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1

VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia or imperforate anus, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal and limb defect) spectrum presenting with portal hypertension: a case report  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction We report for the first time a unique case of VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia or imperforate anus, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal and limb defect) spectrum associated with portal hypertension...

Bhurtel, Dilli RAJ; Losa, Ignatius

2010-05-05

2

Oesophageal atresia, VACTERL association: Fanconi's anaemia related spectrum of anomalies  

PubMed Central

Oesophageal atresia usually occurs without any genetic background. Three cases associated with Fanconi's anaemia are reported. One neonate had growth retardation and numerous malformations including oesophageal atresia and four other components of the VACTERL association. In the two others, oesophageal atresia was isolated. In patients with such malformations an early diagnosis of Fanconi's anaemia may have important genetic and therapeutic implications.?? PMID:9623406

Perel, Y; Butenandt, O; Carrere, A; Saura, R; Fayon, M; Lamireau, T; Vergnes, P

1998-01-01

3

First Trimester Diagnosis of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association (OMIM 192350) is a non-random combination of multiple congenital malformations including vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal and limb anomalies. The wide spectrum of defects suggests the occurrence of defective development during early embryogenesis. The authors report a case of a complex polymalformative association detected by ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy. The ensuing fetal study revealed the presence of vertebral, anorectal, renal and limb anomalies and therefore was considered a case of VACTERL association. This complex association generally entails a poor prognosis. Its early detection allows discussion of management options, including medical termination of pregnancy. PMID:24765498

Santos, Joana; Nogueira, Rosete; Pinto, Rita; Cerveira, Isabel; Pereira, Susana

2013-01-01

4

VACTERL anomalies in patients with esophageal atresia: an updated delineation of the spectrum and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VACTERL complex refers to anomalies of the bony spinal column (V), atresias in the gastrointestinal tract (A), congenital\\u000a heart lesions (C), tracheoesophageal defects (TE), renal and distal urinary tract anomalies (R) and limb lesions (L). The\\u000a incidence of each of these components has not been precisely quantified in the recent literature and the full array of anomalies\\u000a within each

Scott J. Keckler; Shawn D. St. Peter; Patricia A. Valusek; KuoJen Tsao; Charles L. Snyder; George W. Holcomb; Daniel J. Ostlie

2007-01-01

5

Bilateral ureteral triplication with crossed ectopic fused kidneys associated with the VACTERL syndrome.  

PubMed

We report a case of bilateral ureteral triplication associated with crossed ectopic fused kidneys, vesicoureteral reflux and the VACTERL syndrome (Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Radial and renal anomalies, and Limb defects). The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:2657108

Golomb, J; Ehrlich, R M

1989-06-01

6

Mutation Screening and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using a 180K Oligonucleotide Array in VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

In order to identify genetic causes of VACTERL association (V vertebral defects, A anorectal malformations, C cardiac defects, T tracheoesofageal fistula, E esophageal atresia, R renal anomalies, L limb deformities), we have collected DNA samples from 20 patients diagnosed with VACTERL or with a VACTERL-like phenotype as well as samples from 19 aborted fetal cases with VACTERL. To investigate the importance of gene dose alterations in the genetic etiology of VACTERL association we have performed a systematic analysis of this cohort using a 180K array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) platform. In addition, to further clarify the significance of PCSK5, HOXD13 and CHD7 genes in the VACTERL phenotype, mutation screening has been performed. We identified pathogenic gene dose imbalances in two fetal cases; a hemizygous deletion of the FANCB gene and a (9;18)(p24;q12) unbalanced translocation. In addition, one pathogenic mutation in CHD7 was detected, while no apparent disease-causing mutations were found in HOXD13 or PCSK5. Our study shows that although large gene dose alterations do not seem to be a common cause in VACTERL association, array-CGH is still important in clinical diagnostics to identify disease cause in individual cases. PMID:24416387

Winberg, Johanna; Gustavsson, Peter; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Sahlin, Ellika; Bradley, Frideborg; Nordenskjold, Edvard; Svensson, Par-Johan; Anneren, Goran; Iwarsson, Erik; Nordgren, Ann; Nordenskjold, Agneta

2014-01-01

7

Considering the Embryopathogenesis of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

The nonrandom co-occurrence of vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, genitourinary, and limb malformations, recognized as the VACTERL association, has not been satisfactorily explained from either a causation or embryopathogenesis standpoint. Few familial cases have been identified and maternal diabetes is the only environmental influence implicated to date. Mutations in single genes have been found in a number of syndromes with one or more of the VACTERL malformations, but these syndromes usually have other features which distinguish them from the VACTERL association. Animal models have provided clues to molecular pathways that may be involved in the embryogenesis of the VACTERL structures. What is lacking is the systematic study of individual genes and pathways in well-composed cohorts of patients, which is now possible with high throughput molecular technologies. PMID:23653571

Stevenson, R.E.; Hunter, A.G.W.

2013-01-01

8

An aberrant subclavian artery exhibiting the partial steal phenomenon in a patient with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

We herein report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian man with known vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, cardiac defects, renal and limb anomalies (VACTERL) association who presented with a headache and vertigo following the sudden and temporary loss of consciousness while attending a concert four days before admission to the hospital. On a physical examination, the following findings were found: a low body height, low-set ears, thoracic scoliosis and a mild holosystolic heart murmur. A neurosonological examination revealed a partial subclavian steal phenomenon. CT angiography of the neck vessels and aortic arch confirmed an anomalous right subclavian artery -known as the lusorian artery. Further studies are warranted in patients with VACTERL in order to identify possible links between the prevalence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (lusorian artery) and possible congenital subclavian steal syndrome or dysphagia lusoria. In addition, duplex ultrasound of the carotid and vertebral arteries may be performed as part of screening examinations in patients with congenital syndromes. PMID:25130125

Budincevic, Hrvoje; Starcevic, Katarina; Bielen, Ivan; Demarin, Vida

2014-01-01

9

VATER/VACTERL association: identification of seven new twin pairs, a systematic review of the literature, and a classical twin analysis  

PubMed Central

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. The identification of 14 twin pairs with an initial diagnosis of VATER/VACTERL association at our clinical centers led to the performance of a classical twin study. This involved a thorough evaluation of these 14 twin pairs and a further 55 twin pairs identified from a systematic review of the literature. The zygosity, concordance, and malformation status of all 69 twin pairs were evaluated. Twenty-four twin pairs fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in a comparison of the concordance rates between monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twin pairs. The pairwise concordance rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4–42%] for MZ and 18% (95% CI 5–48%) for DZ twin pairs (P = 0.53). The probandwise concordance rates were 27% (95% CI 11–52%) for MZ and 31% (95% CI 13–58%) for DZ twin pairs (P= 0.40). Although based on a limited number of twin pairs, the findings of the present study are consistent with the low number of familial cases reported to date, and suggest that the role of inherited genetic factors in the majority of VATER/VACTERL cases is limited. PMID:22895008

Bartels, Enrika; Schulz, Anna C.; Mora, Nicole W.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Marcelis, Carlo M.; Stressig, Rudiger; Ritgen, Jochen; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Mattheisen, Manuel; Draaken, Markus; Hoffmann, Per; Hilger, Alina C.; Dworschak, Gabriel C.; Baudisch, Friederike; Ludwig, Michael; Bagci, Soyhan; Muller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Bartmann, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Reutter, Heiko M.

2014-01-01

10

VACTERL with the mitochondrial NP 3243 point mutation  

SciTech Connect

The VACTERL association of vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, tracheo-esophageal, renal, and limb defects is one of the more common congenital disorders with limb deficiency arising during blastogenesis. The cause is probably heterogeneous; a molecular basis has not been defined. We report on a family in which a female infant with VACTERL was born in 1977 and died at age 1 month due to renal failure. Because her mother and sister later developed classical mitochondrial cytopathy associated with the A-G point mutation at nucleotide position (np) 3243 of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, we performed a molecular analysis of mt DNA in preserved kidney tissue from the VACTERL case. We discovered 100% mutant mt DNA in multicystic and 32% mutant mt DNA in normal kidney tissue. Mild deficiency of complex I respiratory chain enzyme activity was found in the mother`s muscle biopsy. Other maternal relatives were healthy but had low levels of mutant mt DNA in blood. This is the first report to provide a precise molecular basis for a case of VACTERL. The differing tissue pathology depending on the percentage of mutant mt DNA suggests a causal connection between the mutation and symptoms. VACTERL, and this type of multicystic renal dysplasia, are new phenotypes for the np 3243 point mutation. The possibility of a mitochondrial disorder should be born in mind and also that VACTERL may occur as a first manifestation of a mutation that has been present for generations. This would have major implications for patient management and for genetic counselling regarding both the risk of recurrence and risk of other mitochondrial syndromes in affected families. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Damian, M.S.; Dorndorf, W.; Schachenmayr, W. [Univ. of Giessen (Germany)] [Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Seibel, P.; Reichmann, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)] [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

1996-04-24

11

[X-ray diagnosis of cranio-vertebral anomalies].  

PubMed

On the basis of an analysis of the radiological data of 66 patients with craniovertebral anomalies the following forms of them were distinguished: 1) basilar impression; 2) assimilation of the atlas; 3) coarctation of the atlanto-occipital segment; 4) anomaly of the C1-dens. The main radiological signs revealed in the patients with different forms of craniovertebral anomalies with the aid of craniometric techniques and linear and angular indices are presented. The importance of tomography and myelography in the diagnosis of medullar compression and of its concomitant anomalies is emphasized, pneumomyelography being preferred against positive myelography. A combined evaluation of the neurological and radiological data permits to determine the indications for surgery of congenital craniovertebral pathology. PMID:1014522

Paramonov, L V; Shifrin, S S

1976-01-01

12

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: associated anomalies, functional deficits and possible developmental risk factors.  

PubMed

Swedish patients with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum participated in a prospective multidisciplinary investigation. The aims of the study were to describe their systemic and functional defects, especially autism spectrum disorders, and to search for possible etiologic risk factors. Available medical records were studied and the mothers answered a questionnaire on history of prenatal events. A clinical examination evaluating systemic findings, vision, hearing, speech, oral and swallowing function, and neuropsychiatric function, especially autism, was made. Eighteen patients, (11 males, 7 females) aged 8 months to 17 years with OAV were studied. Most frequent systemic malformations included, ear abnormalities (100%), ocular malformations (72%), vertebral deformities (67%), cerebral anomalies (50%), and congenital heart defects (33%). Functional defects consisted of hearing impairment (83%), visual impairment (28%), both visual and hearing impairment (28%), difficulties in feeding/eating (50%), speech (53%), mental retardation (39%), and severe autistic symptoms (11%). Three children were born following assisted fertilization (two intracytoplasmatic sperm injection, one in vitro fertilization), two mothers reported early bleedings, and six (33%) mothers had smoked during pregnancy. PMID:17506093

Strömland, Kerstin; Miller, Marilyn; Sjögreen, Lotta; Johansson, Maria; Joelsson, Britt-Marie Ekman; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Danielsson, Susanna; Jacobsson, Catharina; Andersson-Norinder, Jan; Granström, Gösta

2007-06-15

13

Congenital Achiasma and See-Saw Nystagmus in VACTERL Syndrome  

E-print Network

achiasma. These findings have not previously been reported in VACTERL. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology 2010;30:45­48 doi: 10.1097/WNO.0b013e3181c28fc0 � 2010 by North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society The formation of Ophthalmology (SP, YJL), Psychology (SD, BAW), and Radiology (NF), Stanford University School of Medicine

Dumoulin, Serge O.

14

Ureteral triplication: a rare anomaly with a variety of presentations.  

PubMed

Ureteral triplication remains a very rare congenital malformation of the urinary tract with a wide spectrum of presentation. The sporadic nature of this condition and its association with other anomalies makes evidence-based management difficult. We report two cases of triplication in association with the VACTERL syndrome, one developing pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction and the other vesico-ureteric reflux. PMID:21216673

Kokabi, N; Price, N; Smith, G H H; Gibbons, P J; Holland, A J A

2011-08-01

15

Encephalocele-radial, cardiac, gastrointestinal, anal/renal anomalies: novel evidence for a new condition?  

PubMed

The association between encephalocele and radial defects is considered uncommon. These features have been occasionally described separately in certain recurrent conditions such as VACTERL association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18). DK-phocomelia is a rare syndrome characterized by both findings. However, Froster-Iskenius and Meinecke [1992, Clin Dysmorphol 1: 37-41] and Kunze et al. [1992, Eur J Pediatr 151: 467-468] reported patients presenting similar malformations. We proposed, through the description of an additional case, that these last patients present the same condition and thus represent a new syndrome. The fetus presented a cranial vault deformity associated with an exuberant herniation of brain content, compatible with occipital encephalocele. Other uncommon features were also identified: microtia of the left ear with atresia of the external auditory canal; radial defect with aplasia of left radius and thumb; findings suggestive of a congenital heart defect and esophageal atresia; hypoplastic lungs and adrenals; thoracolumbar scoliosis; atrophic right kidney; and single umbilical artery. Thus, based on our review, we believe that these patients represent a new condition characterized by encephalocele and radial defects associated with multiple malformations. We propose, that the name "Encephalocele-radial, cardiac, gastrointestinal, anal/renal anomalies," as suggested by the London Medical Database, or even the name, "Froster-Iskenius and Meinecke syndrome" should be used to indicate these cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24648351

Valdez, Carolina M; Altmayer, Stephan P L; Barrow, McArthur A; Telles, Jorge A B; Betat, Rosilene da S; Zen, Paulo R G; Rosa, Rafael F M

2014-05-01

16

Prenatal diagnosis of VACTERL syndrome and partial caudal regression syndrome: a previously unreported association.  

PubMed

We describe a case of VACTERL syndrome associated with type 1 unilateral caudal regression syndrome. The abnormal sonographic findings at 26 weeks included hemivertebrae, scoliosis, hypoplastic and deformed lumbar spine and sacrum, preaxial polydactyly on the left hand, duplicated hallux on the left foot and hemihypoplasia of the left lower limb, bilateral club foot, and single umbilical artery. Postmortem examination confirmed prenatal sonographic findings with additional findings of supernumerary rib at the lumbar level and anal atresia. PMID:19536863

Gedikbasi, Ali; Yararbas, Kanay; Yildirim, Gokhan; Yildirim, Dogukan; Arslan, Oguz; Gul, Ahmet; Ceylan, Yavuz

2009-10-01

17

Associated nonurinary congenital anomalies among infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).  

PubMed

Infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CAKUT in a defined population from northeastern France. The associated anomalies in CAKUT were collected in all livebirths, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive births of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 1678 infants with CAKUT born during this period (prevalence at birth of 48.4 per 10,000), 563 (34%) had associated anomalies. There were 119 (7%) patients with chromosomal abnormalities including 33 trisomies 18 (2%), and 168 (10%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VA(C)TER(L) association (3%). However, other recognised dysmorphic conditions were registered including Meckel-Gruber syndrome (2%), and prune belly syndrome (1%). Two hundred seventy six (16%) of the patients had multiple congenital anomalies, non syndromic, non chromosomal (MCA). Anomalies in the musculoskeletal, the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 71% of dysmorphic syndromes with CAKUT. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in three infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of infants with CAKUT. The most commonly associated major nonurinary anomalies involved the musculoskeletal system, followed by the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CAKUT. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CAKUT can be classified into a recognizable anomaly syndrome or pattern in one out of six infants with CAKUT. PMID:24821302

Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

2014-07-01

18

Whole-exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat-shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle's loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or VACTERL association with CAKUT. PMID:24152966

Saisawat, Pawaree; Kohl, Stefan; Hilger, Alina C; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yung Gee, Heon; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Tasic, Velibor; Pennimpede, Tracie; Natarajan, Sivakumar; Sperry, Ethan; Matassa, Danilo S; Staji?, Nataša; Bogdanovic, Radovan; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Wijers, Charlotte H W; Bartels, Enrika; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Ludwig, Michael; Nöthen, Markus M; Draaken, Markus; Brosens, Erwin; Heij, Hugo; Tibboel, Dick; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Solomon, Benjamin D; de Klein, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Esposito, Franca; Reutter, Heiko M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2014-06-01

19

Anomalous atlantoaxial portions of vertebral and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a review of the vertebral angiograms of 300 patients free from disease at the craniovertebral junction, we found atlantoaxial arterial anomalies in 2,3%. These were: 2 cases in which the vertebral artery ran in the spinal canal below C1, 3 cases of duplication of the vertebral artery above and below C1, and 2 cases of origin of the posterior

K. Tokuda; K. Miyasaka; H. Abe; S. Abe; H. Takei; S. Sugimoto; M. Tsuru

1985-01-01

20

Vaginal Anomalies: Cloacal Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... feces following the procedure? Your child's ability to control either the flow of her urine or elimination of her stool depends on the severity of the anomaly. In milder cases, more than 90 percent of patients have good sphincter control and a nearly normal pattern eliminating stools. Between ...

21

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

22

Vertebrate skeletogenesis  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

Lefebvre, Veronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

2011-01-01

23

Imaging the vertebral artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based

Keng Yeow Tay; Jean Marie U-King-Im; Rikin A. Trivedi; Nicholas J. Higgins; Justin J. Cross; John R. Davies; Peter L. Weissberg; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

2005-01-01

24

Magnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

Harrison, C. G. A.

1983-04-01

25

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

26

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

27

Fossil Halls: Vertebrate Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a larger virtual tour of the Museum's famed Fossil Halls, this Web site has an interactive cladogram with 20 clickable evolutionary branching points. It shows vertebrate evolution for the following three AMNH halls: Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Dinosaurs and Hall of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives.

28

Analysis of Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Congenital Vertebral Malformations  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective chart review of cases with congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) and controls with normal spine morphology. Objective To determine the relative contribution of maternal environmental factors (MEF) during pregnancy including maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, valproic acid, alcohol, smoking, hyperthermia, twin gestation, assisted reproductive technology, in-vitro fertilization and maternal clomiphene usage to CVM development. Summary of Background Data Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) represent defects in formation and segmentation of somites occurring with an estimated incidence of between 0.13–0.50 per 1000 live births. CVM may be associated with congenital scoliosis, Klippel-Feil syndrome, hemifacial microsomia and VACTERL syndromes, and represent significant morbidity due to pain and cosmetic disfigurement. Methods A multicenter retrospective chart review of 229 cases with CVM and 267 controls with normal spine morphology between the ages of 1–50 years was performed in order to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of MEF related to CVM among cases vs. controls. CVM due to an underlying syndrome associated with a known gene mutation or chromosome etiology were excluded. An imputation based analysis was performed in which subjects with no documentation of MEF history were treated as no maternal exposure.” Univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to calculate the OR. Results Of the 229 total cases, 104 cases had single or multiple CVM without additional congenital malformations (CM) (Group 1) and 125 cases had single or multiple CVM and additional CM (Group 2). Nineteen percent of total cases had an identified MEF. The OR (95% CI, P-value) for MEF history for Group 1 was 6.0 (2.4–15.1, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The OR for MEF history in Group 2 was 9.1 (95%CI, P-value) (3.8–21.6, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The results were confirmed in the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, and institution. Discussion These results support a hypothesis for an association between the above MEF during pregnancy and CVM and have implications for development of prevention strategies. Further prospective studies are needed to quantify association between CVM and specific MEF. PMID:23446706

Hesemann, Jennifer; Lauer, Emily; Ziska, Stephen; Noonan, Kenneth; Nemeth, Blaise; Scott-Schwoerer, Jessica; McCarty, Catherine; Rasmussen, Kristen; Goldberg, Jacob M.; Sund, Sarah; Eickhoff, Jens; Raggio, Cathleen L.; Giampietro, Philip F.

2014-01-01

29

Dyonic Anomalies  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of coupling a dyonic p-brane in d = 2p+4 space-time dimensions to a prescribed (p+2)-form field strength. This is particularly subtle when p is odd. For the case p = 1, we explicitly construct a coupling functional, which is a sum of two terms: one which is linear in the prescribed field strength, and one which describes the coupling of the brane to its self-field and takes the form of a Wess-Zumino term depending only on the embedding of the brane world-volume into space-time. We then show that this functional is well-defined only modulo a certain anomaly, related to the Euler class of the normal bundle of the brane world-volume.

Mans Henningson; Erik P. G. Johansson

2005-08-15

30

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

31

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

32

Investigating Classification: Minnesota Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an interactive game that helps students learn that vertebrates are classified into five groups and that each group has common characteristics that distinguish the animal group from other respective groups.

33

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

34

Rotational vertebral artery syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

2008-01-01

35

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

E-print Network

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2009-06-18

36

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

E-print Network

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel

2009-01-01

37

ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION  

SciTech Connect

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2009-06-10

38

Anomaly structure of supergravity and anomaly cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new contributions to the conformal anomaly. Our result has the super-Weyl and Kähler U(1), transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green–Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2009-01-01

39

vertebrate sensory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

3JT UK Nociception is the detection of a noxious, tissue damaging stimulus and is sometimes accompanied by a reflex response such as withdrawal. Pain perception, as distinct from nociception, has been demonstrated in birds and mammals but has not been systematically studied in lower vertebrates. We assessed whether a fish possessed cutaneous nociceptors capable of detecting noxious stimuli and if

Lynne U. Sneddon; Victoria A. Braithwaite; Michael J. Gentle

40

Duration tuning across vertebrates.  

PubMed

Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

2012-05-01

41

FISH SKELETAL ANOMALIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of skeletal deformities in fish has been proposed as a means of monitoring pollution effects in marine environments. Effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on bone integrity are similar in that vertebral anomalies are produced, although they may develop through...

