms revealed that Lister VVΔTK presented favorable viral biodistribution within the tumors, with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with WRDD, suggesting that Lister strain may induce a diminished host inflammatory response. This study indicates that the Lister strain VVΔTK may be a particularly promising VV strain for the development of the next generation of tumor-targeted oncolytic therapeutics. PMID:25876464

  4. Comparison of host cell gene expression in cowpox, monkeypox or vaccinia virus-infected cells reveals virus-specific regulation of immune response genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. They may be explained by the unique repertoire of immune and host cell modulating factors encoded by each virus. In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cell’s gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. Results Despite a dominating non-responsiveness of cellular transcription towards orthopoxvirus infection, we could identify several clusters of infection-modulated genes. These clusters are either commonly regulated by orthopoxvirus infection or are uniquely regulated by infection with a specific orthopoxvirus, with major differences being observed in immune response genes. Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. Conclusion Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles induced by infection with different orthopoxviruses vary significantly. It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species. PMID:23425254

  5. Comparable Polyfunctionality of Ectromelia Virus- and Vaccinia Virus-Specific Murine T Cells despite Markedly Different In Vivo Replication and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hersperger, Adam R.; Siciliano, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) stimulates long-term immunity against highly pathogenic orthopoxvirus infection of humans (smallpox) and mice (mousepox [ectromelia virus {ECTV}]) despite the lack of a natural host-pathogen relationship with either of these species. Previous research revealed that VACV is able to induce polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell responses after immunization of humans. However, the degree to which the functional profile of T cells induced by VACV is similar to that generated during natural poxvirus infection remains unknown. In this study, we monitored virus-specific T-cell responses following the dermal infection of C57BL/6 mice with ECTV or VACV. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we measured levels of degranulation, cytokine expression (gamma interferon [IFN-?], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]), and the cytolytic mediator granzyme B. We observed that the functional capacities of T cells induced by VACV and ECTV were of a similar quality in spite of the markedly different replication abilities and pathogenic outcomes of these viruses. In general, a significant fraction (?50%) of all T-cell responses were positive for at least three functions both during acute infection and into the memory phase. In vivo killing assays revealed that CD8+ T cells specific for both viruses were equally cytolytic (?80% target cell lysis after 4 h), consistent with the similar levels of granzyme B and degranulation detected among these cells. Collectively, these data provide a mechanism to explain the ability of VACV to induce protective T-cell responses against pathogenic poxviruses in their natural hosts and provide further support for the use of VACV as a vaccine platform able to induce polyfunctional T cells. PMID:22532670

  6. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) effectively boosts DNA-primed HIV-specific immune responses in humans despite pre-existing vaccinia immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Nilsson, Charlotta; Brave, Andreas; Hejdeman, Bo; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Robb, Merlin; Cox, Josephine; Michael, Nelson; Marovich, Mary; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sandström, Eric; Wahren, Britta

    2016-01-01

    The presence of vector-specific immune responses may hamper the induction of responses to a foreign antigen encoded by the vector. We evaluated the impact of pre-existing immunity to vaccinia virus on the induction of HIV-specific responses after immunization of healthy volunteers with a HIV-1 DNA prime-MVA boost vaccine. Following three priming immunizations with HIV-1 DNA plasmids, the volunteers were boosted with a single injection of recombinant MVA encoding HIV-1 proteins. Pre-existing immunity to vaccinia virus did not reduce the proportion of individuals who responded to HIV-1, but did lower the magnitude of responses. Our results suggest that vaccinia-based vectors can be used to efficiently induce immune responses to vectored HIV-1 antigens, even in individuals with pre-existing immunity to vaccinia virus. PMID:19450644

  7. New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Promise Research may also aid in development of Zika virus vaccine, expert suggests To use the sharing features ... of other major health concerns such as the Zika virus. "The dengue virus is closely related to Zika ...

  8. Vaccination with a Fusion Protein That Introduces HIV-1 Gag Antigen into a Multitrimer CD40L Construct Results in Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protection from Viral Challenge by Vaccinia-Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Raffa, Francesca N.; Williams, Cindi-Ann; Kornbluth, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) is a membrane protein that is important for the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-induced CD8+ T cell responses. To be active, CD40L must cluster CD40 receptors on responding cells. To produce a soluble form of CD40L that clusters CD40 receptors necessitates the use of a multitrimer construct. With this in mind, a tripartite fusion protein was made from surfactant protein D (SPD), HIV-1 Gag as a test antigen, and CD40L, where SPD serves as a scaffold for the multitrimer protein complex. This SPD-Gag-CD40L protein activated CD40-bearing cells and bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. Compared to a plasmid for Gag antigen alone (pGag), DNA vaccination of mice with pSPD-Gag-CD40L induced an increased number of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells with increased avidity for major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Gag peptide and improved vaccine-induced protection from challenge by vaccinia-Gag virus. The importance of the multitrimeric nature of the complex was shown using a plasmid lacking the N terminus of SPD that produced a single trimer fusion protein. This plasmid, pTrimer-Gag-CD40L, was only weakly active on CD40-bearing cells and did not elicit strong CD8+ T cell responses or improve protection from vaccinia-Gag challenge. An adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vaccine incorporating SPD-Gag-CD40L was much stronger than Ad5 expressing Gag alone (Ad5-Gag) and induced complete protection (i.e., sterilizing immunity) from vaccinia-Gag challenge. Overall, these results show the potential of a new vaccine design in which antigen is introduced into a construct that expresses a multitrimer soluble form of CD40L, leading to strongly protective CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:24227853

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  10. Vaccinia virus binds to the scavenger receptor MARCO on the surface of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Daniel T; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Wang, Zhenping; di Nardo, Anna; Gallo, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with altered skin immunity, such as individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD), can have a life-threatening disruption of the epidermis known as eczema vaccinatum after vaccinia virus (VV) infection of the skin. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanism(s) by which VV associates with keratinocytes. The class A scavenger receptor known as MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) is expressed on human and mouse keratinocytes and found to be abundantly expressed in the skin of patients with AD. VV bound directly to MARCO, and overexpression of MARCO increased susceptibility to VV infection. Furthermore, ligands with affinity for MARCO, or excess soluble MARCO, competitively inhibited VV infection. These findings indicate that MARCO promotes VV infection and highlights potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention of VV infection in the skin. PMID:25089661

  11. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-06-05

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1 - low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2 - the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3 - knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  12. Immunological Characterization of a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Expressing the Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Germain, Claire; Spindler, Anita; Hoffmann, Chantal; Silvestre, Nathalie; Rooke, Ronald; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Women showing normal cytology but diagnosed with a persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection have a higher risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer than noninfected women. As no therapeutic management other than surveillance is offered to these women, there is a major challenge to develop novel targeted therapies dedicated to the treatment of these patients. As such, E1 and E2 antigens, expressed early in the HPV life cycle, represent very interesting candidates. Both proteins are necessary for maintaining coordinated viral replication and gene synthesis during the differentiation process of the epithelium and are essential for the virus to complete its normal and propagative replication cycle. In the present study, we evaluated a new active targeted immunotherapeutic, a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector containing the E1 sequence of HPV16, aimed at inducing cellular immune responses with the potential to help and clear persistent HPV16-related infection. We carried out an extensive comparative time course analysis of the cellular immune responses induced by different schedules of immunization in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that multiple injections of MVA-E1 allowed sustained HPV16 E1-specific cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice and had no impact on the exhaustion phenotype of the generated HPV16 E1-specific CD8+ T cells, but they led to the differentiation of multifunctional effector T cells with high cytotoxic capacity. This study provides proof of concept that an MVA expressing HPV16 E1 can induce robust and long-lasting E1-specific responses and warrants further development of this candidate. PMID:24307238

  13. Evaluation of a new recombinant oncolytic vaccinia virus strain GLV-5b451 for feline mammary carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Adelfinger, Marion; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Grimm de Guibert, Julio; Weibel, Stephanie; Langbein-Laugwitz, Johanna; Härtl, Barbara; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo; Chen, Nanhai G; Aguilar, Richard J; Yu, Yong A; Zhang, Qian; Frentzen, Alexa; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) infection is a promising approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe the establishment of a new preclinical model of feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) using a recently established cancer cell line, DT09/06. In addition, we evaluated a recombinant vaccinia virus strain, GLV-5b451, expressing the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) single-chain antibody (scAb) GLAF-2 as an oncolytic agent against FMC. Cell culture data demonstrate that GLV-5b451 virus efficiently infected, replicated in and destroyed DT09/06 cancer cells. In the selected xenografts of FMC, a single systemic administration of GLV-5b451 led to significant inhibition of tumor growth in comparison to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, tumor-specific virus infection led to overproduction of functional scAb GLAF-2, which caused drastic reduction of intratumoral VEGF levels and inhibition of angiogenesis. In summary, here we have shown, for the first time, that the vaccinia virus strains and especially GLV-5b451 have great potential for effective treatment of FMC in animal model. PMID:25093734

  14. Vaccinia virus A19 protein participates in the transformation of spherical immature particles to barrel-shaped infectious virions.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, P S; Weisberg, Andrea S; Moss, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    The A19L open reading frame of vaccinia virus encodes a 9-kDa protein that is conserved in all sequenced chordopoxviruses, yet until now it has not been specifically characterized in any species. We appended an epitope tag after the start codon of the A19L open reading frame without compromising infectivity. The protein was synthesized after viral DNA replication and was phosphorylated independently of the vaccinia virus F10 kinase. The A19 protein was present in purified virions and was largely resistant to nonionic detergent extraction, suggesting a location within the core. A conditional lethal mutant virus was constructed by placing the A19 open reading frame under the control of the Escherichia coli lac repressor system. A19 synthesis and infectious virus formation were dependent on inducer. In the absence of inducer, virion morphogenesis was interrupted, and spherical dense particles that had greatly reduced amounts of the D13 scaffold accumulated in place of barrel-shaped mature virions. The infectivity of purified A19-deficient particles was more than 2 log units less than that of A19-containing virions. Nevertheless, the A19-deficient particles contained DNA, and except for the absence of A19 and decreased core protein processing, they appeared to have a similar protein composition as A19-containing virions. Thus, the A19 protein participates in the maturation of immature vaccinia virus virions to infectious particles. PMID:23885081

  15. Vaccinia virus structural polypeptide derived from a high-molecular-weight precursor: formation and integration into virus particles.

    PubMed

    Katz, E; Moss, B

    1970-12-01

    Polypeptide 4a, a major vaccinia structural polypeptide which was previously shown to form from a high-molecular-weight precursor is made after the period of viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that a period of 1 to 2 hr is required for a 50% conversion of precursor to product. The rates of incorporation of polypeptides into virus particles were examined. The kinetics of incorporation of labeled 4a and other major structural polypeptides into virus particles were similar, despite the additional time required for the formation of 4a from its precursor. Furthermore, 4a was present exclusively in a particulate form at all times examined. Both observations suggested that cleavage of the precursor occurs after, or immediately prior to, association with developing virus particles. Polypeptide P4a was previously identified as the probable precursor of 4a and is not ordinarily found in detectable amounts in virus particles. Under conditions in which breakdown of P4a was inhibited by adding rifampin or amino acid analogues after the period of viral DNA synthesis, isolated virus particles contained significant amounts of this polypeptide. Further analysis showed that P4a was localized within the virus core, which is also the site of 4a. Synchronization of virus assembly after the removal of rifampin was shown to be useful for studying the integration of polypeptides into a particulate fraction of the cytoplasm. PMID:4250367

  16. Silver nanoparticles inhibit vaccinia virus infection by preventing viral entry through a macropinocytosis-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Trefry, John C; Wooley, Dawn P

    2013-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been shown to inhibit viruses. However, very little is known about the mechanism of antiviral activity. This study tested the hypothesis that 25-nm silver nanoparticles inhibited Vaccinia virus replication by preventing viral entry. Plaque reduction, confocal microscopy, and beta-galactosidase reporter gene assays were used to examine viral attachment and entry in the presence and absence of silver nanoparticles. To explore the mechanism of inhibition, viral entry experiments were conducted with silver nanoparticles and small interfering RNAs designed to silence the gene coding for p21-activated kinase 1, a key mediator of macropinocytosis. The silver nanoparticles caused a 4- to 5-log reduction in viral titer at concentrations that were not toxic to cells. Virus was capable of adsorbing to cells but could not enter cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles. Virus particles that had adsorbed to cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles were found to be infectious upon removal from the cells, indicating lack of direct virucidal effect. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for viral entry in the presence of silver nanoparticles was 27.4+/-3.3 microg/ml. When macropinocytosis was blocked, this inhibition was significantly reduced. Thus, macropinocytosis was required for the full antiviral effect. For the first time, this study points to the novel result that a cellular process involved in viral entry is responsible for the antiviral effects of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23980510

  17. Nucleotide sequence of XhoI O fragment of ectromelia virus DNA reveals significant differences from vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Senkevich, T G; Muravnik, G L; Pozdnyakov, S G; Chizhikov, V E; Ryazankina, O I; Shchelkunov, S N; Koonin, E V; Chernos, V I

    1993-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 3913 base pair XhoI O fragment located in an evolutionary variable region adjacent to the right end of the genome of ectromelia virus (EMV) was determined. The sequence contains two long open reading frames coding for putative proteins of 559 amino acid residues (p65) and 344 amino acid residues (p39). Amino acid database searches showed that p39 is closely related to vaccinia virus (VV), strain WR, B22R gene product (C12L gene product of strain Copenhagen), which belongs to the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Despite the overall high conservation, differences were observed in the sequences of p39, B22R, and C12L in the site known to interact with proteases in other serpins, suggesting that the serpins of EMV and two strains of VV may all inhibit proteases with different specificities. The gene coding for the ortholog of p65 is lacking in the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus; the WR strain contains a truncated variant of this gene (B21R) potentially coding for a small protein (p16) corresponding to the C-terminal region of p65. p65 is a new member of the family of poxvirus proteins including vaccinia virus proteins A55R, C2L and F3L, and a group of related proteins of leporipoxviruses, Shope fibroma and myxoma viruses (T6, T8, T9, M9). These proteins are homologous to the Drosophila protein Kelch involved in egg development. Both Kelch protein and the related poxvirus proteins contain two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain is related to the similarly located domains of transcription factors Ttk, Br-C (Drosophila), and KUP (human), and GCL protein involved in early development in Drosophila. The C-terminal domain consists of an array of four to five imperfect repeats and is related to human placental protein MIPP. Phylogenetic analysis of the family of poxvirus proteins showed that their genes have undergone a complex succession of duplications, and complete or partial deletions. PMID:8266721

  18. From lesions to viral clones: biological and molecular diversity amongst autochthonous Brazilian vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Graziele; Assis, Felipe; Almeida, Gabriel; Albarnaz, Jonas; Lima, Maurício; Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Calixto, Rafael; Oliveira, Cairo; Diomedes Neto, José; Trindade, Giliane; Ferreira, Paulo César; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas

    2015-03-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. PMID:25785515

  19. From Lesions to Viral Clones: Biological and Molecular Diversity amongst Autochthonous Brazilian Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Graziele; Assis, Felipe; Almeida, Gabriel; Albarnaz, Jonas; Lima, Maurício; Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Calixto, Rafael; Oliveira, Cairo; Neto, José Diomedes; Trindade, Giliane; Ferreira, Paulo César; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. PMID:25785515

  20. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit without exhibiting any clinical signs. PMID:26000966

  1. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines. PMID:26596227

  2. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  3. Recombinant vaccines against bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Jabbar, Tamara; Ortego, Javier; de la Poza, Francisco; Marín-López, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae and is transmitted via biting midges of the genus Culicoides. BTV can be found on all continents except Antarctica, and up to 26 immunologically distinct BTV serotypes have been identified. Live attenuated and inactivated BTV vaccines have been used over the years with different degrees of success. The multiple outbreaks of BTV in Mediterranean Europe in the last two decades and the incursion of BTV-8 in Northern Europe in 2008 has re-stimulated the interest to develop improved vaccination strategies against BTV. In particular, safer, cross-reactive, more efficacious vaccines with differential diagnostic capability have been pursued by multiple BTV research groups and vaccine manufacturers. A wide variety of recombinant BTV vaccine prototypes have been investigated, ranging from baculovirus-expressed sub-unit vaccines to the use of live viral vectors. This article gives a brief overview of all these modern approaches to develop vaccines against BTV including some recent unpublished data. PMID:24287057

  4. Rapid Expansion of CD8+ T Cells in Wild-Type and Type I Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice Correlates with Protection after Low-Dose Emergency Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Asisa; Langenmayer, Martin; Jany, Sylvia; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can rapidly protect mice against lethal ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection, serving as an experimental model for severe systemic infections. Importantly, this early protective capacity of MVA vaccination completely depends on virus-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. We used MVA vaccination in the mousepox challenge model using ECTV infection to investigate the previously unknown factors required to elicit rapid protective T cell immunity in normal C57BL/6 mice and in mice lacking the interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR−/−). We found a minimal dose of 105 PFU of MVA vaccine fully sufficient to allow robust protection against lethal mousepox, as assessed by the absence of disease symptoms and failure to detect ECTV in organs from vaccinated animals. Moreover, MVA immunization at low dosage also protected IFNAR−/− mice, indicating efficient activation of cellular immunity even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. When monitoring for virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice vaccinated with the minimal protective dose of MVA, we found significantly enhanced levels of antigen-specific T cells in animals that were MVA vaccinated and ECTV challenged compared to mice that were only vaccinated. The initial priming of naive CD8+ T cells by MVA immunization appears to be highly efficient and, even at low doses, mediates a rapid in vivo burst of pathogen-specific T cells upon challenge. Our findings define striking requirements for protective emergency immunization against severe systemic infections with orthopoxviruses. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that single-shot low-dose immunizations with vaccinia virus MVA can rapidly induce T cell-mediated protective immunity against lethal orthopoxvirus infections. Our data provide new evidence for an efficient protective capacity of vaccination with replication-deficient MVA. These data are of important practical relevance for public health, as the effectiveness of a safety-tested, next-generation smallpox vaccine based on MVA is still debated. Furthermore, producing sufficient amounts of vaccine is expected to be a major challenge should an outbreak occur. Moreover, prevention of other infections may require rapidly protective immunization; hence, MVA could be an extremely useful vaccine for delivering heterologous T cell antigens, particularly for infectious diseases that fit a scenario of emergency vaccination. PMID:25008931

  5. Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine using ChAd63 and modified vaccinia Ankara expressing thrombospondin-related anonymous protein as assessed with transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites.

    PubMed

    Bauza, Karolis; Malinauskas, Tomas; Pfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Jones, E Yvonne; Billker, Oliver; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the world's most widely distributed malaria parasite and a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for approximately 2.85 billion people living mainly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Despite this dramatic burden, very few vaccines have been assessed in humans. The clinically relevant vectors modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 are promising delivery systems for malaria vaccines due to their safety profiles and proven ability to induce protective immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development of new recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors expressing P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) and show their ability to induce high antibody titers and T cell responses in mice. In addition, we report a novel way of assessing the efficacy of new candidate vaccines against P. vivax using a fully infectious transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing P. vivax TRAP to allow studies of vaccine efficacy and protective mechanisms in rodents. Using this model, we found that both CD8+ T cells and antibodies mediated protection against malaria using virus-vectored vaccines. Our data indicate that ChAd63 and MVA expressing PvTRAP are good preerythrocytic-stage vaccine candidates with potential for future clinical application. PMID:24379295

  6. Heat shock protein and heat shock factor 1 expression and localization in vaccinia virus infected human monocyte derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Guzik, Krzysztof; Slezak, Kinga; Dziedzic, Jakub; Rokita, Hanna

    2005-01-01

    Background Viruses remain one of the inducers of the stress response in the infected cells. Heat shock response induced by vaccinia virus (VV) infection was studied in vitro in human blood monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) as blood cells usually constitute the primary site of the infection. Methods Human blood monocytes were cultured for 12 – 14 days. The transcripts of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and two viral genes (E3L and F17R) were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the corresponding proteins measured by Western blot. Heat shock factor 1 DNA binding activities were estimated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and its subcellular localization analyzed by immunocytofluorescence. Results It appeared that infection with vaccinia virus leads to activation of the heat shock factor 1. Activation of HSF1 causes increased synthesis of an inducible form of the HSP70 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Although HSP90 mRNA was enhanced in vaccinia virus infected cells, the HSP90 protein content remained unchanged. At the time of maximum vaccinia virus gene expression, an inhibitory effect of the infection on the heat shock protein and the heat shock factor 1 was most pronounced. Moreover, at the early phase of the infection translocation of HSP70 and HSP90 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the infected cells was observed. Conclusion Preferential nuclear accumulation of HSP70, the major stress-inducible chaperone protein, suggests that VV employs this particular mechanism of cytoprotection to protect the infected cell rather than to help viral replication. The results taken together with our previuos data on monocytes or MDMs infected with VV or S. aureus strongly argue that VV employs multiple cellular antiapoptotic/cytoprotective mechanisms to prolong viability and proinflammatory activity of the cells of monocytic-macrophage lineage. PMID:16246258

  7. A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D; Griffin, Julian L; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50 % may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1α is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (vΔC16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with vΔC16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1α. PMID:25351724

  8. A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D.; Griffin, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50 % may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1α is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (vΔC16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with vΔC16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1α. PMID:25351724

  9. Importance of disulphide bonds for vaccinia virus L1R protein function

    PubMed Central

    Blouch, Robert E; Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2005-01-01

    L1R, a myristylated late gene product of vaccinia virus, is essential for formation of infectious intracellular mature virions (IMV). In its absence, only viral particles arrested at an immature stage are detected and no infectious progeny virus is produced. Previous studies have shown that the L1R protein is exclusively associated with the IMV membrane and that myristylation is required for correct targeting. The L1R protein contains six cysteine amino acid residues that have all been shown to participate in intramolecular disulphide bonds. However, it was not clear what role, if any, the disulfide bonds play in the membrane topology of the L1R protein. To address this question, a comprehensive library of L1R mutants in which the cysteine residues have been mutated to serine (either individually or in combination) were tested for their ability to rescue a L1R conditional lethal mutant virus under non-permissive conditions. Much to our surprise, we determined that C57 was not essential for production of infectious IMV. These results suggest that protein disulphide isomerases may be involved in reorganization of disulfide bonds within the L1R protein. PMID:16336686

  10. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  11. The Orthopoxvirus 68-Kilodalton Ankyrin-Like Protein Is Essential for DNA Replication and Complete Gene Expression of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara in Nonpermissive Human and Murine Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Karin M.; Schwantes, Astrid; Staib, Caroline; Schnierle, Barbara S.; Sutter, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated and replication-deficient vaccinia virus (VACV) that is being evaluated as replacement smallpox vaccine and candidate viral vector. MVA lacks many genes associated with virulence and/or regulation of virus tropism. The 68-kDa ankyrin-like protein (68k-ank) is the only ankyrin repeat-containing protein that is encoded by the MVA genome and is highly conserved throughout the Orthopoxvirus genus. We showed previously that 68k-ank is composed of ankyrin repeats and an F-box-like domain and forms an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex together with the cellular proteins Skp1a and Cullin-1. We now report that 68k-ank (MVA open reading frame 186R) is an essential factor for completion of the MVA intracellular life cycle in nonpermissive human and murine cells. Infection of mouse NIH 3T3 and human HaCaT cells with MVA with a deletion of the 68k-ank gene (MVA-Δ68k-ank) was characterized by an extensive reduction of viral intermediate RNA and protein, as well as late transcripts and drastically impaired late protein synthesis. Furthermore, infections with MVA-Δ68k-ank failed to induce the host protein shutoff that is characteristic of VACV infections. Although we demonstrated that proteasome function in general is essential for the completion of the MVA molecular life cycle, we found that a mutant 68k-ank protein with a deletion of the F-box-like domain was able to fully complement the deficiency of MVA-Δ68k-ank to express all classes of viral genes. Thus, our data demonstrate that the 68k-ank protein contains another critical domain that may function independently of SCF ubiquitin ligase complex formation, suggesting multiple activities of this interesting regulatory protein. PMID:19357172