42

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools. PMID:23858304

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

43

Non-vertebrate melatonin.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been detected in bacteria, eukaryotic unicells, macroalgae, plants, fungi and various taxa of invertebrates. Although precise determinations are missing in many of these organisms and the roles of melatonin are still unknown, investigations in some species allow more detailed conclusions. Non-vertebrate melatonin is not necessarily circadian, and if so, not always peaking at night, although nocturnal maxima are frequently found. In the cases under study, the major biosynthetic pathway is identical with that of vertebrates. Mimicking of photoperiodic responses and concentration changes upon temperature decreases have been studied in more detail only in dinoflagellates. In plants, an involvement in photoperiodism seems conceivable but requires further support. No stimulation of flowering has been demonstrated to date. A participation in antioxidative protection might be possible in many aerobic non-vertebrates, although evidence for a contribution at physiological levels is mostly missing. Protection from stress by oxidotoxins or/and extensions of lifespan have been shown in very different organisms, such as the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium, the ciliate Paramecium, the rotifer Philodina and Drosophila. Melatonin can be taken up from the food, findings with possible implications in ecophysiology as well as for human nutrition and, with regard to high levels in medicinal plants, also in pharmacology. PMID:12662344

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard

2003-05-01

44

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

Pourquié, Olivier

2008-03-01

45

Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland.  

PubMed

An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified. PMID:17836657

Serson, P H; Hannaford, W; Haines, G V

1968-10-18

46

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

47

Anomaly detection using topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new topology-based algorithm for anomaly detection in dimensionally large datasets. The motivating application is hyperspectral imaging where the dataset can be a collection of ~ 10 6 points in R k, representing the reflected (or radiometric) spectra of electromagnetic radiation. The algorithm begins by building a graph whose edges connect close pairs of points. The background points are the points in the largest components of this graph and all other points are designated as anomalies. The anomalies are ranked according to their distance to the background. The algorithm is termed Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD). The algorithm is tested on hyperspectral imagery collected with the HYDICE sensor which contains targets of known reflectance and spatial location. Anomaly maps are created and compared to results from the common anomaly detection algorithm RX. We show that the TAD algorithm performs better than RX by achieving greater separation of the anomalies from the background for this dataset.

Basener, Bill; Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Messinger, David W.

2007-04-01

48

Is the Accrual Anomaly a Global Anomaly?  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the subsequent return implications of accruals within a sample of large, developed, international equity markets and assesses whether similar institutional features account for the accrual anomaly ...

LaFond, Ryan

2005-09-23

49

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

50

Fenestrated vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Fenestrations of the vertebral arteries (VAs) are usually identified angiographically. A left fenestrated vertebral artery (fVA) is reported here, identified in an adult specimen by microdissection. The distal segment of this VA was fenestrated and it consisted of two arms, the caudal one being larger than the cranial one. The caudal end of the rostral arm and the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were inserted at the same point. The anterior spinal artery was leaving the caudal arm of the fVA. On that side the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was rudimentary, its cerebellar hemispheric territory being supplied by the PICA. The rostral arm of the fVA and the AICA were united by an anastomosis coursing on the ventral side of the olive. The AICA-to-fVA anastomosis, as well as the PICA, were supplying perforator arteries of the retro-olivary sulcus. Anatomical details of various arterial morphologies are important during specific surgical and interventional procedures. PMID:23842727

Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Pop, Elena

2013-09-01

51

Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a case of prenatally detected fetal hydrocolpos.  

PubMed

We report on a female fetus with prenatally suspected hydrometrocolpos. Postnatal evaluation additionally revealed ambiguous genitalia, anorectal atresia, vertebral segmentation anomalies and congenital intestinal aganglionosis. Colostomy was performed, but postoperative recovery was complicated by pulmonary hypertension and renal failure, resulting in death at day 18. Postmortem examination furthermore revealed a small ventricular septal defect, as well as rectovaginal and urethrovaginal fistulae, causing massive dilatation of the septated vagina (hydrocolpos). The possibility of an overlapping VACTERL and MURCS association is discussed. PMID:11530001

Geipel, A; Berg, C; Germer, U; Ahrens, P; Gloeckner-Hofmann, K; Möller, J; Gembruch, U

2001-08-01

52

Congenital Anomalies in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents data and analysis concerning congenital anomalies in Bulgaria. Assessment is based on statistical data\\u000a reported in the National Statistical Institute Yearbook: Health Protection and the Sofia registry of congenital anomalies\\u000a in the period 1996 – 1999. Forty subgroups of isolated congenital anomalies and congenital diseases, detectable at birth during\\u000a in the first year of life, have been

E. Terlemesian; S. Stoyanov

53

Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:10217474

Schittek, A

1999-01-01

54

Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.  

PubMed

Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction. PMID:23625763

Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

2013-07-01

55

[The use of topiramate at patients with combined craniovertebral anomaly].  

PubMed

Twenty-eight patients with concomitant cranio-vertebral anomaly: Kimmerle anomaly and Chiari type I malformation were examined. A main reason for visiting a doctor was headache, dizziness and sleep disturbance. Topamax (topiramate) was used for stopping the symptoms. It was prescribed in dosage 25 mg in the evening to 16 patients and in dosage 25 mg in the first two weeks and then in dosage 50 mg in the evening for 60 days - to 12 patients. The use of Topamax led to the reduction and /or disappearance of headache, sleep normalization and improvement of cerebral bioelectric activity. The drug was well tolerated. PMID:19770833

Klocheva, E G; Komiakhov, A V; Zhukova, M V

2009-01-01

56

Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

2014-04-01

57

Anomalies on orbifolds  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

2001-03-16

58

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates approximately 450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A; Larhammar, Dan

2008-10-01

59

Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

2013-08-01

60

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ?450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundstrom, Gorel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

2008-01-01

61

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679

Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2012-01-10

62

The QCD trace anomaly  

E-print Network

In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T^2 in two cases: N_f=0 and N_f=3. When using the canonical value of mu = 2 pi T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N_f=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T^2-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8 T_c while when including quarks (N_f=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2 T_c. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T^2-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

Jens O. Andersen; Lars E. Leganger; Michael Strickland; Nan Su

2011-06-02

63

Complex lymphatic anomalies.  

PubMed

Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz

2014-08-01

64

On isostatic geoid anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

1978-01-01

65

Midface anomalies in children.  

PubMed

A variety of congenital midface anomalies occur in children. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have proved helpful in determining the nature and extent of dysplasia, thereby facilitating treatment planning. A classification system has been developed that groups these anomalies into four categories based on embryogenesis and anatomic location. These categories comprise anomalies that are related to the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, nasolacrimal apparatus, and craniofacial syndromes. CT is the imaging modality of choice in children with possible choanal atresia, pyriform aperture stenosis, or anomalies of the nasolacrimal duct (eg, nasolacrimal duct stenosis, dacryocystoceles). MR imaging is the modality of choice in patients with congenital midface masses (eg, dermoid and epidermoid cysts, nasal gliomas, encephaloceles) and craniofacial syndromes (eg, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome). In many cases, however, both CT and MR imaging are required to adequately evaluate midface anomalies. Familiarity with the characteristic imaging features of these anomalies along with knowledge of midface embryogenesis and normal developmental anatomy is essential to prevent misinterpretation of anatomic variations that may simulate disease. PMID:10903683

Lowe, L H; Booth, T N; Joglar, J M; Rollins, N K

2000-01-01

66

Patterns of anomalies in children with malformed ears.  

PubMed

Sixteen children with anomalies of the auricle and/or middle ear who presented malformations of the face, mouth, upper airway, spine, limbs, heart, gastrointestinal (GI), and/or genitourinary (GU) systems, were described. While clusters of anomalies suggested syndromes such as the oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome of Goldenhar, hamifacial microsomia, mandibulo-facial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome), Pierre Robin, Klippel-Feil, Moebius, Duane, and/or VATER syndromes, many children did not fit what are usually considered even minimal criteria for these syndromes. Several children had malformations which fit the description of more than one syndrome. The importance of investigating the children for unsuspected anomalies, especially of the GU system, was emphasized. Life threatening problems in this group consisted of airway problems, congenital heart disease, and major anomalies of the GI and GU systems. Better management of sucking, swallowing and airway problems might have decreased the early morbidity and mortality (3/16) in this group. Children with multiple defacing anomalies may not be mentally retarded so that aggressive management of their visceral anomalies and hearing problems, and early educational intervention are mandatory. Delay in development may be due to hearing loss, vestibular impairment, ataxia, the consequences of early malnutrition, and multiple hospitalizations rather than to mental retardation. A pessimistic attitude in infancy is unwarranted since it is impossible to predict which children will end up competitive individuals. PMID:966914

Rapin, I; Ruben, R J

1976-10-01

67

Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or `ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron

Zhikun Gai; Philip C. J. Donoghue; Min Zhu; Philippe Janvier; Marco Stampanoni

2011-01-01

68

Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

2013-01-01

69

Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications. PMID:19109308

Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

2008-01-01

70

Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

Harrison, C. G. A.

1983-01-01

71

Vertebral metastases from intracranial meningioma.  

PubMed

Meningioma rarely gives rise to metastases outside the brain and meninges. We report here a case of a patient who was treated for anaplastic brain meningioma with surgery and fractionated radiation therapy without any recurrence until 5 years after the operation, when she developed vertebral metastases. PMID:25298865

Zaghouani, H; Yahyaoui, S; Chabchoub, I; Mallat, N; Majdoub, S; Amara, H; Bakir, D; Badreddine, S; Kraiem, C

2014-05-01

72

Vertebral metastases from intracranial meningioma  

PubMed Central

Meningioma rarely gives rise to metastases outside the brain and meninges. We report here a case of a patient who was treated for anaplastic brain meningioma with surgery and fractionated radiation therapy without any recurrence until 5 years after the operation, when she developed vertebral metastases.

Yahyaoui, S; Chabchoub, I; Mallat, N; Majdoub, S; Amara, H; Bakir, D; Badreddine, S; Kraiem, C

2014-01-01

73

Interventional Management of Vertebral Body Metastases  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the vertebral column are often due to hypervascular primary tumors, the most common of which is renal cell carcinoma. Clinical symptoms attributed to vertebral body metastases include localized pain, mechanical instability of the vertebral column, and neurologic deficits resulting from mass effect. Treatment options include targeted radiotherapy, percutaneous vertebral augmentation with or without thermal ablation, and surgical resection with subsequent fusion. Overall, surgical resection of the tumor and stabilization of the vertebral column provide the best prognosis for the patient in terms of symptomatic improvement and long-term survival; however, resection of hypervascular vertebral body metastases can result in significant intraoperative blood loss that can add to the morbidity of the procedure. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular metastases of the vertebral column has been shown to significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss at the time of surgery. The goal of this manuscript is to describe the role of embolization therapy in the management of patients with vertebral body metastases. PMID:24436549

Prince, Ethan A.; Ahn, Sun Ho

2013-01-01

74

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997

Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

2014-05-01

75

Vertebral artery reconstruction: Results in 106 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 1982 and December 1989, we performed 109 revascularizations of the vertebral artery in 106 patients. Eighty-six patients (81%) had isolated vertebrobasilar insufficiency, 18 (17%) had associated carotid and vertebrobasilar pathology while two (2%) had isolated carotid symptoms. The procedures performed included 98 revascularizations of the proximal vertebral artery and 11 reconstructions of the distal vertebral artery. One distal

Bernard Habozit

1991-01-01

76

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly  

E-print Network

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly of December 1998 Final Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) Anomaly Review Board November 1999 ©1999 The Johns .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Reconstructed Timeline

Rhoads, James

77

Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

1999-01-01

78

Mass Anomalies on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

2004-01-01

79

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

80

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-10-01

81

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail. PMID:22623120

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

82

Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

1985-01-01

83

Noninvasive Detection ofVertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background andPurpose: We sought toidentify theuse ofduplexandtranscranial Dopplersonography inthenoninvasive diagnosis ofvertebral dissection. Methods: Tenpatients with adiagnosis ofsymptomatic vertebral artery dissection confirmed bycerebral angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Computed tomographic scanning andmagnetic resonance imaging together delineated lateral medullary or cerebellar infarcts in7patients. Angiography documented a total of21vertebral artery lesions (16stenoses and5occlusions), with7of10patients havingmultiple sites ofvertebral artery dissection. Vertebral Doppler was abnormal

Michael Hoffmann; Ralph L. Sacco; Stephen Chan; P. Mohr

84

Thermodynamics, gravitational anomalies and cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By studying the Euclidean partition function on a cone, we argue that pure and mixed gravitational anomalies generate a "Casimir momentum" which manifests itself as parity violating coefficients in the hydrodynamic stress tensor and charge current. The coefficients generated by these anomalies enter at a lower order in the hydrodynamic gradient expansion than would be naively expected. In 1 + 1 dimensions, the gravitational anomaly affects coefficients at zeroth order in the gradient expansion. The mixed anomaly in 3 + 1 dimensions controls the value of coefficients at first order in the gradient expansion.

Jensen, Kristan; Loganayagam, R.; Yarom, Amos

2013-02-01

85

Major coronary anomalies in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major coronary artery anomalies are extremely rare in childhood. We wanted to assess the historical and diagnostic features and the therapeutic options of three distinct types of coronary artery anomalies: abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), coronary fistula and coronary stenosis. In a retrospective study, 33 children with these types of coronary artery disease

Daniël Wolf; Tom Vercruysse; Bert Suys; Nico Blom; Dirk Matthys; Jaap Ottenkamp

2002-01-01

86

Anomaly detection in IP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network anomaly detection is a vibrant research area. Researchers have approached this problem using various techniques such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and state machine modeling. In this paper, we first review these anomaly detection methods and then describe in detail a statistical signal processing technique based on abrupt change detection. We show that this signal processing technique is effective

Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

2003-01-01

87

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for

Wanda M. Solano

2007-01-01

88

Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

89

Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

2002-01-01

90

Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function  

E-print Network

", "Terrestrial Locomotion", "Swimming and Flying" and "Study Guide" (which includes the midterms and final examsBiology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function In contrast to products of human design of the class will look at vertebrate morphology in a very different way - as adaptations to particular ways

Adl, Sina

91

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

92

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise as an ectodermal invagination. Consistent with this, oral teeth are proposed to arise exclusively from ectoderm, contributing to tooth enamel epithelium, and from neural crest derived mesenchyme, contributing to dentin and pulp. Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity, but extend posteriorly as

Vladimír Soukup; Hans-Henning Epperlein; Ivan Horácek; Robert Cerny

2008-01-01

93

First Ordovician vertebrates from the Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil remains of primitive vertebrates, preserved in sandstone as natural moulds of the dermal armour, are described from the shallow-water marine Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory, Australia. This is the first record of Ordovician vertebrates in the southern hemisphere. Two new genera and species, Arandaspis prionotolepis gen. et sp. nov. and Porophoraspis crenulata gen. et sp. nov.,

Alexander Ritchie; Joyce Gilbert-Tomlinson

1977-01-01

94

Prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to identify vertebral fractures from radiographs taken at a single point in time, but considerable controversy surrounds the methods to be used. We extended a data set to comprise baseline radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine on an age-stratified random sample of 762 Rochester, Minnesota, women and used revised methods to define vertebral deformities morphometrically.

L. J. Melton; C. Cooper; R. Eastell; W. M. O'Fallon; B. L. Riggs

1993-01-01

95

Signalling dynamics in vertebrate segmentation.  

PubMed

Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm is a major event of vertebrate development that establishes the metameric patterning of the body axis. This process involves the periodic formation of sequential units, termed somites, from the presomitic mesoderm. Somite formation relies on a molecular oscillator, the segmentation clock, which controls the rhythmic activation of several signalling pathways and leads to the oscillatory expression of a subset of genes in the presomitic mesoderm. The response to the periodic signal of the clock, leading to the establishment of the segmental pre-pattern, is gated by a system of travelling signalling gradients, often referred to as the wavefront. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of oscillations and how they interact and are coordinated to activate the segmental gene expression programme. PMID:25335437

Hubaud, Alexis; Pourquié, Olivier

2014-10-22

96

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

97

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

2007-09-21

98

Artificial Immune Systems for Self-Nonself Discrimination: Application to Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-nonself discrimination is the ability of the vertebrate immune systems to distinguish between foreign objects and the\\u000a body’s own self. It provides the basis for several biologically inspired approachs for classification. The negative selection\\u000a algorithm, which is one way to implement self-nonself discrimination, is becoming increasingly popular for anomaly detection\\u000a applications. Negative selection makes use of a set of detectors

Sanjoy Das; Min Gui; Anil Pahwa

99

The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

Weems, R.E.

1992-01-01

100

Chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory  

E-print Network

Anomalies have infrared and ultraviolet ingredients, and are often realized in effective theories in a nontrivial way. We study the chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory (SCET), where the anomaly equation has ...

Waalewijn, Wouter Jonathan

101

Reactor antineutrino anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 238}U, increasing the mean flux by about 3%. To a good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976{+-}0.024. With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943{+-}0.023, leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth nonstandard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-{nu} data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |{Delta}m{sub new}{sup 2}|>1.5 eV{sup 2} (95%) and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub new})=0.14{+-}0.08 (95%). Constraints on the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle are revised.

Mention, G.; Fechner, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lasserre, Th.; Cribier, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A. [CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-04-01

102

Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

2003-01-01

103

A Lebanese family with autosomal recessive oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum and review of the literature: is OAV a genetically heterogeneous disorder?  

PubMed Central

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum summarizes a continuum of ocular, auricular, and vertebral anomalies. Goldenhar syndrome is a variant of this spectrum and is characterized by pre-auricular skin tags, microtia, facial asymmetry, ocular abnormalities, and vertebral anomalies of different sizes and shapes. Most cases are thought to be sporadic. However, a few families were reported to have an autosomal recessive inheritance and other families’ presentation of the syndrome strongly supported an autosomal dominant inheritance. We report OAV in a female infant presenting with tracheomalacia, diaphragmatic hernia, encephalomeningocele, sacral neural tube defect, and cardiac defect and her brother having no more than dysmorphic features. The mode of inheritance in this family supports an autosomal recessive inheritance where the transmission was from normal first-degree consanguineous parents to one of the sons and to the daughter. This report further broadens the clinical presentation and symptoms of OAV and supports the hypothesis advancing OAV as a genetically heterogeneous disorder. PMID:23776370

Farra, Chantal; Yunis, Khaled; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Charafeddine, Lama; Wakim, Rima; Awwad, Johnny

2011-01-01

104

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

105

Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

2012-07-15

106

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6367920

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

107

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

108

Immunosenescence in vertebrates and invertebrates  

PubMed Central

There is an established consensus that it is primarily the adaptive arm of immunity, and the T cell subset in particular, that is most susceptible to the deleterious changes with age known as “immunosenescence”. Can we garner any clues as to why this might be by considering comparative immunology and the evolutionary emergence of adaptive and innate immunity? The immune system is assumed to have evolved to protect the organism against pathogens, but the way in which this is accomplished is different in the innate-vs-adaptive arms, and it is unclear why the latter is necessary. Are there special characteristics of adaptive immunity which might make the system more susceptible to age-associated dysfunction? Given recent accumulating findings that actually there are age-associated changes to innate immunity and that these are broadly similar in vertebrates and invertebrates, we suggest here that it is the special property of memory in the adaptive immune system which results in the accumulation of cells with a restricted receptor repertoire, dependent on the immunological history of the individual’s exposures to pathogens over the lifetime, and which is commonly taken as a hallmark of “immunosenescence”. However, we further hypothesize that this immunological remodelling per se does not necessarily convey a disadvantage to the individual (ie. is not necessarily “senescence” if it is not deleterious). Indeed, under certain circumstances, or potentially even as a rule, this adaptation to the individual host environment may confer an actual survival advantage. PMID:23547999

2013-01-01

109

Other non-vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Non-vertebral non-hip (NVNH) fractures account for 90% of all fractures in patients up to 80 years of age and for 59% thereafter. There is a significant relationship between reductions in peripheral bone mineral density and the risk of fractures at various NVNH sites except for the face. Fractures of the clavicle, upper arm, forearm, spine, ribs, hip, pelvis, upper leg and lower leg elevate the risk of future fractures. Among NVNH fractures in women aged 80 years or over, forearm fractures have the highest incidence, and proximal humerus fractures have the second highest incidence. There is a large variation in incidence across geographical regions, with incidence higher in Northern Europe and lower in Asia and Africa. NVNH fractures are associated with higher mortality and significantly higher health-care costs than controls with osteoporosis. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for women with major NVNH fractures are of a similar magnitude as reductions for women with incident hip fractures; however, forearm fractures do not significantly affect HRQOL. Therapeutic options for NVNH fractures differ by fracture location. The recent development of implants for internal fixation made it a more popular choice for treating distal radius and proximal humerus fractures; however, treatment decisions should take into account patient age, activity levels, co-morbidities and injury characteristics. The recent increase in the number of patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures is drastic, although they can generally be treated non-surgically with pain management and mobilisation. PMID:24836332

Hagino, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

110

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

111

Recent literature on the behavior of vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 20 publications (1909-1911) on the behavior of vertebrates. The studies deal with the behavior of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. They focus on their sensory reactions, learning behaviors, and other similar behaviors.