  12. Comparison of the Cowpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion Proteome: Analysis of the Species- and Strain-Specific Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Doellinger, Joerg; Schaade, Lars; Nitsche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) causes most zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe and Northern as well as Central Asia. The virus has the broadest host range of OPV and is transmitted to humans from rodents and other wild or domestic animals. Increasing numbers of human CPXV infections in a population with declining immunity have raised concerns about the virus’ zoonotic potential. While there have been reports on the proteome of other human-pathogenic OPV, namely vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), the protein composition of the CPXV mature virion (MV) is unknown. This study focused on the comparative analysis of the VACV and CPXV MV proteome by label-free single-run proteomics using nano liquid chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The presented data reveal that the common VACV and CPXV MV proteome contains most of the known conserved and essential OPV proteins and is associated with cellular proteins known to be essential for viral replication. While the species-specific proteome could be linked mainly to less genetically-conserved gene products, the strain-specific protein abundance was found to be of high variance in proteins associated with entry, host-virus interaction and protein processing. PMID:26556597

  13. The formin FHOD1 and the small GTPase Rac1 promote vaccinia virus actin–based motility

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Diego E.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus dissemination relies on the N-WASP–ARP2/3 pathway, which mediates actin tail formation underneath cell-associated extracellular viruses (CEVs). Here, we uncover a previously unappreciated role for the formin FHOD1 and the small GTPase Rac1 in vaccinia actin tail formation. FHOD1 depletion decreased the number of CEVs forming actin tails and impaired the elongation rate of the formed actin tails. Recruitment of FHOD1 to actin tails relied on its GTPase binding domain in addition to its FH2 domain. In agreement with previous studies showing that FHOD1 is activated by the small GTPase Rac1, Rac1 was enriched and activated at the membrane surrounding actin tails. Rac1 depletion or expression of dominant-negative Rac1 phenocopied the effects of FHOD1 depletion and impaired the recruitment of FHOD1 to actin tails. FHOD1 overexpression rescued the actin tail formation defects observed in cells overexpressing dominant-negative Rac1. Altogether, our results indicate that, to display robust actin-based motility, vaccinia virus integrates the activity of the N-WASP–ARP2/3 and Rac1–FHOD1 pathways. PMID:24062339

  14. Efficient Colonization and Therapy of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Using the Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Strain GLV-1h68

    PubMed Central

    Adelfinger, Marion; Weibel, Stephanie; Grummt, Friedrich; Zimmermann, Martina; Bitzer, Michael; Heisig, Martin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yong A.; Chen, Nanhai G.; Stritzker, Jochen; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2011-01-01

    Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains is one of the most promising new strategies for cancer therapy. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 in two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HuH7 and PLC/PRF/5 (PLC) in cell culture and in tumor xenograft models. By viral proliferation assays and cell survival tests, we demonstrated that GLV-1h68 efficiently colonized, replicated in, and did lyse these cancer cells in culture. Experiments with HuH7 and PLC xenografts have revealed that a single intravenous injection (i.v.) of mice with GLV-1h68 resulted in a significant reduction of primary tumor sizes compared to uninjected controls. In addition, replication of GLV-1h68 in tumor cells led to strong inflammatory and oncolytic effects resulting in intense infiltration of MHC class II-positive cells like neutrophils, macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells and in up-regulation of 13 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, GLV-1h68 infection of PLC tumors inhibited the formation of hemorrhagic structures which occur naturally in PLC tumors. Interestingly, we found a strongly reduced vascular density in infected PLC tumors only, but not in the non-hemorrhagic HuH7 tumor model. These data demonstrate that the GLV-1h68 vaccinia virus may have an enormous potential for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma in man. PMID:21779374

  15. Interplay between Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara and Dendritic Cells: Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Bystander Dendritic Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Pascutti, María F.; Rodríguez, Ana M.; Falivene, Juliana; Giavedoni, Luis; Drexler, Ingo; Gherardi, M. Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated poxvirus strain, currently under evaluation as a vaccine vector in various clinical settings. It has been reported that human dendritic cells (DCs) mature after infection with MVA, but reports on the functionality of DCs have so far been controversial. In this work, we studied the phenotype and functionality of MVA-infected DCs. As previously reported, we found that human monocyte-derived DCs upregulated CD86 and HLA-DR in response to MVA infection. Moreover, infected DCs produced a broad array of chemokines and cytokines and were able to activate and induce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production both in CD4+ and in CD8+ allogeneic T cells and in specific autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Analysis of DC maturation following infection with a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing MVA revealed that upregulation of CD86 expression was mainly observed in GFPneg (bystander) cells. While GFPpos (infected) DCs produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), they were unable to produce CXCL10 and were less efficient at inducing IFN-γ production in CEF-specific autologous PBLs. Maturation of bystander DCs could be achieved by incubation with supernatant from infected cultures or with apoptotic infected cells. Type I IFNs were partially responsible for the induction of CXCL10 on bystander DCs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that, in MVA-infected DC cultures, the leading role with respect to functionality and maturation characteristics is achieved by the bystander DCs. PMID:21411535

  16. NF?B activation by modified vaccinia virus as a novel strategy to enhance neutrophil migration and HIV-specific T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Di Pilato, Mauro; Mejas-Prez, Ernesto; Zonca, Manuela; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gmez, Carmen Elena; Trakala, Marianna; Nieto, Jacobo; Njera, Jos Luis; S. Sorzano, Carlos Oscar; Combadire, Christophe; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Planelles, Lourdes; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are antigen-transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. We generated an attenuated VACV strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens but lacks three specific viral genes (A52R, K7R, and B15R). We found that these genes act together to inhibit the NF?B signaling pathway. Triple ablation in modified virus restored NF?B function in macrophages. After virus infection of mice, NF?B pathway activation led to expression of several cytokines/chemokines that increased the migration of neutrophil populations (N? and N?) to the infection site. N? cells displayed features of antigen-presenting cells and activated virus-specific CD8 T cells. Enhanced neutrophil trafficking to the infection site correlated with an increased T-cell response to HIV vector-delivered antigens. These results identify a mechanism for poxvirus-induced immune response and alternatives for vaccine vector design. PMID:25739961

  17. NFκB activation by modified vaccinia virus as a novel strategy to enhance neutrophil migration and HIV-specific T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Mauro; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Zonca, Manuela; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Trakala, Marianna; Nieto, Jacobo; Nájera, José Luis; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Combadière, Christophe; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Planelles, Lourdes; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-03-17

    Neutrophils are antigen-transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. We generated an attenuated VACV strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens but lacks three specific viral genes (A52R, K7R, and B15R). We found that these genes act together to inhibit the NFκB signaling pathway. Triple ablation in modified virus restored NFκB function in macrophages. After virus infection of mice, NFκB pathway activation led to expression of several cytokines/chemokines that increased the migration of neutrophil populations (Nα and Nβ) to the infection site. Nβ cells displayed features of antigen-presenting cells and activated virus-specific CD8 T cells. Enhanced neutrophil trafficking to the infection site correlated with an increased T-cell response to HIV vector-delivered antigens. These results identify a mechanism for poxvirus-induced immune response and alternatives for vaccine vector design. PMID:25739961

  18. Highly efficient expression of proteins encoded by recombinant vaccinia virus in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J M; Rodriguez, J; Viñuela, E; Kroemer, G; Martínez, C

    1991-11-01

    Using a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) that expresses E. coli beta galactosidase (beta-Gal) to infect lymphocytes, we show that enzymometrically or immunologically detectable beta-Gal expression is less pronounced among T cells than among B cells. VV infection caused growth inhibition of B cells, but barely affected T-cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, the production of infectious viral particles was less pronounced in T lymphocytes. Kinetic studies revealed that after an initial dose-dependent growth inhibition, T cells continued to proliferate without the doubling time being affected by VV infection. Nonetheless, the T cells do express proteins encoded by recombinant VV, such as beta-Gal, or secrete soluble proteins such as interleukin-4, though at a lower efficiency at the per cell level than B lymphocytes. In conclusion, the physiology of T cells appears to be less perturbed by VV than that of B cells, although the virus is capable of directing expression of recombinant genes to T lymphocytes. PMID:1947797

  19. Elicitation of Both Anti HIV-1 Env Humoral and Cellular Immunities by Replicating Vaccinia Prime Sendai Virus Boost Regimen and Boosting by CD40Lm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianfeng; Sobue, Tomoyoshi; Isshiki, Mao; Makino, Shun-ichi; Inoue, Makoto; Kato, Kazunori; Shioda, Tatsuo; Ohashi, Takashi; Sato, Hirotaka; Komano, Jun; Hanabusa, Hideji; Shida, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    For protection from HIV-1 infection, a vaccine should elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A novel vaccine regimen and adjuvant that induce high levels of HIV-1 Env-specific T cell and antibody (Ab) responses was developed in this study. The prime-boost regimen that used combinations of replication-competent vaccinia LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) and Sendai virus (SeV) vectors expressing HIV-1 Env efficiently produced both Env-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-Env antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). These results sharply contrast with vaccine regimens that prime with an Env expressing plasmid and boost with the m8Δ or SeV vector that mainly elicited cellular immunities. Moreover, co-priming with combinations of m8Δs expressing Env or a membrane-bound human CD40 ligand mutant (CD40Lm) enhanced Env-specific CD8+ T cell production, but not anti-Env antibody production. In contrast, priming with an m8Δ that coexpresses CD40Lm and Env elicited more anti-Env Abs with higher avidity, but did not promote T cell responses. These results suggest that the m8Δ prime/SeV boost regimen in conjunction with CD40Lm expression could be used as an immunization platform for driving both potent cellular and humoral immunities against pathogens such as HIV-1. PMID:23236521

  20. Cellular Gene Expression Survey of Vaccinia Virus Infection of Human HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Susana; López-Fernández, Luis A.; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Muñoz, Manuel; Harshman, Keith; Esteban, Mariano

    2003-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) is a cytocidal virus that causes major changes in host cell machinery shortly after infecting cells. To define the consequences of virus infection on host gene expression, we used microarrays of approximately 15,000 human cDNAs to examine expression levels of mRNAs isolated at 2, 6, and 16 h postinfection from cultures of infected HeLa cells. The majority of profiling changes during VV infection corresponded to downregulation of genes at 16 h postinfection. Differentially expressed genes were clustered into seven groups to identify common regulatory pathways, with most of them (90%) belonging to clusters 6 and 7, which represent genes whose expression was repressed after infection. Cluster 1, however, contained 37 transcripts (2.81%) showing a robust pattern of induction that was maintained during the course of infection. Genes in cluster 1 included those for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family member WASF1, thymosine, adenosine A2a receptor, glutamate decarboxylase 2, CD-80 antigen, KIAA0888 protein, selenophosphate synthetase, pericentrin, and attractin as well as several expressed sequence tags. We analyzed in more detail the fate of WASP protein in VV-infected cells, because a related family member, N-WASP, is involved in viral motility. WASP protein accumulated in the course of infection; its increase required viral DNA replication and de novo protein synthesis, and it localized in cytoplasmic structures distinct from uninfected cells. This study is the first quantitative analysis of host gene expression following VV infection of cultured human cells, demonstrating global changes in the expression profile, and identifies upregulated genes with potential roles in the virus replication cycle. PMID:12743306

  1. Involvement of the Cellular Phosphatase DUSP1 in Vaccinia Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Ana; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gómez, Carmen E.; Cepeda, Maria Victoria; Caelles, Carme; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar; Esteban, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses encode a large variety of proteins that mimic, block or enhance host cell signaling pathways on their own benefit. It has been reported that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are specifically upregulated during vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. Here, we have evaluated the role of the MAPK negative regulator dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the infection of VACV. We demonstrated that DUSP1 expression is enhanced upon infection with the replicative WR virus and with the attenuated VACV viruses MVA and NYVAC. This upregulation is dependent on early viral gene expression. In the absence of DUSP1 in cultured cells, there is an increased activation of its molecular targets JNK and ERK and an enhanced WR replication. Moreover, DUSP1 knock-out (KO) mice are more susceptible to WR infection as a result of enhanced virus replication in the lungs. Significantly, MVA, which is known to produce non-permissive infections in most mammalian cell lines, is able to grow in DUSP1 KO immortalized murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). By confocal and electron microscopy assays, we showed that in the absence of DUSP1 MVA morphogenesis is similar as in permissive cell lines and demonstrated that DUSP1 is involved at the stage of transition between IVN and MV in VACV morphogenesis. In addition, we have observed that the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines at early times post-infection in KO mice infected with MVA and NYVAC is increased and that the adaptive immune response is enhanced in comparison with WT-infected mice. Altogether, these findings reveal that DUSP1 is involved in the replication and host range of VACV and in the regulation of host immune responses through the modulation of MAPKs. Thus, in this study we demonstrate that DUSP1 is actively involved in the antiviral host defense mechanism against a poxvirus infection. PMID:24244156

  2. Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

  3. Efficacy of a virus-vectored vaccine against human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine; Thom, Michelle; Capone, Stefania; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Guzman, Efrain; Herbert, Rebecca; Scarselli, Elisa; Napolitano, Federico; Giuliani, Alessandro; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Nicosia, Alfredo; Vitelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-12

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and the elderly for which there is still no effective vaccine. We have previously shown that PanAd3-RSV, which is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate that expresses a secreted form of the HRSV F protein together with the N and M2-1 proteins of HRSV, is immunogenic in rodents and nonhuman primates, and protects mice and cotton rats from HRSV challenge. Because the extent to which protection demonstrated in rodent models will translate to humans is unclear, we have exploited the calf model of bovine RSV (BRSV) infection, which mimics HRSV disease in children more closely than do experimental models of unnatural laboratory hosts, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PanAd3-RSV vaccine. We show that PanAd3-RSV alone and in combination with a modified vaccinia Ankara expressing the same HRSV antigens (MVA-RSV) induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity in young seronegative calves and protected against upper and lower respiratory tract infection and pulmonary disease induced by heterologous BRSV challenge. There was no evidence either of enhanced pulmonary pathology or of enhanced respiratory disease in vaccinated calves after BRSV challenge. These findings support the continued evaluation of the vectored RSV vaccines in man. PMID:26268314

  4. Towards a universal influenza vaccine: volunteer virus challenge studies in quarantine to speed the development and subsequent licensing.

    PubMed

    Oxford, John S

    2013-08-01

    There are now more than 5 experimental vaccine formulations which induce T and B cell immunity towards the internally situated virus proteins matrix (M1 and M2e) and nucleoprotein (NP), and towards stem and stalk regions of the HA which have a shared antigenic structure amongst many of the 17 influenza A virus sub types. Such 'universal vaccines' could be used, at least in theory, as a prophylactic stockpile vaccine for newly emerged epidemic and novel pandemic influenza A viruses or as a supplement to conventional HA/NA vaccines. My own laboratory has approached the problem from the clinical viewpoint by identifying CD4(+) cells which are present in influenza infected volunteers who resist influenza infection. We have established precisely which peptides in M and NP proteins react with these immune CD4 cells. These experimental vaccines induce immunity in animal models but with a single exception no data have been published on protection against influenza virus infection in humans. The efficacy of the latter vaccine is based on vaccinia virus (MVA) as a carrier and was analyzed in a quarantine unit. Given the absence of induced HI antibody in the new universal vaccines a possible licensing strategy is a virus challenge model in quarantine whereby healthy volunteers can be immunized with the new vaccine and thereafter deliberately infected and clinical signs recorded alongside quantities of virus excreted and compared with unvaccinated controls. PMID:23617282

  5. The Vaccinia Virus F1L Protein Interacts with the Proapoptotic Protein Bak and Inhibits Bak Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wasilenko, Shawn T.; Banadyga, Logan; Bond, David; Barry, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Many viruses have evolved strategies to counteract cellular immune responses, including apoptosis. Vaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family, encodes an antiapoptotic protein, F1L. F1L localizes to mitochondria and inhibits apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c by an undetermined mechanism (S. T. Wasilenko, T. L. Stewart, A. F. Meyers, and M. Barry, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:14345-14350, 2003; T. L. Stewart, S. T. Wasilenko, and M. Barry, J. Virol. 79:1084-1098, 2005). Here, we show that in the absence of an apoptotic stimulus, F1L associates with Bak, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that plays a pivotal role in the release of cytochrome c. Cells infected with vaccinia virus were resistant to Bak oligomerization and the initial N-terminal exposure of Bak following the induction of apoptosis with staurosporine. A mutant vaccinia virus missing F1L was no longer able to inhibit apoptosis or Bak activation. In addition, the expression of F1L was essential to inhibit tBid-induced cytochrome c release in both wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and Bax-deficient MEFs, indicating that F1L could inhibit apoptosis in the presence and absence of Bax. tBid-induced Bak oligomerization and N-terminal exposure of Bak in Bax-deficient MEFs were inhibited during virus infection, as assessed by cross-linking and limited trypsin proteolysis. Infection with the F1L deletion virus no longer provided protection from tBid-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Additionally, infection of Jurkat cells with the F1L deletion virus resulted in cellular apoptosis, as measured by loss of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase 3 activation, and cytochrome c release, indicating that the presence of F1L was pivotal for inhibiting vaccinia virus-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that F1L expression during infection inhibits apoptosis and interferes with the activation of Bak. PMID:16254338

  6. Ectopic expression of vaccinia virus E3 and K3 cannot rescue ectromelia virus replication in rabbit RK13 cells.

    PubMed

    Hand, Erin S; Haller, Sherry L; Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV. PMID:25734776

  7. Ectopic Expression of Vaccinia Virus E3 and K3 Cannot Rescue Ectromelia Virus Replication in Rabbit RK13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV. PMID:25734776

  8. Newcastle disease virus vaccine potency determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines is determined using vaccination and challenge. If the minimum killed viral antigen necessary for clinical protection can be determined, vaccines meeting or exceeding this dose might be considered of adequate potency. In these studies, c...

  9. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    SciTech Connect

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  10. Poly(A) Polymerase from Vaccinia Virus-Infected Cells I. Partial Purification and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Brakel, Christine; Kates, Joseph R.

    1974-01-01

    Poly(A) polymerase activity is induced during vaccinia virus infection of HeLa cells. The enzyme is maximally induced at 3.5 h postinfection. Partial purification frees the preparation of RNase activity and RNA polymerase activity. ATP is the substrate for poly(A) synthesis. A small amount of poly(A) is produced from added adenosine diphosphate due to the production of ATP by an adenylate kinase present in the preparation. The incorporation of ATP into poly(A) is dependent on divalent cations (Mg2+ or Mn2+) and is not inhibited by UTP, CTP, or GTP. Poly(U) stimulates ATP incorporation; poly(A) and poly(C) have little effect on ATP incorporation, and poly(dT) is extremely inhibitory. RNA prepared from HeLa cells and from the partially purified poly(A) polymerase (the enzyme preparation contains endogenous RNA [Brakel and Kates]) stimulates ATP incorporation by poly(A) polymerase which was subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography. RNase's, pancreatic and T1, inhibit the production of poly(A). DNase has little effect. Poly(U) is able to stimulate poly(A) production in the presence of T1 RNase. PMID:4417406

  11. Mapping vaccinia virus DNA replication origins at nucleotide level by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Senkevich, Tatiana G; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F; Wolf, Yuri I; Moss, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Poxviruses reproduce in the host cytoplasm and encode most or all of the enzymes and factors needed for expression and synthesis of their double-stranded DNA genomes. Nevertheless, the mode of poxvirus DNA replication and the nature and location of the replication origins remain unknown. A current but unsubstantiated model posits only leading strand synthesis starting at a nick near one covalently closed end of the genome and continuing around the other end to generate a concatemer that is subsequently resolved into unit genomes. The existence of specific origins has been questioned because any plasmid can replicate in cells infected by vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. We applied directional deep sequencing of short single-stranded DNA fragments enriched for RNA-primed nascent strands isolated from the cytoplasm of VACV-infected cells to pinpoint replication origins. The origins were identified as the switching points of the fragment directions, which correspond to the transition from continuous to discontinuous DNA synthesis. Origins containing a prominent initiation point mapped to a sequence within the hairpin loop at one end of the VACV genome and to the same sequence within the concatemeric junction of replication intermediates. These findings support a model for poxvirus genome replication that involves leading and lagging strand synthesis and is consistent with the requirements for primase and ligase activities as well as earlier electron microscopic and biochemical studies implicating a replication origin at the end of the VACV genome. PMID:26286988

  12. Mapping vaccinia virus DNA replication origins at nucleotide level by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Senkevich, Tatiana G.; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Moss, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses reproduce in the host cytoplasm and encode most or all of the enzymes and factors needed for expression and synthesis of their double-stranded DNA genomes. Nevertheless, the mode of poxvirus DNA replication and the nature and location of the replication origins remain unknown. A current but unsubstantiated model posits only leading strand synthesis starting at a nick near one covalently closed end of the genome and continuing around the other end to generate a concatemer that is subsequently resolved into unit genomes. The existence of specific origins has been questioned because any plasmid can replicate in cells infected by vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. We applied directional deep sequencing of short single-stranded DNA fragments enriched for RNA-primed nascent strands isolated from the cytoplasm of VACV-infected cells to pinpoint replication origins. The origins were identified as the switching points of the fragment directions, which correspond to the transition from continuous to discontinuous DNA synthesis. Origins containing a prominent initiation point mapped to a sequence within the hairpin loop at one end of the VACV genome and to the same sequence within the concatemeric junction of replication intermediates. These findings support a model for poxvirus genome replication that involves leading and lagging strand synthesis and is consistent with the requirements for primase and ligase activities as well as earlier electron microscopic and biochemical studies implicating a replication origin at the end of the VACV genome. PMID:26286988

  13. Study of Vaccinia and Cowpox viruses' replication in Rac1-N17 dominant-negative cells

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Ana Paula Carneiro; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Andrade, Luciana Garcia; Albarnaz, Jonas Dutra; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Interfering with cellular signal transduction pathways is a common strategy used by many viruses to create a propitious intracellular environment for an efficient replication. Our group has been studying cellular signalling pathways activated by the orthopoxviruses Vaccinia (VACV) and Cowpox (CPXV) and their significance to viral replication. In the present study our aim was to investigate whether the GTPase Rac1 was an upstream signal that led to the activation of MEK/ERK1/2, JNK1/2 or Akt pathways upon VACV or CPXV' infections. Therefore, we generated stable murine fibroblasts exhibiting negative dominance to Rac1-N17 to evaluate viral growth and the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt. Our results demonstrated that VACV replication, but not CPXV, was affected in dominant-negative (DN) Rac1-N17 cell lines in which viral yield was reduced in about 10-fold. Viral late gene expression, but not early, was also reduced. Furthermore, our data showed that Akt phosphorylation was diminished upon VACV infection in DN Rac1-N17 cells, suggesting that Rac1 participates in the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway leading to the activation of Akt. In conclusion, our results indicate that while Rac1 indeed plays a role in VACV biology, perhaps another GTPase may be involved in CPXV replication. PMID:23903969

  14. Nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and the nature of spontaneous frameshift mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, J P; Moss, B

    1983-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,300-base-pair vaccinia virus DNA segment previously shown to contain a thymidine kinase (TK) gene revealed an uninterrupted reading frame of 177 codons capable of producing a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 20,102. Mapping of the TK mRNA by primer extension indicated a unique 5' end that precedes the initiation codon by only six nucleotides. Multiple 3' ends within a 10-nucleotide region, about 30 nucleotides beyond the termination codon, were located by nuclease digestion of DNA-RNA hybrids, and the length of the TK transcript, exclusive of polyadenylate, was estimated to be approximately 570 nucleotides. The region preceding the TK mRNA start site is extremely A + T rich and has sequence homologies with three other early genes. Genetic information is so compressed in this region of the DNA that the putative transcriptional regulatory sequence of the TK gene overlaps the coding sequence of a late gene. Only nine nucleotides separate the termination codon of the late gene from the initiation codon of the TK gene. Downstream, 66 nucleotides separate the TK termination codon from the apparent initiation codon of another early gene. The nature of three independent TK- mutants was revealed by nucleotide sequencing. Each has a nucleotide reiteration leading to a +1 frameshift and a nonsense codon downstream. The location of one frameshift mutation provided evidence that the first ATG is used for initiation of protein synthesis. Images PMID:6842679

  15. Vaccinia virus complement control protein significantly improves sensorimotor function recovery after severe head trauma.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2007-06-11

    Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) is an immunomodulator that inhibits both the classical and alternate pathways of the complement system, therefore preventing cell death and inflammation. VCP has previously been shown to be therapeutically effective in mild and moderate traumatic brain injury models. In this study the efficacy of VCP in a severe head injury model is investigated in Wistar rats. Training in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) commenced 2 days prior stereotaxic surgery. Rats were anesthetized before being subjected to a severe (2.7-3.0 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microliters of VCP (1.7 microg/microl) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Fourteen days post-FPI, rats were tested for spatial learning and memory using the Morris Water Maze, followed by a battery of sensorimotor tests. The latter tests showed statistically significant differences between saline-treated and VCP-treated rats in lateral left pulsion (p=0.001) and tactile placing (p=0.002) on the first 5 days of testing. In addition, significant differences in right lateral pulsion in the first 4 days (p=0.007) of testing was evident. The results suggest that in a severe head injury model, VCP at this dosage favorably influences sensorimotor outcome. PMID:17467672

  16. Products and substrate/template usage of vaccinia virus DNA primase

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Frank S.; Paran, Nir; Moss, Bernard

    2009-01-05

    Vaccinia virus encodes a 90-kDa protein conserved in all poxviruses, with DNA primase and nucleoside triphosphatase activities. DNA primase products, synthesized with a single stranded {phi}X174 DNA template, were resolved as dinucleotides and long RNAs on denaturing polyacrylamide and agarose gels. Following phosphatase treatment, the dinucleotides GpC and ApC in a 4:1 ratio were identified by nearest neighbor analysis in which {sup 32}P was transferred from [{alpha}-{sup 32}P]CTP to initiating purine nucleotides. Differences in the nucleotide binding sites for initiation and elongation were suggested by the absence of CpC and UpC dinucleotides as well as the inability of deoxynucleotides to mediate primer synthesis despite their incorporation into mixed RNA/DNA primers. Strong primase activity was detected with an oligo(dC) template. However, there was only weak activity with an oligo(dT) template and none with oligo(dA) or oligo(dG). The absence of stringent template specificity is consistent with a role for the enzyme in priming DNA synthesis at the replication fork.

  17. [Vaccination against the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Girard, M; Pialoux, G

    1995-06-15

    Much progress has been made in recent years in the development of anti-VIH vaccines. Nearly 20 such vaccines have reached phase 1 clinical study in seronegative volunteers. The responses invoked by these vaccines are, however, mediocre, both in quality (lack of cross over neutralisation in isolated "wild" viruses) and in their levels and length of action. New formulations of vaccines are under study, but their development is long and difficult, and researchers are still disarmed by the problem of the variability of the virus. Several years of study, both clinical and fundamental, will be necessary before an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is available. PMID:7660008

  18. Vaccine Therapy, Oncolytic Viruses, and Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Annick; Vlahovic, Gordana; Friedman, Henry S

    2016-03-01

    After years of active research and refinement, vaccine therapy and oncolytic viruses are becoming part of the arsenal in the treatment of gliomas. In contrast to standard treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy, vaccines are more specific to the patient and the tumor. The majority of ongoing vaccine trials are investigating peptide, heat shock protein, and dendritic cell vaccines. The immunosuppression triggered by the tumor itself and by its treatment is a major obstacle to vaccine and oncolytic virus therapy. Thus, combination therapy with different agents that affect the immune system will probably be necessary. PMID:26984213

  19. Novel vaccine strategies against emerging viruses

    PubMed Central

    García-Sastre, Adolfo; Mena, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    One of the main public health concerns of emerging viruses is their potential introduction into and sustained circulation among populations of immunologically naïve, susceptible hosts. The induction of protective immunity through vaccination can be a powerful tool to prevent this concern by conferring protection to the population at risk. Conventional approaches to develop vaccines against emerging pathogens have significant limitations: lack of experimental tools for several emerging viruses of concern, poor immunogenicity, safety issues, or lack of cross-protection against antigenic variants. The unpredictability of the emergence of future virus threats demands the capability to rapidly develop safe, effective vaccines. We describe some recent advances in new vaccine strategies that are being explored as alternatives to classical attenuated and inactivated vaccines, and provide examples of potential novel vaccines for emerging viruses. These approaches might be applied to the control of many other emerging pathogens. PMID:23477832

  20. RNA Virus Reverse Genetics and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24967693

  1. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  3. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  4. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  5. Scientists Piggyback Experimental HIV Vaccine on Cold Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Scientists Piggyback Experimental HIV Vaccine on Cold Viruses Vaccine was well-tolerated, elicited 'moderate' response in ... study, Harvard researchers said they successfully used cold viruses to deliver an experimental HIV vaccine to humans. ...

  6. Genetically engineered poxviruses for recombinant gene expression, vaccination, and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, B

    1996-01-01

    Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure-function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8876137

  7. Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

  8. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of three recombinant mutants of Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Sartmatova, Darika; Nash, Taishayla; Schormann, Norbert; Nuth, Manunya; Ricciardi, Robert; Banerjee, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Amino-acid residues located at a highly flexible area in the uracil DNA glycosylase of Vaccinia virus were mutated. In the crystal structure of wild-type D4 these residues lie at the dimer interface. Specifically, three mutants were generated: (i) residue Arg167 was replaced with an alanine (R167AD4), (ii) residues Glu171, Ser172 and Pro173 were substituted with three glycine residues (3GD4) and (iii) residues Glu171 and Ser172 were deleted (Δ171-172D4). Mutant proteins were expressed, purified and crystallized in order to investigate the effects of these mutations on the structure of the protein. PMID:23519808

  10. Ternary complex formation by vaccinia virus RNA polymerase at an early viral promoter: analysis by native gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, J; Shuman, S

    1992-01-01

    We have resolved, by native gel electrophoresis, two intermediates in the transcription of a vaccinia virus early gene by the virus-encoded RNA polymerase. Polymerase holoenzyme containing the vaccinia virus early transcription factor (VETF) forms a complex of VETF bound to the promoter as the first step in a pathway leading to establishment of a committed ternary elongation complex. Formation of the VETF-DNA complex is stimulated by magnesium but is uninfluenced by nucleoside triphosphates. A stable binary complex of RNA polymerase bound to DNA is not detected. Assembly of a gel-stable polymerase-DNA complex depends on conditions permissive for RNA synthesis. Nucleotide omission experiments suggest that at least a tetrameric RNA must be made before a ternary complex is stabilized. RNA analysis indicates that complexes containing nascent transcripts 20 nucleotides long are stable and active. Ternary complex formation requires hydrolyzable ATP. This is consistent with an essential role for the ATPase activity of VETF at a step subsequent to DNA binding, as proposed by Broyles (S. S. Broyles, J. Biol. Chem. 266:15545-15548, 1991). The ternary complex, once formed, is resistant to dissociation by competitor DNA, as well as by salt, Sarkosyl, and heparin. The effects of these inhibitory agents on transcription complex formation suggest that they target different steps in the assembly pathway. Images PMID:1373199

  11. Biochemical analysis of the multifunctional vaccinia mRNA capping enzyme encoded by a temperature sensitive virus mutant.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jessica; Boldt, Rachel L; McFadden, Baron D; D'Costa, Susan M; Lewandowski, Nicholas M; Shatzer, Amber N; Gollnick, Paul; Condit, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Prior biochemical analysis of the heterodimeric vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme suggests roles not only in mRNA capping but also in early viral gene transcription termination and intermediate viral gene transcription initiation. Prior phenotypic characterization of Dts36, a temperature sensitive virus mutant affecting the large subunit of the capping enzyme was consistent with the multifunctional roles of the capping enzyme in vivo. We report a biochemical analysis of the capping enzyme encoded by Dts36. Of the three enzymatic activities required for mRNA capping, the guanylyltransferase and methyltransferase activities are compromised while the triphosphatase activity and the D12 subunit interaction are unaffected. The mutant enzyme is also defective in stimulating early gene transcription termination and intermediate gene transcription initiation in vitro. These results confirm that the vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme functions not only in mRNA capping but also early gene transcription termination and intermediate gene transcription initiation in vivo. PMID:26496697

  12. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  13. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained from embryonated...

  14. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  15. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  16. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  17. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained from embryonated...

  18. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained from embryonated...

  19. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  1. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  2. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained from embryonated...

  3. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  4. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  5. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This also represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.

  6. Cleavage of Dicer Protein by I7 Protease during Vaccinia Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-I; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chien, Wan-Yu; Syu, Ciao-Ling; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Dicer is the key component in the miRNA pathway. Degradation of Dicer protein is facilitated during vaccinia virus (VV) infection. A C-terminal cleaved product of Dicer protein was detected in the presence of MG132 during VV infection. Thus, it is possible that Dicer protein is cleaved by a viral protease followed by proteasome degradation of the cleaved product. There is a potential I7 protease cleavage site in the C-terminus of Dicer protein. Indeed, reduction of Dicer protein was detected when Dicer was co-expressed with I7 protease but not with an I7 protease mutant protein lack of the protease activity. Mutation of the potential I7 cleavage site in the C-terminus of Dicer protein resisted its degradation during VV infection. Furthermore, Dicer protein was reduced dramatically by recombinant VV vI7Li after the induction of I7 protease. If VV could facilitate the degradation of Dicer protein, the process of miRNA should be affected by VV infection. Indeed, accumulation of precursor miR122 was detected after VV infection or I7 protease expression. Reduction of miR122 would result in the suppression of HCV sub-genomic RNA replication, and, in turn, the amount of viral proteins. As expected, significant reduction of HCVNS5A protein was detected after VV infection and I7 protease expression. Therefore, our results suggest that VV could cleave Dicer protein through I7 protease to facilitate Dicer degradation, and in turn, suppress the processing of miRNAs. Effect of Dicer protein on VV replication was also studied. Exogenous expression of Dicer protein suppresses VV replication slightly while knockdown of Dicer protein does not affect VV replication significantly. PMID:25815818

  7. An orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Haagmans, Bart L; van den Brand, Judith M A; Raj, V Stalin; Volz, Asisa; Wohlsein, Peter; Smits, Saskia L; Schipper, Debby; Bestebroer, Theo M; Okba, Nisreen; Fux, Robert; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes Foz, David; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Segalés, Joaquim; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections have led to an ongoing outbreak in humans, which was fueled by multiple zoonotic MERS-CoV introductions from dromedary camels. In addition to the implementation of hygiene measures to limit further camel-to-human and human-to-human transmissions, vaccine-mediated reduction of MERS-CoV spread from the animal reservoir may be envisaged. Here we show that a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing the MERS-CoV spike protein confers mucosal immunity in dromedary camels. Compared with results for control animals, we observed a significant reduction of excreted infectious virus and viral RNA transcripts in vaccinated animals upon MERS-CoV challenge. Protection correlated with the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies to MERS-CoV. Induction of MVA-specific antibodies that cross-neutralize camelpox virus would also provide protection against camelpox. PMID:26678878

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccine an update

    PubMed Central

    Beena, VT; Choudhary, Kanaram; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R; Heera, R; Padmakumar, SK

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in late1980s, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has reached pandemic proportions, representing a global developmental and public health threat. Finding of a safe, globally effective and affordable HIV vaccine offers the best hope for the future control of the disease pandemic. Significant progress has been made over the past years in the areas of basic virology, immunology, and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and the development of anti-retroviral drugs. However, the search for an HIV vaccine faces formidable scientific challenges related to the high genetic variability of the virus, the lack of immune correlates of protection, limitations with the existing animal models and logistical problems associated with the conduct of multiple clinical trials. Most of the vaccine approaches developed so far aim at inducing cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple vaccine concepts and vaccination strategies have been tested, including DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, live vectored recombinant vaccines, various prime-boost vaccine combinations and vaccine based on broadly neutralizing human anti-HIV Antibody 2G12. This article reviews the state of the art in HIV vaccine research, summarizes the results obtained so far and discusses the challenges to be met in the development of a successful HIV vaccine. PMID:23798835

  9. Substrate specificity of three viral thymidine kinases (TK): vaccinia virus TK, feline herpesvirus TK, and canine herpesvirus TK.

    PubMed

    Solaroli, N; Johansson, M; Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A

    2006-01-01

    In search of novel suicide gene candidates we have cloned and characterized thymidine kinases from three viruses; vaccinia virus TK (VVTK), feline herpesvirus TK (FHV-TK), and canine herpesvirus TK (CHV-TK). Our studies showed that VVTK primarily is a thymidine kinase, with a substrate specificity mainly restricted to dThd and only minor affinity for dCyd. VVTK also is related closely to mammalian thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), with 66% identity and 75% general homology. Although CHV-TK and FHV-TK are sequence related to herpes simplex virus types 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK), with 31% and 35% identity and a general similarity of 54%, the substrate specificity of these enzymes was restricted to dThd and thymidine analogs. PMID:17065088

  10. The Vaccinia Virus F13L YPPL Motif Is Required for Efficient Release of Extracellular Enveloped Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Honeychurch, Kady M.; Yang, Guang; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tyr-X-X-Leu (YxxL) motif of the vaccinia virus F13L protein was examined for late (L) domain activity. The ability of an F13L deletion virus to form plaques was restored by PCR products containing single alanine substitutions within the motif and a YAAL construct but not by constructs lacking both the Y and L residues. Recombinant viruses possessing alanine substitutions in place of the tyrosine or the leucine residue in the YxxL motif demonstrated small, asymmetrical plaques. RNA interference-dependent depletion of Alix and TSG101 (host proteins involved in L domain-dependent protein trafficking) diminished extracellular enveloped virion production to various degrees, suggesting that the YxxL motif is a genuine L domain. PMID:17475658

  11. Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

  12. Screening for vaccinia virus egress inhibitors: separation of IMV, IEV, and EEV.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the possible use of variola virus as a biological weapon as well as the need for therapeutics for the treatment or prevention of naturally acquired poxvirus infections or vaccination complications have led to the search for small molecule inhibitors of poxvirus replication. One unique and attractive target for antiviral development is viral egress. Part of understanding the mechanism of action of viral egress inhibitors involves determining which virion form is being made. This can be accomplished through buoyant density centrifugation. PMID:22688763

  13. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  14. Mutations Conferring Resistance to Viral DNA Polymerase Inhibitors in Camelpox Virus Give Different Drug-Susceptibility Profiles in Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Graciela; Topalis, Dimitri; Krečmerová, Marcela; Crance, Jean-Marc; Garin, Daniel; Snoeck, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cidofovir or (S)-HPMPC is one of the three antiviral drugs that might be used for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections. (S)-HPMPC and its 2,6-diaminopurine counterpart, (S)-HPMPDAP, have been described to select, in vitro, for drug resistance mutations in the viral DNA polymerase (E9L) gene of vaccinia virus (VACV). Here, to extend our knowledge of drug resistance development among orthopoxviruses, we selected, in vitro, camelpox viruses (CMLV) resistant to (S)-HPMPDAP and identified a single amino acid change, T831I, and a double mutation, A314V+A684V, within E9L. The production of recombinant CMLV and VACV carrying these amino acid substitutions (T831I, A314V, or A314V+A684V) demonstrated clearly their involvement in conferring reduced sensitivity to viral DNA polymerase inhibitors, including (S)-HPMPDAP. Both CMLV and VACV harboring the A314V change showed comparable drug-susceptibility profiles to various antivirals and similar impairments in viral growth. In contrast, the single change T831I and the double change A314V+A684V in VACV were responsible for increased levels of drug resistance and for cross-resistance to viral DNA polymerase antivirals that were not observed with their CMLV counterparts. Each amino acid change accounted for an attenuated phenotype of VACV in vivo. Modeling of E9L suggested that the T→I change at position 831 might abolish hydrogen bonds between E9L and the DNA backbone and have a direct impact on the incorporation of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. Our findings demonstrate that drug-resistance development in two related orthopoxvirus species may impact drug-susceptibility profiles and viral fitness differently. PMID:22532673

  15. Insights into the molecular determinants involved in cap recognition by the vaccinia virus D10 decapping enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Soulière, Marie F.; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Bisaillon, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Decapping enzymes are required for the removal of the 5′-end m7GpppN cap of mRNAs to allow their decay in cells. While many cap-binding proteins recognize the cap structure via the stacking of the methylated guanosine ring between two aromatic residues, the precise mechanism of cap recognition by decapping enzymes has yet to be determined. In order to get insights into the interaction of decapping enzymes with the cap structure, we studied the vaccinia virus D10 decapping enzyme as a model to investigate the important features for substrate recognition by the enzyme. We demonstrate that a number of chemically modified purines can competitively inhibit the decapping reaction, highlighting the molecular features of the cap structure that are required for recognition by the enzyme, such as the nature of the moiety at positions 2 and 6 of the guanine base. A 3D structural model of the D10 protein was generated which suggests amino acids implicated in cap binding. Consequently, we expressed 17 mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions in the active site of D10 and found that eight are critical for the decapping activity. These data underscore the functional features involved in the non-canonical cap-recognition by the vaccinia virus D10 decapping enzyme. PMID:20639534

  16. Vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex subunit A28 is a target of neutralizing and protective antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gretchen E.; Sisler, Jerry R.; Chandran, Dev; Moss, Bernard

    2008-10-25

    The vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex (EFC) is comprised of at least eight transmembrane proteins that are conserved in all poxviruses. However, neither the physical structure of the EFC nor the immunogenicity of the individual components has been determined. We prepared soluble forms of two EFC components, A28 and H2, by replacing the transmembrane domain with a signal peptide and adding a polyhistidine tail. The proteins were expressed by baculoviruses, secreted from insect cells, purified by affinity chromatography and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. The antibodies recognized the viral proteins but only the antibody to recombinant A28 bound intact virions and neutralized infectivity. Analyses with a set of overlapping peptides revealed a neutralizing epitope between residues 73 and 92 of A28. Passive immunization of mice with IgG purified from the anti-A28 serum provided partial protection against a vaccinia virus intranasal challenge, whereas IgG from the anti-H2 serum did not.

  17. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  18. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  19. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  20. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  1. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  2. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  3. [Immunogenicity and heterologous protection in mice with a recombinant adenoviral-based vaccine carrying a hepatitis C virus truncated NS3 and core fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Deng, Yao; Chen, Hong; Yang, Yang; Wen, Bo; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    To develop a safe and broad-spectrum effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) T cell vaccine,we constructed the recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine that carried the hepatitis C virus truncated NS3 and core fusion proteins. The expression of the fusion antigen was confirmed by in vitro immunofluorescence and western blotting assays. Our results indicated that this vaccine not only stimulated antigen-specific antibody responses,but also activated strong NS3-specific T cell immune responses. NS3-specific IFN-γ+ and TNF-α+ CD4+ T cell subsets were also detected by a intracellular cytokine secretion assay. In a surrogate challenge assay based on a recombinant heterologous HCV (JFH1,2a) vaccinia virus,the recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine was capable of eliciting effective levels of cross-protection. These findings have im- portant implications for the study of HCV immune protection and the future development of a novel vaccine. PMID:25997323

  4. Postchallenge Administration of Brincidofovir Protects Healthy and Immune-Deficient Mice Reconstituted with Limited Numbers of T Cells from Lethal Challenge with IHD-J-Luc Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Kevin Tyler; Cruz, Stephanie; Thomas, Antonia; Diaz, Claudia G.; Keilholz, Laurie; Grossi, Irma M.; Trost, Lawrence C.; Golding, Hana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protection from lethality by postchallenge administration of brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) was studied in normal and immune-deficient (nude, nu/nu) BALB/c mice infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to record total fluxes in the nasal cavity, lungs, spleen, and liver and to enumerate pox lesions on tails of mice infected via the intranasal route with 105 PFU of recombinant IHD-J-Luc VACV expressing luciferase. Areas under the flux curve (AUCs) were calculated for individual mice to assess viral loads. A three-dose regimen of 20 mg/kg BCV administered every 48 h starting either on day 1 or day 2 postchallenge protected 100% of mice. Initiating BCV treatment earlier was more efficient in reducing viral loads and in providing protection from pox lesion development. All BCV-treated mice that survived challenge were also protected from rechallenge with IHD-J-Luc or WRvFire VACV without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV protected animals from lethality and reduced viral loads while animals were on the drug. Viral recrudescence occurred within 4 to 9 days, and mice succumbed ∼10 to 20 days after treatment termination. Nude mice reconstituted with 105 T cells prior to challenge with 104 PFU of IHD-J-Luc and treated with BCV postchallenge survived the infection, cleared the virus from all organs, and survived rechallenge with 105 PFU of IHD-J-Luc VACV without additional BCV treatment. Together, these data suggest that BCV protects immunocompetent and partially T cell-reconstituted immune-deficient mice from lethality, reduces viral dissemination in organs, prevents pox lesion development, and permits generation of VACV-specific memory. IMPORTANCE Mass vaccination is the primary element of the public health response to a smallpox outbreak. In addition to vaccination, however, antiviral drugs are required for individuals with uncertain exposure status to smallpox or for whom vaccination is contraindicated. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to study the effect of brincidofovir (BCV) in normal and immune-deficient (nu/nu) mice infected with vaccinia virus, a model of smallpox. Postchallenge administration of 20 mg/kg BCV rescued normal and immune-deficient mice partially reconstituted with T cells from lethality and significantly reduced viral loads in organs. All BCV-treated mice that survived infection were protected from rechallenge without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV extended survival. The data show that BCV controls viral replication at the site of challenge and reduces viral dissemination to internal organs, thus providing a shield for the developing adaptive immunity that clears the host of virus and builds virus-specific immunological memory. PMID:25589648

  5. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  6. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  7. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  8. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  9. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Live Virus Vaccines ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  10. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Live Virus Vaccines ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  11. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Live Virus Vaccines ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  12. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Live Virus Vaccines ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  13. Evaluation of radiation effects against C6 glioma in combination with vaccinia virus-p53 gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, D. S.; Andres, M. L.; Li, J.; Timiryasova, T.; Chen, B.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of recombinant vaccinia virus-p53 (rVV-p53) in combination with radiation therapy against the C6 rat glioma, a p53 deficient tumor that is relatively radioresistant. VV-LIVP, the parental virus (Lister strain), was used as a control. Localized treatment of subcutaneous C6 tumors in athymic mice with either rVV-p53 or VV-LIVP together with tumor irradiation resulted in low tumor incidence and significantly slower tumor progression compared to the agents given as single modalities. Assays of blood and spleen indicated that immune system activation may account, at least partly, for the enhance tumor inhibition seen with combined treatment. No overt signs of treatment-related toxicity were noted.