Margaret Floy Washburn

1911-01-01

112

Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflexia, but motor and sensory examinations were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed basilar invagination and spinal cord compression at his craniovertebral junction. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an anomalous course of his bilateral vertebral arteries, both of which showed a persistent first intersegmental artery that entered the spinal canal at the caudal portion of the C1 posterior arch. In this case, the arteries were nearly pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of the C2. C1 laminectomy and occiput-cervical fusion (O-C2) was performed using an instrumentation system. After surgery, the syncope was not observed. Conclusions Syncope can be related to compression of extracranial arteries within the neck. In this case, transient brain ischemia caused by the anomalous course of vertebral arteries that were pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of C2 in cervical motion was the suspected cause of the syncope. PMID:25296768

2014-01-01

113

Modular Evolution of PGC1? in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a central regulator of mitochondrial\\u000a gene expression, acting in concert with nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and the PPARs. Its role as a “master regulator”\\u000a of oxidative capacity is clear in mammals, but its role in other vertebrates is ambiguous. In lower vertebrates, although\\u000a PGC-1? seems to play a role

Christophe M. R. LeMoineStephen; Stephen C. Lougheed; Christopher D. Moyes

2010-01-01

114

[Osteoporosis: diagnosis and treatment of vertebral fractures].  

PubMed

This review article calls attention of clinicians to under-diagnosed and untreated complication of osteoporosis-osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Usually without clinically significant symptoms, vertebral fractures are very important as an unfavorable prognostic factor of development of osteoporosis. Significant rise of risk of new fractures is observed already in a first year after the fracture. The newest results of the clinical trials of medications for osteoporosis treatment are presented. PMID:12474761

Baranauskaite, Asta

2002-01-01

115

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.  

PubMed

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

116

Severity of prevalent vertebral fractures and the risk of subsequent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures: results from the MORE trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalent vertebral fractures and baseline bone mineral density (BMD) predict subsequent fracture risk. The objective of this analysis is to examine whether baseline vertebral fracture severity can predict new vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. In the randomized, double-blind 3-year Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial, 7705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (low BMD or prevalent vertebral fractures) were randomly assigned

P. D Delmas; H. K Genant; G. G Crans; J. L Stock; M Wong; E Siris; J. D Adachi

2003-01-01

117

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

E-print Network

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

2009-07-14

118

Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are common in the elderly population and often involve the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Clinical symptoms of OVCFs include severe pain, loss of vertebral height, progressive kyphosis and increased mortality. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a recently developed OVCFs treatment modality, with few systematic studies present in the literature. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treating thoracolumbar OVCFs. Sixteen elderly patients (55-85 years) with solitary thoracolumbar OVCFs were treated with this procedure and followed-up (10-27 months). The amount of injected bone cement and operative time, preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scores, anterior and middle vertebral body heights, local kyphosis angle, and complications was analysed. The results showed that the method provided long-term pain relief and restoration of the vertebral body height and spinal alignment. No serious complications occurred, but two patients experienced recompression of the vertebral body, and one patient experienced cement leakage into a disc. In conclusion, Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of OVCFs. PMID:23412256

Li, Dapeng; Huang, Yonghui; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Qi; Sun, Taicun; Wu, Yan; Li, Xuefeng

2014-01-01

119

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

120

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

Solano, Wanda M.

121

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

122

Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27?:?1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

2014-01-01

123

Second order transport from anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study parity odd transport at second order in derivative expansion for a non-conformal charged fluid. We see that there are 27 parity odd transport coefficients, of which 12 are non-vanishing in equilibrium. We use the equilibrium partition function method to express 7 of these in terms of the anomaly, shear viscosity, charge diffusivity and thermodynamic functions. The remaining 5 are constrained by 3 relations which also involve the anomaly. We derive Kubo formulae for 2 of the transport coefficients and show these agree with that derived from the equilibrium partition function.

Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; David, Justin R.; Thakur, Somyadip

2014-01-01

124

Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook Spacecraft Anomalies: An Update  

E-print Network

Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook / 29 Spacecraft Anomalies: An Update #12;Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook Overview 1 Interplanetary Spaceflight Swing-by Deep Space Network

Aste, Andreas

125

Navigation in Evolving Robots: Insight from Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots navigation is a broad topic, covering many different technologies and applications. It is possible to draw inspiration for robot navigation from vertebrates. Reviewing literature on vertebrates, it seems clear that they navigate by elaborating substantially two kinds of spatial information: geometric (environmental shape, distance from landmarks) and non geometric (colors, smells). In this paper we try to understand how these cues can be used by small populations of mobile robots in environments reproducing the main features of experimental settings used with vertebrates. The robots are controlled by neural networks, whose evolution determines robot navigation behaviour. We analyze how the artificial systems use these information, separately or jointly, and how is it possible to obtain mobile robots that exploit effectively geometric and non-geometric information to navigate in specific environments.

Ponticorvo, Michela; Miglino, Orazio

126

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

127

The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land. PMID:19720654

Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

2009-01-01

128

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-09-01

129

Coral can have growth anomalies  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

130

Monitoring smartphones for anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian OS in order to extract features that de- scribe the state of the device and can be used for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server, be- cause running a complex intrusion detection system (IDS) on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible,

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Sahin Albayrak

2008-01-01

131

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

132

2,0 superconformal anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (2,0) supersymmetric Wess-Zumino-Polyakov, action is constructed and the (2,0) superconformal anomaly is given. The anomalous Ward-identity in the right sector is derived and the known operator product expansion of the N = 2 superstress energy tensor ...

T. Lhallabi

1992-01-01

133

MAGSAT scalar and vector anomaly data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts on the analysis of MAGSAT scalar anomaly data, the application of the scalar analysis results to three component vector data, and the comparison of MAGSAT data with corresponding MAGNET aeromagnetic and free air gravity anomaly data are briefly described.

1982-01-01

134

Vascular anomaly at the craniocervical junction presenting with sub arachnoid hemorrhage: Dilemma in Imaging Diagnosis, Endovascular Management and Complications  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm that mimicked a presumed vascular anomaly by CTA (Computerized Tomographic Angiography). A parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the craniocervical junction can present with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cannot be differentiated from a vertebral artery dissection by non invasive imaging. Catheter based cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of a diminutive right vertebral artery terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) that to our knowledge has not been previously reported. NBCA (N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate) embolization of the pseudoaneurysm lumen and sacrifice of the parent vessel resulted in cerebellar infarction, requiring an emergent decompressive craniectomy. The patient recovered to a functional neurologic status. PMID:22470727

Gordhan, Ajeet

2010-01-01

135

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients (six men, three women) with extracranial vertebral artery dissection are described. Their mean age was 39.1 years (range 17–66). In four cases dissection was “spontaneous”; in the other five cases there was a history of trivial trauma. Three patients had fibromuscular dysplasia, two were migraineurs, one had elastorrhexis. Treatment varied. Six received heparin, three acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine.

E. Josien

1992-01-01

136

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

137

Freshwater or marine origin of the vertebrates?  

PubMed

1. Paleontological data indicate that the earliest recognizable vertebrate remains, bone fragments of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician heterostracan fishes, were deposited in a marine situation. 2. Since these earliest fossils are sporadic in occurrence, from atypical marine deposits and since they only represent the full grown adult stage, the possibility of a freshwater developmental stage or estuarine habitat cannot be excluded. 3. The hagfishes, supposedly the most primitive of living vertebrates, are exclusively marine and possess an osmoregulatory strategy (monovalent ion levels nearly identical with sea-water with little capability of regulation) that is consonant with a strictly marine evolutionary history. Possibly, but less parsimoniously, this strategy and habitat could be secondarily derived. 4. The hagfish has a glomerular kidney, renal sodium reabsorption and branchial pumps for the uptake of sodium and chloride which are indicative, but not unequivocally diagnostic, of a freshwater ancestry. 5. A scenario in which the earliest vertebrate was anadromous, breeding in fresh water and migrating to the sea, is consistent with the paleontological data and with the physiology and life history of living 'primitive' fishes. It also leads to more coherent explanations for the origin of bone and for the evolution of vertebrate special senses than do alternative marine scenarios. PMID:2887336

Griffith, R W

1987-01-01

138

Vertebrate head development: Segmentation, novelties, and homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate head development is a classical topic lately invigorated by methodological as well as conceptual advances. In contrast to the classical segmentalist views going back to idealistic morphology, the head is now seen not as simply an extension of the trunk, but as a structure patterned by different mechanisms and tissues. Whereas the trunk paraxial mesoderm imposes its segmental pattern

Lennart Olsson; Rolf Ericsson; Robert Cerny

2005-01-01

139

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

140

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

E-print Network

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 considered fundamental, and it pervades all discussions of animal biology. With the recognition of incomplete taxonomic sampling. Evolutionary jumps, fossils and extinction A fundamental problem

Brierley, Andrew

141

Injury of the carotid and vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomic relationships of the carotid and vertebral arteries, as well as the biomechanics by which traumatic injury occurs to these vessels, is important both in the interpretation of diagnostic arteriograms and in the clinical assessment of the injured patient.

J. M. Davis; R. A. Zimmerman

1983-01-01

142

Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

Botha, Rudolf P.

2002-01-01

143

Genome organization and species formation in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some years ago Wilson and co-workers proposed that the higher rates of karyotypic change and species formation of mammals compared to cold-blooded vertebrates are due to the formation of small demes, as favored by the social structuring and brain development of the former. Here, evidence is reviewed which indicates that mammals are more prone to karyotypic change and species formation

Giorgio Bernardi

1993-01-01

144

Fall 2011 Espinoza, 1 Vertebrate Biology  

E-print Network

overview of the biology of vertebrate animals including aspects of their evolutionary history, taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, ecology, behavior, and natural history. The emphasis is on adaptive breakthroughs. Fieldtrips Throughout the semester we will go into the field during regularly scheduled class hours

Espinoza, Robert E.

145

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics  

E-print Network

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics CALLUM F. ROSS* Department of Organismal Biology presents a series of papers that apply the method of finite element analysis (FEA) to questions ontogenetic or phylogenetic transformations. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: finite-element analysis

146

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

147

Holocene turnover of the French vertebrate fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing available paleontological, archaeological, historical, and former distributional data with current natural history and distributions demonstrated a turnover in the French vertebrate fauna during the Holocene (subdivided into seven sub-periods). To this end, a network of 53 specialists gleaned information from more than 1300 documents, the majority never cited before in the academic literature. The designation of 699 species as

Michel Pascal; Olivier Lorvelec

148

Molecular evolution of color vision in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual systems of vertebrates exhibit a striking level of diversity, reflecting their adaptive responses to various color environments. The photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, can be synthesized in vitro and their absorption spectra can be determined. Comparing the amino acid sequences and absorption spectra of various visual pigments, we can identify amino acid changes that have modified the absorption spectra of

Shozo Yokoyama

2002-01-01

149

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC. PMID:24014975

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

150

Congenital bone anomalies associated with lipomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital bone anomalies are occasionally located adjacent to deep lipomas. These bone dysplasias may take the form of localized overgrowth or osseous malformation. Two patients with iliac anomalies and spinal dysraphism and one with a hypertrophied rib and vertebra associated with lipomas are described. As both the lipomas and osseous anomalies tend to lie in the same sensory nerve distribution,

James M. Sauer; M. B. Ozonoff

1985-01-01

151

Vertebral artery decompression in a patient with rotational occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We report a patient who suffered drop attacks during head reclination. Computer tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated\\u000a a stenotic right vertebral artery at C4\\/5. However, Doppler ultrasonography of the vertebral artery showed no abnormality.\\u000a Angiography confirmed complete occlusion of the left vertebral and a stenosis of the right vertebral artery. Dynamic angiography\\u000a indicated occlusion of the stenotic region on

A. K. Petridis; H. Barth; R. Buhl; H. M. Mehdorn

2008-01-01

152

Refining the anomaly consistency condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the extended antifield formalism, a quantum BRST differential for anomalous gauge theories is constructed. Local BRST cohomological classes are characterized, in addition to the form degree and the ghost number, by the length of their descents and of their lifts, and this both in the standard and the extended antifield formalism. It is shown that during the BRST invariant renormalization of a local BRST cohomological class, the anomaly that can appear is constrained to be a local BRST cohomological class with a shorter descent and a longer lift than the given class. As an application of both results, a simple approach to the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the non-Abelian gauge anomaly is proposed. It applies independently of the gauge fixing, of power counting restrictions, and does not rely on the use of the Callan-Symanzik equation.

Barnich, Glenn

2000-08-01

153

Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods  

SciTech Connect

This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

Ng, B

2006-10-12

154

Monitoring Smartphones for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian operating system and Windows Mobile in order to extract\\u000a features for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server because running a complex intrusion detection system\\u000a on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible due to capability and hardware limitations. We give examples on

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Christian Scheel; Seyit Ahmet Çamtepe; Sahin Albayrak

2009-01-01

155

Bart syndrome with associated anomalies.  

PubMed

Bart syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by epidermolysis bullosa and congenital absence of skin. It has been associated with other anomalies including pyloric atresia. The genetic abnormality has been linked to chromosome 3, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. We present a case of Bart syndrome that was associated with pyloric atresia. The literature is reviewed pertaining to this unusual association. Recommendations are offered regarding genetic counseling and anticipatory guidance for affected families. PMID:16215923

Bart, Bruce J; Lussky, Richard C

2005-10-01

156

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

157

Dyslexia: Anomaly or normal variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an interim report on a large-scale survey. The background to the authors’ research into dyslexia is briefly\\u000a outlined. Next comes an explication of the contrast between “anomaly” and “normal variation.” Some details are then provided\\u000a of a survey of 12,905 children, age ten, who were given a variety of educational and cognitive tests relevant to a diagnosis

T. R. Miles; Mary N. Haslum

1986-01-01

158

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

159

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from CTA  

E-print Network

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from CTA Release 0.01 Olivier (common, internal, external carotid and vertebral arteries) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography for the vessels in the neck region, since the internal carotid goes through the base of the skull, the vertebral

Boyer, Edmond

160

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

161

The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

2013-01-01

162

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*  

E-print Network

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

Danchin, Etienne

163

Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

2011-01-01

164

6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then ? I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

Intriligator, Kenneth

2014-10-01

165

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

683 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683�704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW SPECIMEN OF HESPEROSUCHUS AGILIS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NEW MEXICO of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada; 3 Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum

Clark, James M.

166

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

Olsen, Paul E.

167

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the vertebral artery. A therapeutic alternative to operative reconstruction of proximal vertebral artery stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the proximal vertebral artery was performed in 13 patients with stenosis of the proximal vertebral arteries. All of these patients had symptoms indicating vertebrobasilar insufficiency. PTA was performed only if an extreme reduction of the total diameter of both vertebral arteries was present. Only 13 patients have fulfilled the strict selection criteria in the last

H. Briickmann; E. B. Ringelstein; H. Buchner; H. Zeumer

1986-01-01

168

Treatment of proximal vertebral artery disease.  

PubMed

Vertebral arterial disease (VAD) is a less commonly recognized and treated source of cerebrovascular ischemia compared with carotid artery disease. Patients are often referred for treatment after they have developed symptoms in the form of transient ischemic attacks or had a posterior hemispheric stroke. Traditional treatment of VAD has been surgical. More recently, endovascular treatment of VAD has been utilized. We performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience in treating VAD from 2001 to 2010. For treatment of proximal VAD, perioperative morbidity is lower for the endovascular group than for the surgical group, but six-week mortality was higher for the endovascular group. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred more frequently with surgery than with endovascular therapy. Therefore surgical reconstruction appears to be preferable to angioplasty and stenting for treatment of proximal vertebral artery occlusive disease. PMID:23518836

Shutze, William; Gierman, Joshua; McQuade, Karen; Pearl, Gregory; Smith, Bertram

2014-04-01

169

Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD), VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis. Conclusion This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms. PMID:22909191

2012-01-01

170

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

2006-01-01

171

Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature. PMID:24278656

Go, Gyeongo; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Park, In Sung

2013-01-01

172

Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature. PMID:24278656

Go, Gyeongo; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Park, In Sung; Park, Hyun

2013-09-01

173

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

174

Holocene turnover of the French vertebrate fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing available paleontological, archaeological, historical, and former distributional data with current natural history\\u000a and distributions demonstrated a turnover in the French vertebrate fauna during the Holocene (subdivided into seven sub-periods).\\u000a To this end, a network of 53 specialists gleaned information from more than 1300 documents, the majority never cited before\\u000a in the academic literature. The designation of 699 species as

Michel Pascal; Olivier Lorvelec

2005-01-01

175

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

PubMed Central

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

2014-01-01

176

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology); Mr. Keith T. Sillar (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

177

Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.  

PubMed

Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti). PMID:17501751

Buchholtz, Emily A

2007-01-01

178

The molecular biology of vertebrate olfaction.  

PubMed

The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, research linking odor ligands to olfactory receptors (ORs) is truly revolutionizing our understanding of how a large but limited number of chemosensory receptors can allow us to perceive the massive diversity of odors in our habitat. This research is providing insight into the evolution of genomes and providing the raw data needed to explore links between genotype and phenotype, still a grand challenge in biology. Research into olfaction is still developing and will no doubt continue until we have a clear understanding of how all odors are detected and the evolutionary forces that have molded the chemosensory subgenome in vertebrates. This knowledge will not only be a huge step in elucidating olfactory function, advancing scientific knowledge and techniques, but there are also commercial applications for this research. This review focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation, particularly olfaction, its evolution across vertebrates and the recent molecular advances linking odors to their cognate receptors. Anat Rec, 297:2216-2226, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25312375

Hayden, Sara; Teeling, Emma C

2014-11-01

179

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

180

Vertebrate kinetochore protein architecture: protein copy number  

PubMed Central

To define the molecular architecture of the kinetochore in vertebrate cells, we measured the copy number of eight kinetochore proteins that link kinetochore microtubules (MTs [kMTs]) to centromeric DNA. We used a fluorescence ratio method and chicken DT40 cell lines in which endogenous loci encoding the analyzed proteins were deleted and complemented using integrated green fluorescent protein fusion transgenes. For a mean of 4.3 kMTs at metaphase, the protein copy number per kMT is between seven and nine for members of the MT-binding KNL-1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex network. It was between six and nine for four members of the constitutive centromere-associated network: centromere protein C (CENP-C), CENP-H, CENP-I, and CENP-T. The similarity in copy number per kMT for all of these proteins suggests that each MT end is linked to DNA by six to nine fibrous unit attachment modules in vertebrate cells, a conclusion that indicates architectural conservation between multiple MT-binding vertebrate and single MT-binding budding yeast kinetochores. PMID:20548100

Johnston, Katherine; Joglekar, Ajit; Hori, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Aussie; Fukagawa, Tatsuo

2010-01-01

181

[Characteristics of anesthesiological support in vertebral surgery].  

PubMed

Vertebral operations are highly traumatic, prolonged and can cause significant blood loss, which requires effective anesthesiological defense. Inclusion of clofelin, a stress protector, into the anesthesiological provision scheme is an effective way of potentiating the protection of a patient from surgical stress. The development of neurological disorders is a severest complication during surgical interventions in vertebral surgery. The task that is important for a surgeon and an anesthesiologist in performing such operations is the maximum early recovery of patients from anesthesia and their muscular activity in the postoperative period in order to make a timely evaluation of their neurological status. The hypnotics propofol and dormicum and the myorelaxant nimbex were included into an anesthesiological provision program in 210 patients during surgical treatment of vertebral orthopedic pathology. The study indicated that the use of propofol and dormicum permitted a postanesthetic rapid recovery of patients from anesthesia without undesirable side effects. The myorelaxant nimbex is highly controlled, shows a clear dose-effect relationship, and produces a rapid recovery of neuromuscular conduction, which makes it possible to establish a timely diagnosis of neurological disorders. PMID:16076036

Lebedeva, M N; Ageenko, A M; Bykova, E V; Kirilina, S I; Luk'ianov, D S

2005-01-01

182

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

183

Survival of children born with congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the survival to age 5 years of children born with congenital anomalies. Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 6153 live born cases of congenital anomaly were diagnosed and registered by the population based Glasgow Register of Congenital Anomalies. They were retrospectively followed to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 5 years. Results: The proportions of all live born infants with congenital anomalies surviving to the end of the first week, and first and fifth year were 94%, 89%, and 88%, respectively. Survival to age 5, the end point of follow up, was significantly poorer for infants with chromosomal anomalies (48%) compared to neural tube defects (72%), respiratory system anomalies (74%), congenital heart disease (75%), nervous system anomalies (77%), and Down's syndrome (84%). Conclusion: Although almost 90% of all live born infants with congenital anomalies survive to 5 years, there are notable variations in survival between anomaly types. Our findings should be useful for both clinicians and geneticists to assess the prognosis of congenital anomalies. This information is also important for affected families and for the planning of health care needs for this high risk population. PMID:12716706

Dastgiri, S; Gilmour, W; Stone, D

2003-01-01

184

Anomaly detection for internet surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

2012-06-01

185

Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies.  

PubMed

The specialized literature was reviewed concerning the suspected increasing secular trends in the frequency of female births, male genital congenital anomalies, abnormal sperm counts, and testicular cancer. Although no risk factors could be identified yet, the observed sex ratio decline during the last decades has been considered to be an effect of certain pollutants on normal hormone activity, and human reproductive development. Reported increasing trends in the frequencies of hypospadias and cryptorchidism are very difficult to be interpreted due to the large variability in the registered frequency of these malformations due to operational as well as biological reasons. PMID:11923883

Rittler, Mônica; Castilla, Eduardo E

2002-01-01

186

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

187

Hydrodynamic anomalies in supercritical fluid.  

PubMed

Using the molecular dynamics simulations we investigate properties of velocity autocorrelation function of Lennard-Jones fluid at long and intermediate time scales in wide ranges of temperature and density. We show that the amplitudes of both the leading and the subleading time asymptotic terms of velocity autocorrelation function, a1 and a2, show essentially non-monotonic temperature and density dependence. There are two lines on temperature-density plain corresponding to maxima of a1 (a2) along isochors and isotherms situated in the supercritical fluid (hydrodynamic anomalies). These lines give insight into the stages of the fluid evolution into gas. PMID:25273453

Ryltsev, R E; Chtchelkatchev, N M

2014-09-28

188

Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture  

PubMed Central

Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity >?4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ??21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age

Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2013-01-01

189

Surgical Treatment of Coronary Artery Anomalies  

PubMed Central

The surgical treatment of coronary artery anomalies continues to evolve. The most common coronary artery anomalies requiring surgical intervention include coronary artery fistulae, anomalous pulmonary origins of the coronary arteries, and anomalous aortic origins of the coronary arteries. The choice of surgical intervention for each type of coronary anomaly depends on several anatomic, physiologic, and patient-dependent variables. As surgical techniques have progressed, outcomes have continued to improve; however, controversy still exists about many aspects of the proper management of patients who have these coronary artery anomalies. We reviewed the surgical treatment of 178 patients who underwent surgery for the above-mentioned types of coronary artery anomalies at the Texas Heart Institute from December 1963 through June 2001. On the basis of this experience, we discuss historical aspects of the early treatment of these anomalies and describe their present-day management. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:299–307) PMID:12484614

Reul, Ross M.; Cooley, Denton A.; Hallman, Grady L.; Reul, George J.

2002-01-01

190

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

191

The DiGeorge anomaly.  

PubMed

The DiGeorge anomaly, originally considered a clinical paradigm for isolated thymus deficiency, has now been redefined as a member of a group of disorders that share in common a chromosome deletion resulting in monosomy 22q11 (CATCH-22 or DGA/VCFS). In addition to the thymus defect, conotruncal heart anomalies, dysmorphism, hypoparathyroidism, and cleft palate are prominent features. Despite the emphasis on thymus involvement in DGA, a clinically significant thymus defect is found only in a small percentage of these patients probably occurring in less than 5% of the cases. Maldescent of the thymus, however, is extremely common, leading to an absence of mediastinal thymic tissue in nearly all cases. The basic embryological fault in these disorders is an inadequate development of the facial neural-crest tissues, resulting in defective organogenesis of pharyngeal pouch derivatives that receive cephalic neural-crest contribution to the mesenchmyme. The causes for this maldevelopment are both genetic and extragenetic in origin and the genetic lesions act in concert with random environmental events to produce the ultimate clinical picture. The modern research approaches now available have cleared away most of the confusion clouding the clinical and theoretical aspects of DGA and related disorders, providing the clinician with useful landmarks to assess and treat these intriguing clinical challenges. PMID:11269228

Hong, R

2001-02-01

192

Prenatal diagnosis of vertebral deformities associated with pentalogy of Cantrell: the role of three-dimensional sonography?  

PubMed

Pentalogy of Cantrell was diagnosed in a fetus at 14 weeks of gestation, on routine two-dimensional sonographic examination with Doppler imaging, which revealed a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect including herniated liver, an ectopia cordis without intracardiac anomalies, and a large omphalocele containing intestines. Although left unilateral club foot deformity was also detected as an associated anomaly in the same examination, severe lumbar lordoscoliosis was only detected by using three-dimensional sonography because of the spatial configuration of the deformity. After termination of the pregnancy, postnatal inspection of the fetus confirmed the diagnosis of pentalogy of Cantrell associated with skeletal deformities and revealed low implant ears as an additional finding. Although two-dimensional sonography with Doppler imaging is sufficient to diagnose pentalogy of Cantrell, it may fail to show the complex vertebral deformities and three-dimensional sonography may assist in visualizing the defect accurately. PMID:20607852

Gün, Ismet; Kurdo?lu, Mertihan; Müngen, Ercüment; Muhcu, Murat; Babacan, Ali; Atay, Vedat

2010-10-01

193

Pancake kidney: A rare developmental anomaly  

PubMed Central

There are many developmental anomalies of the kidney. Pancake kidney is one of the rarest types of renal ectopia. We report a case of pancake kidney which was detected incidentally while treating a female patient for a urinary tract infection. Although urinary system anomalies often coexist with malformations of other organs and systems, no associated anomalies could be detected in this case. Pancake kidney is usually managed by surgery, but this case was managed conservatively without any complication. PMID:25024805

Tiwari, Alok Kumar; Choudhary, Anil Kumar; Khowal, Hemant; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder. P.

2014-01-01

194

The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

2005-01-01

195

Chiral and gravitational anomalies in any dimension  

SciTech Connect

Gravitational contributions to the chiral anomaly in 4N space-time dimensions as well as the purely gravitational anomaly in 4N-2 dimensions are expressed in terms of the Riemann--Christoffel tensor. Using this formula, we give a simple proof that if N > or = 4 there is no way to cancel the gravitational anomalies using fields of spin- 1/2 , - (3)/(2) , and -1.

Delbourgo, R.; Matsuki, T.

1985-06-01

196

Anomaly polynomial of general 6D SCFTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method to determine the anomaly polynomials of general 6D mathcal {N}={(2,0)} and mathcal {N}={(1,0)} superconformal field theories (SCFTs), in terms of the anomaly matching on their tensor branches. This method is almost purely field theoretical, and can be applied to all known 6D SCFTs. We demonstrate our method in many concrete examples, including mathcal {N}={(2,0)} theories of arbitrary type and the theories on M5 branes on asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) singularities, reproducing the N^3 behavior. We check the results against the anomaly polynomials computed M-theoretically via the anomaly inflow.

Ohmori, Kantaro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yonekura, Kazuya

2014-10-01

197

The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

Albert, G.

1979-01-01

198

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

199

Evolutionary history of the vertebrate period genes.  

PubMed

Circadian clock genes are remarkably conserved between eucoelomates. Although Drosophila has one copy of each major component, vertebrates have two or (in the case of the Period genes) three paralogs (Per1-3). We investigated the possibility that the vertebrate Per genes arose through two genome duplications during the emergence of vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees have placed zebrafish and mammalian Per1 and 2 together in a separate branch from Per3. The positions of four coding region splice sites were conserved between Drosophila per and the human paralogs, the fifth one being unique to Drosophila. The human PER genes shared the positions of all coding region splice sites, except the first two in PER1 and PER2 (which PER3 lacks). The phases of all splice sites were conserved between all four genes with two exceptions. Analysis of all genes within 10 Mb of the human PER1-3 genes, which are located 7.8-8.8 Mb from the telomeres on chromosomes 17, 2, and 1, identified several orthologous neighbors shared by at least two PER genes. Two gene families, HES (hairy and Enhancer of Split) and KIF1 (kinesin-like protein 1), were represented in all three of these paralogons. Although no functional fourth human PER paralog exists, five representatives from the same gene families were found close to the telomer of chromosome 3. We conclude that the ancestral chordate Per gene underwent two duplication events, giving rise to Per1-3 and a lost fourth paralog. PMID:16752210

von Schantz, Malcolm; Jenkins, Aaron; Archer, Simon N

2006-06-01

200

Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function  

PubMed Central

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of ‘information content’ to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates. PMID:22722607

Moremen, Kelley W.; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nairn, Alison V.

2014-01-01

201

Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

Ross, M. D.

1985-01-01

202

Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissections: Evolving Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted. PMID:23217643

Ali, M.S.; Amenta, P.S.; Starke, R.M.; Jabbour, P.M.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Tjoumakaris, S.I.; Flanders, A.E.; Rosenwasser, R.H.; Dumont, A.S.

2012-01-01

203

A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos  

PubMed Central

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

204

Spin foam quantization and anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common spin foam models of gravity are widely believed to be discrete path integral quantizations of the Plebanski action. However, their derivation in present formulations is incomplete and lower dimensional simplex amplitudes are left open to choice. Since their large-spin behavior determines the convergence properties of the state-sum, this gap has to be closed before any reliable conclusion about finiteness can be reached. It is shown that these amplitudes are directly related to the path integral measure and can in principle be derived from it, requiring detailed knowledge of the constraint algebra and gauge fixing. In a related manner, minimal requirements of background independence provide non trivial restrictions on the form of an anomaly free measure. Many models in the literature do not satisfy these requirements. A simple model satisfying the above consistency requirements is presented which can be thought of as a spin foam quantization of the Husain-Kucha? model.

Bojowald, Martin; Perez, Alejandro

2010-04-01

205

Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds  

E-print Network

The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the gravity result is in perfect agreement with the corresponding quiver gauge theory. Our analysis reveals an interesting connection with the condensation of giant gravitons or dibaryon operators which effectively induces a rolling among Sasaki-Einstein vacua.

Sergio Benvenuti; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas; Yuji Tachikawa

2006-01-10

206

MRI and MR angiography of vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of 4,500 angiograms yielded 11 patients with dissection of the vertebral arteries who had MRI and (in 4 patients)\\u000a MR angiography (MRA) in the acute phase of stroke. One patient with incidental discovery at arteriography of asymptomatic\\u000a vertebral artery dissection and two patients with acute strokes with MRI and MRA findings consistent with vertebral artery\\u000a dissection were included.

M. Mascalchi; M. C. Bianchi; S. Mangiafico; G. Ferrito; M. Puglioli; E. Marin; S. Mugnai; R. Canapicchi; N. Quilici; D. Inzitari

1997-01-01

207

Explosive Expansion of ??-Crystallin Genes in the Ancestral Vertebrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In jawed vertebrates, ??-crystallins are restricted to the eye lens and thus excellent markers of lens evolution. These ??-crystallins\\u000a are four Greek key motifs\\/two domain proteins, whereas the urochordate ??-crystallin has a single domain. To trace the origin\\u000a of the vertebrate ??-crystallin genes, we searched for homologues in the genomes of a jawless vertebrate (lamprey) and of\\u000a a cephalochordate (lancelet).

Guido Kappe ´; Andrew G. Purkiss; Siebe T. van Genesen; Christine Slingsby; Nicolette H. Lubsen

2010-01-01

208

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

209

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

210

The Vertebrate Primary Cilium in Development, Homeostasis, and Disease  

PubMed Central

Cilia are complex structures that have garnered interest because of their roles in vertebrate development and their involvement in human genetic disorders. In contrast to multicellular invertebrates in which cilia are restricted to specific cell types, these organelles are found almost ubiquitously in vertebrate cells, where they serve a diverse set of signaling functions. Here, we highlight properties of vertebrate cilia, with particular emphasis on their relationship with other subcellular structures, and explore the physiological consequences of ciliary dysfunction. PMID:19345185

Gerdes, Jantje M.; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

211

Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects  

SciTech Connect

The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

2006-01-01

212

Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.  

PubMed

From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago). PMID:1598573

Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

1992-05-29

213

Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled.  

PubMed Central

Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so complicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms containing those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families containing both orthologous and paralogous copies. Vertebrate phylogeny is well understood from morphological and palaeontological data, but studies using mitochondrial sequence data have failed to reproduce this classical view. Reconciled tree analysis of a database of 118 vertebrate gene families supports a largely classical vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:12184825

Cotton, James A; Page, Roderic D M

2002-01-01

214

Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems  

E-print Network

The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

Choma, Michael A.

215

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before. PMID:22031481

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

216

Global associations between terrestrial producer and vertebrate consumer diversity  

E-print Network

and endothermic vertebrates. We find strong positive richness associations, but only limited congruence patterns and strengths of these associations for plants and endotherm consumers (birds, mammals) worldwide

Kreft, Holger

217

Vertebrate endothelial lipase: comparative studies of an ancient gene and protein in vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

Endothelial lipase (gene: LIPG; enzyme: EL) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from other human 'neutral lipase' genes, hepatic lipase (gene: LIPC; enzyme: HL) and lipoprotein lipase (gene: LPL; enzyme: LPL) examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a 'stop' codon' within exon 9. Vertebrate EL protein subunits shared 58-97% sequence identity as compared with 38-45% sequence identities with human HL and LPL. Four previously reported human EL N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate EL sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key EL amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (PL) (Bourne et al. 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the LIPG gene promoter and a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3'-untranslated region. Promoter regions containing functional polymorphisms that regulate HDL cholesterol in baboons were conserved among primates but not retained between primates and rodents. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families, LIPC and LPL. It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution >500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

Holmes, Roger S; Vandeberg, John L; Cox, Laura A

2011-03-01

218

Pictorial essay: Coronary artery variants and anomalies  

PubMed Central

CT coronary angiography has helped radiologists understand the variations and anomalies of the anatomy of the coronary arteries and, thus, to alert the cardiologist whenever such an anomaly is present. This can be of immense help to the clinician planning interventional procedures such as stenting, balloon dilatation, or graft surgery, particularly when there are secondary changes of calcification, plaque formation and stenosis. PMID:19774140

Rahalkar, Anand M.; Rahalkar, Mukund D.

2009-01-01

219

Thermal anomaly prediction in data centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the demand for data centers has seen tremendous growth. Simultaneously, power densities have increased resulting in greater chances of thermal anomalies - situations where the temperature at a location exceeds the safety threshold for equipment placed there. In this paper, we explore some techniques for predicting such thermal anomalies so that preemptive steps can be taken to

Manish Marwah; Ratnesh Sharma; Cullen Bash

2010-01-01

220

Caudal deficiency and asplenia anomalies in sibs.  

PubMed

The caudal deficiency and asplenia anomalies have been described separately in children. Two sibs with these two entities are described. Only another similar case, with caudal deficiency and polysplenia anomalies was found in the literature. It is possible that this association could be a new syndromic entity. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is suggested. PMID:3146294

Fullana, A; Garcia-Frias, E; Martinez-Frias, M L; Razquin, S; Quero, J

1986-01-01

221

The summer evening anomaly and conjugate effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) GPS occultation data have been analyzed in this study to provide a better understanding of the Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) and to place it in the wider context of a general phenomenon that occurs near dusk in summer, which we are calling the summer evening anomaly to better capture its

A. G. Burns; S. C. Solomon; W. Wang; G. Jee; C. H. Lin; C. Rocken; Y. H. Kuo

2011-01-01

222

Risk Leveling of Network Traffic Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The goal of intrusion detection is to identify attempted or ongoing attacks on a computer system or network. Many attacks aim to compromise computer networks in an online manner. Traffic anomalies have been an important indication of such attacks. Challenges in the detections lie in modeling of the large continuous streams of data and performing anomaly detection in an

Charlie Isaksson; Yu Meng; Margaret H. Dunham

2006-01-01

223

Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

2010-02-19

224

Ultrasound Characteristics of Thyroglossal Duct Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the value of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct anomalies. The ultrasound and palpation findings in 24 patients with a thyroglossal duct anomaly were reviewed. Cysts, tracts and ectopic thyroid tissue appeared to produce a characteristic ultrasound pattern in most cases. This study includes 5 patients with non-symptomatic lesions which

Robert J. Baatenburg de Jong; Robert J. Rongen; Johan S. Laméris; Paul Knegt; Carel D. A. Verwoerd

1993-01-01

225

Scintigraphic demonstration of a gallbladder anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Congenital anomalies of the gallbladder are uncommon. In this paper the authors report a case of double gallbladder in which intravenous cholecystokinin analog (CCK) was used to confirm the presence of two ectopic gallbladders rather than other biliary tract anomalies or dilated hepatic ducts.

Singh, A.; Holmes, R.A.; Witten, D.M.

1985-01-01

226

Stationary anomalies in stratospheric meteorological data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several northern hemisphere stratospheric meteorological data sets are shown to contain stationary anomalies. We consider four possible explanations for the anomalies: 1) real stationary-wave features; 2) biases in the analysis and assimilation methods; 3) errors in data input into the analysis and assimilation systems; and 4) tidal signals that are undersampled in the daily analyses. Because the easterly flow in

Kenneth P. Bowman; Karl Hoppel; Richard Swinbank

1998-01-01

227

Proactive anomaly detection using distributed intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proactive network anomaly detection is crucial to provide quality of service guarantees for future networks. We characterize a set of proactively detectable anomalies in terms of the management information base variables. The time series data obtained from these variables are analyzed by an intelligent agent, which is a simple and lightweight signal processor. The agent provides real-time proactive alarms that

Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

1998-01-01

228

Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

Youngbluth, O., Jr.

1977-01-01

229

Inkjet Mask Anomalies for Microfluidic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of inkjet masks with UV light on a photoresistive material can be a cost-effective method for the generation of microfluidic devices for research and\\/or demonstration. The multicomponent combinations of various colors utilized in inks can lead to anomalies in the generation of the device. These anomalies are demonstrated for various UV exposures with a 365 nm source and

William Dieterle

2010-01-01

230

Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks is an important challenge for tasks such as fault diagnosis, intrusion detection, and monitoring applications. The algorithms developed for anomaly detection have to consider the inherent limitations of sensor networks in their design so that the energy consumption in sensor nodes is minimized and the lifetime of the network is maximized. In this survey

SUTHARSHAN RAJASEGARAR; CHRISTOPHER LECKIE; MARIMUTHU PALANISWAMI

2008-01-01

231

Magnetic resonance images of neuronal migration anomalies.  

PubMed

Neuronal migration anomalies are a spectrum of brain malformations caused by insults to migrating neuroblasts during the sixth week to fifth month of gestation. To study the characteristics of MRI findings in migration anomalies, MR images of 36 patients (28 children and 8 adults) with migration anomalies were evaluated. Five patients had lissencephaly, eight had pachygyria, twelve had schizencephaly, six had heterotopias of gray matter, three had hemimegalencephaly, and two had polymicrogyria. The frequency of migration anomalies was 0.51% of all cranial MRI studies and 1.21% of pediatric cranial MRI studies at our hospital. The major clinical presentations of these patients were seizure (64%), development delay (42%), motor deficits (42%) and mental retardation (25%). Twenty-five patients (69%) associated with other brain anomalies, including: other migration anomalies in 12 cases (33%), absence of the septum pellucidum in 10 cases (28%), Dandy-Walker malformation/variant in 5 cases, arachnoid cyst in 4 cases, agenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 cases, holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, mega cisterna magna in 1 case and cephalocele in 1 case. Some of them presented with multiple complicated anomalies. As MR imaging provides superb gray-white matter distinction, details of cortical anatomy and multiplanar capability, it can clearly delineate the detail morphologic changes of the brain caused by neuronal migration disorders as well as the associated anomalies. PMID:9780601

Jaw, T S; Sheu, R S; Liu, G C; Chou, M S

1998-08-01

232

Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.  

E-print Network

of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

Olsen, Paul E.

233

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

2014-01-01

234

TRPM7 regulates gastrulation during vertebrate embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

During gastrulation, cells in the dorsal marginal zone polarize, elongate, align and intercalate to establish the physical body axis of the developing embryo. Here we demonstrate that the bifunctional channel-kinase TRPM7 is specifically required for vertebrate gastrulation. TRPM7 is temporally expressed maternally and throughout development, and is spatially enriched in tissues undergoing convergent extension during gastrulation. Functional studies reveal that TRPM7’s ion channel, but not its kinase, specifically affects cell polarity and convergent extension movements during gastrulation, independent of mesodermal specification. During gastrulation, the non-canonical Wnt pathway via Dishevelled (Dvl) orchestrates the activities of the GTPases Rho and Rac to control convergent extension movements. We find that TRPM7 functions synergistically with non-canonical Wnt signaling to regulate Rac activity. The phenotype caused by depletion of the Ca2+- and Mg2+-permeant TRPM7 is suppressed by expression of a dominant negative form of Rac, as well as by Mg2+ supplementation or by expression of the Mg2+ transporter SLC41A2. Together, these studies demonstrate an essential role for the ion channel TRPM7 and Mg2+ in Rac-dependent polarized cell movements during vertebrate gastrulation. PMID:21145885

Liu, Wei; Su, Li-Ting; Khadka, Deepak K.; Mezzacappa, Courtney; Komiya, Yuko; Sato, Akira; Habas, Raymond; Runnels, Loren W.

2010-01-01

235

Vertebral rim lesions in the dorsolumbar spine.  

PubMed Central

The frequency, distribution, and histological characteristics of vertebral rim lesions have been studied at D11 and L4 in 117 post-mortem spines in subjects aged 13-96 years. Only one lesion was found in patients less than 30 years, but thereafter the frequency increased with age. At least one rim was affected in the majority of patients greater than or equal to 50 years. They were found more frequently in the upper than the lower rim and they were also more common anteriorly than posteriorly. Lesions were associated with focal avulsion of the annulus in an otherwise healthy disc or with annular tears running into the rim. Rim lesions can be recognised radiographically by the presence of the vacuum phenomenon, vertebral rim sclerosis with or without a cup-shaped defect in the rim and osteophytes confined to one side of the disc. The histological appearances suggest a traumatic aetiology, and since bone is known to be supplied with pain sensitive nerve endings the lesions may be important in the general context of low back pain. Images PMID:6712302

Hilton, R C; Ball, J

1984-01-01

236

Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin.  

PubMed

In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation. PMID:24869937

Svoboda, Ond?ej; Stachura, David L; Macho?ová, Olga; Pajer, Petr; Brynda, Ji?í; Zon, Leonard I; Traver, David; Bart?n?k, Petr

2014-07-10

237

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

238

"Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." PMID:21440457

Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

2012-11-01

239

Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

Olson, E. C.

1988-01-01

240

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

McCoy, Michael W.

2014-01-01

241

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

242

Anomaly detection and reconstruction from random projections.  