  14. Characterization and Structure of the Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Antagonist A46 *

    PubMed Central

    Fedosyuk, Sofiya; Grishkovskaya, Irina; de Almeida Ribeiro, Euripedes; Skern, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Successful vaccinia virus (VACV) replication in the host requires expression of viral proteins that interfere with host immunity, such as antagonists of the activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Two such VACV proteins are A46 and A52. A46 interacts with the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of Toll-like receptors and intracellular adaptors such as MAL (MyD88 adapter-like), TRAM (TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-related adaptor molecule), TRIF, and MyD88, whereas A52 binds to the downstream signaling components TRAF6 and IRAK2. Here, we characterize A46 biochemically, determine by microscale thermophoresis binding constants for the interaction of A46 with the TIR domains of MyD88 and MAL, and present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of A46 residues 87–229. Full-length A46 behaves as a tetramer; variants lacking the N-terminal 80 residues are dimeric. Nevertheless, both bind to the Toll-like receptor domains of MAL and MyD88 with KD values in the low μm range. Like A52, A46 also shows a Bcl-2-like fold but with biologically relevant differences from that of A52. Thus, A46 uses helices α4 and α6 to dimerize, compared with the α1-α6 face used by A52 and other Bcl-2 like VACV proteins. Furthermore, the loop between A46 helices α4-α5 is flexible and shorter than in A52; there is also evidence for an intramolecular disulfide bridge between consecutive cysteine residues. We used molecular docking to propose how A46 interacts with the BB loop of the TRAM TIR domain. Comparisons of A46 and A52 exemplify how subtle changes in viral proteins with the same fold lead to crucial differences in biological activity. PMID:24356965

  15. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.

  16. Immunization of newborn rhesus macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines prolongs survival after oral challenge with virulent SIVmac251.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, Koen K A; Greenier, Jennifer L; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Pahar, Bapi; Rourke, Tracy; Montelaro, Ronald C; Canfield, Don R; Tarara, Ross P; Miller, Christopher; McChesney, Michael B; Marthas, Marta L

    2003-01-01

    There is an urgent need for active immunization strategies that, if administered shortly after birth, could protect infants in developing countries from acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through breast-feeding. Better knowledge of the immunogenic properties of vaccine candidates in infants and of the effect of maternal antibodies on vaccine efficacy will aid in the development of such a neonatal HIV vaccine. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques is a useful animal model of pediatric HIV infection with which to address these questions. Groups of infant macaques were immunized at birth and 3 weeks of age with either modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing SIV Gag, Pol, and Env (MVA-SIVgpe) or live-attenuated SIVmac1A11. One MVA-SIVgpe-immunized group had maternally derived anti-SIV antibodies prior to immunization. Animals were challenged orally at 4 weeks of age with a genetically heterogeneous stock of virulent SIVmac251. Although all animals became infected, the immunized animals mounted better antiviral antibody responses, controlled virus levels more effectively, and had a longer disease-free survival than the unvaccinated infected monkeys. Maternal antibodies did not significantly reduce the efficacy of the MVA-SIVgpe vaccine. In conclusion, although the tested vaccines delayed the onset of AIDS, further studies are warranted to determine whether a vaccine that elicits stronger early immune responses at the time of virus exposure may be able to prevent viral infection or AIDS in infants. PMID:12477823

  17. Hepatitis C virus and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Malihe; Gholipour, Naghmeh; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Moradi Binabaj, Maryam; Yegane Moghadam, Ahmad; Motalleb, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is approximately 3% around the world. This virus causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The effectiveness of interferon-α and ribavirin therapy is about 50% and is associated with significant toxicity and cost. Hence, generating new vaccines or drugs is an obligation. However, there is no vaccine available for clinical use. DNA vaccines have some advantages such as producing feasibility and generating intensive cellular and humoral immune responses. Activation and improvement of natural immune defense mechanisms is a necessity for the development of an effective HCV vaccine. This article discusses the current status of therapies for hepatitis C, the promising new therapies and the experimental strategies to develop an HCV vaccine. PMID:25635247

  18. Hepatitis C Virus and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Malihe; Gholipour, Naghmeh; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Moradi Binabaj, Maryam; Yegane Moghadam, Ahmad; Motalleb, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is approximately 3% around the world. This virus causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The effectiveness of interferon-α and ribavirin therapy is about 50% and is associated with significant toxicity and cost. Hence, generating new vaccines or drugs is an obligation. However, there is no vaccine available for clinical use. DNA vaccines have some advantages such as producing feasibility and generating intensive cellular and humoral immune responses. Activation and improvement of natural immune defense mechanisms is a necessity for the development of an effective HCV vaccine. This article discusses the current status of therapies for hepatitis C, the promising new therapies and the experimental strategies to develop an HCV vaccine. PMID:25635247

  19. Synthesis, cellular location, and immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gI and gIII expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S; Zamb, T; Babiuk, L A

    1989-01-01

    Two of the major glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) are gI, a polypeptide complex with apparent molecular weights of 130,000, 74,000, and 55,000, and gIII (a 91,000-molecular-weight [91K] glycoprotein), which also exists as a 180K dimer. Vaccinia virus (VAC) recombinants were constructed which carry full-length gI (VAC-I) or gIII (VAC-III) genes. The genes for gI and gIII were each placed under the control of the early VAC 7.5K gene promoter and inserted within the VAC gene for thymidine kinase. The recombinant viruses VAC-I and VAC-III retained infectivity and expressed both precursor and mature forms of glycoproteins gI and gIII. The polypeptide backbones, partially glycosylated precursors, and mature gI and gIII glycoproteins were indistinguishable from those produced in BHV-1-infected cells. Consequently, they were apparently cleaved, glycosylated, and transported in a manner similar to that seen during authentic BHV-1 infection, although the processing efficiencies of both gI and gIII were generally higher in recombinant-infected cells than in BHV-1-infected cells. Immunofluorescence studies further demonstrated that the mature gI and gIII glycoproteins were transported to and expressed on the surface of cells infected with the respective recombinants. Immunization of cattle with recombinant viruses VAC-I and VAC-III resulted in the induction of neutralizing antibodies to BHV-1, which were reactive with authentic gI and gIII. These data demonstrate the immunogenicity of VAC-expressed gI and gIII and indicate the potential of these recombinant glycoproteins as a vaccine against BHV-1. Images PMID:2539509

  20. Phase 1 study of intratumoral Pexa-Vec (JX-594), an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus, in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Timothy P; Ngo, Minhtran C; Geller, James I; Louis, Chrystal U; Currier, Mark A; Racadio, John M; Towbin, Alexander J; Rooney, Cliona M; Pelusio, Adina; Moon, Anne; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Burke, James M; Bell, John C; Kirn, David H; Breitbach, Caroline J

    2015-03-01

    Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirepvec, JX-594) is an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus designed to destroy cancer cells through viral lysis and induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-driven tumor-specific immunity. Pexa-Vec has undergone phase 1 and 2 testing alone and in combination with other therapies in adult patients, via both intratumoral and intravenous administration routes. We sought to determine the safety of intratumoral administration in pediatric patients. In a dose-escalation study using either 10(6) or 10(7) plaque-forming units per kilogram, we performed one-time injections in up to three tumor sites in five pediatric patients and two injections in one patient. Ages at study entry ranged from 4 to 21 years, and their cancer diagnoses included neuroblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and Ewing sarcoma. All toxicities were ≤ grade 3. The most common side effects were sinus fever and sinus tachycardia. All three patients at the higher dose developed asymptomatic grade 1 treatment-related skin pustules that resolved within 3-4 weeks. One patient showed imaging evidence suggestive of antitumor biological activity. The two patients tested for cellular immunoreactivity to vaccinia antigens showed strong responses. Overall, our study suggests Pexa-Vec is safe to administer to pediatric patients by intratumoral administration and could be studied further in this patient population. PMID:25531693

  1. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Infected Dendritic Cells Present CD4+ T-Cell Epitopes by Endogenous Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Presentation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Frank; Tao, Sha; Zhang, Yi; Muschaweckh, Andreas; Zollmann, Tina; Protzer, Ulrike; Abele, Rubert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ T lymphocytes play a central role in the immune system and mediate their function after recognition of their respective antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Conventionally, phagocytosed antigens are loaded on MHCII for stimulation of CD4+ T cells. Certain epitopes, however, can be processed directly from intracellular antigens and are presented on MHCII (endogenous MHCII presentation). Here we characterized the MHCII antigen presentation pathways that are possibly involved in the immune response upon vaccination with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a promising live viral vaccine vector. We established CD4+ T-cell lines specific for MVA-derived epitopes as tools for in vitro analysis of MHCII antigen processing and presentation in MVA-infected APCs. We provide evidence that infected APCs are able to directly transfer endogenous viral proteins into the MHCII pathway to efficiently activate CD4+ T cells. By using knockout mice and chemical inhibitory compounds, we further elucidated the molecular basis, showing that among the various subcellular pathways investigated, proteasomes and autophagy are key players in the endogenous MHCII presentation during MVA infection. Interestingly, although proteasomal processing plays an important role, neither TAP nor LAMP-2 was found to be involved in the peptide transport. Defining the molecular mechanism of MHCII presentation during MVA infection provides a basis for improving MVA-based vaccination strategies by aiming for enhanced CD4+ T-cell activation by directing antigens into the responsible pathways. IMPORTANCE This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the immunogenic properties of pathogens by deciphering antigen processing pathways contributing to efficient activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We identified autophagosome formation, proteasomal activity, and lysosomal integrity as being crucial for endogenous CD4+ T-cell activation. Since poxvirus vectors such as MVA are already used in clinical trials as recombinant vaccines, the data provide important information for the future design of optimized poxviral vaccines for the study of advanced immunotherapy options. PMID:25520512

  2. Immunization of mice with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing authentic dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 protects against lethal dengue virus encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Falgout, B; Bray, M; Schlesinger, J J; Lai, C J

    1990-01-01

    The protective immunity conferred by a set of recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the entire coding sequence of dengue virus type 4 nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 plus various flanking sequences was evaluated by using a mouse encephalitis model. Mice immunized with recombinant vNS1-NS2a, which expresses authentic NS1, were solidly protected against intracerebral dengue virus challenge. However, mice immunized with recombinants vNS1-15%NS2a and vRSVG/NS1-15%NS2a, which express aberrant forms of NS1, were only partially protected (63 to 67% survival rate). Serologic analysis showed that mice immunized with vNS1-NS2a developed high titers of antibodies to NS1 as measured by radioimmunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and complement-mediated cytolytic assays. In addition, a pool of sera from these animals was protective in a passive transfer experiment. Lower titers of NS1-specific antibodies were detected in sera of animals immunized with vNS1-15%NS2a or vRSVG/NS1-15%NS2a by all three assays. These data support the view that protection against dengue virus infection in mice may be mediated at least in part by NS1-specific antibodies through a mechanism of complement-mediated lysis of infected cells. Additionally, immunization with two recombinant viruses expressing authentic NS1 of dengue virus type 2 conferred partial protection (30-50%) against dengue virus type 2 challenge. Images PMID:2143542

  3. Modulation of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats by recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the human 60-kilodalton heat shock protein.

    PubMed Central

    López-Guerrero, J A; López-Bote, J P; Ortiz, M A; Gupta, R S; Páez, E; Bernabeu, C

    1993-01-01

    The immune response to the mycobacterial 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) is considered an important event in the induction of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats; this induction probably occurs through a molecular mimicry mechanism involving cross-reactivity against the rat homolog hsp60. To analyze the role of mammalian molecule hsp60 in arthritis, we generated a recombinant vaccinia virus (hsp60-VV) carrying the human hsp60 gene inserted into the thymidine kinase locus under the control of the 7.5k vaccinia virus promoter. Human hsp60 is almost identical to its rat homolog (97.4% linear amino acid homology) and shares about 50% of amino acid positions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis hsp65. The latter supposedly carries a critical epitope for AA induction that is not present in human hsp60. Infections with hsp60-VV of monkey cell cultures led to the expression of the human hsp60 molecule, as evidenced by immunoblotting analysis with specific monoclonal antibodies. Also, Lewis rats infected with hsp60-VV produced specific antibodies, demonstrating the in vivo expression of human hsp60 in the infected animals. Therefore, we used hsp60-VV to analyze whether the delivery of hsp60 could affect the induction of AA in Lewis rats. hsp60-VV clearly reduced and retarded arthritic symptoms when administered to rats at day 7 after AA induction. In contrast, inoculation of rats with a control recombinant vaccinia virus did not affect the course of the disease. The improvement in AA with hsp60-VV administration was associated with a specific immune response, as determined by the presence of antibodies to hsp60 in the sera and the proliferation induced by hsp60 of T cells from popliteal lymph nodes. These results support a critical role for immunity to heat shock proteins in AA. Since the protective construct is virtually identical to rat homolog hsp60, we conclude that immunity directed to conserved areas of this family of proteins is directly involved in the pathogenesis of AA. Images PMID:8406810

  4. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    PubMed Central

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopox-viruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. PMID:23816434

  5. Kinetics and intracellular location of intramolecular disulfide bond formation mediated by the cytoplasmic redox system encoded by vaccinia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Bisht, Himani; Brown, Erica; Moss, Bernard

    2010-03-15

    Poxviruses encode a redox system for intramolecular disulfide bond formation in cytoplasmic domains of viral proteins. Our objectives were to determine the kinetics and intracellular location of disulfide bond formation. The vaccinia virus L1 myristoylated membrane protein, used as an example, has three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Reduced and disulfide-bonded forms of L1 were distinguished by electrophoretic mobility and reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Because disulfide bonds formed during 5 min pulse labeling with radioactive amino acids, a protocol was devised in which dithiothreitol was present at this step. Disulfide bond formation was detected by 2 min after removal of reducing agent and was nearly complete in 10 min. When the penultimate glycine residue was mutated to prevent myristoylation, L1 was mistargeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and disulfide bond formation failed to occur. These data suggested that viral membrane association was required for oxidation of L1, providing specificity for the process.

  6. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  7. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  9. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  10. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  11. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  13. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  14. Primary pulmonary cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by immunization with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing influenza A virus nucleoprotein peptide do not protect mice against challenge.

    PubMed

    Lawson, C M; Bennink, J R; Restifo, N P; Yewdell, J W; Murphy, B R

    1994-06-01

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus is the dominant antigen recognized by influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and adoptive transfer of NP-specific CTLs protects mice from influenza A virus infection. BALB/c mouse cells (H-2d) recognize a single Kd-restricted CTL epitope of NP consisting of amino acids 147 to 155. In the present study, mice were immunized with various vaccinia virus recombinant viruses to examine the effect of the induction of primary pulmonary CTLs on resistance to challenge with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. The minigene ESNP(147-155)-VAC construct, composed of a signal sequence from the adenovirus E3/19K glycoprotein (designated ES) and expressing the 9-amino-acid NP natural determinant (amino acids 147 to 155) preceded by an alanine residue, a similar minigene NP(Met 147-155)-VAC lacking ES, and a full-length NP-VAC recombinant of influenza virus were analyzed. The two minigene NP-VAC recombinants induced a greater primary pulmonary CTL response than the full-length NP-VAC recombinant. However, NP-specific CTLs induced by immunization with ESNP(147-155)-VAC did not decrease peak virus titer or accelerate clearance of virus in the lungs of mice challenged intranasally with A/PR/8/34. Furthermore, NP-specific CTLs induced by immunization did not protect mice challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of A/PR/8/34. Sequence analysis of the NP CTL epitope of A/PR/8/34 challenge virus obtained from lungs after 8 days of replication in ESNP(147-155)-VAC-immunized mice showed identity with that of the input virus, demonstrating that an escape mutant had not emerged during replication in vivo. Thus, in contrast to adoptively transferred CTLs, pulmonary NP-specific CTLs induced by recombinant vaccinia virus immunization do not have protective in vivo antiviral activity against influenza virus infection. PMID:7514677

  15. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Milk: Evidence of a Systemic and Persistent Infection in Experimentally Infected Cows.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Trcia Moreira Ludolfo; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Rivetti, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Cerqueira, Mnica Maria Oliveira Pinho; Abraho, Jnatas Santos; Lobato, Zlia Ins Portela

    2015-11-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects lactating cows and milkers. VACV DNA and infectious particles have been detected in milk of naturally infected cows. However, the period and pattern of VACV shedding in milk is unknown, as is whether the presence of VACV in milk is due to a localized or a systemic infection. To address those questions, eight lactating cows were inoculated with VACV in previously scarified teats. The experiment was divided in two phases. In Phase 1, milk samples were collected daily for 33 days, and in Phase 2, four animals from the first phase were immunosuppressed. In both phases, milk was collected with a sterile catheter on even days and by hand milking on odd days. All animals showed typical BV lesions in the inoculated teats. All milk samples were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR to detect VACV DNA. PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation. VACV DNA was intermittently detected in milk in both phases and infectious viral particles could be detected only in phase 2, on the 69th, 73rd, 74th, 77th, 79th, and 81st days postinfection. Despite the possibility of propagation of VACV through milk, it is known that milk continues to be drawn and marketed normally during outbreaks of the disease. The detection of both VACV DNA and infectious particles in milk samples draws attention to the potential public health risk associated with the consumption of milk from BV outbreaks. Detection of VACV in the milk from noninfected teats demonstrated that VACV shedding in milk might be related to a systemic infection. Moreover, it was shown that VACV DNA and viral infectious particles could be detected in milk even after healing of the lesions, demonstrating that VACV may cause a persistent infection in cattle. PMID:26545169

  16. Vaccinia Virus Mutations in the L4R Gene Encoding a Virion Structural Protein Produce Abnormal Mature Particles Lacking a Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron micrographs from the 1960s revealed the presence of an S-shaped tubular structure in the center of the vaccinia virion core. Recently, we showed that packaging of virus transcription enzymes is necessary for the formation of the tubular structure, suggesting that the structure is equivalent to a nucleocapsid. Based on this study and on what is known about nucleocapsids of other viruses, we hypothesized that in addition to transcription enzymes, the tubular structure also contains the viral DNA and a structural protein as a scaffold. The vaccinia virion structural protein L4 stands out as the best candidate for the role of a nucleocapsid structural protein because it is abundant, it is localized in the center of the virion core, and it binds DNA. In order to gain more insight into the structure and relevance of the nucleocapsid, we analyzed thermosensitive and inducible mutants in the L4R gene. Using a cryo-fixation method for electron microscopy (high-pressure freezing followed by freeze-substitution) to preserve labile structures like the nucleocapsid, we were able to demonstrate that in the absence of functional L4, mature particles with defective internal structures are produced under nonpermissive conditions. These particles do not contain a nucleocapsid. In addition, the core wall of these virions is abnormal. This suggests that the nucleocapsid interacts with the core wall and that the nucleocapsid structure might be more complex than originally assumed. IMPORTANCE The vaccinia virus nucleocapsid has been neglected since the 1960s due to a lack of electron microscopy techniques to preserve this labile structure. With the advent of cryo-fixation techniques, like high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, we are now able to consistently preserve and visualize the nucleocapsid. Because vaccinia virus early transcription is coupled to the viral core structure, detailing the structure of the nucleocapsid is indispensable for determining the mechanisms of vaccinia virus core-directed transcription. The present study represents our second attempt to understand the structure and biological significance of the nucleocapsid. We demonstrate the importance of the protein L4 for the formation of the nucleocapsid and reveal in addition that the nucleocapsid and the core wall may be associated, suggesting a higher level of complexity of the nucleocapsid than predicted. In addition, we prove the utility of high-pressure freezing in preserving the vaccinia virus nucleocapsid. PMID:25253347

  17. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J.S.; Nidom, Chairul A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A.; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  18. Innate Immune Sensing of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) Is Mediated by TLR2-TLR6, MDA-5 and the NALP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Delaloye, Julie; Roger, Thierry; Steiner-Tardivel, Quynh-Giao; Le Roy, Didier; Knaup Reymond, Marlies; Akira, Shizuo; Petrilli, Virginie; Gomez, Carmen E.; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Tschopp, Jürg; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano; Calandra, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated double-stranded DNA poxvirus currently developed as a vaccine vector against HIV/AIDS. Profiling of the innate immune responses induced by MVA is essential for the design of vaccine vectors and for anticipating potential adverse interactions between naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immune responses. Here we report on innate immune sensing of MVA and cytokine responses in human THP-1 cells, primary human macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). The innate immune responses elicited by MVA in human macrophages were characterized by a robust chemokine production and a fairly weak pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Analyses of the cytokine production profile of macrophages isolated from knockout mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or in the adapter molecules MyD88 and TRIF revealed a critical role for TLR2, TLR6 and MyD88 in the production of IFNβ-independent chemokines. MVA induced a marked up-regulation of the expression of RIG-I like receptors (RLR) and the IPS-1 adapter (also known as Cardif, MAVS or VISA). Reduced expression of RIG-I, MDA-5 and IPS-1 by shRNAs indicated that sensing of MVA by RLR and production of IFNβ and IFNβ-dependent chemokines was controlled by the MDA-5 and IPS-1 pathway in the macrophage. Crosstalk between TLR2-MyD88 and the NALP3 inflammasome was essential for expression and processing of IL-1β. Transcription of the Il1b gene was markedly impaired in TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− BMDM, whereas mature and secreted IL-1β was massively reduced in NALP3−/− BMDMs or in human THP-1 macrophages with reduced expression of NALP3, ASC or caspase-1 by shRNAs. Innate immune sensing of MVA and production of chemokines, IFNβ and IL-1β by macrophages is mediated by the TLR2-TLR6-MyD88, MDA-5-IPS-1 and NALP3 inflammasome pathways. Delineation of the host response induced by MVA is critical for improving our understanding of poxvirus antiviral escape mechanisms and for designing new MVA vaccine vectors with improved immunogenicity. PMID:19543380

  19. [Vaccination against varicella-zoster virus].

    PubMed

    Silenzi, M

    1984-01-01

    The live varicella virus vaccine which was developed by Takahashi et al, in Japan in 1974 is under study in many countries. This vaccine is able to induce a high degree of immunity in the absence of acute reactions, and therefore it appears to be an effective help in the prevention of VZ infection. The capacity of VZV to become latent in neuronal cells represents a major difficulty in developing strategies for extensive vaccination. Other potential problems are summarized. More extensive studies and clinical trials are required, on the assumption that benefits will outweigh hypothetical risks, before this new immunization is started in children with or without underlying disease. PMID:6099549

  20. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of poxvirus-based vector vaccines expressing the haemagglutinin gene of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Constantinos S; De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Barb, Filip; Bublot, Michel; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of different pox-vector vaccines expressing the haemagglutinin of a highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/chicken/Indonesia/7/03) in pigs. Pigs were vaccinated twice, with a 4-week interval, with a fowlpox (TROVAC), a canarypox (ALVAC), or a vaccinia (NYVAC) vector vaccine combined with an oil-in-water adjuvant, with the unadjuvanted NYVAC, or left unvaccinated. Six weeks after the second vaccination, all pigs were challenged intra-tracheally with low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV A/chicken/Belgium/150/99. Sera were examined in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests against the H5N1 AIV from which the vaccine haemagglutinin derived, the challenge virus and the human A/Vietnam/1194/04 HPAIV. After challenge pigs were compared for H5N2 virus replication in the trachea and 4 lung lobes at 24 or 72h post-challenge. Vaccination was well tolerated by all animals. Antibody titres peaked 2 weeks after the second vaccination and were 2- to 4-fold higher against the vaccine virus than heterologous H5 viruses. The NYVAC and ALVAC adjuvanted vaccines consistently induced higher antibody titres than TROVAC or NYVAC without adjuvant. Following challenge, the H5N2 challenge virus was isolated from all unvaccinated pigs, while 19 out of 21 vaccinates showed complete virological protection. Pox-vector vaccines were safe, immunogenic and efficacious against challenge with a heterologous H5 AIV, offering an alternative to classical inactivated vaccines. It remains to be seen whether they would protect against a swine-adapted H5 virus, which may replicate 100-1000 times better than our challenge virus. PMID:19428840

  1. Coinfection with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing poliovirus P1 and P3 proteins results in polyprotein processing and formation of empty capsid structures.