PubMed

Compressed-sensing methodology typically employs random projections simultaneously with signal acquisition to accomplish dimensionality reduction within a sensor device. The effect of such random projections on the preservation of anomalous data is investigated. The popular RX anomaly detector is derived for the case in which global anomalies are to be identified directly in the random-projection domain, and it is determined via both random simulation, as well as empirical observation that strongly anomalous vectors are likely to be identifiable by the projection-domain RX detector even in low-dimensional projections. Finally, a reconstruction procedure for hyperspectral imagery is developed wherein projection-domain anomaly detection is employed to partition the data set, permitting anomaly and normal pixel classes to be separately reconstructed in order to improve the representation of the anomaly pixels. PMID:21690013

Fowler, James E; Du, Qian

2012-01-01

243

The local RG equation and chiral anomalies  

E-print Network

We generalize the local renormalization group (RG) equation to theories with chiral anomalies. We find that a new anomaly is required by the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. Taking into account the new anomaly, the trace of the energy momentum tensor is expressed in terms of the covariant flavor currents, instead of the consistent ones. This result is used to show that a flavor rotation induced by the RG flow can be eliminated by a choice of scheme even in the presence of chiral anomalies. As part of a general discussion of chiral anomalies in the presence of background sources, we also derive non-renormalization theorems. Finally, we introduce the $\\theta$ parameter as a source, and derive constraints on a perturbative running of this parameter.

Boaz Keren-Zur

2014-06-03

244

Detecting Flow Anomalies in Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

Deep within the networks of distributed systems often contain anomalies that affect its efficiency and performance. These anomalies are difficult to detect because the distributed systems may not have sufficient sensors to monitor the flow of traffic within the interconnected nodes of the networks. Without early detection and making corrections, these anomalies may aggravate over time and could possibly cause disastrous outcomes in the system in the unforeseeable future. Using only coarse-grained information from the two end points of network flows, we propose a network transmission model and a localization algorithm, to detect the location of anomalies and rank them using a proposed metric within distributed systems. We evaluate our approach on passengers' records of an urbanized city's public transportation system and correlate our findings with passengers' postings on social media microblogs. Our experiments show that the metric derived using our localization algorithm gives a better ranking of anomalies a...

Chua, Freddy Chong Tat; Huberman, Bernardo A

2014-01-01

245

Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates 'atmospheric drift shadows' within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

Cheng, Andrew F.

1990-01-01

246

Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune  

SciTech Connect

The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

Cheng, A.F. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA))

1990-09-01

247

A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

2012-01-01

248

The local RG equation and chiral anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the local renormalization group (RG) equation to theories with chiral anomalies. We find that a new anomaly is required by the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. Taking into account the new anomaly, the trace of the energy momentum tensor is expressed in terms of the covariant flavor currents, instead of the consistent ones. This result is used to show that a flavor rotation induced by the RG flow can be eliminated by a choice of scheme even in the presence of chiral anomalies. As part of a general discussion of chiral anomalies in the presence of background sources, we also derive non-renormalization theorems. Finally, we introduce the $\\theta$ parameter as a source, and derive constraints on a perturbative running of this parameter.

Keren-Zur, Boaz

2014-09-01

249

Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA formation mechanisms presume that HFA is formed when particles are reflected on bow shock, get swept by motional electric field and are injected back into the area. We tried to calculate the balance of energy in solar wind and within HFA to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for "internal recovery" area to be the real energy source. These estimations suggest that this energy balance is nearly fulfilled in 4 of 5 analyzed HFAs, and does not hold for one HFA. This energy balance may be in favor of quasi-stationary nature of HFA structure. References Thomsen, M. F., J. T. Gosling, S. A. Fuselier, S. J. Bame, and C. T. Russell (1986), Hot, diamagnetic cavities upstream from the Earth's bow shock, J. Geophys. Res., 91(A3), 2961-2973, doi:10.1029/JA091iA03p02961. Vaisberg, O.L., J.H.Waite, L.Avanov, V.N.Smirnov, D.Dempsey J.L.Burch and A.A.Skalsky, HFA-like signatures observed with Interball-Tail spacecraft, in: Solar Wind Nine, ed. By S.R.Habbal, R.Esser, J.V.Hollweg, and P.A.Isenberg, AIP 1-56396-865-7, 1999, pp. 551-554.

Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

2012-12-01

250

Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.  

PubMed

Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar's endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history. PMID:23626770

Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

2013-01-01

251

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

PubMed Central

Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar’s colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island’s biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island’s paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island’s extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar’s tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island’s isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar’s extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar’s unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar’s endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history. PMID:23626770

Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

2013-01-01

252

Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

2009-01-01

253

Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

2001-01-01

254

Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

2013-01-01

255

OCCLUSION OF THE VERTEBRAL ARTERY IN CERVICAL SPINE DISLOCATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 12 consecutive patients with facet joint dislocation in the cervical spine to assess the incidence, site and clinical sequelae of occlusion of the extracranial vertebral artery. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography was performed after the orthopaedic management of the dislocations. This demonstrated vertebral artery occlusion (one bilateral) in five of the seven patients with bilateral dislocations and in four

J. A. LOUW; N. A. MAFOYANE; B. SMALL; C. P. NESER

256

Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery (20 cases)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery is an infrequent cause of vertebro basilar ischemic strokes. Previously reported cases concern essentially occlusion of the basilar artery. Only 14 cases of spontaneous dissecting aneurysm concern the extracranial vertebral artery among these eight were angiographically documented. In this study based upon 15 patients (20 dissecting aneurysms), the authors discuss etiological factors, such

J. Chiras; S. Marciano; J. Vega Molina; J. Touboul; B. Poirier; J. Bories

1985-01-01

257

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimir Soukup1  

E-print Network

LETTERS Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimi´r Soukup1 , Hans-Henning Epperlein2 as an ectodermal invagination1,2 . Consistent with this, oral teeth are pro- posed to arise exclusively from to dentin and pulp3­5 . Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity6

Horacek, Ivan

258

Iroquois genes: genomic organization and function in vertebrate neural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent work that shows that the iroquois (Iro\\/Irx) homeobox genes have conserved genomic organization in Drosophila and vertebrates. In addition, these genes play pivotal functions in the initial specification of the vertebrate neuroectoderm, and, in collaboration with other transcription factors, later subdivision of the anterior–posterior and dorso-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm.

José Luis Gómez-Skarmeta; Juan Modolell

2002-01-01

259

Effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of vertebral bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: To compare the effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of unfractured vertebral bodies.Methods used: Four cadaveric thoracic spines were used for this experiment, for a total of 40 vertebral bodies. Before testing, each thoracic spine was submitted to bone density testing and a radiographic evaluation to rule out any obvious fractures. Under image intensification, 6 ml

Siros Pheumaticos; Nguyen Lyndon; John Hipp; Jason Stein; Michael Heggeness

2002-01-01

260

Ecological Management of Vertebrate Pests in Agricultural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing vertebrate pests has been a neglected topic of research in sustainable agriculture. Conventional approaches, often reactionary rather than preventative, have failed to provide sustainable solutions. Indeed, conventional control through density reduction often involves battling natural ecological processes. Agricultural practices may improve habitat quality for vertebrates that then become pests. Density reduction, but without a concomitant reduction in carrying capacity,

D. Van Vuren; K. S. Smallwood

1996-01-01

261

Chordate origins of the vertebrate central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine structural, computerized three-dimensional (3D) mapping of cell connectivity in the amphioxus nervous system and comparative molecular genetic studies of amphioxus and tunicates have provided recent insights into the phylogenetic origin of the vertebrate nervous system. The results suggest that several of the genetic mechanisms for establishing and patterning the vertebrate nervous system already operated in the ancestral chordate and

Linda Z Holland; Nicholas D Holland

1999-01-01

262

DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN  

E-print Network

APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger Candidates for Focal Species Status Only species presumed to have established populations in the basin

Standiford, Richard B.

263

Chapter 9 Hox Genes and Vertebrate Axial Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial skeleton in all vertebrates is comprised of similar structures that extend from anterior to posterior along the body axis: the occipital skull bones, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. Despite significant changes in the number and size of these elements during vertebrate evolution, the basic character of these anatomical elements, as well as the order in which

Deneen M. Wellik

2009-01-01

264

Biology 259 Fall 2008 Bio 259: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy  

E-print Network

Biology 259 Fall 2008 1 Bio 259: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Dr. Kate Jackson Office: Science, frogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds, crocodiles, and us. This course examines the anatomy of vertebrates, and some of their extinct ancestors. · a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of a few "representative

Jackson, Kate

265

4:31 The dynamic mobility of vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: Vertebral height restoration is hoped to mitigate some morbidities and adverse biomechanical consequences of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) but this is unproven. Height restoration has been reported as the result of kyphoplasty [1] but is not generally thought to occur in vertebroplasty. The objective of this study is to describe the surprising frequency and substantial mobility

Tom Faciszewski; Fergus Mckiernan; Ron Jensen; Kathy Kraus

2002-01-01

266

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research

Sebastian Ocklenburg; Felix Ströckens; Onur Güntürkün

2011-01-01

267

Neurobiological Bases of Rhythmic Motor Acts in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles governing the nervous control of innate motor acts in vertebrates are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the control of locomotion in both mammals and lower vertebrates. One in vitro model of the lamprey central nervous system has been developed. It can be maintained in vitro for several days and the motor pattern underlying locomotion can be

Sten Grillner

1985-01-01

268

Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

P. Kloen; J. D. Patterson; B. I. Wintman; R. M. Ozuna; G. W. Brick

1999-01-01

269

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

270

TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES OF THE MONO LAKE ISLANDS, CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES OF THE MONO LAKE ISLANDS, CALIFORNIA Michael L. Morrison, William M. Block ISLANDS, CALIFORNIA Michael L. orris on', William M. lock^,Joseph R. Jehl,~ r . ~ ,and Linnea S. all',^ I Assr~cr.-We compared vertebrate populations between the two major islands (Paoha and Negit) in Mono

271

Macroscopic anatomy of the vertebral endplate: quid significat?  

PubMed

Alterations of vertebral endplates have long been a subject of interest, but are of unclear clinical significance. The vertebral columns of a cohort-based sample of 850 individuals were therefore evaluated for vertebral endplate defects, noting adjacent vertebral size and shape variation, bone density and associated pathologies. Defects were found in the vertebral endplates of 458 individuals (Schmorl's nodes in 52.0% and linear defects in 10.6%). Vertebral centra osteophytes and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis were more common; vertebral compression, less common in vertebrae with defects. Linear defects were more disseminated throughout the vertebral column, with individual defects more commonly affected either the interior half or the posterior quarter of the endplate or extended across all quarters form anterior to posterior. Individual Schmorl's nodes were predominantly limited to a single quarter. An inverse relationship was identified with tuberculosis. Spondyloarthropathy was more common in individuals with Schmorl's nodes, but not linear defects. Schmorl's nodes and linear endplate defects should be independently assessed, although they do share implications. Paradoxically, they are associated with phenomena which seem to mark increased ossification potential (osteophytes and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), but not with osteoporosis. Similarly, presence of Schmorl's nodes correlation with spondyloarthropathy, another disorder characterized by increased ossification potential. While correlation is not causality, inverse relationship to tuberculosis is intriguing, given the known relationship of spondyloarthropathy to tuberculosis and its antigens. Previously undescribed surface elevations were commonly associated with the presence of Schmorl's nodes and also correlated with disease, especially inflammatory arthritis, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:25065116

Rothschild, Bruce M; Ho, Jonhan; Masharawi, Yossef

2014-01-01

272

Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2007-01-01

273

Applications of memory alloy stent in vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating vertebral compression fractures using an autonomously developed nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent. Material/Methods Thoracolumbar vertebral specimens from adult human cadavers were made into models of compression fractures. The models were divided into group A, which received percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), balloon dilation, and nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent implantation (PKP + nitinol stent group); group B, which received percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and direct implantation of a nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent (PVP + nitinol stent group); and group C, which received PKP, balloon dilation, and bone cement vertebroplasty (PKP + polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) group). Vertebral heights were measured before and after the surgery and the water bath incubation to compare the impact of the 3 different surgical approaches on reducing vertebral compression. Results The 3 surgical groups could all significantly restore the heights of compressed vertebral bodies. The vertebral heights of the PKP + nitinol stent group, PVP + nitinol stent group, and PKP + PMMA group were changed from the preoperative levels of (1.59±0.08) cm, (1.68±0.08) cm, and (1.66±0.11) cm to the postoperative levels of (2.00±0.09) cm, (1.87±0.04) cm, and (1.99±0.09) cm, respectively. After the water bath, the vertebral heights of each group were changed to (2.10±0.07) cm, (1.98±0.09) cm, and (2.00±0.10) cm, respectively. Pairwise comparison of the differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral heights showed that group A and group B differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.003); and group A and group C had no significant difference (P=0.172). Pairwise comparison of the differences in the vertebral heights before and after the water bath showed that group A and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); and group A and group B had no significant difference (P=0.157). Conclusions The nitinol memory alloy stents can effectively support and reduce the compression of vertebral endplates and can be used to treat vertebral compression fractures without neurological symptoms. PMID:24869792

Yimin, Yang; Zhi, Zhang; ZhiWei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

2014-01-01

274

Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

Weldon, Paul J.

2010-05-01

275

A proposed dissection procedure for vertebral arteries in forensic pathology.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery removing constitutes a significant forensic pathology challenge. Dissection techniques during head-neck autopsy are based on anterior approach, a difficult method, which is unable to assess the transverse part of the artery. This work presents an original and simple method for dissecting vertebral arteries by a posterior approach, opening the vertebroarterial canal through the spinal canal without any special equipment. Once the spinal cord is removed, the transversarium foramens are opened by an internal cut at the pedicle and an external cut at the transverse process. This enables us to visualize vertebral arteries in its entirety. The method improves both the examination of the upper extracranial segment of the vertebral artery and the neuropathological study when arterial injury is suspected. Applying this method routinely is both feasible and useful in suspected cases of vertebral artery trauma and could contribute to assess more precisely the actual incidence of this injury. PMID:21827482

Galtés, Ignasi; Rodríguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Subirana, Mercè; Barbería, Eneko; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2012-01-01

276

A bisexually reproducing all-triploid vertebrate.  

PubMed

Green toads are common in the Palaearctic region, where they have differentiated into several taxa. The toads exist with variable amounts of ploidy, similar to other anuran species or reptiles. In vertebrate biology, the very rare occurrence of triploidy is coupled with infertility or unisexuality, or requires the coexistence of individuals of different ploidy in a reproductive community. The reproduction of naturally occurring triploids has been reported to occur only through parthenogenesis, gynogenesis or hybridogenesis. The bisexual reproduction of pure triploids has been considered to be impossible because of the problem of equally distributing three chromosome sets in meiosis. Here we report geographically isolated populations of green toads (Bufo viridis complex) that are all-triploid and reproduce bisexually. PMID:11836500

Stöck, Matthias; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Steinlein, Claus; Epplen, Jörg T; Grosse, Wolf-Rüdiger; Hock, Robert; Klapperstück, Thomas; Lampert, Kathrin P; Scheer, Ulrich; Schmid, Michael; Schartl, Manfred

2002-03-01

277

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

278

Refractory vertebral sarcoidosis responding to infliximab.  

PubMed

Treatment of refractory sarcoidosis may be challenging for clinicians. Despite treatment with conventional therapy, sarcoidosis may be progressive and debilitating. Previous studies have implicated a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in granuloma formation as seen in sarcoidosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are currently approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn disease, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. There have been recent case-reports supporting treatment of refractory and multisystem sarcoidosis with such agents. We report a case of sarcoidosis, involving the lung and vertebrae, which was refractory to conventional therapy. Our patient's clinical symptoms and radiologic lesions of vertebral sarcoid dramatically improved after treatment with infliximab. PMID:18766126

Garg, Sanjay; Garg, Kusum; Altaf, Mujeeb; Magaldi, John A

2008-08-01

279

Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

Schweitzer, Mary Higby

2011-05-01

280

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes  

PubMed Central

Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD. PMID:15937204

Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

2005-01-01

281

New regulators of vertebrate appendage regeneration  

PubMed Central

Appendage regeneration is a complex and fascinating biological process exhibited in vertebrates by urodele amphibians and teleost fish. A current focus in the field is to identify new molecules that control formation and function of the regeneration blastema, a mass of proliferative mesenchyme that emerges after limb or fin amputation and serves as progenitor tissue for lost structures. Two studies published recently have illuminated new molecular regulators of blastemal proliferation. After amputation of a newt limb, the nerve sheath releases nAG, a blastemal mitogen that facilitates regeneration. In amputated zebrafish fins, regeneration is optimized through depletion of the microRNA miR-133, a mechanism that requires Fgf signaling. These discoveries establish research avenues that may impact the regenerative capacity of mammalian tissues. PMID:18644447

Yin, Viravuth P.; Poss, Kenneth D.

2008-01-01

282

Planar Cell Polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. PMID:23747034

Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

2013-01-01

283

Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

1991-01-01

284

Cervical meningocele and associated spinal anomalies.  

PubMed

Simple meningoceles are infrequent forms of dysraphism and are often benign. They have been associated with other spinal anomalies. The uncommon cervical meningocele may have a higher propensity to be associated with other spinal anomalies. Four patients with cervical meningocele are presented with radiographic evaluation and clinical course. Multiple abnormalities were documented radiographically and operatively, including hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, lipomeningomyelocele, tethered cord, thickened filum terminale, diastematomyelia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and thoracic hemivertebrae. Prior to the development of any late neurological abnormality from associated spinal anomalies, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended early in a child born with a simple meningocele. PMID:3652068

Delashaw, J B; Park, T S; Cail, W M; Vollmer, D G

1987-01-01

285

Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

Papanastassiou, D. A.

1986-01-01

286

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup  

SciTech Connect

Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

1986-01-01

287

The conformal anomaly of M5-branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the conformal anomaly for N M5-branes grows like N 3. The method we employ relates Coulomb branch interactions in six dimensions to interactions in four dimensions using supersymmetry. This leads to a relation between the six-dimensional conformal anomaly and the conformal anomaly of N = 4 Yang-Mills. Along the way, we determine the structure of the four derivative interactions for the toroidally compactified (2, 0) theory, while encountering interesting novelties in the structure of the six derivative interactions.

Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep

2012-06-01

288

Considerations in the Interpretation of Cosmological Anomalies  

E-print Network

Anomalies drive scientific discovery -- they are associated with the cutting edge of the research frontier, and thus typically exploit data in the low signal-to-noise regime. In astronomy, the prevalence of systematics --- both "known unknowns" and "unknown unknowns" --- combined with increasingly large datasets, the widespread use of ad hoc estimators for anomaly detection, and the "look-elsewhere" effect, can lead to spurious false detections. In this informal note, I argue that anomaly detection leading to discoveries of new physics requires a combination of physical understanding, careful experimental design to avoid confirmation bias, and self-consistent statistical methods. These points are illustrated with several concrete examples from cosmology.

Peiris, Hiranya V

2014-01-01

289

Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2009-09-15

290

Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.  

PubMed

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

2012-01-01

291

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

Strauss, Richard E.

292

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

Benton, Michael

293

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172�185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

California at Berkeley, University of

294

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM

Olsen, Paul E.

295

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER Center, Museum of Natural History and Science, Geier Collections and Research Center, 1720 Gilbert Avenue

Benton, Michael

296

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(2):324332, June 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

324 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(2):324­332, June 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW COELUROSAURIAN DINOSAUR FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS OF SOUTH AFRICA WILLIAM J. DE KLERK1 of Natural History, University of Utah, 1390 East Presidents Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; 4 Zoology

297

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Paleontology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; 6Department of Geology695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA

Shapiro, Mike

298

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History's support for the Mongolian Academy of Scienc- es-American Museum of Natural History Paleontological Ex7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate

Clark, James M.

299

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOBDepartment of Zoology, Division of Fishes, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive

Blob, Richard W.

300

US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (principal investigators); Sexton, J. L.

1984-01-01

301

An ubiquitous mechanism for waterlike anomalies  

E-print Network

Using collision driven molecular dynamics a system of spherical particles interacting through an effective two length scales potential is studied. The potential can be tuned by means of a single parameter, $\\lambda$, from a ramp $(\\lambda=0.5)$ to a square-shoulder potential $(\\lambda=1.0)$ representing a family of two length scales potential in which the shortest interaction distance has higher potential energy than the largest interaction distance. For all the potentials, ranging between the ramp and the square-shoulder, density and structural anomalies were found, while the diffusion anomaly is found in all but in the square-shoulder potential. The presence anomalies in square-shoulder potential, not observed in previous simulations, confirm the assumption that the two length scales potential is an ubiquitous ingredient for a system to exhibit water-like anomalies

Alan Barros de Oliveira; Paulo A. Netz; Marcia C. Barbosa

2008-04-14

302

Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

1984-01-01

303

Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

304

Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.  

PubMed

This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

Smith, M M; Hall, B K

1990-08-01

305

A histologic study of fractured human vertebral bodies.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven fractured human vertebral bodies and 24 unfractured human vertebrae from adjacent levels were studied postmortem using histologic and high-resolution radiographic techniques. The findings were compared with those in the vertebral bodies of individuals without spinal fracture. Forty-six human thoracolumbar spines were obtained from individuals at autopsy. Standard radiographs were made of all specimens. Twelve of the 46 individuals had a total of 27 fractured vertebral bodies by plain radiographic criteria. Attention was focused on these fractured vertebrae as well as on 24 unfractured vertebral bodies that were harvested from a level immediately adjacent to the fractured vertebral bodies. Twelve vertebral bodies from four individuals with no evidence of fracture or inflammatory spondyloarthropathy were also studied for comparison. The vertebral bodies were graded by their mineral density as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and sectioned into 3-mm sagittal cuts. High-resolution contact radiographs were prepared for each section prior to decalcification and tissue sectioning on a large format microtome. Mid-and parasagittal tissue sections of each vertebra were prepared for standard hematoxylin and eosin stains. A total of 126 sections were studied. The histologic characteristics of the fractured vertebrae (n = 27) were compared with those of adjacent unfractured levels (n = 24) and with vertebrae from individuals without fracture (n = 12). Vertebral bodies with fractures secondary to osteoporosis were consistently characterized histologically by focal areas of endochondral new bone formation adjacent to avascular necrotic bone and unreactive marrow. Such ongoing new bone and new vessel formation adjacent to nonhealing areas were also documented in radiographically unfractured vertebral bodies from individuals with osteoporotic fractures at adjacent levels. No areas of endochondral new bone formation or areas of focal necrosis were found in vertebral bodies from individuals without radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. A vascular necrosis of the vertebral body is a common histologic finding in individuals with osteoporosis. Indeed, our histologic observations suggest subclinical fractures and microfractures of the vertebral body may be the underlying pathologic process leading to avascular necrosis in individuals with osteoporosis. Microtrabecular fractures and endplate fractures were commonly seen in osteoporotic vertebral bodies, often in vertebrae that appeared to be uninvolved on specimen radiographs. PMID:11927820

Antonacci, M Darryl; Mody, Dina R; Rutz, Kevin; Weilbaecher, Donald; Heggeness, Michael H

2002-04-01

306

Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

Van Veen, John Edward

2012-01-01

307

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

308

Inversion of marine magnetic anomalies by deconvolution  

E-print Network

large block size, it is demonstrated that the deconvolution technique can retrieve the equivalent source function when the anomaly due to each source block is clearly defined. The model profiles used were 115 samples in length, with a sample... magnetization structure. used to calculate the anomaly. 38 CHAPTER V RESOLUTION OF THE INVERSION TECHNIQUE The ability of the inversion procedure to recover short wavelength source blocks is limited by two factors; the sample interval of the magnetic...

Harry, Dennis Lee

2012-06-07

309

The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity  

E-print Network

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cut-off has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2014-10-22

310

Principal Component-based Anomaly Detection Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, a novel anomaly detection scheme that uses a robust principal component classifier (PCC) to handle computer\\u000a network security problems is proposed. An intrusion predictive model is constructed from the major and minor principal components\\u000a of the normal instances, where the difference of an anomaly from the normal instance is the distance in the principal component\\u000a space. The

Mei-ling Shyu; Shu-ching Chen; Kanoksri Sarinnapakorn; Liwu Chang

2006-01-01

311

Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic\\u000a research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from the perspectives of network monitoring and network security.\\u000a In network monitoring, a service provider is often interested in capturing such network characteristics as heavy flows, flow\\u000a size distributions, and the number of distinct

Marina Thottan; Guanglei Liu; Chuanyi Ji

2010-01-01

312

Inkjet Mask Anomalies for Microfluidic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of inkjet masks with UV light on a photoresistive material can be a cost-effective method for the generation of microfluidic devices for research and/or demonstration. The multicomponent combinations of various colors utilized in inks can lead to anomalies in the generation of the device. These anomalies are demonstrated for various UV exposures with a 365 nm source and possible solutions are discussed.

Dieterle, William

2010-04-01

313

Satellite-altitude horizontal magnetic gradient anomalies used to define the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA), Russia, is one of the world's largest magnetic anomalies. We used satellite altitude horizontal gradient magnetic anomaly data to study this feature. There are two main objectives of our research; the first, to determine if the technique of the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradient analysis can be applied to CHAMP satellite altitude data to define the outline of the source of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). Another objective is to use the ten years of CHAMP data to reproduce the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradient data that will be measured by the two lower orbiting ESA/Swarm mission. We will be able to evaluate the application of these newer satellite altitude data for studying large areas with significant crustal magnetization. While we have acquired sufficient CHAMP orbital data to compute a horizontal gradient anomaly map from these ten years of data; the future ESA/Swarm mission will, however, allow us to compute directly the horizontal magnetic anomaly without orbital altitude and/or magnetic secular variations; however the east-west gradient that the Swarm is measuring will minimize, but not eliminate, the difference in external fields between the two lower satellites. One will still need to use relatively quiet data (e.g., Kp < 1) for crustal field mapping. Our results, developed from interpreting the satellite horizontal magnetic anomaly data, indicate that the source of the KMA is bowl shaped body open to the northwest covering an area of approximately 190,000 km2.

Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; Wittmann, G.

2014-10-01

314

Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

McIntosh, Dawn

2006-01-01

315

Evolution of vertebrate rod and cone phototransduction genes  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate cones and rods in several cases use separate but related components for their signal transduction (opsins, G-proteins, ion channels, etc.). Some of these proteins are also used differentially in other cell types in the retina. Because cones, rods and other retinal cell types originated in early vertebrate evolution, it is of interest to see if their specific genes arose in the extensive gene duplications that took place in the ancestor of the jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) by two tetraploidizations (genome doublings). The ancestor of teleost fishes subsequently underwent a third tetraploidization. Our previously reported analyses showed that several gene families in the vertebrate visual phototransduction cascade received new members in the basal tetraploidizations. We here expand these data with studies of additional gene families and vertebrate species. We conclude that no less than 10 of the 13 studied phototransduction gene families received additional members in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations. Also the remaining three families seem to have undergone duplications during the same time period but it is unclear if this happened as a result of the tetraploidizations. The implications of the many early vertebrate gene duplications for functional specialization of specific retinal cell types, particularly cones and rods, are discussed. PMID:19720650

Larhammar, Dan; Nordstrom, Karin; Larsson, Tomas A.

2009-01-01

316

Quantification of Vertebral Involvement in Metastatic Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction: For patients with a solitary and well-delimitated spinal metastasis that resides inside the vertebral body, without vertebral canal invasion, and who are in good general health with a long life expectancy, en bloc spondylectomy/total vertebrectomy combined with the use of primary stabilizing instrumentation has been advocated. However, clinical experience suggests that these qualifying conditions occur very rarely. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the distribution of vertebral involvement in spinal metastases and determine the frequency with which patients can be considered candidates for radical surgery (en bloc spondylectomy). Methods: Consecutive patients were classified accordingly to Enneking’s and Tomita’s schemes for grading vertebral involvement of metastases. Results: Fifty-one (51) consecutive patients were evaluated. Eighty-three percent of patients presented with the involvement of multiple vertebral levels and/or spinal canal invasion. Conclusion: Because of diffuse vertebral involvement of metastases, no patients in this sample were considered to be candidates for radical spondylectomy of vertebral metastasis. PMID:24015159

Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Jose Marcus

2013-01-01

317

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

318

Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

Lychakov, Dmitri

319

[Percutaneous vertebroplasty: option of treatment for osteoporotic vertebral fracture].  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat focal pain from compressive vertebral fracture. The PV is indicated for the treatment of debilitating vertebral pain from osteoporotic vertebral fractures, metastatic disease (osteolytic), myeloma and hemagioma. We analyzed the results of PV at 18 vertebrae of 11 patients. In 90.9% there war significant pain relief. The return to their usual activities at the first month occurred at 77.8% of the patients. According to the literature review and our study, PV is a promising therapy for selected cases. PMID:14513170

Figueiredo, Nicandro; Amaral Filho, José Carlos; Serra, Alexandre da Rocha; Nogueira, Anibal M; Garcia, Victor C Sano; Weissheimer, Fábio L

2003-09-01

320

Trunk Muscle Activity Is Modified in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Thoracic Kyphosis with Potential Consequences for Vertebral Health  

PubMed Central

This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

Greig, Alison M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.

2014-01-01

321

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. PMID:22573944

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

322

Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

Mclean, Dewey M.

1988-01-01

323

Non-Retroviral Fossils in Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Although no physical fossils of viruses have been found, retroviruses are known to leave their molecular fossils in the genomes of their hosts, the so-called endogenous retroviral elements. These have provided us with important information about retroviruses in the past and their co-evolution with their hosts. On the other hand, because non-retroviral viruses were considered not to leave such fossils, even the existence of prehistoric non-retroviral viruses has been enigmatic. Recently, we discovered that elements derived from ancient bornaviruses, non-segmented, negative strand RNA viruses, are found in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans. In addition, at approximately the same time, several endogenous elements of RNA viruses, DNA viruses and reverse-transcribing DNA viruses have been independently reported, which revealed that non-retroviral viruses have played significant roles in the evolution of their hosts and provided novel insights into virology and cell biology. Here we review non-retroviral virus-like elements in vertebrate genomes, non-retroviral integration and the knowledge obtained from these endogenous non-retroviral virus-like elements. PMID:22069518

Horie, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

2011-01-01

324

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

325

Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822

1996-01-01

326

New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

2014-01-01

327

Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma  

E-print Network

Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous fi ndings. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, is an emerging infectious disease in the United States, Europe, and Asia (1,2). In the United States, most reported cases are concentrated in north-central and northeastern states. Patients with HGA typically have nonspecific febrile symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, and myalgia (1). Most patients with HGA respond well to antimicrobial drug treatment, but complications are not uncommon and some cases are fatal (2). Because of difficulties in diagnosis and lack of awareness of HGA by physicians and the public, many cases are misdiagnosed, and national statistics likely dramatically underreport this disease (1). HGA is caused by a rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1), groups of which form dense aggregations in granulocytes (3). The bacterium is passed from host to host through the bite of an infected ixodid tick: Ixodes scapularis in the eastern and central United States and Ix. pacifi cus in the western United States (4–6). Serosurveys and molecular diagnostics within disease-endemic

Felicia Keesing; Michelle H. Hersh; Michael Tibbetts; Diana J. Mchenry; Shannon Duerr; Jesse Brunner; Mary Killilea; Kathleen Logiudice; Kenneth A. Schmidt; Richard S. Ostfeld

328

Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

2001-01-01

329

Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

2012-01-01

330

Blurring the Edges in Vertebrate Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Sex in vertebrates is determined by genetic- or environmentally-based signals. These signals initiate molecular cascades and cell-cell interactions within the gonad that lead to the adoption of the male or female fate. Previously, genetic- and environmentally-based mechanisms were thought to be distinct, but this idea is fading as a result of the unexpected discovery of coincident genetic and thermal influences within single species. Together with accumulating phylogenetic evidence of frequent transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, these findings suggest that genetic and environmental sex determination actually represent points on a continuum rather than discrete categories, and that populations may shift in one direction or the other in response to mutations or changing ecological conditions. Elucidation of the underlying molecular basis of sex determination in mice has yielded a bistable model of mutually antagonistic signaling pathways and feedback regulatory loops. This system would be highly responsive to changes in the upstream primary signal and may provide a basis for the rapid evolution of and transitions between different methods of sex determination. PMID:19152784

Barske, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

331

Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

1985-01-01

332

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

333

[Angio-fibrolipoma in epidural space of the vertebral canal].  

PubMed

55-yera old patient with angio-fibro-lipoma of thoracic part of the vertebral canal was described. This rare, benign tumour was totally removed. Subsequently the neurological state of the patient improved. PMID:8084371

Majchrzak, H; Sikora, A; Majchrzak, R; Bierzy?ska-Macyszyn, G

1994-01-01

334

Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity  

PubMed Central

The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 My ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in all four Dlg paralogs show simple associative learning required Dlg4, while Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to play opposing roles in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed Dlg2’s role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 My. Dlg family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders suggesting genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness. PMID:23201973

Nithianantharajah, J.; Komiyama, N.H.; McKechanie, A.; Johnstone, M.; Blackwood, D. H.; St Clair, D.; Emes, R.D.; van de Lagemaat, L. N.; Saksida, L.M.; Bussey, T.J.; Grant, S.G.N.

2014-01-01

335

Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates  

E-print Network

attempting to explain fetal development (Keynes and Stern, 1988), patterns on the coats of mammals (Murray of others). Applying such a self-organization viewpoint to vertebrate groupings is a more recent development

Richner, Heinz

336

50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vertebrates. (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus ). (1) The Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel population identified in paragraph...for reintroduction of Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel is totally isolated from...

2010-10-01

337

international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife  

E-print Network

The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

338

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

339

VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

340

Rotational obstruction of the vertebral artery at the atlantoaxial joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with vertebrobasilar ischemia are described in whom angiography demonstrated obstruction of one vertebral artery at the C1–2 level on rotation of the head. The possible anatomical explanation and physiological significance of this finding are discussed.

J. W. Barton; M. T. Margolis

1975-01-01

341

Extraordinary Diversity of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Repertoires Among Vertebrates  

E-print Network

that chemoreception plays multiple important roles in a vertebrate's daily life, including food detection and pheromones. For the gustatory system, the tongue can perceive five basic tastes: sour, salty, bit- ter, sweet

Zhang, Jianzhi

342

Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

1981-12-01

343

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

344

Wandering Neuronal Migration in the Postnatal Vertebrate Forebrain  

E-print Network

Most non-mammalian vertebrate species add new neurons to existing brain circuits throughout life, a process thought to be essential for tissue maintenance, repair, and learning. How these new neurons migrate through the ...

Scott, Benjamin B.

345

Signature of pending earthquake from electromagnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two electromagnetic (EM) anomalies have been detected in the VLF frequency band before the Athens earthquake (EQ) (Mw=5.9, Sept. 7, 1999) with the following characteristics: (i) The first and second anomaly lasted for 12 and 17 hours respectively with a cessation of 12 hours; (ii) The second anomaly ceased at about 9 hours before the EQ; (iii) The larger anomaly, the second one, contains approximately 80% of the total EM energy received; (iv) No EM disturbance has been recorded in the VHF frequency band unlike with other cases, e.g., the Kozani Grevena and Egion-Eratini earthquakes. The fault modeling of the Athens EQ, based on information obtained by radar interferometry, predicts two faults. The main fault segment is responsible for 80% of the total energy released, while the secondary fault segment for the remaining 20%. Moreover, a recent seismic data analysis supports the hypothesis that a two-event solution for the Athens EQ, is more likely than a single event solution. In addition, the absence of surface rupture explains the absence of EM detection in the VHF frequency band. The present analysis reveals that the properties of the preseismic electromagnetic anomalies might be considered as signatures of a pending earthquake.

Eftaxias, K.; Kapiris, P.; Polygiannakis, J.; Bogris, N.; Kopanas, J.; Antonopoulos, G.; Peratzakis, A.; Hadjicontis, V.

346

Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

2009-01-01

347

Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted in 179 consecutive patients (48 males, 131 females; mean age: 72.0 ± 8.59 years; range:\\u000a 51–93) with single symptomatic acute amyelic osteoporotic vertebral fracture presenting between September 2004 and September\\u000a 2005 to the Santa Lucia Foundation in Rome, Italy. Vertebral fractures usually become manifest due to pain which can be debilitating.\\u000a Treatment depends on the presence or absence

Salvatore Masala; Anna Micaela Ciarrapico; Daniel Konda; Vincenzo Vinicola; Matteo Mammucari; Giovanni Simonetti

2008-01-01

348

Vertebrate fossils from late Cenozoic deposits of central Kansas  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA ARTICLE 2 Pages 1-14, Figures 1-14 VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FROM LATE CENOZOIC DEPOSITS OF CENTRAL KANSAS By CLAUDE W. HIBBARD UNIVERS= OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MARCH 20, 1952 PRINTED BY FERD... VOILAND, JR.. STATE PRINTER TOPEKA. KANSAS 1952 24-975 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA, ARTICLE 2, PAGES 1-14, FIGLTRES 1-14 VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FROM LATE CENOZOIC DEPOSITS OF CENTRAL KANSAS By CLAUDE W. HIBBARD CONTENTS PAGE...

Hibbard, C. W.

1952-03-20

349

Vertebrate frugivory and seed dispersal of a Chihuahuan Desert cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate frugivory of fleshy-fruited plants may be very important for the recruitment of sexually derived seedlings if it represents the main mechanism of primary seed-dispersal.Opuntia rastrera produces fleshy fruits rich in water and sugars that are attractive to vertebrate frugivores. However, there is a very low rate of seedling recruitment in natural conditions. One of the causes that can influence

Salvador Montiel; Carlos Montaña

2000-01-01

350

Human vertebral body apparent and hard tissue stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancellous bone apparent stiffness and strength are dependent upon material properties at the tissue level and trabecular architecture. Microstructurally accurate, large-scale finite element (LS-FE) models were used to predict the experimental apparent stiffness of human vertebral cancellous bone and to estimate the trabecular hard tissue stiffness. Twenty-eight LS-FE models of cylindrical human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (8mm in diameter, 9.5mm

Fu J. Hou; Susan M. Lang; Susan J. Hoshaw; David A. Reimann; David P. Fyhrie

1998-01-01

351

Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fractures in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   In women, many studies indicate that the risk of vertebral fragility fractures increases as bone mineral density (BMD) declines.\\u000a In contrast, few studies are available for BMD and vertebral fractures in men. It is uncertain that the strength of the relationship\\u000a between BMD and fractures is similar in magnitude in middle-aged men and in postmenopausal women. In the present

E. Legrand; D. Chappard; C. Pascaretti; M. Duquenne; C. Rondeau; Y. Simon; V. Rohmer; M.-F. Basle; M. Audran

1999-01-01

352

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

353

Comparative structure analysis of vertebrate ribonuclease P RNA.  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease P cleaves 5'-precursor sequences from pre-tRNAs. All cellular RNase P holoenzymes contain homologous RNA elements; the eucaryal RNase P RNA, in contrast to the bacterial RNA, is catalytically inactive in the absence of the protein component(s). To understand the function of eucaryal RNase P RNA, knowledge of its structure is needed. Considerable effort has been devoted to comparative studies of the structure of this RNA from diverse organisms, including eucaryotes, primarily fungi, but also a limited set of vertebrates. The substantial differences in the sequences and structures of the vertebrate RNAs from those of other organisms have made it difficult to align the vertebrate sequences, thus limiting comparative studies. To expand our understanding of the structure of diverse RNase P RNAs, we have isolated by PCR and sequenced 13 partial RNase P RNA genes from 11 additional vertebrate taxa representing most extant major vertebrate lineages. Based on a recently proposed structure of the core elements of RNase P RNA, we aligned the sequences and propose a minimum consensus secondary structure for the vertebrate RNase P RNA. PMID:9649615

Pitulle, C; Garcia-Paris, M; Zamudio, K R; Pace, N R

1998-01-01

354

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

355

Deflected Anomaly Mediation and Neutralino Dark Matter  

E-print Network

We study the phenomenology of the neutralino dark matter in the so called deflected anomaly mediation scenario. This scheme is obtained from the minimal anomaly mediated scenario by introducing a gauge mediated sector with $N_f$ messenger fields. Unlike the former scheme the latter has no tachyons. We find that the neutralino is still the LSP in a wide region of the parameter space: it is essentially a pure bino in the scenario with $N_f=1$ while it can also be a pure higgsino for $N_f>1$. This is very different from the naive anomaly mediated scenario which predicts a wino like neutralino. Moreover we do not find any tachyonic scalars in this scheme. After computing the relic density (considering all the possible coannihilations) we find that there are regions in the parameter space with values compatible with the latest WMAP results with no need to consider moduli fields that decay in the early universe.

Alessandro Cesarini; Francesco Fucito; Andrea Lionetto

2006-11-08

356

The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity  

E-print Network

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields...

Butter, Daniel

2014-01-01

357

Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle — that is, an anyon — in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.

Castro, Alejandra; Detournay, Stephane; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric

2014-07-01

358

Trace anomalies in chiral theories revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the search for possible CP violating terms in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in theories coupled to gravity we revisit the problem of trace anomalies in chiral theories. We recalculate the latter and ascertain that in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of theories with chiral fermions at one-loop the Pontryagin density appears with an imaginary coefficient. We argue that this may break unitarity, in which case the trace anomaly has to be used as a selective criterion for theories, analogous to the chiral anomalies in gauge theories. We analyze some remarkable consequences of this fact, that seem to have been overlooked in the literature.

Bonora, Loriano; Giaccari, Stefano; de Souza, Bruno Lima

2014-07-01

359

Multifractal characterization of global temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global monthly temperature anomaly time series for the period 1850-2012 has been investigated in terms of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Various multifractal observables, such as the generalized Hurst exponent, the multifractal exponent, and the singularity spectrum, are extracted and are fitted to a generalized binomial multifractal model consists of only two free parameters. The results of this analysis give a clear indication of the presence of long-term memory in the global temperature anomaly time series which causes multifractal pattern in the data. We investigate the possible other source(s) of multifractality in the series by random shuffling as well as by surrogating the original series and find that the probability density function also contributes to the observed multifractal pattern along with the long-memory effect. Surprisingly, the temperature anomaly time series are well described by the two-parameter multifractal binomial model.

Mali, Provash

2014-08-01

360

Adaptive responses of vertebrate neurons to hypoxia.  