    PubMed Central

    Ansardi, D C; Porter, D C; Morrow, C D

    1991-01-01

    The assembly process of poliovirus occurs via an ordered proteolytic processing of the capsid precursor protein, P1, by the virus-encoded proteinase 3CD. To further delineate this process, we have isolated a recombinant vaccinia virus which expresses, upon infection, the poliovirus P1 capsid precursor polyprotein with an authentic carboxy terminus. Coinfection of HeLa cells with the P1-expressing vaccinia virus and with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which expresses the poliovirus proteinase 3CD resulted in the correct processing of P1 to yield the three individual capsid proteins VP0, VP3, and VP1. When extracts from coinfected cells were fractionated on sucrose density gradients, the VP0, VP3, and VP1 capsid proteins were immunoprecipitated with type 1 poliovirus antisera from fractions corresponding to a sedimentation consistent for poliovirus 75S procapsids. Examination of these fractions by electron microscopy revealed structures which lacked electron-dense cores and which corresponded in size and shape to those expected for poliovirus empty capsids. We conclude that the expression of the two poliovirus proteins P1 and 3CD in coinfected cells is sufficient for the correct processing of the capsid precursor to VP0, VP3, and VP1 as well as for the assembly of poliovirus empty capsid-like structures. Images PMID:1848318

  2. Prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia Ankara encoding TRAP provides partial protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in Kenyan adults

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nick J.; Roberts, Rachel; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Njuguna, Patricia; Viebig, Nicola K.; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gitau, Evelyn; Douglas, Sandy; Illingworth, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Lawrie, Alison; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B.; Ewer, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. We randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both encoding the malaria peptide sequence ME-TRAP (the multiple epitope string and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein), or to vaccination with rabies vaccine as a control. We gave antimalarials to clear parasitemia and conducted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis on blood samples three times a week to identify infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. On Cox regression, vaccination reduced the risk of infection by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33 to 83%; P = 0.002] during 8 weeks of monitoring. T cell responses to TRAP peptides 21 to 30 were significantly associated with protection (hazard ratio,0.24; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.75; P = 0.016). PMID:25947165

  3. Prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia Ankara encoding TRAP provides partial protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in Kenyan adults.

    PubMed

    Ogwang, Caroline; Kimani, Domtila; Edwards, Nick J; Roberts, Rachel; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly; Hodgson, Susanne H; Njuguna, Patricia; Viebig, Nicola K; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gitau, Evelyn; Douglas, Sandy; Illingworth, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Lawrie, Alison; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ewer, Katie; Urban, Britta C; S Hill, Adrian V; Bejon, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. We randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both encoding the malaria peptide sequence ME-TRAP (the multiple epitope string and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein), or to vaccination with rabies vaccine as a control. We gave antimalarials to clear parasitemia and conducted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis on blood samples three times a week to identify infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. On Cox regression, vaccination reduced the risk of infection by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33 to 83%; P = 0.002] during 8 weeks of monitoring. T cell responses to TRAP peptides 21 to 30 were significantly associated with protection (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.75; P = 0.016). PMID:25947165

  4. Vaccinia Virus N1l Protein Resembles a B Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Family Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, M.; Zhai, D.; Jin, C.; Aleshin, A.E.; Stec, B.; Reed, J.C.; Liddington, R.C.; /Burnham Inst.

    2007-07-03

    Poxviruses encode immuno-modulatory proteins capable of subverting host defenses. The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence. We report the crystal structure of N1L, which reveals an unexpected but striking resemblance to host apoptotic regulators of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Although N1L lacks detectable Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs at the sequence level, we show that N1L binds with high affinity to the BH3 peptides of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in vitro, consistent with a role for N1L in modulating host antiviral defenses.

  5. A marker-free system for highly efficient construction of vaccinia virus vectors using CRISPR Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ming; Gao, Xuefei; Chard, Louisa S; Ali, Zarah; Ahmed, Jahangir; Li, Yunqing; Liu, Pentao; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-01-01

    The current method for creation of vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors involves using a selection and purification marker, however inclusion of a gene without therapeutic value in the resulting vector is not desirable for clinical use. The Cre-LoxP system has been used to make marker-free Poxviruses, but the efficiency was very low. To obtain a marker-free VACV vector, we developed marker gene excision systems to modify the thymidine kinase (TK) region and N1L regions using Cre-Loxp and Flp-FRET systems respectively. CRISPR-Cas9 system significantly resulted in a high efficiency (~90%) in generation of marker gene-positive TK-mutant VACV vector. The marker gene (RFP) could be excised from the recombinant virus using Cre recombinase. To make a marker-free VV vector with double gene deletions targeting the TK and N1L gene, we constructed a donor repair vector targeting the N1L gene, which can carry a therapeutic gene and the marker (RFP) that could be excised from the recombinant virus using Flp recombinase. The marker-free system developed here can be used to efficiently construct VACV vectors armed with any therapeutic genes in the TK region or N1L region without marker genes. Our marker-free system platform has significant potential for development of new marker-free VACV vectors for clinical application. PMID:26417609

  6. Structure Function Studies of Vaccinia Virus Host Range Protein K1 Reveal a Novel Functional Surface for Ankyrin Repeat Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongchao; Meng, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Yan; Deng, Junpeng

    2010-01-01

    Poxvirus host tropism at the cellular level is regulated by virus-encoded host range proteins acting downstream of virus entry. The functioning mechanisms of most host range proteins are unclear, but many contain multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a motif that is known for ligand interaction through a concave surface. We report here the crystal structure of one of the ANK repeat-containing host range proteins, the vaccinia virus K1 protein. The structure, at a resolution of 2.3 Å, showed that K1 consists entirely of ANK repeats, including seven complete ones and two incomplete ones, one each at the N and C terminus. Interestingly, Phe82 and Ser83, which were previously shown to be critical for K1's function, are solvent exposed and located on a convex surface, opposite the consensus ANK interaction surface. The importance of this convex surface was further supported by our additional mutagenesis studies. We found that K1's host range function was negatively affected by substitution of either Asn51 or Cys47 and completely abolished by substitution of both residues. Cys47 and Asn51 are also exposed on the convex surface, spatially adjacent to Phe82 and Ser83. Altogether, our data showed that K1 residues on a continuous convex ANK repeat surface are critical for the host range function, suggesting that K1 functions through ligand interaction and does so with a novel ANK interaction surface. PMID:20089642

  7. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... rhinotracheitis virus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and observed each day... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  8. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... rhinotracheitis virus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and observed each day... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  9. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... rhinotracheitis virus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and observed each day... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  10. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... rhinotracheitis virus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and observed each day... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  11. Assessment of the Protective Effect of Imvamune and Acam2000 Vaccines against Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Victoria A.; Bewley, Kevin R.; Dennis, Mike; Taylor, Irene; Funnell, Simon G. P.; Bate, Simon R.; Steeds, Kimberley; Tipton, Thomas; Bean, Thomas; Hudson, Laura; Atkinson, Deborah J.; McLuckie, Gemma; Charlwood, Melanie; Roberts, Allen D. G.; Vipond, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To support the licensure of a new and safer vaccine to protect people against smallpox, a monkeypox model of infection in cynomolgus macaques, which simulates smallpox in humans, was used to evaluate two vaccines, Acam2000 and Imvamune, for protection against disease. Animals vaccinated with a single immunization of Imvamune were not protected completely from severe and/or lethal infection, whereas those receiving either a prime and boost of Imvamune or a single immunization with Acam2000 were protected completely. Additional parameters, including clinical observations, radiographs, viral load in blood, throat swabs, and selected tissues, vaccinia virus-specific antibody responses, immunophenotyping, extracellular cytokine levels, and histopathology were assessed. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the levels of neutralizing antibody in animals vaccinated with a single immunization of Acam2000 (132 U/ml) and the prime-boost Imvamune regime (69 U/ml) prior to challenge with monkeypox virus. After challenge, there was evidence of viral excretion from the throats of 2 of 6 animals in the prime-boost Imvamune group, whereas there was no confirmation of excreted live virus in the Acam2000 group. This evaluation of different human smallpox vaccines in cynomolgus macaques helps to provide information about optimal vaccine strategies in the absence of human challenge studies. PMID:23658452

  12. Structure-Function Analysis of Vaccinia Virus H7 Protein Reveals a Novel Phosphoinositide Binding Fold Essential for Poxvirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kolli, Swapna; Meng, Xiangzhi; Wu, Xiang; Shengjuler, Djoshkun; Cameron, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play a critical role in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Their critical role in replication of cytoplasmic viruses has just begun to be understood. Poxviruses, a family of large cytoplasmic DNA viruses, rely on the intracellular membranes to develop their envelope, and poxvirus morphogenesis requires enzymes from the cellular phosphoinositide metabolic pathway. However, the role of phosphoinositides in poxvirus replication remains unclear, and no poxvirus proteins show any homology to eukaryotic phosphoinositide binding domains. Recently, a group of poxvirus proteins, termed viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs), were identified as essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. A key component of VMAPs is the H7 protein. Here we report the crystal structure of the H7 protein from vaccinia virus. The H7 structure displays a novel fold comprised of seven α-helices and a highly curved three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. We identified a phosphoinositide binding site in H7, comprised of basic residues on a surface patch and the flexible C-terminal tail. These residues were found to be essential for viral replication and for binding of H7 to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Our studies suggest that phosphoinositide binding by H7 plays an essential role in poxvirus membrane biogenesis. IMPORTANCE Poxvirus viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs) were recently shown to be essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. One of the key components of VMAPs is the H7 protein. However, no known structural motifs could be identified from its sequence, and there are no homologs of H7 outside the poxvirus family to suggest a biochemical function. We have determined the crystal structure of the vaccinia virus (VACV) H7 protein. The structure displays a novel fold with a distinct and positively charged surface. Our data demonstrate that H7 binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and that the basic surface patch is indeed required for phosphoinositide binding. In addition, mutation of positively charged residues required for lipid binding disrupted VACV replication. Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play critical roles in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Our study demonstrates that VACV H7 displays a novel fold for phosphoinositide binding, which is essential for poxvirus replication. PMID:25473060

  13. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  14. Therapeutics and vaccines against chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Tero; Couderc, Therese; Courderc, Therese; Ng, Lisa F P; Hallengärd, David; Powers, Ann; Lecuit, Marc; Esteban, Mariano; Merits, Andres; Roques, Pierre; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 and Kaur and Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease. PMID:25897811

  15. The Vaccinia Virus Superoxide Dismutase-Like Protein (A45R) Is a Virion Component That Is Nonessential for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Almazán, Fernando; Tscharke, David C.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    A characterization of the A45R gene from vaccinia virus (VV) strain Western Reserve is presented. The open reading frame is predicted to encode a 125-amino-acid protein (Mr, of 13,600) with 39% amino acid identity to copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD). Sequencing of the A45R gene from other orthopoxviruses, here and by others, showed that the protein is highly conserved in all viruses sequenced, including 16 strains of VV, 2 strains of cowpox virus, camelpox virus, and 4 strains of variola virus. In all cases the protein lacks key residues involved in metal ion binding that are important for the catalytic activity. The A45R protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and tested for SOD activity, but neither enzymatic nor inhibitory SOD activity was detected. Additionally, no virus-encoded SOD activity was detected in infected cells or purified virions. A monoclonal antibody raised against the A45R protein expressed in E. coli identified the A45R gene product as a 13.5-kDa protein that is expressed late during VV infection. Confocal microscopy of VV-infected cells indicated that the A45R protein accumulated predominantly in cytoplasmic viral factories. Electron microscopy and biochemical analyses showed that the A45R protein is incorporated into the virion core. A deletion mutant lacking the majority of the A45R gene and a revertant virus in which the deleted gene was restored were constructed and characterized. The growth properties of the deletion mutant virus were indistinguishable from those of wild-type and revertant viruses in all cell lines tested, including macrophages. Additionally, the virulence and pathogenicity of the three viruses were also comparable in murine and rabbit models of infection. A45R is unusual in being the first VV core protein described that affects neither virus replication nor virulence. PMID:11435582

  16. Chimpanzee adenovirus- and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher A; Scarselli, Elisa; Sande, Charles J; Thompson, Amber J; de Lara, Catherine M; Taylor, Kathryn S; Haworth, Kathryn; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Angus, Brian; Siani, Loredana; Di Marco, Stefania; Traboni, Cinzia; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Capone, Stefania; Vitelli, Alessandra; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Nicosia, Alfredo; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-08-12

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection in annual epidemics, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. However, despite its importance, no vaccine exists. The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication-defective viral vectors encoding the RSV fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M2-1) proteins for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. We performed an open-label, dose escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of the adenovirus-vectored vaccine. The vaccines were safe and well tolerated, with the most common reported adverse events being mild injection site reactions. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. RSV neutralizing antibody titers rose in response to IM prime with PanAd3-RSV and after IM boost for individuals primed by the IN route. Circulating anti-F immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) were observed after the IM prime and IM boost. RSV-specific T cell responses were increased after the IM PanAd3-RSV prime and were most efficiently boosted by IM MVA-RSV. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion after boost was from both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, without detectable T helper cell 2 (TH2) cytokines that have been previously associated with immune pathogenesis following exposure to RSV after the formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine. In conclusion, PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. These vaccine candidates warrant further clinical evaluation of efficacy to assess their potential to reduce the burden of RSV disease. PMID:26268313

  17. A Novel MVA Vectored Chikungunya Virus Vaccine Elicits Protective Immunity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weger-Lucarelli, James; Chu, Haiyan; Aliota, Matthew T.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus associated with febrile illness often accompanied by rash and arthralgia that may persist for several years. Outbreaks are associated with high morbidity and create a public health challenge for countries affected. Recent outbreaks have occurred in both Europe and the Americas, suggesting CHIKV may continue to spread. Despite the sustained threat of the virus, there is no approved vaccine or antiviral therapy against CHIKV. Therefore, it is critical to develop a vaccine that is both well tolerated and highly protective. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we describe the construction and characterization of a modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) virus expressing CHIKV E3 and E2 proteins (MVA-CHIK) that protected several mouse models from challenge with CHIKV. In particular, BALB/c mice were completely protected against viremia upon challenge with CHIKV after two doses of MVA-CHIK. Additionally, A129 mice (deficient in IFNα/β) were protected from viremia, footpad swelling, and mortality. While high anti-virus antibodies were elicited, low or undetectable levels of neutralizing antibodies were produced in both mouse models. However, passive transfer of MVA-CHIK immune serum to naïve mice did not protect against mortality, suggesting that antibodies may not be the main effectors of protection afforded by MVA-CHIK. Furthermore, depletion of CD4+, but not CD8+ T-cells from vaccinated mice resulted in 100% mortality, implicating the indispensable role of CD4+ T-cells in the protection afforded by MVA-CHIK. Conclusions/Significance The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of MVA to effectively express CHIKV E3-E2 proteins and generate protective immune responses. Our findings challenge the assumption that only neutralizing antibodies are effective in providing protection against CHIKV, and provides a framework for the development of novel, more effective vaccine strategies to combat CHIKV. PMID:25058320

  18. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Ursula J.; Collins, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines offer several advantages for immunization of infants and young children: (1) they do not cause vaccine-associated enhanced RSV disease; (2) they broadly stimulate innate, humoral, and cellular immunity, both systemically and locally in the respiratory tract; (3) they are delivered intranasally; and (4) they replicate in the upper respiratory tract of young infants despite the presence of passively acquired maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibody. This chapter describes early efforts to develop vaccines through the classic methods of serial cold-passage and chemical mutagenesis, and recent efforts using reverse genetics to derive attenuated derivatives of wild-type (WT) RSV and to develop parainfluenza vaccine vectors that express RSV surface glycoproteins. PMID:24362694

  19. Mucosal vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kejian; Varga, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe respiratory disease in infants, young children, immune-compromised and elderly populations worldwide. Natural RSV infection in young children does not elicit long-lasting immunity and individuals remain susceptible to repeated RSV infections throughout life. Because RSV infection is restricted to the respiratory tract, an RSV vaccine should elicit mucosal immunity at upper and lower respiratory tracts in order to most effectively prevent RSV reinfection. Although there is no safe and effective RSV vaccine available, significant progress has been recently made in basic RSV research and vaccine development. This review will discuss recent advances in the identification of a new neutralizing antigenic site within the RSV fusion (F) protein, understanding the importance of mucosal immune responses against RSV infection, and the development of novel mucosal vaccination strategies. PMID:24794644

  20. Efficacy and safety/toxicity study of recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 in two immunocompetent animal models of glioma.

    PubMed

    Lun, XueQing; Chan, Jennifer; Zhou, Hongyuan; Sun, Beichen; Kelly, John J P; Stechishin, Owen Owen; Bell, John C; Parato, Kelley; Hu, Kang; Vaillant, Dominique; Wang, Jiahu; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Breitbach, Caroline; Kirn, David; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oncolytic potential of the recombinant, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing vaccinia virus (VV) JX-594 in experimental malignant glioma (MGs) in vitro and in immunocompetent rodent models. We have found that JX-594 killed all MG cell lines tested in vitro. Intratumoral (i.t.) administration of JX-594 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in rats-bearing RG2 intracranial (i.c.) tumors and mice-bearing GL261 brain tumors. Combination therapy with JX-594 and rapamycin significantly increased viral replication and further prolonged survival in both immunocompetent i.c. MG models with several animals considered "cured" (three out of seven rats >120 days, terminated experiment). JX-594 infected and killed brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from patient samples grown ex vivo, and did so more efficiently than other oncolytic viruses MYXV, Reovirus type-3, and VSV(ΔM51). Additional safety/toxicity studies in nontumor-bearing rodents treated with a supratherapeutic dose of JX-594 demonstrated GM-CSF-dependent inflammation and necrosis. These results suggest that i.c. administered JX-594 triggers a predictable GM-CSF-mediated inflammation in murine models. Before proceeding to clinical trials, JX-594 should be evaluated in the brains of nonhuman primates and optimized for the viral doses, delivery routes as well as the combination agents (e.g., mTOR inhibitors). PMID:20808290

  1. Vaccinia virus F16 protein, a predicted catalytically inactive member of the prokaryotic serine recombinase superfamily, is targeted to nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Senkevich, Tatiana G; Koonin, Eugene V; Moss, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    The F16L gene of vaccinia virus (VACV) is conserved in all chordopoxviruses except avipoxviruses. The crocodile poxvirus F16 protein ortholog has highly significant similarity to prokaryotic serine recombinases and contains all amino acids that comprise the catalytic site. In contrast, F16 orthologs encoded by other poxviruses show only marginally significant similarity to serine recombinases, lack essential amino acids of the active site and are most likely inactive derivatives of serine recombinases. Nevertheless, the conservation of F16L in non-avian poxviruses suggested an important function. However, a VACV mutant with the F16L gene knocked out replicated normally in dividing and quiescent cells. The F16 protein was synthesized early after infection and detected in virus cores. When expressed in infected or uninfected cells, F16 accumulated in nucleoli depending on the level of expression and confluency of cells. Evidence was obtained that F16 forms multimers, which might regulate concentration-dependent intracellular localization. PMID:21752417

  2. A vaccinia virus-driven interplay between the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway and cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anna C T C; Leite, Flvia G G; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Soares-Martins, Jamaria A P; Torres, Alice A; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Souto-Padrn, Thas; Traktman, Paula; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G; Bonjardim, Cludio A

    2012-01-01

    Viral manipulation of transduction pathways associated with key cellular functions such as survival, response to microbial infection, and cytoskeleton reorganization can provide the supportive milieu for a productive infection. Here, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus (VACV) infection leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 4/7 (MKK4/7)-c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) pathway; further, the stimulation of this pathway requires postpenetration, prereplicative events in the viral replication cycle. Although the formation of intracellular mature virus (IMV) was not affected in MKK4/7- or JNK1/2-knockout (KO) cells, we did note an accentuated deregulation of microtubule and actin network organization in infected JNK1/2-KO cells. This was followed by deregulated viral trafficking to the periphery and enhanced enveloped particle release. Furthermore, VACV infection induced alterations in the cell contractility and morphology, and cell migration was reduced in the JNK-KO cells. In addition, phosphorylation of proteins implicated with early cell contractility and cell migration, such as microtubule-associated protein 1B and paxillin, respectively, was not detected in the VACV-infected KO cells. In sum, our findings uncover a regulatory role played by the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway in cytoskeleton reorganization during VACV infection. PMID:22031940

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Promotes Vaccinia Virus Entry into Host Cells via Activation of the Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hiley, Crispin T.; Chard, Louisa S.; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Tysome, James R.; Briat, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) is an enveloped DNA virus from the poxvirus family and has played a crucial role in the eradication of smallpox. It continues to be used in immunotherapy for the prevention of infectious diseases and treatment of cancer. However, the mechanisms of poxvirus entry, the host factors that affect viral virulence, and the reasons for its natural tropism for tumor cells are incompletely understood. By studying the effect of hypoxia on VV infection, we found that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) augments oncolytic VV cytotoxicity. VEGF derived from tumor cells acts to increase VV internalization, resulting in increased replication and cytotoxicity in an AKT-dependent manner in both tumor cells and normal respiratory epithelial cells. Overexpression of VEGF also enhances VV infection within tumor tissue in vivo after systemic delivery. These results highlight the importance of VEGF expression in VV infection and have potential implications for the design of new strategies to prevent poxvirus infection and the development of future generations of oncolytic VV in combination with conventional or biological therapies. PMID:23269798

  4. Therapy and long-term prophylaxis of vaccinia virus respiratory infections in mice with an adenovirus-vectored interferon alpha (mDEF201).

    PubMed

    Smee, Donald F; Wong, Min-Hui; Russell, Andrew; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    An adenovirus 5 vector encoding for mouse interferon alpha, subtype 5 (mDEF201) was evaluated for efficacy against lethal vaccinia virus (WR strain) respiratory infections in mice. mDEF201 was administered as a single intranasal treatment either prophylactically or therapeutically at doses of 10(6) to 10(8) plaque forming units/mouse. When the prophylactic treatment was given at 56 days prior to infection, it protected 90% of animals from death (100% protection for treatments given between 1-49 days pre-infection), with minimal weight loss occurring during infection. Surviving animals re-challenged with virus 22 days after the primary infection were protected from death, indicating that mDEF201 did not compromise the immune response against the initial infection. Post-exposure therapy was given between 6-24 h after vaccinia virus exposure and protection was afforded by a 10(8) dose of mDEF201 given at 24 h, whereas a 10(7) dose was effective up to 12 h. Comparisons were made of the ability of mDEF201, given either 28 or 1 day prior to infection, to inhibit tissue virus titers and lung infection parameters. Lung, liver, and spleen virus titers were inhibited to nearly the same extent by either treatment, as were lung weights and lung hemorrhage scores (indicators of pneumonitis). Lung virus titers were significantly (>100-fold) lower than in the placebo group, and the other infection parameters in mDEF201 treated mice were nearly at baseline. In contrast, viral titers and lung infection parameters were high in the placebo group on day 5 of the infection. These results demonstrate the long-acting prophylactic and treatment capacity of mDEF201 to combat vaccinia virus infections. PMID:22022603

  5. The effect of vaccination on Marek's disease virus shedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current Marek’s Disease vaccines are efficient at preventing disease. However, vaccination can reduce but not completely eliminate virus shedding. Our hypothesis is that an efficient vaccine will result in fewer viruses being shed. To test this hypothesis, we developed a real-time PCR to measure Mar...