PubMed

The damage caused to mammalian neurons during ischaemic events in the brain (e.g. following a stroke), is an area of major interest to neuroscientists. The neurons of hypoxia-tolerant vertebrates offer unique models for identifying new strategies to enhance the survival of hypoxia-vulnerable neurons. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of how hypoxia-tolerant neurons detect decreases in oxygen and create signals that have immediate and long-term effects on cell function and survival. Sensing and adapting to low oxygen tension involves numerous modalities with different times of activation and effect. Sensors include membrane proteins such as ionotropic ion channels, membrane or cytosolic heme proteins, mitochondrial proteins and/or oxygen sensitive transcription factors such as HIF-1alpha and NFkappaB. Signaling molecules involved in O(2) sensing include mitogen-activated protein kinases, ions such as Ca(2+) and metabolites such as adenosine. These signals act rapidly to reduce the conductance of ion channels (ion flux arrest) and production of energy (metabolic arrest), and slowly to activate specific genes. The ability to construct an energy budget, illustrating which physiological processes are depressed during both long-term and acute metabolic suppression in hypoxia-tolerant neurons, would be of significant value in devising new strategies for neuroprotection. Additionally it is not known how metabolism is regulated at 'pilot-light' levels at which energy-producing and energy-consuming processes are balanced. The regulation of organelle and cell fate during long-term hypoxia is almost completely unexplored, and whether programmed cell death and regeneration of lost neurons occur following protracted dormancy is also of considerable interest. PMID:12409484

Bickler, Philip E; Donohoe, Paul H

2002-12-01

361

Coronary Artery Anomalies--Current Clinical Issues  

PubMed Central

The study of coronary artery anomalies would benefit from the clarification of various fundamental issues, including the definitions, classification, incidence, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and clinical relevance of each anomaly. The greatest challenge is to identify the abnormality and determine its clinical relevance so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. Currently, the coronary anatomy is essentially defined by the features of the (conductive) epicardial coronary tree and its dependent territory. Therefore, one must consider all the possible and observed variations in anatomic features that are used to describe the coronary arteries. We propose that the left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries be considered the essential, elementary units of coronary anatomy. We also suggest that the coronary arteries be defined not by their origin or proximal course, but by their intermediate and distal segments or dependent microvascular bed. A strict classification system is necessary before meaningful data can be gathered about the incidence of coronary anomalies. With respect to clinical relevance, the greatest challenge is presented by anomalies that only occasionally cause critically severe clinical events and are otherwise compatible with a normal life. In such cases, it is not known whether the specific features of a given anomaly cause adverse clinical consequences, or whether additional episodic factors are required. To correlate subclassifiable anatomic and functional features with clinical events and prognoses, a large, multicenter database, relying on prospective, coordinated protocols, is urgently needed. In the absence of established official guidelines, we present practical protocols for diagnosing and treating coronary anomalies. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:271–8) PMID:12484611

Angelini, Paolo

2002-01-01

362

Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

1995-01-01

363

An Ordovician vertebrate from western New South Wales, with comments on Cambro-Ordovician vertebrate distribution patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young, G.C., March, 2009. An Ordovician vertebrate from western New South Wales, with comments on Cambro-Ordovician vertebrate distribution patterns. Alcheringa 33, 79–89. ISSN 0311-5518.A fish plate impression from the Ordovician Rowena Formation in Mutawintji National Park is referred to an indeterminate species of the genus Arandaspis Ritchie & Gilbert-Tomlinson, 1977, genotype of the family Arandaspididae, previously known only from the

Gavin C. Young

2009-01-01

364

Redshift Anomalies with Universal Free-Fall  

E-print Network

For most theories which parametrize modifications of General Relativity, including those which violate the equivalence principle, gravitational redshift tests typically offer weaker constraints on such test parameters than do precision measurements of the universality of free fall (UFF) and local Lorentz invariance (LLI). Although redshift anomalies are often linked with violations of UFF or LLI, they do not have to be. We offer a simple model in which particle masses anomalously vary with the gravitational potential. This generates gravitational redshift anomalies unconstrained by existing tests of UFF or LLI. We propose new experiments to limit such effects.

Michael A. Hohensee; Holger Mueller

2010-08-03

365

LHC Test of CDF $Wjj$ anomaly  

E-print Network

We discuss a test of the CDF dijet anomaly at the LHC. The recent observed dijet mass peak at the CDF is well fitted by a new particle with a mass of around 150 GeV, which decays into two jets. In this paper, we focus on only $Wjj$ signal to avoid model dependence, and comprehensively study the LHC discovery/exclusion reach. We found almost all the models are inconsistent with the result of the LHC, unless only valence quarks contribute the new process. We also discuss further prospects of the LHC search for this anomaly.

Keisuke Harigaya; Ryosuke Sato; Satoshi Shirai

2011-07-26

366

Preferential filtering for gravity anomaly separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preferential filtering method for gravity anomaly separation based on Green equivalent-layer concept and Wiener filter. Compared to the conventional upward continuation and the preferential continuation, the preferential filtering method has the advantage of no requirement of continuation height. The method was tested both on the synthetic gravity data of a model of multiple rectangular prisms and on the real gravity data from a magnetite area in Jilin Province, China. The results show that the preferential filtering method produced better separation of gravity anomaly than both the conventional low-pass filtering and the upward continuation.

Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhaoxi; Li, Shuling; Zheng, Yuanman

2013-02-01

367

The source of marine magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

Harrison, Christopher G. A.

1987-01-01

368

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

369

Magnetic anomalies northeast of Shatsky Plateau  

E-print Network

trending Japanese lineations to form a magnetic bight north of Shatsky Plateau. The bight is interpreted to be evidence of a ridge-ridge-ridge (RRR) triple junction which ex1sted from about 124 MYBP (anomaly MlON time) into the Cretaceous Duiet Per1od.... A r1dge-fault-fault (RFF) triple junction existed at Shatsky Plateau for about 17 MY (anomalies Mlg-MlDN t1me). The plate boun- daries were: a Pacif1c-Farallon (P-F) transform fault, a Pacific-Kula (P-K) spreading ridge, and a Kula-Farallon (K...

Risch, David Lawrence

2012-06-07

370

Genetic Analysis of Vertebral Regionalization and Number in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Vertebral number is the most variable trait among vertebrates. In addition to the vertebral number, the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae is a variable trait. The vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae contribute to vertebrate diversity. It is very interesting to know how to determine the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae. In this study, we identify differences in the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number between two inbred lines of medaka, namely, Hd-rRII1 and Kaga. To identify the genetic factor of those differences, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number using 200 F2 fish. Our results show a suggestive QTL of the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number on chromosome 15, and five QTL of vertebral number on chromosomes 1, 10, 11, 17, and 23. The QTL on chromosome 15 contains hoxDb cluster genes. The QTL of vertebral number include some genes related to the segmentation clock and axial elongation. In addition, we show that the difference in vertebral number between two inbred lines is derived from differences in the anteroposterior length of somites. Our results emphasize that the developmental process should be considered in genetic analyses for vertebral number. PMID:23173083

Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shinya, Minori; Naruse, Kiyosi

2012-01-01

371

Explosive Expansion of ??-Crystallin Genes in the Ancestral Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

In jawed vertebrates, ??-crystallins are restricted to the eye lens and thus excellent markers of lens evolution. These ??-crystallins are four Greek key motifs/two domain proteins, whereas the urochordate ??-crystallin has a single domain. To trace the origin of the vertebrate ??-crystallin genes, we searched for homologues in the genomes of a jawless vertebrate (lamprey) and of a cephalochordate (lancelet). The lamprey genome contains orthologs of the gnathostome ?B1-, ?A2- and ?N-crystallin genes and a single domain ?N-crystallin-like gene. It contains at least two ?-crystallin genes, but lacks the gnathostome ?S-crystallin gene. The genome also encodes a non-lenticular protein containing ??-crystallin motifs, AIM1, also found in gnathostomes but not detectable in the uro- or cephalochordate genome. The four cephalochordate ??-crystallin genes found encode two-domain proteins. Unlike the vertebrate ??-crystallins but like the urochordate ??-crystallin, three of the predicted proteins contain calcium-binding sites. In the cephalochordate ??-crystallin genes, the introns are located within motif-encoding region, while in the urochordate and in the vertebrate ??-crystallin genes the introns are between motif- and/or domain encoding regions. Coincident with the evolution of the vertebrate lens an ancestral urochordate type ??-crystallin gene rapidly expanded and diverged in the ancestral vertebrate before the cyclostomes/gnathostomes split. The ?- and ?N-crystallin genes were maintained in subsequent evolution, and, given the selection pressure imposed by accurate vision, must be essential for lens function. The ?-crystallin genes show lineage specific expansion and contraction, presumably in adaptation to the demands on vision resulting from (changes in) lifestyle. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9379-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20725717

Kappe, Guido; Purkiss, Andrew G.; van Genesen, Siebe T.; Slingsby, Christine

2010-01-01

372

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

373

The genetic basis of modularity in the development and evolution of the vertebrate dentition.  

PubMed

The construction of organisms from units that develop under semi-autonomous genetic control (modules) has been proposed to be an important component of their ability to undergo adaptive phenotypic evolution. The organization of the vertebrate dentition as a system of repeated parts provides an opportunity to study the extent to which phenotypic modules, identified by their evolutionary independence from other such units, are related to modularity in the genetic control of development. The evolutionary history of vertebrates provides numerous examples of both correlated and independent evolution of groups of teeth. The dentition itself appears to be a module of the dermal exoskeleton, from which it has long been under independent genetic control. Region-specific tooth loss has been a common trend in vertebrate evolution. Novel deployment of teeth and reacquisition of lost teeth have also occurred, although less frequently. Tooth shape differences within the dentition may be discontinuous (referred to as heterodonty) or graded. The occurrence of homeotic changes in tooth shape provides evidence for the decoupling of tooth shape and location in the course of evolution. Potential mechanisms for region-specific evolutionary tooth loss are suggested by a number of mouse gene knockouts and human genetic dental anomalies, as well as a comparison between fully-developed and rudimentary teeth in the dentition of rodents. These mechanisms include loss of a tooth-type-specific initiation signal, alterations of the relative strength of inductive and inhibitory signals acting at the time of tooth initiation and the overall reduction in levels of proteins required for the development of all teeth. Ectopic expression of tooth initiation signals provides a potential mechanism for the novel deployment or reacquisition of teeth; a single instance is known of a gene whose ectopic expression in transgenic mice can lead to ectopic teeth. Differences in shape between incisor and molar teeth in the mouse have been proposed to be controlled by the region-specific expression of signalling molecules in the oral epithelium. These molecules induce the expression of transcription factors in the underlying jaw mesenchyme that may act as selectors of tooth type. It is speculated that shifts in the expression domains of the epithelial signalling molecules might be responsible for homeotic changes in tooth shape. The observation that these molecules are regionally restricted in the chicken, whose ancestors were not heterodont, suggests that mammalian heterodonty may have evolved through the use of patterning mechanisms already acting on skeletal elements of the jaws. In general, genetic and morphological approaches identify similar types of modules in the dentition, but the data are not yet sufficient to identify exact correspondences. It is speculated that modularity may be achieved by gene expression differences between teeth or by differences in the time of their development, causing mutations to have cumulative effects on later-developing teeth. The mammalian dentition, for which virtually all of the available developmental genetic data have been collected, represents a small subset of the dental diversity present in vertebrates as a whole. In particular, teleost fishes may have a much more extensive dentition. Extension of research on the genetic control of tooth development to this and other vertebrate groups has great potential to further the understanding of modularity in the dentition. PMID:11604128

Stock, D W

2001-10-29

374

The genetic basis of modularity in the development and evolution of the vertebrate dentition.  

PubMed Central

The construction of organisms from units that develop under semi-autonomous genetic control (modules) has been proposed to be an important component of their ability to undergo adaptive phenotypic evolution. The organization of the vertebrate dentition as a system of repeated parts provides an opportunity to study the extent to which phenotypic modules, identified by their evolutionary independence from other such units, are related to modularity in the genetic control of development. The evolutionary history of vertebrates provides numerous examples of both correlated and independent evolution of groups of teeth. The dentition itself appears to be a module of the dermal exoskeleton, from which it has long been under independent genetic control. Region-specific tooth loss has been a common trend in vertebrate evolution. Novel deployment of teeth and reacquisition of lost teeth have also occurred, although less frequently. Tooth shape differences within the dentition may be discontinuous (referred to as heterodonty) or graded. The occurrence of homeotic changes in tooth shape provides evidence for the decoupling of tooth shape and location in the course of evolution. Potential mechanisms for region-specific evolutionary tooth loss are suggested by a number of mouse gene knockouts and human genetic dental anomalies, as well as a comparison between fully-developed and rudimentary teeth in the dentition of rodents. These mechanisms include loss of a tooth-type-specific initiation signal, alterations of the relative strength of inductive and inhibitory signals acting at the time of tooth initiation and the overall reduction in levels of proteins required for the development of all teeth. Ectopic expression of tooth initiation signals provides a potential mechanism for the novel deployment or reacquisition of teeth; a single instance is known of a gene whose ectopic expression in transgenic mice can lead to ectopic teeth. Differences in shape between incisor and molar teeth in the mouse have been proposed to be controlled by the region-specific expression of signalling molecules in the oral epithelium. These molecules induce the expression of transcription factors in the underlying jaw mesenchyme that may act as selectors of tooth type. It is speculated that shifts in the expression domains of the epithelial signalling molecules might be responsible for homeotic changes in tooth shape. The observation that these molecules are regionally restricted in the chicken, whose ancestors were not heterodont, suggests that mammalian heterodonty may have evolved through the use of patterning mechanisms already acting on skeletal elements of the jaws. In general, genetic and morphological approaches identify similar types of modules in the dentition, but the data are not yet sufficient to identify exact correspondences. It is speculated that modularity may be achieved by gene expression differences between teeth or by differences in the time of their development, causing mutations to have cumulative effects on later-developing teeth. The mammalian dentition, for which virtually all of the available developmental genetic data have been collected, represents a small subset of the dental diversity present in vertebrates as a whole. In particular, teleost fishes may have a much more extensive dentition. Extension of research on the genetic control of tooth development to this and other vertebrate groups has great potential to further the understanding of modularity in the dentition. PMID:11604128

Stock, D W

2001-01-01

375

Association of prevalent vertebral fractures, bone density, and alendronate treatment with incident vertebral fractures: effect of number and spinal location of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture and are associated with significant pain and disability. Prior vertebral fracture and low bone mineral density (BMD) are strong predictors of new vertebral fracture. Using data from 6082 women, ages 55–80 years, in the Fracture Intervention Trial (a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the antiresorptive agent, alendronate), we explored the association of the

M. C Nevitt; P. D Ross; L Palermo; T Musliner; H. K Genant; D. E Thompson

1999-01-01

376

Congenital coronary artery anomalies angiographic classification revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fragmental classification of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) exist, but a simple practical angiographic classification for angiographers has been never proposed. This study is aimed to suggest a simplified angiographic classification of congenital CAAs based on just a few univocal common angiographic patterns. The authors reviewed 5100 coronary angiographies in order to select CAAs patients and identify simple common angiographic

Rigatelli Gianluca; Docali Giorgio; Rossi Paolo; Bovolon Daniela; Rossi Daniele; Bandello Attilio; Lonardi Gabriele; Rigatelli Giorgio

2003-01-01

377

Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

2008-01-01

378

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

SciTech Connect

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

Persson, J.R., E-mail: jonas.persson@ntnu.no

2013-01-15

379

The anomaly data base of screwworm information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

Giddings, L. E.

1976-01-01

380

Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies  

E-print Network

We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian space-times, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

Jochen Zahn

2014-07-08

381

Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies in communication satellite operation have been caused by the unexpected triggering of digital circuits. Interactions with galactic cosmic rays were investigated as a mechanism for a number of these events. The mechanism assumed was the charging of the base-emitter capacitance of sensitive transistors to the turn-on voltage. The calculation of the cosmic ray event rate required the determination of

D. Binder; E. C. Smith; A. B. Holman

1975-01-01

382

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

Persson, J. R.

2013-01-01

383

Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

2014-08-01

384

Anomaly Detection in Relational Data for the  

E-print Network

Anomaly Detection in Relational Data for the Discovery of Insider Threats Bill Eberle DepartmentECBHU2704309YOKOHAMASEATTLE JAPAN CSCO LING YUN HE 36 CHINA OCEAN SHPG 20601 0048774000ECBHU2709933YOKOHAMASEATTLE JAPAN CSCO LING YUN HE 36 CHINA OCEAN SHPG 20601 0048774000ECBHU2724727YOKOHAMASEATTLE JAPAN CSCO

Eberle, William

385

Anomalies, dimensional regularization, and the heat kernel  

SciTech Connect

In the context of dimensional continuation, it is shown that axial anomalies are associated with chiral noninvariance of the action (but not of the measure) and they can be extracted nonperturbatively from the heat kernel. Other techniques where the action is deemed invariant but the functional integral measure is not are shown to be equivalent.

Delbourgo, R.; Thompson, G.

1985-12-15

386

Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions  

E-print Network

We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its description in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.

Rose, Luigi Delle; Serino, Mirko

2014-01-01

387

Ocean response to surface heat anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to study the response of ocean heat and mass transport to positive and negative heat flux anomalies at the ocean surface. As expected, tropical and low-latitude mixed layers respond rapidly (e-folding time about 50-70 years) to external forcing, while the response of the high-latitude mixed layer, especially the Southern Ocean and northern North Atlantic, is very slow (e-folding time greater than 300 yr). The overall response is faster for negative than positive heat flux anomaly at the surface. The meridional heat transport changes by 15% in the first 50 yr in the southern high latitudes. Surprisingly, for the next 400-500 yr the change is very small. The analysis shows that the meridional mass transport intensifies in response to a negative surface heat flux anomaly but weakens in response to a positive heat flux anomaly. For example, at model year 100 the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is reduced from about 18 Sv to about 10 Sv for the positive heat flux experiment but increased to about 26 Sv for the negative heat flux experiment.

Jiang, Xingjian; Fung, Inez

1994-01-01

388

Ocean response to surface heat anomalies  

SciTech Connect

An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to study the response of ocean heat and mass transport to positive and negative heat flux anomalies at the ocean surface. As expected, tropical and low-latitude mixed layers respond rapidly (e-folding time about 50-70 years) to external forcing, while the response of the high-latitude mixed layer, especially the Southern Ocean and northern North Atlantic, is very slow (e-folding time greater than 300 yr). The overall response is faster for negative than positive heat flux anomaly at the surface. The meridional heat transport changes by 15% in the first 50 yr in the southern high latitudes. Surprisingly, for the next 400-500 yr the change is very small. The analysis shows that the meridional mass transport intensifies in response to a negative surface heat flux anomaly but weakens in response to a positive heat flux anomaly. For example, at model year 100 the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is reduced from about 18 Sv to about 10 Sv for the positive heat flux experiment but increased to about 26 Sv for the negative heat flux experiment.

Jiang, Xingjian; Fung, Inez (NASA. Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States))

1994-05-01

389

The inheritance anomaly: ten years after  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term inheritance anomaly was coined in 1993 by Matsuoka and Yonezawa [15] to refer to the problems arising by the coexistence of inheritance and concurrency in concurrent object oriented languages (COOLs). The quirks arising by such combination have been observed since the early eighties, when the first experimental COOLs were designed [3]. In the nineties COOLs turned from research

Giuseppe Milicia; Vladimiro Sassone

2004-01-01

390

Subband anomaly detection and spatial localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulating source assumption allows us to specify the problem of anomaly detection as a problem in robust statistics. The demodulation property of the Teager energy operator is used to jointly expose amplitude and frequency features of audio sub-bands. Spectral decomposition is achieved using a scaled wavelet function acting as a band-pass filter which halves its bandwidth for each decomposition

John F. N. Salik

2007-01-01

391

Integrating network misuse and anomaly prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) aim at preventing network attacks and unauthorised remote use of computers. More accurately, depending on the kind of attack it targets, NIDS can be oriented to detect misuses (by defining all possible attacks) or anomalies (by modelling legitimate behaviour to find those that do not fit into that model). Still, since their problem knowledge is

Y. K. Penva; Pablo G. Bringas

2008-01-01

392

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

E-print Network

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Buttgenbach (Hyperfine Interactions 20, (1984) p 1) and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period to January 2011.

Jonas R. Persson

2011-10-27

393

Passive Identification and Analysis of TCP Anomalies  

E-print Network

and time, which is due to the closed-loop behavior of TCP, the TCP/IP client- server communication paradigmPassive Identification and Analysis of TCP Anomalies Marco Mellia, Michela Meo, Luca Muscariello on passive measurements of TCP traffic, main component of nowadays traffic. We propose a heuristic technique

394

Anomaly Transform method for initializing climate forecas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach, an Anomaly Transform method (AT) using a physics based metric, is developed to initialize decadal climate hindcast within the German climate prediction MiKlip project. The method starts from balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables derived from control runs and applies an orthogalization to these. Two physics based metric are used to set up the eigen problem (1) the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, and (2) the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choice of a reference state defining the anomalies and the selected sequence of anomalies, once on a seasonal timescales and second on an interannual timescales, project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the ACC and ENSO regions. An additional set of initial conditions was designed to fit in a least square sense anomalies from the GECCO-2 ocean reanalysis. These sets of AT initial conditions and the MPIOM-ESM coupled model in T63L47/GR15 resolution were used for ensemble experiments and a retrospective forecast. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instability growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the rescaling coefficients magnitude on the perturbation amplitude. In contrary to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests different source of uncertainties mainly associated with changes in density fields.

Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

2014-05-01

395

Vertebral evolution and the diversification of squamate reptiles.  