  6. Progress towards a hepatitis C virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Man John Law, Lok; Landi, Abdolamir; Magee, Wendy C; Lorne Tyrrell, D; Houghton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New drugs to treat hepatitis C are expected to be approved over the next few years which promise to cure nearly all patients. However, due to issues of expected drug resistance, suboptimal activity against diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and especially because of their extremely high cost, it is unlikely that these HCV drugs will substantially reduce the world's HCV carrier population of around 170 million in the near future or the estimated global incidence of millions of new HCV infections. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to develop a prophylactic HCV vaccine and also to determine if therapeutic vaccines can aid in the treatment of chronically infected patients. After much early pessimism on the prospects for an effective prophylactic HCV vaccine, our recent knowledge of immune correlates of protection combined with the demonstrated immunogenicity and protective animal efficacies of various HCV vaccine candidates now allows for realistic optimism. This review summarizes the current rationale and status of clinical and experimental HCV vaccine candidates based on the elicitation of cross-neutralizing antibodies and broad cellular immune responses to this highly diverse virus. PMID:26038445

  7. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  8. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  9. In Silico-Accelerated Identification of Conserved and Immunogenic Variola/Vaccinia T-Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Leonard; McMurry, Julie A.; Buus, Soren; Frey, Sharon; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    Epitopes shared by the vaccinia and variola viruses underlie the protective effect of vaccinia immunization against variola infection. We set out to identify a subset of cross-reactive epitopes using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Putative T-cell epitopes were computationally predicted from highly conserved open reading frames from seven complete vaccinia and variola genomes using EpiMatrix. Over 100 epitopes bearing low human sequence homology were selected and assessed in HLA binding assays and in T-cell antigenicity measurements using PBMCs isolated from Dryvax-immunized subjects. Experimental validation of computational predictions illustrates the potential for immunoinformatics methods to identify candidate immunogens for a new, safer smallpox vaccine. PMID:19559119

  10. In silico-accelerated identification of conserved and immunogenic variola/vaccinia T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Moise, Leonard; McMurry, Julie A; Buus, Soren; Frey, Sharon; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2009-10-30

    Epitopes shared by the vaccinia and variola viruses underlie the protective effect of vaccinia immunization against variola infection. We set out to identify a subset of cross-reactive epitopes using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Putative T-cell epitopes were computationally predicted from highly conserved open reading frames from seven complete vaccinia and variola genomes using EpiMatrix. Over 100 epitopes bearing low human sequence homology were selected and assessed in HLA binding assays and in T-cell antigenicity assays using PBMCs isolated from Dryvax-immunized subjects. This experimental validation of computational predictions illustrates the potential for immunoinformatics methods to identify candidate immunogens for a new, safer smallpox vaccine. PMID:19559119

  11. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... origin. If necessary, neutralize the rabies virus with specific rabies antiserum. (ii) A test for safety... observed each day for 14 days except when testing vaccines made with HCP SAD strain of rabies virus, in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus....

  12. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... origin. If necessary, neutralize the rabies virus with specific rabies antiserum. (ii) A test for safety... observed each day for 14 days except when testing vaccines made with HCP SAD strain of rabies virus, in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus....

  13. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... origin. If necessary, neutralize the rabies virus with specific rabies antiserum. (ii) A test for safety... observed each day for 14 days except when testing vaccines made with HCP SAD strain of rabies virus, in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus....

  14. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... origin. If necessary, neutralize the rabies virus with specific rabies antiserum. (ii) A test for safety... observed each day for 14 days except when testing vaccines made with HCP SAD strain of rabies virus, in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus....

  15. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  16. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  17. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines...

  18. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  19. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines...

  20. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  1. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.212 Section 113.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  3. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  4. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

  5. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section 113.311 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

  6. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  7. Molecular Smallpox Vaccine Delivered by Alphavirus Replicons Elicits Protective Immunity in Mice and Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Jay W.; Ferro, Anthony M.; Golden, Joseph W.; Silvera, Peter; Dudek, Jeanne; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Rivers, Bryan; Morris, John; Owens, Gary; Smith, Jonathan F.; Kamrud, Kurt I.

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated as a result of successful vaccination campaigns during the 1960s and 70s. Because of its highly contagious nature and high mortality rate, smallpox has significant potential as a biological weapon. Unfortunately, the current vaccine for orthopoxviruses is contraindicated for large portions of the population. Thus, there is a need for new, safe, and effective orthopoxvirus vaccines. Alphavirus replicon vectors, derived from strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, are being used to develop alternatives to the current smallpox vaccine. Here, we demonstrated that virus-like replicon particles (VRP) expressing the vaccinia virus A33R, B5R, A27L, and L1R genes elicited protective immunity in mice comparable to vaccination with live-vaccinia virus. Furthermore, cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with a combination of the four poxvirus VRPs (4pox-VRP) developed antibody responses to each antigen. These antibody responses were able to neutralize and inhibit the spread of both vaccinia virus and monkeypox virus. Macaques vaccinated with 4pox-VRP, flu HA VRP (negative control), or live-vaccinia virus (positive control) were challenged intravenously with 5 × 106 PFU of monkeypox virus 1 month after the second VRP vaccination. Four of the six negative control animals succumbed to monkeypox and the remaining two animals demonstrated either severe or grave disease. Importantly, all 10 macaques vaccinated with the 4pox-VRP vaccine survived without developing severe disease. These findings revealed that a single-boost VRP smallpox vaccine shows promise as a safe alternative to the currently licensed live-vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. PMID:19833247

  8. The Membrane Fusion Step of Vaccinia Virus Entry Is Cooperatively Mediated by Multiple Viral Proteins and Host Cell Components

    PubMed Central

    Laliberte, Jason P.; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    For many viruses, one or two proteins allow cell attachment and entry, which occurs through the plasma membrane or following endocytosis at low pH. In contrast, vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by both neutral and low pH routes; four proteins mediate cell attachment and twelve that are associated in a membrane complex and conserved in all poxviruses are dedicated to entry. The aim of the present study was to determine the roles of cellular and viral proteins in initial stages of entry, specifically fusion of the membranes of the mature virion and cell. For analysis of the role of cellular components, we used well characterized inhibitors and measured binding of a recombinant VACV virion containing Gaussia luciferase fused to a core protein; viral and cellular membrane lipid mixing with a self-quenching fluorescent probe in the virion membrane; and core entry with a recombinant VACV expressing firefly luciferase and electron microscopy. We determined that inhibitors of tyrosine protein kinases, dynamin GTPase and actin dynamics had little effect on binding of virions to cells but impaired membrane fusion, whereas partial cholesterol depletion and inhibitors of endosomal acidification and membrane blebbing had a severe effect at the later stage of core entry. To determine the role of viral proteins, virions lacking individual membrane components were purified from cells infected with members of a panel of ten conditional-lethal inducible mutants. Each of the entry protein-deficient virions had severely reduced infectivity and except for A28, L1 and L5 greatly impaired membrane fusion. In addition, a potent neutralizing L1 monoclonal antibody blocked entry at a post-membrane lipid-mixing step. Taken together, these results suggested a 2-step entry model and implicated an unprecedented number of viral proteins and cellular components involved in signaling and actin rearrangement for initiation of virus-cell membrane fusion during poxvirus entry. PMID:22194690

  9. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amy H.; Ivens, Alasdair; Gordon, Katrina; Craig, Nicola; Houzelle, Alexandre; Roche, Alice; Turnbull, Neil; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A) polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A) tails to the 3’ end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi). Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h) and late (24 h) times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p) whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p). Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication. PMID:26161560

  10. Vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 in combination with 131I shows increased efficiency in treating triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Sepideh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Lou, Emil; Belin, Laurence J.; Fujisawa, Sho; Longo, Valerie A.; Chen, Nanhai G.; Gönen, Mithat; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Szalay, Aladar A.; Fong, Yuman

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a replication-competent oncolytic vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, carrying human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), in combination with radioiodine in an orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. In vitro viral infection was confirmed by immunoblotting and radioiodine uptake assays. Orthotopic xenografts (MDA-MB-231 cells) received intratumoral injection of GLV-1h153 or PBS. One week after viral injection, xenografts were randomized into 4 treatment groups: GLV-1h153 alone, GLV-1h153 and 131I (∼5 mCi), 131I alone, or PBS, and followed for tumor growth. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were performed for statistical analysis. Radiouptake assay showed a 178-fold increase of radioiodine uptake in hNIS-expressing infected cells compared with PBS control. Systemic 131I-iodide in combination with GLV-1h153 resulted in a 6-fold increase in tumor regression (24 compared to 146 mm3 for the virus-only treatment group; P<0.05; d 40). We demonstrated that a novel vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, expresses hNIS, increases the expression of the symporter in TNBC cells, and serves both as a gene marker for noninvasive imaging of virus and as a vehicle for targeted radionuclide therapy with 131I.—Gholami, S., Chen, C-H., Lou, E., Belin, L. J., Fujisawa, S., Longo, V. A. Chen, N. G., Gönen, M., Zanzonico, P. B., Szalay, A. A., Fong, Y. Vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 in combination with 131I shows increased efficiency in treating triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:24186964

  11. Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  12. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. PMID:25728134

  13. Interaction between the G3 and L5 proteins of the vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Cindy L.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-04-10

    The vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex (EFC) consists of 10 to 12 proteins that are embedded in the viral membrane and individually required for fusion with the cell and entry of the core into the cytoplasm. The architecture of the EFC is unknown except for information regarding two pair-wise interactions: A28 with H2 and A16 with G9. Here we used a technique to destabilize the EFC by repressing the expression of individual components and identified a third pair-wise interaction: G3 with L5. These two proteins remained associated under several different EFC destabilization conditions and in each case were immunopurified together as demonstrated by Western blotting. Further evidence for the specific interaction of G3 and L5 was obtained by mass spectrometry. This interaction also occurred when G3 and L5 were expressed in uninfected cells, indicating that no other viral proteins were required. Thus, the present study extends our knowledge of the protein interactions important for EFC assembly and stability.

  14. Recombinant vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 is a promising oncolytic vector in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pugalenthi, Amudhan; Mojica, Kelly; Ady, Justin W; Johnsen, Clark; Love, Damon; Chen, Nanhai G; Aguilar, Richard J; Szalay, Aladar A; Fong, Yuman

    2015-12-01

    Although early stage cholangiocarcinoma (CC) can be cured by surgical extirpation, the options for treatment of advanced stage CC are very few and suboptimal. Oncolytic virotherapy using replication-competent vaccinia virus (VACV) is a promising new strategy to treat human cancers. The ability of oncolytic VACV GLV-1h68 to infect, replicate in, and lyse three human CC cell lines was assayed in vitro and in subcutaneous flank xenografts in athymic nude mice. In this study, we have demonstrated that GLV-1h68 effectively infects and lyses three CC cell lines (KMC-1, KMBC, and KMCH-1) in vitro. Expression of the viral marker gene ruc-gfp facilitated real-time monitoring of infection and replication. Furthermore in athymic nude mice, a single dose of GLV-1h68 significantly suppressed tumor growth. The treatment was well tolerated in all animals. Recombinant VACV GLV-1h68 has significant oncolytic ability against CC both in vitro and in vivo. GLV-1h68 has the potential to be used clinically as a therapeutic agent against CC. PMID:26584530

  15. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines...

  16. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  17. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines inoculated by scarification can elicit protective immune responses that are comparable to subcutaneous vaccination, and may allow for antigen sparing when vaccine supply is limited. PMID:26895072

  18. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Meseda, Clement A.; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P.

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines inoculated by scarification can elicit protective immune responses that are comparable to subcutaneous vaccination, and may allow for antigen sparing when vaccine supply is limited. PMID:26895072

  19. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Sparger, Ellen E. Dubie, Robert A.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Cole, Kelly S.; Chang, W.L.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2008-05-10

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus.

  20. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease. PMID:26350598

  1. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease. PMID:26350598

  2. Relationship between intracellular concentration of S-adenosylhomocysteine and inhibition of vaccinia virus replication and inhibition of murine L-929 cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Hasobe, M; McKee, J G; Borchardt, R T

    1989-01-01

    9-(trans-2',trans-3'-Dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)-adenine (compound 1) and -3-deazaadenine (compound 2), which are specific inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase, were reported earlier by our laboratory (M. Hasobe, J. G. McKee, D. R. Borcherding, and R. T. Borchardt, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1849-1851, 1987) to have anti-vaccinia virus activity with reduced murine L-929 cell toxicity compared with the prototype compound neplanocin A. In this study, we showed that the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of compounds 1 and 2 can be related to intracellular concentrations of AdoHey, which are elevated in cells treated with these inhibitors of AdoHcy hydrolase. For example, concentrations of analogs 1 and 2 that produce 50% inhibition of vaccinia virus replication caused only slight elevations in intracellular levels of AdoHcy (from 50 [controls] to 100 to 125 [drug-treated cells] pmol/mg of protein) and elevations in the ratios of AdoHcy/S-adenosylmethionine (from 0.05 to 0.1 [controls] to 0.15 to 0.19 [drug-treated cells]). In contrast to the extreme susceptibility of virus replication to slight elevations in intracellular AdoHcy, cell viability was quite tolerant to higher levels of this metabolite. For example, concentrations of analogs 1 and 2 that produced 50% inhibition of L-929 cell replication caused significant increases in intracellular levels of AdoHcy (to 825 to 950 pmol/mg of protein) and elevations in AdoHcy/S-adenosylmethionine ratios (approximately 1.3). These data make it possible to assign a therapeutic index of 7 to 8 to these compounds on the basis of the comparison of intracellular levels of AdoHcy that caused 50% inhibition of vaccinia virus replication with those that caused 50% inhibition of L-929 cell replication. PMID:2764532

  3. Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence.

    PubMed

    Stack, Julianne; Haga, Ismar R; Schröder, Martina; Bartlett, Nathan W; Maloney, Geraldine; Reading, Patrick C; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Smith, Geoffrey L; Bowie, Andrew G

    2005-03-21

    Viral immune evasion strategies target key aspects of the host antiviral response. Recently, it has been recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in innate defense against viruses. Here, we define the function of the vaccinia virus (VV) protein A46R and show it inhibits intracellular signalling by a range of TLRs. TLR signalling is triggered by homotypic interactions between the Toll-like-interleukin-1 resistance (TIR) domains of the receptors and adaptor molecules. A46R contains a TIR domain and is the only viral TIR domain-containing protein identified to date. We demonstrate that A46R targets the host TIR adaptors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88 adaptor-like, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and the TRIF-related adaptor molecule and thereby interferes with downstream activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappaB. TRIF mediates activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and induction of IFN-beta by TLR3 and TLR4 and suppresses VV replication in macrophages. Here, A46R disrupted TRIF-induced IRF3 activation and induction of the TRIF-dependent gene regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Furthermore, we show that A46R is functionally distinct from another described VV TLR inhibitor, A52R. Importantly, VV lacking the A46R gene was attenuated in a murine intranasal model, demonstrating the importance of A46R for VV virulence. PMID:15767367

  4. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  5. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Poliana de Oliveira; Silva-Fernandes, André Tavares da; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Borges, Iara Apolinário; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Braga, Erika Martins; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks. PMID:26517662

  6. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Poliana de Oliveira; da Silva-Fernandes, André Tavares; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Borges, Iara Apolinário; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Braga, Erika Martins; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks. PMID:26517662

  7. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.

    PubMed

    Sá E Silva, Mariana; Susta, Leonardo; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2016-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens. PMID:26503831

  8. The acidic C-terminus of vaccinia virus I3 single-strand binding protein promotes proper assembly of DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Melissa L; Desaulniers, Megan A; Noyce, Ryan S; Evans, David H

    2016-02-01

    The vaccinia virus I3L gene encodes a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that is essential for virus DNA replication and is conserved in all Chordopoxviruses. The I3 protein contains a negatively charged C-terminal tail that is a common feature of SSBs. Such acidic tails are critical for SSB-dependent replication, recombination and repair. We cloned and purified variants of the I3 protein, along with a homolog from molluscum contagiosum virus, and tested how the acidic tail affected DNA-protein interactions. Deleting the C terminus of I3 enhanced the affinity for single-stranded DNA cellulose and gel shift analyses showed that it also altered the migration of I3-DNA complexes in agarose gels. Microinjecting an antibody against I3 into vaccinia-infected cells also selectively inhibited virus replication. We suggest that this domain promotes cooperative binding of I3 to DNA in a way that would maintain an open DNA configuration around a replication site. PMID:26773382

  9. Statistical Approach To Estimate Vaccinia-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Titers Using a High-Throughput Assay▿

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Richard; Pankratz, V. Shane; Swanson, Eric; Watson, David; Golding, Hana; Poland, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the bioterrorism threat posed by agents such as variola virus, considerable time, resources, and effort have been devoted to biodefense preparation. One avenue of this research has been the development of rapid, sensitive, high-throughput assays to validate immune responses to poxviruses. Here we describe the adaptation of a β-galactosidase reporter-based vaccinia virus neutralization assay to large-scale use in a study that included over 1,000 subjects. We also describe the statistical methods involved in analyzing the large quantity of data generated. The assay and its associated methods should prove useful tools in monitoring immune responses to next-generation smallpox vaccines, studying poxvirus immunity, and evaluating therapeutic agents such as vaccinia virus immune globulin. PMID:19535540

  10. Mucosal Immunization with Newcastle Disease Virus Vector Coexpressing HIV-1 Env and Gag Proteins Elicits Potent Serum, Mucosal, and Cellular Immune Responses That Protect against Vaccinia Virus Env and Gag Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Sunil K.; Manoharan, Vinoth; Bhattarai, Bikash; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Newcastle disease virus (NDV) avirulent strain LaSota was used to coexpress gp160 Env and p55 Gag from a single vector to enhance both Env-specific and Gag-specific immune responses. The optimal transcription position for both Env and Gag genes in the NDV genome was determined by generating recombinant NDV (rNDV)-Env-Gag (gp160 located between the P and M genes and Gag between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Gag-Env (Gag located between the P and M genes and gp160 between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Env/Gag (gp160 followed by Gag located between the P and M genes), and rNDV-Gag/Env (Gag followed by gp160 located between the P and M genes). All the recombinant viruses replicated at levels similar to those seen with parental NDV in embryonated chicken eggs and in chicken fibroblast cells. Both gp160 and Gag proteins were expressed at high levels in cell culture, with gp160 found to be incorporated into the envelope of NDV. The Gag and Env proteins expressed by all the recombinants except rNDV-Env-Gag self-assembled into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs by the intranasal route with these rNDVs produced long-lasting Env- and Gag-specific humoral immune responses. The Env-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and Gag-specific humoral immune responses were higher in rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag than in the other recombinants. rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag were also more efficient in inducing cellular as well as protective immune responses to challenge with vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Env and Gag in mice. These results suggest that vaccination with a single rNDV coexpressing Env and Gag represents a promising strategy to enhance immunogenicity and protective efficacy against HIV. PMID:26199332

  11. Efficacy Evaluation of an Inactivated Duck Tembusu Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Liu, Yuehuan; Wang, Xiuqing; Yang, Baoshou; He, Pingyou; Yang, Zhiyuan; Duan, Huijuan; Xie, Jia; Zou, Lihong; Zhao, Jicheng; Pan, Jie

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of an inactivated virus-based vaccine for the control and prevention of the newly emerged duck Tembusu virus infection in China, a duck Tembusu virus isolate, Tembusu-HB, was propagated in 12-day-old duck embryos and inactivated by treatment with formaldehyde. The inactivated viral antigen was emulsified with mineral oil, and five batches of the vaccine were manufactured. The immunogenicity and protection efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated in Beijing ducks and Beijing white geese. Results showed that more than 80% of immunized ducks were protected against virulent virus challenge after two intramuscular or subcutaneous injections of the inactivated vaccine, as evidenced by the negative virus isolation results. The protection is also correlated with a positive virus-specific antibody response as detected by ELISA. In contrast, none of the control ducks and geese had any detectable antibody response. Virus was isolated from all control ducks and geese after virulent virus challenge. Interestingly, a variable level of protection (20%-80%) was observed in Beijing white geese immunized twice with the same batches of vaccine, suggesting a species-specific effect of the vaccine. Overall, the results clearly suggest that the inactivated duck Tembusu virus vaccine is immunogenic and provides protection against virulent virus challenge. PMID:26473674

  12. Regulation of maturation and activating potential in CD8+ versus CD8- dendritic cells following in vivo infection with vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Yammani, Rama D; Pejawar-Gaddy, Sharmila; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Weimer, Eric T; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Alexander-Miller, Martha A

    2008-08-15

    DC maturation is known to be a necessary step in the generation of an effective immune response. We have used vaccinia virus (VACV) as a model to investigate the regulation of DC subsets in vivo following infection. While a number of in vitro studies have shown that DC infected with VACV fail to undergo maturation, the effect of VACV infection on the maturation of and cytokine production by DC subsets in vivo remains less defined. We have found that following systemic infection with vaccinia virus, both CD8+ and CD8- dendritic cells are infected. The number of infected DC peaked at 6 h and was highly decreased by 24 h post-infection. In both subsets, there was evidence of generalized upregulation of costimulatory molecules. Surprisingly, this included vaccinia infected DC, suggesting the regulation of DC maturation in vivo is much more complex and likely influenced by DC extrinsic signals. However, while we observed generalized upregulation of costimulatory molecules, IL-12 production was restricted to a subset of non-infected cells in both the CD8+ and CD8- DC populations. Importantly, the control of IL-12 production was differentially dependent on MyD88 signaling. IL-12 production was ablated in the absence of MyD88 in CD8- DC, while it was unchanged in CD8+ DC. These findings provide new insights into the control of DC maturation in vivo and demonstrate that the regulation of maturation in vivo following virus infection can be differentially controlled in distinct types of DC. PMID:18586296

  13. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  14. Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Scott C; Osorio, Jorge E; Livengood, Jill A; Chen, Rubing; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged from East Africa to cause devastating epidemics of debilitating and often chronic arthralgia that have affected millions of people in the Indian Ocean Basin and Asia. More limited epidemics initiated by travelers subsequently occurred in Italy and France, as well as human cases exported to most regions of the world, including the Americas where CHIKV could become endemic. Because CHIKV circulates during epidemics in an urban mosquito-human cycle, control of transmission relies on mosquito abatement, which is rarely effective. Furthermore, there is no antiviral treatment for CHIKV infection and no licensed vaccine to prevent disease. Here, we discuss the challenges to the development of a safe, effective and affordable chikungunya vaccine and recent progress toward this goal. PMID:23151166

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus.

    PubMed

    Carulei, Olivia; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L were sequenced and phylogenetic trees (Neighbour-Joining and UPGMA) constructed from MUSCLE nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the equivalent sequences from several different poxviruses. Based on this analysis, PEPV was confirmed to belong to the genus Avipoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2 and to be most closely related to Turkeypox virus (TKPV), Ostrichpox virus (OSPV)and Pigeonpox virus (PGPV). PMID:19426497

  16. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  17. [Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].

    PubMed

    Us, Dürdal

    2006-10-01

    The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without causing human disease. An example for this strategy was the development of a live attenuated vaccine from which neurovirulence gene (gamma1 34.5) has been removed. Another promising one was the replication-defective DISC virus HSV vaccine which is derived from a virus with an essential gene (e.g. gH gene) deleted, so the replication has been limited only to a single cycle. As a result, intensive HSV vaccine trials are currently underway, although all the previous attempts to produce an effective vaccine for the prophylaxis and immunotherapy against HSV have been largely unsuccessful. In this review the history of HSV vaccine development together with the preclinical and clinical studies from past to present has been summarized and recent progress for an effective HSV vaccine together with the further improvements required for an immunogenic vaccine have been discussed. PMID:17205702

  18. Improvement of BCG protective efficacy with a novel chimpanzee adenovirus and a modified vaccinia Ankara virus both expressing Ag85A

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, E.; Griffiths, K.L.; Poyntz, H.C.; Harrington-Kandt, R.; Dicks, M.D.; Stockdale, L.; Betts, G.; McShane, H.

    2015-01-01

    A replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus expressing Ag85A (ChAdOx1.85A) was assessed, both alone and in combination with modified vaccinia Ankara also expressing Ag85A (MVA85A), for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) challenge in mice. Naïve and BCG-primed mice were vaccinated or boosted with ChAdOx1.85A and MVA85A in different combinations. Although intranasally administered ChAdOx1.85A induced strong immune responses in the lungs, it failed to consistently protect against aerosol M.tb challenge. In contrast, ChAdOx1.85A followed by MVA85A administered either mucosally or systemically, induced strong immune responses and was able to improve the protective efficacy of BCG. This vaccination regime has consistently shown superior protection over BCG alone and should be evaluated further. PMID:26478198

  19. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  20. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  1. Isolated limb perfusion with melphalan, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and oncolytic vaccinia virus improves tumour targeting and prolongs survival in a rat model of advanced extremity sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Pencavel, Tim D; Wilkinson, Michelle J; Mansfield, David C; Khan, Aadil A; Seth, Rohit; Karapanagiotou, Eleni M; Roulstone, Victoria; Aguilar, Richard J; Chen, Nanhai G; Szalay, Aladar A; Hayes, Andrew J; Harrington, Kevin J

    2015-02-15

    Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) is a treatment for advanced extremity sarcoma and in-transit melanoma. Advancing this procedure by investigating the addition of novel agents, such as cancer-selective oncolytic viruses, may improve both the therapeutic efficacy of ILP and the tumour-targeted delivery of oncolytic virotherapy. Standard in vitro assays were used to characterise single agent and combinatorial activities of melphalan, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Lister strain vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) against BN175 rat sarcoma cells. An orthotopic model of advanced extremity sarcoma was used to evaluate survival of animals after ILP with combinations of TNF-α, melphalan and GLV-1h68. We investigated the efficiency of viral tumour delivery by ILP compared to intravenous therapy, the locoregional and systemic biodistribution of virus after ILP, and the effect of mode of administration on antibody response. The combination of melphalan and GLV-1h68 was synergistic in vitro. The addition of virus to standard ILP regimens was well tolerated and demonstrated superior tumour targeting compared to intravenous administration. Triple therapy (melphalan/TNF-α/GLV-1h68) resulted in increased tumour growth delay and enhanced survival compared to other treatment regimens. Live virus was recovered in large amounts from perfused regions, but in smaller amounts from systemic organs. The addition of oncolytic vaccinia virus to existing TNF-α/melphalan-based ILP strategies results in survival advantage in an immunocompetent rat model of advanced extremity sarcoma. Virus administered by ILP has superior tumour targeting compared to intravenous delivery. Further evaluation and clinical translation of this approach is warranted. PMID:24978211

  2. Late seroconversion following HPV-77, DE5 rubella virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, J

    1975-04-01

    The HAI antibody responses to HPV-77, DE5 rubella virus vaccine were evaluated with respect to time in 258 rubella-susceptible children. Seroconversion after 28 days post inoculation with this vaccine was not uncommon. These findings indicate a greater degree of modification of the HPV-77, DE5 rubella virus vaccine since most vaccines have been shown to seroconvert by 28 or 30 days post inoculation with the HPV-77 and other HPV-77 derived rubella vaccines. With respect to the routine of inoculating rubella-susceptible women in the childbearing age, late seroconversion could be of importance because of this uncertainty of the time of viremia and the increased chane of pregnancy with increasing time following immunization. Comparative information is needed for the Cendehill and candidate RA 27/3 rubella virus vaccines. That vaccine showing an early and predictable higher conversion ratio would be the most desirable for use in the above population. PMID:1115189

  3. Biological and immunological properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: analysis of proteins with truncations and deletions expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Earl, P L; Koenig, S; Moss, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of C-terminal and internal deletions on the synthesis, transport, biological properties, and antigenicity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein were determined. A family of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express N-terminal overlapping env proteins of 204, 287, 393, 502 (full-length gp120), 635, 747, and 851 (full-length gp160) amino acids was constructed. All of the proteins were detected in intra- and extracellular forms which differed in the extent of glycosylation. The 747- and 851-amino-acid proteins were cleaved, were expressed on the surface of infected cells, and bound CD4. The 635-amino-acid env protein was cleaved inefficiently, and both the precursor and product were secreted, indicating absence of the transmembrane sequence. The 635- as well as the 502-amino-acid protein, which was also largely secreted, could still bind CD4. Unexpectedly, the 393-amino-acid protein was anchored in the plasma membrane, but neither it nor smaller proteins bound to soluble CD4. When amino acids at the gp120-gp41 junction were deleted, proteolytic cleavage of gp160 did not occur. Nevertheless, gp160 was inserted into the plasma membrane and bound soluble CD4. The predominant conserved B-cell epitopes were mapped to gp41 and the C terminus of gp120, whereas cytotoxic T-cell epitopes were distributed throughout the length of the glycoproteins. PMID:1985202

  4. Expression of a biotinylated human thyrotropin receptor in HeLa cells using recombinant vaccinia virus and its application for the detection of Graves' autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Minich, W B; Weymayer, J D; Loos, U

    1998-01-01

    We have prepared a biotinylated thyrotropin receptor (TSHR-BIO), and characterized its activity in cells and when bound to solid phase (streptavidin agarose). TSHR-BIO consists of the N-terminal 725 amino acids of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor linked to the 87-amino acid C-terminal domain of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The C-terminal domain directs the efficient post-translational biotinylation of the protein. TSHR-BIO was expressed using a vaccinia virus expression system. HeLa cells infected with recombinant virus produced large amounts of TSH receptor of approximately 120,000 molecules per cell. Vaccinia virus produced TSHR-BIO was fully functional interacting with TSH (Kd of 2.3+/-0.1 x 10(-10) M) and coupling to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) second messenger system. The expressed protein was biotinylated with high efficiency; more than 90% of TSHR-BIO was bound to streptavidin. We have shown the application of streptavidin agarose immobilized TSHR-BIO for the detection of thyroid-binding inhibiting immunoglobulines in unfractionated sera. There was a good positive correlation between the results obtained in this assay and the commercially available TRAK assay performed with solubilized porcine TSH receptor (r = 0.71; p < 0.001, in 45 sera of patients with Graves' disease and 17 normal sera). PMID:9492146

  5. Gene Therapy Using Therapeutic and Diagnostic Recombinant Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h153 for Management of Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Eveno, Clarisse; Mojica, Kelly; Ady, Justin W.; Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Longo, Valerie; Belin, Laurence J.; Gholami, Sepideh; Johnsen, Clark; Zanzonico, Pat; Chen, Nanhai; Yu, Tony; Szalay, Aladar A.; Fong, Yuman

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a terminal progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Poor response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy, coupled with the inability to reliably track disease progression using established diagnostic methods make this a deadly disease. This paper examines the effectiveness of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 as a therapeutic and diagnostic vehicle. We believe that viral expression of the human sodium iodide transporter (hNIS) can provide both real-time monitoring of viral therapy and effective treatment of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC). Methods Infectivity and cytotoxic effect of GLV-1h153 on CRC cell lines was assayed in-vitro. Viral replication was examined by standard viral plaque assays. Orthotopic CRPC xenografts were generated in athymic nude mice, and subsequently administered GLV-1h153 intraperitoneally. Reduction of tumor burden was assessed by mass. Orthotopic tumors were visualized by SPECT/CT after Iodine (131I) administration and by fluorescence optical imaging. Results GLV-1h153 infected and killed CRC cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. Viral replication demonstrated greater than a 2.35 log increase in titer over 4 days. Intraperitoneal treatment of orthotopic CRPC xenografts resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden. Infection of orthotopic xenografts was both therapeutic and facilitated monitoring by 131I-SPECT/CT via expression of hNIS in infected tissue. Conclusions GLV-1h153 effectively kills CRC in-vitro and dramatically reduces tumor burden in-vivo. We demonstrate that GLV-1h153 can be used as an agent to provide accurate delineation of tumor burden in-vivo. These findings indicate that GLV-1h153 has significant potential for use as theragnostic agent in the treatment of CRPC. PMID:25616946

  6. Development of an in vitro cleavage assay system to examine vaccinia virus I7L cysteine proteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2005-01-01

    Through the use of transient expression assays and directed genetics, the vaccinia virus (VV) I7L gene product has been implicated as the major maturational proteinase required for viral core protein cleavage to occur during virion assembly. To confirm this hypothesis and to enable a biochemical examination of the I7L cysteine proteinase, an in vitro cleavage assay was developed. Using extracts of VV infected cells as the source of enzyme, reaction conditions were developed which allowed accurate and efficient cleavage of exogenously added core protein precursors (P4a, P4b and P25K). The cleavage reaction proceeded in a time-dependent manner and was optimal when incubated at 25°C. I7L-mediated cleavage was not affected by selected inhibitors of metalloproteinases, aspartic acid proteinases or serine proteinases (EDTA, pepstatin, and PMSF, respectively), but was sensitive to several general cysteine proteinase inhibitors (E-64, EST, Iodoacetic acid, and NEM) as well as the I7L active site inhibitor TTP-6171 [C. Byrd et al., J. Virol. 78:12147–12156 (2004)]. Finally, in antibody pull down experiments, it could be demonstrated that monospecific αI7L serum depleted the enzyme activity whereas control sera including αG1L, directed against the VV metalloproteinase, did not. Taken together, these data provide biochemical evidence that I7L is a cysteine proteinase which is directly involved in VV core protein cleavage. Furthermore, establishment of this I7L-mediated in vitro cleavage assay should enable future studies into the enzymology and co-factor requirements of the proteolysis reaction, and facilitate antiviral drug development against this essential target. PMID:16105175

  7. Variola virus F1L is a Bcl-2-like protein that unlike its vaccinia virus counterpart inhibits apoptosis independent of Bim.

    PubMed

    Marshall, B; Puthalakath, H; Caria, S; Chugh, S; Doerflinger, M; Colman, P M; Kvansakul, M

    2015-01-01

    Subversion of host cell apoptosis is an important survival strategy for viruses to ensure their own proliferation and survival. Certain viruses express proteins homologous in sequence, structure and function to mammalian pro-survival B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, which prevent rapid clearance of infected host cells. In vaccinia virus (VV), the virulence factor F1L was shown to be a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that functions primarily be engaging pro-apoptotic Bim. Variola virus (VAR), the causative agent of smallpox, harbors a homolog of F1L of unknown function. We show that VAR F1L is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and unlike all other characterized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members lacks affinity for the Bim Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain. Instead, VAR F1L engages Bid BH3 as well as Bak and Bax BH3 domains. Unlike its VV homolog, variola F1L only protects against Bax-mediated apoptosis in cellular assays. Crystal structures of variola F1L bound to Bid and Bak BH3 domains reveal that variola F1L forms a domain-swapped Bcl-2 fold, which accommodates Bid and Bak BH3 in the canonical Bcl-2-binding groove, in a manner similar to VV F1L. Despite the observed conservation of structure and sequence, variola F1L inhibits apoptosis using a startlingly different mechanism compared with its VV counterpart. Our results suggest that unlike during VV infection, Bim neutralization may not be required during VAR infection. As molecular determinants for the human-specific tropism of VAR remain essentially unknown, identification of a different mechanism of action and utilization of host factors used by a VAR virulence factor compared with its VV homolog suggest that studying VAR directly may be essential to understand its unique tropism. PMID:25766319

  8. Variola virus F1L is a Bcl-2-like protein that unlike its vaccinia virus counterpart inhibits apoptosis independent of Bim

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, B; Puthalakath, H; Caria, S; Chugh, S; Doerflinger, M; Colman, P M; Kvansakul, M

    2015-01-01

    Subversion of host cell apoptosis is an important survival strategy for viruses to ensure their own proliferation and survival. Certain viruses express proteins homologous in sequence, structure and function to mammalian pro-survival B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, which prevent rapid clearance of infected host cells. In vaccinia virus (VV), the virulence factor F1L was shown to be a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that functions primarily be engaging pro-apoptotic Bim. Variola virus (VAR), the causative agent of smallpox, harbors a homolog of F1L of unknown function. We show that VAR F1L is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and unlike all other characterized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members lacks affinity for the Bim Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain. Instead, VAR F1L engages Bid BH3 as well as Bak and Bax BH3 domains. Unlike its VV homolog, variola F1L only protects against Bax-mediated apoptosis in cellular assays. Crystal structures of variola F1L bound to Bid and Bak BH3 domains reveal that variola F1L forms a domain-swapped Bcl-2 fold, which accommodates Bid and Bak BH3 in the canonical Bcl-2-binding groove, in a manner similar to VV F1L. Despite the observed conservation of structure and sequence, variola F1L inhibits apoptosis using a startlingly different mechanism compared with its VV counterpart. Our results suggest that unlike during VV infection, Bim neutralization may not be required during VAR infection. As molecular determinants for the human-specific tropism of VAR remain essentially unknown, identification of a different mechanism of action and utilization of host factors used by a VAR virulence factor compared with its VV homolog suggest that studying VAR directly may be essential to understand its unique tropism. PMID:25766319

  9. Coinfection by Vaccinia virus and an Orf virus-like parapoxvirus in an outbreak of vesicular disease in dairy cows in midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sant'Ana, Fabiano J F; Leal, Fábio A A; Rabelo, Rogério E; Vulcani, Valcinir A S; Moreira, Carlos A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Flores, Eduardo F

    2013-03-01

    The current report describes an outbreak of vesicular disease affecting dairy cows in midwestern Brazil in which a coinfection with 2 poxviruses-Vaccinia virus (VACV) and a parapoxvirus-was demonstrated. Milking cows presented vesicles, painful reddish or whitish papules, and scabby proliferative lesions in the teats and udder, in a clinical course of approximately 10-21 days. Histologically, multifocal areas of moderate to severe acanthosis, spongiosis, hypergranulosis, and parakeratotic or orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with adjacent focally extensive ulcers were observed in the epidermis. Rounded eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of areas with acanthosis or necrosis. Moderate inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and macrophages were observed in some dermal areas. Two people milking the affected cows developed lesions on the hands, painful papules which progressed to ulcerative and scabby lesions in 4-7 days. Electron microscopy of scabs from 1 cow revealed the concomitant presence of orthopoxvirus and parapoxvirus particles. Scabs from 2 cows were positive by polymerase chain reaction for the parapoxvirus B2L gene; 1 of the scabs was also positive for the VACV vgf gene. Nucleotide sequencing of the B2L amplicon revealed a similarity of 96-99% with Orf virus (ORFV) and lower identity with Pseudocowpox virus (92-95%) and Bovine papular stomatitis virus (85-86%). Nucleotide sequencing of a region of parapoxvirus DNA polymerase gene revealed a high similarity (98-100%) with ORFV sequences. Thus, an unusual coinfection with VACV and a parapoxvirus, likely ORFV, was demonstrated in the outbreak. PMID:23404478

  10. A propagation model of computer virus with nonlinear vaccination probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Wanping; Zhu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine the effect of vaccination on the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a novel computer virus propagation model, which incorporates a nonlinear vaccination probability, is proposed. A qualitative analysis of this model reveals that, depending on the value of the basic reproduction number, either the virus-free equilibrium or the viral equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. The results of simulation experiments not only demonstrate the validity of our model, but also show the effectiveness of nonlinear vaccination strategies. Through parameter analysis, some effective strategies for eradicating viruses are suggested.

  11. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine intake evaluation by detection of virus amplification in feather pulps of vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Davidson, I; Raibshtein, I; Altori, A; Elkin, N

    2016-03-18

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus, ILTV. The live vaccine is applied worldwide by drinking water or by the respiratory route, and by the vent application in Israel. No system of direct evaluation of the efficacy of vaccination exists today, except of antibody elicitation, which is an indirect indication of vaccination intake and might happen due to environment exposure. We suggest for the first time an assay for evaluating the accuracy of the vaccination process by spotting the spread of the live vaccine systemically, namely by virus detection in the feather shafts of the vaccinated birds. The feathers are particularly beneficial as they are easy to collect, non-lethal for the bird, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. Moreover, the continuous survey of the vaccine virus unveiled the different kinetics of viremia by the different vaccination routes; while after the vent vaccination the systemic viremia peaks during the first week afterwards, after two consecutive vaccine administration by drinking water with 6 day interval, the vireamia peaks only after the second administration. A robust amplification was needed because the vaccine ILTV was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. For the vaccine virus identification in feather shafts a nested real-time PCR for the TK ILTV gene was developed. The sensitivity of detection of the nested rtPCR was greater by 1000 compared to conventional nested PCR and 10 times that real-time PCR. PMID:26784685

  12. Barrier to Autointegration Factor (BAF) Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Intermediate Transcription in the Absence of the Viral B1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nouhou; Wicklund, April; Jamin, Augusta; Wiebe, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF/BANF1) is a cellular DNA-binding protein found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic BAF binds to foreign DNA and can act as a defense against vaccinia DNA replication. To evade BAF, vaccinia expresses the B1 kinase, which phosphorylates BAF and blocks its ability to bind DNA. Interestingly, B1 is also needed for viral intermediate gene expression via an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of B1-BAF signaling on vaccinia transcription. Strikingly, the decrease in vaccinia transcription caused by loss of B1 can be rescued by depletion of BAF. The repressive action of BAF is greatest on a viral promoter, and is more modest when non-vaccinia promoters are employed, which suggests BAF acts in a gene specific manner. These studies expand our understanding of the role of the B1 kinase during infection and provide the first evidence that BAF is a defense against viral gene expression. PMID:23891157

  13. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein subunit vaccine elicits vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous del...

  14. Probable Congenital Transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Caused by Vaccination with Contaminated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2012-01-01

    Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872

  15. Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Penny A; Raphael, Anthony P; Yamada, Miko; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Gardner, Joy; Le, Thuy T T; Prow, Natalie A; Dang, Nhung; Schroder, Wayne A; Prow, Tarl W; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-09-22

    Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines. PMID:26296498

  16. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine efficacy and FIV neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, James K.; Pu, Ruiyu; Martin, Marcus M.; Noon-Song, Ezra N.; Zwijnenberg, Raphael; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    A HIV-1 tier system has been developed to categorize the various subtype viruses based on their sensitivity to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs): tier 1 with greatest sensitivity, tier 2 being moderately sensitive, and tier 3 being the least sensitive to NAbs (Mascola et al., J Virol 2005; 79:10103-7). Here, we define an FIV tier system using two related FIV dual-subtype (A+D) vaccines: the commercially available inactivated infected-cell vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® FIV) and its prototype vaccine solely composed of inactivated whole viruses. Both vaccines afforded combined protection rates of 100% against subtype-A tier-1 FIVPet, 89% against subtype-B tier-3 FIVFC1, 61% against recombinant subtype-A/B tier-2 FIVBang, 62% against recombinant subtype-F′/C tier-3 FIVNZ1, and 40% against subtype-A tier-2 FIVUK8 in short-duration (37–41 weeks) studies. In long-duration (76–80 weeks) studies, the commercial vaccine afforded a combined protection rate of at least 46% against the tier-2 and tier-3 viruses. Notably, protection rates observed here are far better than recently reported HIV-1 vaccine trials (Sanou et al., The Open AIDS 2012; 6:246-60). Prototype vaccine protection against two tier-3 and one tier-2 viruses was more effective than commercial vaccine. Such protection did not correlate with the presence of vaccine-induced NAbs to challenge viruses. This is the first large-scale (228 laboratory cats) study characterizing short- and long-duration efficacies of dual-subtype FIV vaccines against heterologous subtype and recombinant viruses, as well as FIV tiers based on in vitro NAb analysis and in vivo passive-transfer studies. These studies demonstrate that not all vaccine protection is mediated by vaccine-induced NAbs. PMID:23800540

  17. Oncolytic virotherapy with an armed vaccinia virus in an orthotopic model of renal carcinoma is associated with modification of the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Fend, Laetitia; Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Foloppe, Johann; Kempf, Juliette; Cochin, Sandrine; Barraud, Luc; Accart, Nathalie; Erbs, Philippe; Fournel, Sylvie; Préville, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncolytic virotherapy is an emergent promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. We have constructed a vaccinia virus (WR strain) deleted for thymidine kinase (TK) and ribonucleotide reductase (RR) genes that expressed the fusion suicide gene FCU1 derived from the yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes. We evaluated this construct (VV-FCU1) in the orthotopic model of renal carcinoma (RenCa). Systemic administration of VV-FCU1 resulted in orthotopic tumor growth inhibition, despite temporary expression of viral proteins. VV-FCU1 treatment was associated with an infiltration of tumors by CD8+ T lymphocytes and a decrease in the proportion of infiltrating Tregs, thus modifying the ratio of CD8+/CD4+ Treg in favor of CD8+cytotoxic T cells. We demonstrated that VV-FCU1 treatment prolonged survival of animals implanted with RenCa cells in kidney. Depletion of CD8+ T cells abolished the therapeutic effect of VV-FCU1 while depletion of CD4+ T cells enhanced its protective activity. Administration of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) resulted in a sustained control of tumor growth but did not extend survival. This study shows the importance of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccinia virus-mediated oncolytic virotherapy and suggests that this approach may be evaluated for the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27057460

  18. Unsolved problems and future perspectives of hepatitis B virus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a serious worldwide problem, and vaccination is the most effective strategy for primary prevention of the infection. Although universal vaccination may be required for total eradication, several countries, including Japan, have not yet adopted universal vaccination programs. Some individuals are non-responders to HBV vaccine and several mechanisms responsible for their poor response have been proposed. To overcome non-response, third generation vaccines with pre-S proteins have been developed. These vaccines have shown better anti-HBs responses and may also be effective in preventing infection by HBV with S mutant. Improvement of vaccine efficacy by intradermal administration, or co-administration with cytokines or adjuvants, may also be effective in non-responders. The necessity, timing and method of booster vaccination in responders with decreased anti-HBs responses, and effective vaccination against S-mutant HBV, are issues requiring resolution in the global prevention of HBV infection. PMID:26109794

  19. Effects of nasal or pulmonary delivered treatments with an adenovirus vectored interferon (mDEF201) on respiratory and systemic infections in mice caused by cowpox and vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Smee, Donald F; Wong, Min-Hui; Hurst, Brett L; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    An adenovirus 5 vector encoding for mouse interferon alpha, subtype 5 (mDEF201) was evaluated for efficacy against lethal cowpox (Brighton strain) and vaccinia (WR strain) virus respiratory and systemic infections in mice. Two routes of mDEF201 administration were used, nasal sinus (5-µl) and pulmonary (50-µl), to compare differences in efficacy, since the preferred treatment of humans would be in a relatively small volume delivered intranasally. Lower respiratory infections (LRI), upper respiratory infections (URI), and systemic infections were induced by 50-µl intranasal, 10-µl intranasal, and 100-µl intraperitoneal virus challenges, respectively. mDEF201 treatments were given prophylactically either 24 h (short term) or 56d (long-term) prior to virus challenge. Single nasal sinus treatments of 10(6) and 10(7) PFU/mouse of mDEF201 protected all mice from vaccinia-induced LRI mortality (comparable to published studies with pulmonary delivered mDEF201). Systemic vaccinia infections responded significantly better to nasal sinus delivered mDEF201 than to pulmonary treatments. Cowpox LRI infections responded to 10(7) mDEF201 treatments, but a 10(6) dose was only weakly protective. Cowpox URI infections were equally treatable by nasal sinus and pulmonary delivered mDEF201 at 10(7) PFU/mouse. Dose-responsive prophylaxis with mDEF201, given one time only 56 d prior to initiating a vaccinia virus LRI infection, was 100% protective from 10(5) to 10(7) PFU/mouse. Improvements in lung hemorrhage score and lung weight were evident, as were decreases in liver, lung, and spleen virus titers. Thus, mDEF201 was able to treat different vaccinia and cowpox virus infections using both nasal sinus and pulmonary treatment regimens, supporting its development for humans. PMID:23874722

  20. Chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine is safe and expands humoral and cellular immunity in adults

    PubMed Central

    Green, CA; Scarselli, E; Sande, CJ; Thompson, AJ; de Lara, CM; Taylor, K; Haworth, K; Del Sorbo, M; Angus, B; Siani, L; Di Marco, S; Traboni, C; Folgori, A; Colloca, S; Capone, S; Vitelli, A; Cortese, R; Klenerman, P; Nicosia, A; Pollard, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection in annual epidemics, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. However, despite its importance, no vaccine exists. The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication defective viral vectors encoding the RSV proteins F, N and M2-1 for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. We performed an open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intra-muscular and intra-nasal administration of the adenoviral vectored vaccine. The vaccines were safe and well tolerated, with the most common reported adverse events being mild injection site reactions. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. RSV neutralising antibody titres rose in response to intramuscular (IM) prime with PanAd3-RSV, and after IM boost for individuals primed by the intra-nasal (IN) route. Circulating anti-F IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells (ASCs) were observed after IM prime and IM boost. RSV-specific T-cell responses were increased after IM PanAd3-RSV prime and were most efficiently boosted by IM MVA-RSV. IFNγ secretion after boost was from both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, without detectable Th2 cytokines that have been previously associated with immune pathogenesis following exposure to RSV after formalin inactivated RSV vaccine. In conclusion, PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. These vaccine candidates warrant further clinical evaluation of efficacy to assess their potential to reduce the burden of RSV disease. PMID:26268313

  1. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was extended through to June 2003. Aviron holds exclusive worldwide rights to the vaccine except for Japan, where Kaketsuken Pharmaceuticals (also known as Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute) is the licensee. Aviron signed a development and licensing agreement with Sang-A in Korea, which was to manufacture and market FluMist in South Korea. However, in 2000, Aviron terminated all rights and licences to Sang-A relating to FluMist. Sang-A responded by filing a suit against Aviron in August 2000, for breach of contract and unfair and deceptive business practices. Aviron filed a counter claim denying the allegations in late Sept 2001. In 1999, Aviron entered into an agreement with Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines for worldwide collaboration in the marketing of FluMist. Under the $US400 million agreement, Aviron granted Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines exclusive worldwide rights to market FluMist. Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines and Aviron (now Med-Immune Vaccines) will co-promote FluMist in the US, while Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines will have the exclusive right to market the product ex-US. Wyeth will hold marketing rights for up to 11 years. The collaboration excludes Korea, Australia, New Zealand and certain South Pacific countries. The companies will collaborate on the regulatory, clinical and marketing programmes for FluMist and both will manufacture liquid FluMist. MedImmune Vaccines is to receive an average of 40% of revenues from FluMist; the percentage will be higher in the US and lower in other markets. Aviron received a $US15 million upfront payment upon initiation of the agreement. In December 2000, Aviron received a $US15.5 million milestone payment from American Home Products (now Wyeth) after the US FDA accepted the BLA for FluMist. MedImmune Vaccines will receive a $US20 million milestone payment upon US FDA approval. Aviron also received an additional $US20 million in milestone payments for expaory body recommendations. MedImmune Vaccines is entitled to receive a $US10 million payment for submitting a licence application in Europe, a $US27.5 million payment for approval of a refrigerator-stable liquid formulation of FluMist and as much as $US50 million for licensing of FluMist internationally. In July 2003 MedImmune announced that it had received approximately $US28 million in milestone payments during Q2 of 2003 for the approval of FluMist. CSL Ltd of Australia will collaborate on the development, sale and distribution of MedImmune Vaccine's vaccine in Australia, New Zealand and certain countries in the South Pacific. MedImmune is to acquire vaccine research programmes in respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus from MedImmune Vaccines. The company's primary interest is in FluMist. In May 2002, MedImmune licensed exclusive rights to Crucell's proprietary human cell line PER.C6 for use in its influenza vaccine programmes. On 11 March 2002, American Home Products changed its name and the names of its subsidiaries Wyeth-Ayerst and Wyeth-Lederle to Wyeth. Wyeth's vaccines division is called Wyeth Vaccines. On 29 September 2000, Aviron announced that it had been awarded a $US2.7 million Challenge Grant from NIAID for development of vaccines against pandemic strains of influenza based on FluMist intranasal technology. The cold-adapted live influenza vaccine has been widely evaluated in the US and Japan since 1975 in clinical trials involving several thousand people. Aviron completed phase II clinical trials in adults in the US and phase III trials in US children aged 15-71 months. Additional phase III trials in adults and the elderly are ongoing. Aviron also commenced phase III trials to test the safety of its intranasal live vaccine in children with moderate to severe asthma. The vaccine is delivered using the AccuSpray nasal delivery system by Becton Dickinson, which will supply the system for FluMist through the 2001-2002 influenza season under an agreement with Aviron made in August 1998. On 7 March 2000, Aviron announced that Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines (now Wyeth Vaccines) had begun a phase II bridging study with a refrigerator-stable liquid formulation of FluMist in the Southern Hemisphere. The randomised single-blind trial is being conducted together with Aviron (now MedImmune Vaccines) and is intended to demonstrate clinical equivalence between frozen and liquid FluMist. At the time of the announcement, more than 500 children aged 1-3 years had been enrolled to receive either frozen or liquid FluMist. The final study population is approximately 1300. If clinical equivalence of the two forms of FluMist is demonstrated in this study, MedImmune Vaccines will be able to use data from trials of frozen FluMist in licence applications for international markets. Aviron submitted a Biologics Licence Application (BLA) to the US FDA in July 1998. The FDA rejected this application on the grounds of a lack of data on manufacturing, validation and stability. In June 1999, Aviron announced that it had completed a bridging study on FluMist designed to provide some of the manufacturing data required by the US FDA on FluMist prepared at one of two manufacturing sites. Preliminary analysis indicated that the results had met the company's objectives. The primary endpoint of the study was to demonstrate that the batch of FluMist blended and filled at Packaging Coordinators, Inc. in Philadelphia had similar immunogenicity for all three 1997-98 influenza strains as the vaccine used in earlier clinical trials, which was manufactured by Medeva Pharma (now Evans Vaccines, a subsidiary of PowderJect Pharmaceuticals) in England. The secondary endpoint was to show that these lots of FluMist had similar safety and tolerability profiles. Aviron then submitted a BLA in October 2000. However, in late July 2001, an FDA advisory committee declined to recommend approval of the vaccine, citing concerns with safety. Aviron subsequently received a Complete Response Letter from the FDA requesting additional clinical and manufacturing data. Aviron stated that it should be able to provide these data without conducting further clinical trials. In January 2002, Aviron submitted additional clinical and manufacturing data on FluMist to the US FDA. MedImmune received a second Complete Response Letter from the US FDA on 10 July 2002, requesting clarification and additional data relating to previously submitted information. One of the most significant issues raised by the US FDA was the exacerbated rate of asthma and wheezing in 18-35-month-old patients using FluMist. MedImmune is considering two options to address this issue; to either exclude patients with asthma and wheezing from the label, or to exclude 18- to 30-month-old patients from the proposed indication. On 26 August 2002, MedImmune reported that it had completed the submission of information requested by the US FDA for FluMist. On 17 December 2002, the US FDA's Vaccination and Related Biologicals Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) recommended that the FDA approve FluMist to prevent influenza in healthy children, adolescents and adults (ages 5-49 years). Even though the VRBPAC voted in favour of the product's safety in the 50- to 64-year age group, they believed that the data set on efficacy for this age group was insufficient. The committee has also recommended that head-to-head studies should be conducted comparing FluMist to the marketed trivalent inactivated vaccine. Additional clinical trials suggested by the VRBPAC were shedding studies to more clearly define the probability of transmitting the influenza vaccine virus to a high-risk patient and annual revaccination studies. On 30 January 2003, MedImmune announced that it had received a Complete Response Letter from the US FDA requesting clarification and additional information relating to data previously submitted. No additional clinical trials were requested. The company responded to the five questions contained in the letter on 7 February 2003. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:12952502

  2. Chitosan nanoparticle encapsulated hemagglutinin-split influenza virus mucosal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sawaengsak, Chompoonuch; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mitrevej, Ampol; Sinchaipanid, Nuttanan

    2014-04-01

    Subunit/split influenza vaccines are less reactogenic compared with the whole virus vaccines. However, their immunogenicity is relatively low and thus required proper adjuvant and/or delivery vehicle for immunogenicity enhancement. Influenza vaccines administered intramuscularly induce minimum, if any, mucosal immunity at the respiratory mucosa which is the prime site of the infection. In this study, chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking of the CS with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) at the CS/TPP ratio of 1:0.6 using 2h mixing time. The CS/TPP nanoparticles were used as delivery vehicle of an intranasal influenza vaccine made of hemagglutinin (HA)-split influenza virus product. Innocuousness, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the CS/TPP-HA vaccine were tested in influenza mouse model in comparison with the antigen alone vaccine. The CS/TPP-HA nanoparticles had required characteristics including nano-sizes, positive charges, and high antigen encapsulation efficiency. Mice that received two doses of the CS/TPP-HA vaccine intranasally showed no adverse symptoms indicating the vaccine innocuousness. The animals developed higher systemic and mucosal antibody responses than vaccine made of the HA-split influenza virus alone. The CS/TPP-HA vaccine could induce also a cell-mediated immune response shown as high numbers of IFN-?-secreting cells in spleens while the HA vaccine alone could not. Besides, the CS nanoparticle encapsulated HA-split vaccine reduced markedly the influenza morbidity and also conferred 100% protective rate to the vaccinated mice against lethal influenza virus challenge. Overall results indicated that the CS nanoparticles invented in this study is an effective and safe delivery vehicle/adjuvant for the influenza vaccine. PMID:24343789

  3. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken thymidine kinase gene and the relationship of its predicted polypeptide to that of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kwoh, T J; Engler, J A

    1984-01-01

    The entire DNA nucleotide sequence of a 3.0 kilobase pair Hind III fragment containing the chicken cytoplasmic thymidine kinase gene was determined. Oligonucleotide linker insertion mutations distributed throughout this gene and having known effects upon gene activity ( Kwoh , T.J., Zipser , D., and Wigler , M. 1983. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2, 191-200), were used to access regions of the Hind III fragment for sequencing reactions. The complete nucleotide sequence, together with the positions of the linker insertion mutations within the sequence, allows us to propose a structure for the chicken thymidine kinase gene. The protein coding sequence of the gene is divided into seven small segments (each less than 160 base pairs) by six small introns (each less than 230 base pairs). The proposed 244 amino acid polypeptide encoded by this gene bears strong homology to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase. No homology with the thymidine kinases of the herpes simplex viruses was found. PMID:6328447

  4. Vaccination of llamas, Llama glama, with an experimental killed encephalomyocarditis virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Murphy, David P; Titus, Mark; Payton, Mark E; Backues, Kay A

    2011-03-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a pandemic virus that has caused mortality in numerous captive wildlife species worldwide. An experimental killed vaccine was created from two EMCV isolates associated with zoo animal mortality in the southern United States. The vaccine was tested for safety and efficacy in eleven llamas (Llama glama). All animals received an initial vaccination and a second booster vaccination 4 wk later. Serum antibody responses were monitored at initial vaccination and at 4 wks, 8 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo postvaccination. Eight of the 11 llamas vaccinated experienced at least a 4-fold increase in serum antibody titers to EMCV. Antibody titers of those eight animals remained elevated above prevaccination levels when measured at 12 mo. The experimental killed EMCV vaccine tested may be a useful tool to prevent EMCV infection in llamas when given in 2 doses 4 wk apart, and then revaccinated or with antibody levels monitored annually thereafter. PMID:22946372

  5. Genetic Confirmation that the H5 Protein Is Required for Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Kathleen A.; Greseth, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The duplication of the poxvirus double-stranded DNA genome occurs in cytoplasmic membrane-delimited factories. This physical autonomy from the host nucleus suggests that poxvirus genomes encode the full repertoire of proteins committed for genome replication. Biochemical and genetic analyses have confirmed that six viral proteins are required for efficient DNA synthesis; indirect evidence has suggested that the multifunctional H5 protein may also have a role. Here we show that H5 localizes to replication factories, as visualized by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, and can be retrieved upon purification of the viral polymerase holoenzyme complex. The temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant Dts57, which was generated by chemical mutagenesis and has a lesion in H5, exhibits defects in DNA replication and morphogenesis under nonpermissive conditions, depending upon the experimental protocol. The H5 variant encoded by the genome of this mutant is ts for function but not stability. For a more precise investigation of how H5 contributes to DNA synthesis, we placed the ts57 H5 allele in an otherwise wild-type viral background and also performed small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of H5. Finally, we generated a complementing cell line, CV-1–H5, which allowed us to generate a viral recombinant in which the H5 open reading frame was deleted and replaced with mCherry (vΔH5). Analysis of vΔH5 allowed us to demonstrate conclusively that viral DNA replication is abrogated in the absence of H5. The loss of H5 does not compromise the accumulation of other early viral replication proteins or the uncoating of the virion core, suggesting that H5 plays a direct and essential role in facilitating DNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most notorious member of the Poxviridae family. Poxviruses are unique among DNA viruses that infect mammalian cells, in that their replication is restricted to the cytoplasm of the cell. This physical autonomy from the nucleus has both cell biological and genetic ramifications. Poxviruses must establish cytoplasmic niches that support replication, and the genomes must encode the repertoire of proteins necessary for genome synthesis. Here we focus on H5, a multifunctional and abundant viral protein. We confirm that H5 associates with the DNA polymerase holoenzyme and localizes to the sites of DNA synthesis. By generating an H5-expressing cell line, we were able to isolate a deletion virus that lacks the H5 gene and show definitively that genome synthesis does not occur in the absence of H5. These data support the hypothesis that H5 is a crucial participant in cytoplasmic poxvirus genome replication. PMID:25855734

  6. VACCINATION OF PIGS AGAINST SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUSES USING A NS1-DELETED MODIFIED LIVE VACCINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza virus (SIV), a member of the genus influenza A virus, can naturally infect pigs and be transmitted to humans. In the pig, genetic reassortment to create novel influenza subtypes by mixing avian, human and swine influenza viruses is possible. A vaccine inducing cross-protective immuni...

  7. Chikungunya virus vaccines: Current strategies and prospects for developing plant-made vaccines.

    PubMed

    Salazar-González, Jorge A; Angulo, Carlos; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-17

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging pathogen initially found in East Africa and currently spread into the Indian Ocean Islands, many regions of South East Asia, and in the Americas. No licensed vaccines against this eminent pathogen are available and thus intensive research in this field is a priority. This review presents the current scenario on the developments of Chikungunya virus vaccines and identifies the use of genetic engineered plants to develop attractive vaccines. The possible avenues to develop plant-made vaccines with distinct antigenic designs and expression modalities are identified and discussed considering current trends in the field. PMID:26073010

  8. Antibody landscapes after influenza virus infection or vaccination

    PubMed Central

    James, S. L.; Fox, A.; Ventresca, M.; Aban, M.; Xue, L.; Jones, T. C.; Le, N. M. H.; Pham, Q. T.; Tran, N. D.; Wong, Y.; Mosterin, A.; Katzelnick, L. C.; Labonte, D.; Le, T. T.; van der Net, G.; Skepner, E.; Russell, C. A.; Kaplan, T. D.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.; de Jong, J. C.; Palache, A.; Beyer, W. E. P.; Le, Q. M.; Nguyen, T. H.; Wertheim, H. F. L.; Hurt, A. C.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Barr, I. G.; Fouchier, R. A. M.; Horby, P. W.; Smith, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the antibody landscape, a method for the quantitative analysis of antibody-mediated immunity to antigenically variable pathogens, achieved by accounting for antigenic variation among pathogen strains. We generated antibody landscapes to study immune profiles covering 43 years of influenza A/H3N2 virus evolution for 69 individuals monitored for infection over six years and for 225 individuals pre- and post-vaccination. On infection and vaccination titers increased broadly, including previously encountered viruses far beyond the extent of cross-reactivity observed after a primary infection. We explored implications for vaccination, and found that use of an antigenically advanced virus had the dual benefit of inducing antibodies against both advanced and previous antigenic clusters. These results indicate that pre-emptive vaccine updates may improve influenza vaccine efficacy in previously-exposed individuals. PMID:25414313

  9. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  10. Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most fatal viral diseases worldwide affecting humans and nonhuman primates. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. As of today there is no vaccine or treatment licensed to counteract Ebola virus infections. DNA, subunit and several viral vector approaches, replicating and non-replicating, have been tested as potential vaccine platforms and their protective efficacy has been evaluated in nonhuman primate models for Ebola virus infections, which closely resemble disease progression in humans. Though these vaccine platforms seem to confer protection through different mechanisms, several of them are efficacious against lethal disease in nonhuman primates attesting that vaccination against Ebola virus infections is feasible. PMID:24575870

  11. A recombinant influenza virus vaccine expressing the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Wendy; Ozawa, Makoto; Hatta, Masato; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rank high among the most common human respiratory diseases worldwide. Previously, we developed a replication-incompetent influenza virus by replacing the coding sequence of the PB2 gene, which encodes one of the viral RNA polymerase subunits, with that of a reporter gene. Here, we generated a PB2-knockout recombinant influenza virus expressing the F protein of RSV (PB2-RSVF virus) and tested its potential as a bivalent vaccine. In mice intranasally immunized with the PB2-RSVF virus, we detected high levels of antibodies against influenza virus, but not RSV. PB2-RSVF virus-immunized mice were protected from a lethal challenge with influenza virus but experienced severe body weight loss when challenged with RSV, indicating that PB2-RSVF vaccination enhanced RSV-associated disease. These results highlight one of the difficulties of developing an effective bivalent vaccine against influenza virus and RSV infections. PMID:24292020

  12. A recombinant influenza virus vaccine expressing the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Wendy; Ozawa, Makoto; Hatta, Masato; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-05-01

    Infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rank high among the most common human respiratory diseases worldwide. Previously, we developed a replication-incompetent influenza virus by replacing the coding sequence of the PB2 gene, which encodes one of the viral RNA polymerase subunits, with that of a reporter gene. Here, we generated a PB2-knockout recombinant influenza virus expressing the F protein of RSV (PB2-RSVF virus) and tested its potential as a bivalent vaccine. In mice intranasally immunized with the PB2-RSVF virus, we detected high levels of antibodies against influenza virus, but not RSV. PB2-RSVF virus-immunized mice were protected from a lethal challenge with influenza virus but experienced severe body weight loss when challenged with RSV, indicating that PB2-RSVF vaccination enhanced RSV-associated disease. These results highlight one of the difficulties of developing an effective bivalent vaccine against influenza virus and RSV infections. PMID:24292020

  13. Host Proteome Correlates of Vaccine-Mediated Enhanced Disease in a Mouse Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Diepen, Angela; Brand, H. Kim; de Waal, Leon; Bijl, Maarten; Jong, Victor L.; Kuiken, Thijs; van Amerongen, Geert; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Despite over 50 years of research, to date no safe and efficacious RSV vaccine has been licensed. Many experimental vaccination strategies failed to induce balanced T-helper (Th) responses and were associated with adverse effects such as hypersensitivity and immunopathology upon challenge. In this study, we explored the well-established recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) RSV-F/RSV-G vaccination-challenge mouse model to study phenotypically distinct vaccine-mediated host immune responses at the proteome level. In this model, rVV-G priming and not rVV-F priming results in the induction of Th2 skewed host responses upon RSV challenge. Mass spectrometry-based spectral count comparisons enabled us to identify seven host proteins for which expression in lung tissue is associated with an aberrant Th2 skewed response characterized by the influx of eosinophils and neutrophils. These proteins are involved in processes related to the direct influx of eosinophils (eosinophil peroxidase [Epx]) and to chemotaxis and extravasation processes (Chil3 [chitinase-like-protein 3]) as well as to eosinophil and neutrophil homing signals to the lung (Itgam). In addition, the increased levels of Arg1 and Chil3 proteins point to a functional and regulatory role for alternatively activated macrophages and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in Th2 cytokine-driven RSV vaccine-mediated enhanced disease. IMPORTANCE RSV alone is responsible for 80% of acute bronchiolitis cases in infants worldwide and causes substantial mortality in developing countries. Clinical trials performed with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine preparations in the 1960s failed to induce protection upon natural RSV infection and even predisposed patients for enhanced disease. Despite the clinical need, to date no safe and efficacious RSV vaccine has been licensed. Since RSV vaccines have a tendency to prime for unbalanced responses associated with an exuberant influx of inflammatory cells and enhanced disease, detailed characterization of primed host responses has become a crucial element in RSV vaccine research. We investigated the lung proteome of mice challenged with RSV upon priming with vaccine preparations known to induce phenotypically distinct host responses. Seven host proteins whose expression levels are associated with vaccine-mediated enhanced disease have been identified. The identified protein biomarkers support the development as well as detailed evaluation of next-generation RSV vaccines. PMID:25694607

  14. Role of Metalloproteases in Vaccinia Virus Epitope Processing for Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)-independent Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B7 Class I Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Elena; García, Ruth; Mir, Carmen; Barriga, Alejandro; Lemonnier, François A.; Ramos, Manuel; López, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates the viral proteolytic peptides generated by the proteasome and other proteases in the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. There, they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, which are subsequently recognized by the CD8+ lymphocyte cellular response. However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or tumor or infected cells with blocked TAP molecules are able to present HLA class I ligands generated by TAP-independent processing pathways. Herein, using a TAP-independent polyclonal vaccinia virus-polyspecific CD8+ T cell line, two conserved vaccinia-derived TAP-independent HLA-B*0702 epitopes were identified. The presentation of these epitopes in normal cells occurs via complex antigen-processing pathways involving the proteasome and/or different subsets of metalloproteinases (amino-, carboxy-, and endoproteases), which were blocked in infected cells with specific chemical inhibitors. These data support the hypothesis that the abundant cellular proteolytic systems contribute to the supply of peptides recognized by the antiviral cellular immune response, thereby facilitating immunosurveillance. These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections. PMID:22298786

  15. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  16. Bioengineering virus-like particles as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lua, Linda H L; Connors, Natalie K; Sainsbury, Frank; Chuan, Yap P; Wibowo, Nani; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-03-01