PubMed

Taxonomic, morphological, and functional diversity are often discordant and independent components of diversity. A fundamental and largely unanswered question in evolutionary biology is why some clades diversify primarily in some of these components and not others. Dramatic variation in trunk vertebral numbers (14 to >300) among squamate reptiles coincides with different body shapes, and snake-like body shapes have evolved numerous times. However, whether increased evolutionary rates or numbers of vertebrae underlie body shape and taxonomic diversification is unknown. Using a supertree of squamates including 1375 species, and corresponding vertebral and body shape data, we show that increased rates of evolution in vertebral numbers have coincided with increased rates and disparity in body shape evolution, but not changes in rates of taxonomic diversification. We also show that the evolution of many vertebrae has not spurred or inhibited body shape or taxonomic diversification, suggesting that increased vertebral number is not a key innovation. Our findings demonstrate that lineage attributes such as the relaxation of constraints on vertebral number can facilitate the evolution of novel body shapes, but that different factors are responsible for body shape and taxonomic diversification. PMID:22486688

Bergmann, Philip J; Irschick, Duncan J

2012-04-01

396

Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (;)

2005-02-01

397

Neutral pion lifetime measurements and the QCD chiral anomaly  

E-print Network

A fundamental property of QCD is the presence of the chiral anomaly, which is the dominant component of the ?[superscript 0]??? decay rate. Based on this anomaly and its small (?4.5%) chiral correction, a prediction of the ...

Bernstein, Aron M.

398

Detectability of Traffic Anomalies in Two Adjacent Augustin Soule1  

E-print Network

that transit between the two networks. We show that differences in the monitoring infrastructure, network engineering practices, and anomaly-detection parameters have a large impact on which anomaly detectability

399

Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling  

PubMed Central

The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology. PMID:17981674

Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

2013-01-01

400

Iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm due to central venous catheterization  

PubMed Central

Central venous lines have become an integral part of patient care, but they are not without complications. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm formation is one of the rarer complications of central line placement. Presented is a rare case of two pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral and subclavian artery after an attempted internal jugular vein catheterization. These were successfully treated with open surgical repair and bypass. Open surgical repair remains the gold standard of treatment. Endovascular repair of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysms has been described with promising outcomes, but long-term results are lacking. Ultimately, the best treatment of these iatrogenic injuries should start with prevention. Well-documented techniques to minimize mechanical complications, including inadvertent arterial puncture, should be practiced and taught in training programs to avoid the potentially devastating consequences. PMID:21566753

Vasquez, Jay

2011-01-01

401

Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.  

PubMed

Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

2014-04-01

402

Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.  

PubMed

The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

2014-09-01

403

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

404

Percutaneous Technique for Sclerotherapy of Vertebral Hemangioma Compressing Spinal Cord  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study we report a percutaneous technique to achieve sclerosis of vertebral hemangioma and decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Methods: Under CT guidance the affected vertebral body is punctured by a biopsy needle and sclerosant is injected directly into the tumor. In the case of large paravertebral extension, additional injection is given in the paravertebral soft tissue component to induce shrinkage of the whole tumor mass and release of the compressed spinal cord. Results: Using this technique we treated five patients in whom vertebral hemangioma gave rise to neurologic symptoms.In three patients, sclerotherapy was the only treatment given. In the other two patients, sclerotherapy was preceded by transcatheter embolization. Neither decompressive surgery, radiation therapy nor stabilization was required with this technique. Conclusion: Our experience with CT-guided intraosseous sclerotherapy has proved highly satisfactory.

Gabal, Abdelwahab M. [Al-Azhar University Medical Center, Sayed GalalHospital, Port Saeed Str. 540, Cairo 11563 (Egypt)

2002-12-15

405

The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors.  

PubMed

Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

Baker, Clare V H; Modrell, Melinda S; Gillis, J Andrew

2013-07-01

406

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

407

Anal anomalies: an uncommon feature of velocardiofacial (Shprintzen) syndrome?  

PubMed Central

We report three cases of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) with anal anomalies who have deletions of the 22q11 region and a further case where the proband has VCFS clinically and her father has an anal anomaly. It is important to consider VCFS in the differential diagnosis of children with anal anomalies and to look for other features of the syndrome, such as asymmetrical crying facies, submucous cleft of the palate, developmental delay, cardiac anomalies, and hypoparathyroidism. Images PMID:9032655

Worthington, S; Colley, A; Fagan, K; Dai, K; Lipson, A H

1997-01-01

408

i\\ai"GIIS... Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation PAGE  

E-print Network

' ·~ i\\ai"GIIS... Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation PAGE 1 OF /~-........Divl·lan DATE 10/11/71 The purpose of this ATM is to review and status the BxA effort with respect to the Apollo 15 Anomalies t '-· :·~· . . !· ·'··..'· ~· : #12;Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation TABLE OF CONTENTS Anomalies 1. UHT/Subpackage #2 Interface 2

Rathbun, Julie A.

409

Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

2014-01-01

410

Relationship between New Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Instrumented Lumbar Arthrodesis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between a new osteoporotic vertebral fracture and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Overview of Literature In contrast to the growing recognition of the importance of adjacent segment disease after lumbar arthrodesis, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty five patients with a thoracolumbar vertebral fracture following instrumented arthrodesis for degenerative lumbar disorders (study group) were investigated. The influence of instrumented lumbar arthrodesis was examined by comparing the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck in the study group with that of 28 patients (control group) who had sustained a simple osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The fracture after instrumented arthrodesis was diagnosed at a mean 47 months (range, 7 to 100 months) after the surgery. Results There was a relatively better BMD in the study group, 0.67 ± 0.12 g/cm2 compared to the control group, 0.60 ± 0.13 g/cm2 (p = 0.013). The level of back pain improved from a mean of 7.5 ± 1.0 at the time of the fracture to a mean of 4.9 ± 2.0 at 1 year after the fracture (p = 0.001). However, 12 (48%) patients complained of severe back pain 1 year after the fracture. There was negative correlation between the BMD of the femoral neck and back pain at the last follow up (r = - 0.455, p = 0.022). Conclusions Osteoporotic vertebral fractures after instrumented arthrodesis contribute to the aggravation of back pain and the final outcome of degenerative lumbar disorders. Therefore, it is important to examine the possibility of new osteoporotic vertebral fractures for new-onset back pain after lumbar instrumented arthrodesis. PMID:21165309

Kim, Bung-Hak; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Jeon, Seong-Hun

2010-01-01

411

MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST  

E-print Network

MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST STATIONS by Franklin StearnsKeman, Director Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin Stearns. December 19^4 #12;Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin

412

Late-Term Abortion for Fetal Anomaly: Vietnamese Women's Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for fetal anomalies in the second trimester of pregnancy is increasingly becoming a part of antenatal care. As a consequence, more pregnant women are learning that the child they are expecting has an anomaly. This article derives from anthropological research in a hospital in Hanoi, Viet Nam, from 2003–2006 that investigated 30 women's experiences after a fetal anomaly was

Tine Gammeltoft

2008-01-01

413

Trajectory Boundary Modeling of Time Series for Anomaly Detection  

E-print Network

compares favorably with anomaly detection algorithms based on Euclidean distance and dynamic time warping on the Space Shuttle Marrotta fuel control valve data set. Keywords Time series anomaly detection, MachineTrajectory Boundary Modeling of Time Series for Anomaly Detection Matthew V. Mahoney and Philip K

Chan, Philip K.

414

Five-Year Average Global Temperature Anomalies 1880 - 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color-coded map displays a progression of changing five-year average global surface temperatures anomalies from 1880 through 2010. The final frame represents global temperature anomalies averaged from 2006 to 2010. The temperature anomalies are computed relative to the base period 1951-1980.

Schmunk, Robert B.; Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, Mki; Lo, K.; Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

415

Congenital and developmental anomalies of the shoulder girdle.  

PubMed

An understanding of congenital and developmental anomalies of the shoulder girdle is facilitated by a knowledge of embryology, physeal appearance and closure, and phylogenetic changes. Scapular, clavicular, and proximal humeral anomalies are classified and discussed with reference to diagnosis and management. Finally anomalies of the shoulder girdle musculature are delineated. PMID:7001305

Samilson, R L

1980-04-01

416

El Nino: Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly and Sea Surface Height Anomaly from Sept. 1996 to Sept. 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface height anomaly is presented as topography and sea surface temperature anomaly as color. A similar visualization (animation 1415) presents this same data and includes a pan from the front view to a side view.

Shirah, Greg; Busalacchi, Antonio

1997-09-08

417

iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology;)

2008-01-01

418

Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.  

PubMed

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C

2013-03-01

419

Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

WITSCHI, E

1959-08-14

420

Pelger-Huët Anomaly in a cat.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old, spayed female Domestic Shorthair cat was referred to the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (PUVTH) for iodine 131 treatment of hyperthyroidism. Upon arrival, a biochemistry profile and a CBC were performed. Approximately 50% of the neutrophils and all the eosinophils observed were hyposegmented with a mature, condensed chromatin pattern. Nuclei had a band to "dumbbell" shape, and rarely a round shape, suggesting a Pelger-Huët anomaly or a pseudo Pelger-Huët. Based on both a negative FeLV and FIV tests, the absence of any clinical signs to support an inflammatory process, and the persistence of this granulocytic morphology 6 months after its previous admission to the PUVTH, a diagnosis of Pelger-Huët anomaly was established in this cat. PMID:25115222

Deshuillers, Pierre; Raskin, Rose; Messick, Joanne

2014-09-01

421

Conditional Anomaly Detection with Soft Harmonic Functions  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider the problem of conditional anomaly detection that aims to identify data instances with an unusual response or a class label. We develop a new non-parametric approach for conditional anomaly detection based on the soft harmonic solution, with which we estimate the confidence of the label to detect anomalous mislabeling. We further regularize the solution to avoid the detection of isolated examples and examples on the boundary of the distribution support. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method on several synthetic and UCI ML datasets in detecting unusual labels when compared to several baseline approaches. We also evaluate the performance of our method on a real-world electronic health record dataset where we seek to identify unusual patient-management decisions.

Valko, Michal; Kveton, Branislav; Valizadegan, Hamed; Cooper, Gregory F.; Hauskrecht, Milos

2012-01-01

422

A critical appraisal of the LSND anomaly  

E-print Network

The so-called 'LSND anomaly', a 3.8 sigma excess of anti-nu_e events interpreted as originating from anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation, gave rise to many theoretical speculations. The MiniBooNE Collaboration reported inconsistency of this interpretation with the findings from their search for nu_mu -> nu_e oscillations. Yet the origin of the LSND anomaly was never clarified. A critical issue is the prediction of the background anti-nu_e flux that was used in the analysis of the LSND experiment. For this, decisive input comes from pion spectra measured with the HARP large-angle spectrometer under conditions that closely resemble the LSND situation: a proton beam with 800 MeV kinetic energy hitting a water target.

I. Boyko

2008-10-08

423

Hyperactive behavior and minor physical anomalies.  

PubMed

Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are congenital abnormalities of body structure which reflect fetal maldevelopment. They originate in the same embryonic layer that produces the central nervous system, and it is reasoned that MPAs are markers of nervous system anomalies. High MPA counts have been associated with hyperactive behavior in normal and clinical populations of boys, and with inhibited behavior in normal groups of girls. The present sample of children from a longitudinal study of a Danish birth cohort show no significant sex differences in mean number of MPAs, but the male hyperactivity-MPA relation and the female inhibition-MPA relation is supported in this non-clinical sample. MPAs are not recommended for use in clinical screening or diagnosis at this time, but the evidence of a congenital, biological component to hyperactive behavior may eventually have useful implications for prevention and/or intervention. PMID:4083059

Fogel, C A; Mednick, S A; Michelsen, N

1985-12-01

424

Thesis: Orientifolds, Anomalies and the Standard Model  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study aspects of D-brane realizations of the Standard Model. Specifically, we study orientifold models with rotation and translation elements that break supersymmetry, provide the general consistency conditions and derive the massless spectrum for these type of orientifolds. These models contain in general anomalous U(1) gauge fields. The Green-Schwarz mechanism cancels the anomaly and provides a mass term for the anomalous gauge fields. We calculate the bare mass for supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric vacua and we show that higher dimensional anomalies can affect the masses of the anomalous U(1)s. Phenomenological aspects are also discussed. We evaluate the contribution of the extra U(1) fields to the anomalous moments and it is shown that this imposes constraints on the magnitude of the string scale.

P. Anastasopoulos

2005-03-07

425

Thesis: Orientifolds, Anomalies and the Standard Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we study aspects of D-brane realizations of the Standard Model. Specifically, we study orientifold models with rotation and translation elements that break supersymmetry, provide the general consistency conditions and derive the massless spectrum for these type of orientifolds. These models contain in general anomalous U(1) gauge fields. The Green-Schwarz mechanism cancels the anomaly and provides a mass term for the anomalous gauge fields. We calculate the bare mass for supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric vacua and we show that higher dimensional anomalies can affect the masses of the anomalous U(1)s. Phenomenological aspects are also discussed. We evaluate the contribution of the extra U(1) fields to the anomalous moments and it is shown that this imposes constraints on the magnitude of the string scale.

Anastasopoulos, P.

2005-03-01

426

Behavior profiling for robust anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet attacks are evolving using evasion techniques such as polymorphism and stealth scanning. Conventional detection systems using signature-based and\\/or rule-based anomaly detection techniques no longer suffice. It is difficult to predict what form the next malware attack will take and these pose a great challenge to the design of a robust intrusion detection system. We focus on the anomalous behavioral

Shun-Wen Hsiao; Yeali S. Sun; Meng Chang Chen; Hui Zhang

2010-01-01

427

Scaling anomalies in Kaluza-Klein theory  

SciTech Connect

The effect of Pauli interactions on the scaling anomaly is to add F/sup 4/, (par. deltaF)/sup 2/ and m/sup 2/F/sup 2/ terms to the trace of the stress-tensor at one loop level, such terms being connected with renormalization. However, when the sum over all modes is taken, these extra contributions vanish upon zeta-function regularisation.

Delbourgo, R.; Thompson, G.; Weber, R.O.

1987-04-01

428

Heat flux boundary anomalies and thermal winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown strong effects of outer boundary heat flux patterns on the dynamo mechanism in planets. For example, the hemispherical field of the ancient Martian dynamo can be explained by a large scale sinusoidal anomaly of the core mantle boundary heat flux triggered by large scale mantle convection or giant impacts. The magnetic fields show typically the desired effect - though dynamo action is locally stronger where the underneath heat flux is higher. However, it remains an open question if these effects still apply for more realistic planetary parameters, such as vigor of the convection (Rayleigh number) or the rotation rate (Ekman). The sinusoidal variation of the CMB heat flux along the colatitude with larger heat flux in the southern and smaller in the northern hemisphere as used for Mars can lead to a concentration of magnetic field in the south. The shape of such a hemispherical dynamo matches the crustal magnetization pattern at the surface and seems therefore an admissible mode for the ancient Martian dynamo. As the consequence of the emerging latitudinal temperature gradients convection and induction are dominated by thermal winds. These zonal flows were found to be equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric, ageostrophic, of strong amplitude and have therefore a severe effect on core convection and especially the induction process. We measure the underlying thermal anomalies as a function of Rayleigh and Ekman number and show that they are responsible for the thermal winds. Our results suggest that temperature anomalies decrease clearly with the supercriticality of the convection due to faster stirring and mixing, but show no additional dependence on the Ekman number. Interestingly, the decline of the latitudinal temperature anomaly follows a recently suggested scaling law for the thickness of thermal boundary layers. Even though the convective supercriticality of planetary cores is rather large and therefore only a minor effect of thermal boundary disturbances is expected, we suggest thermal winds can still significantly contribute to the total kinetic energy in real planetary core.

Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

2013-04-01

429

Multifactor Explanations of Asset Pricing Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work shows that average returns on common stocks are related to firm characteristics like size, earnings\\/price, cash flow\\/price, book-to-market equity, past sales growth, long-term past return, and short-term past return. Because these patterns in average returns apparently are not explained by the capital asset pricing model, (CAPM), they are called anomalies. The authors find that, except for the continuation

EUGENE F. FAMA; KENNETH R. FRENCH

1996-01-01

430

Cosmological anomalies and exotic smoothness structures  

E-print Network

It seems to be generally accepted that apparently anomalous cosmological observations, such as accelerating expansion, etc., necessarily are inconsistent with standard general relativity and standard matter sources. Following the suggestions of S{\\l}adkowski, we point out that in addition to exotic theories and exotic matter there is another possibility. We refer to exotic differential structures on ${\\mathbb R}^4$ which could be the source of the observed anomalies without changing the Einstein equations or introducing strange forms of matter.

Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga; Carl H. Brans

2001-10-08

431

Video behavior profiling for anomaly detection.  

PubMed

This paper aims to address the problem of modelling video behaviour captured in surveillancevideos for the applications of online normal behaviour recognition and anomaly detection. A novelframework is developed for automatic behaviour profiling and online anomaly sampling/detectionwithout any manual labelling of the training dataset. The framework consists of the followingkey components: (1) A compact and effective behaviour representation method is developed basedon discrete scene event detection. The similarity between behaviour patterns are measured basedon modelling each pattern using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). (2) Natural grouping ofbehaviour patterns is discovered through a novel spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervisedmodel selection and feature selection on the eigenvectors of a normalised affinity matrix. (3) Acomposite generative behaviour model is constructed which is capable of generalising from asmall training set to accommodate variations in unseen normal behaviour patterns. (4) A run-timeaccumulative anomaly measure is introduced to detect abnormal behaviour while normal behaviourpatterns are recognised when sufficient visual evidence has become available based on an onlineLikelihood Ratio Test (LRT) method. This ensures robust and reliable anomaly detection and normalbehaviour recognition at the shortest possible time. The effectiveness and robustness of our approachis demonstrated through experiments using noisy and sparse datasets collected from both indoorand outdoor surveillance scenarios. In particular, it is shown that a behaviour model trained usingan unlabelled dataset is superior to those trained using the same but labelled dataset in detectinganomaly from an unseen video. The experiments also suggest that our online LRT based behaviourrecognition approach is advantageous over the commonly used Maximum Likelihood (ML) methodin differentiating ambiguities among different behaviour classes observed online. PMID:18369257

Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

2008-05-01

432

Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

2009-05-01

433

SOM-Based Anomaly Intrusion Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a SOM-based anomaly intrusion detection system is proposed, which can contract high-dimension data to lower,\\u000a meanwhile keeping the primary relationship between clustering and topology. During the experiment, the theory of SOM is used\\u000a to train three SOMs on the layers of system, process and network. Although our experiment environment is simpler than the\\u000a real one, the result

Chun-dong Wang; He-feng Yu; Huai-bin Wang; Kai Liu

2007-01-01

434

Modelling the Pioneer anomaly as modified inertia  

E-print Network

This paper proposes an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly: an unexplained Sunward acceleration of 8.74 +/- 1.33 x 10^-10 m s^-2 seen in the behaviour of the Pioneer probes. Two hypotheses are made: (1) Inertia is a reaction to Unruh radiation and (2) this reaction is weaker for low accelerations because some wavelengths in the Unruh spectrum do not fit within a limiting scale (twice the Hubble distance) and are disallowed: a process similar to the Casimir effect. When these ideas are used to model the Pioneer crafts' trajectories there is a slight reduction in their inertial mass, causing an anomalous Sunward acceleration of 6.9 +/- 3.5 x 10^-10 m s^-2 which agrees within error bars with the observed Pioneer anomaly beyond 10 AU from the Sun. This new scheme is appealingly simple and does not require adjustable parameters. However, it also predicts an anomaly within 10 AU of the Sun, which has not been observed. Various observational tests for the idea are proposed.

M. E. McCulloch

2006-12-20

435

Deflected anomaly mediation and neutralino dark matter  

SciTech Connect

This is a study of the phenomenology of the neutralino dark matter in the so called deflected anomaly mediation scenario. This scheme is obtained from the minimal anomaly-mediated scenario by introducing a gauge-mediated sector with N{sub f} messenger fields. Unlike the former scheme the latter has no tachyons. We find that the neutralino is still the LSP in a wide region of the parameter space: it is essentially a pure bino in the scenario with N{sub f}=1 while it can also be a pure Higgsino for N{sub f}>1. This is very different from the naive anomaly-mediated scenario which predicts a wino like neutralino. Moreover we do not find any tachyonic scalars in this scheme. After computing the relic density (considering all the possible coannihilations) we find that there are regions in the parameter space with values compatible with the latest WMAP results with no need to consider moduli fields that decay in the early universe.

Cesarini, Alessandro; Fucito, Francesco; Lionetto, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata' I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

2007-01-15

436

CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

2003-01-01

437

Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy.  

PubMed

Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

2014-01-01

438

Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy  

PubMed Central

Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

2014-01-01

439

Bilateral diaphragmatic defect and associated multiple anomalies.  

PubMed

Although congenital diaphragmatic hernia is one of the most common congenital anomalies, complete bilateral agenesis of the diaphragm is a very rare congenital malformation and frequently associated with other major anomalies. We report a case of bilateral diaphragmatic agenesis associated with major congenital anomalies. A 2,240-g male infant was born at 35 weeks of gestation to a 34-year-old mother with a history of minimal prenatal care. Polyhydramnios was reported on prenatal level 1 scan. The patient experienced early respiratory distress requiring intubation. Apgar scores were 2/1/1 at 1, 5 and 20 minutes, respectively, and efforts to resuscitate him were unsuccessful. He died at 2 hours of age. Autopsy revealed bilateral diaphragmatic agenesis associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia, left pulmonary agenesis, multiple cardiac abnormalities and gallbladder agenesis. Cytogenetic studies showed normal male karyotype. Bilateral agenesis of the diaphragm is a life-threatening malformation. Survival of these infants often depends on cardiopulmonary function. Bilateral agenesis of the diaphragm associated with gallbladder and unilateral pulmonary agenesis is a rare entity, and its clinical significance needs further investigation. PMID:19299227

Karadeniz, Leyla; Guven, Sirin; Atay, Enver; Ovali, Fahri; Celayir, Aysenur

2009-03-01

440

Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.  

PubMed

Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations. PMID:23579825

Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

2013-01-01

441

New structural anomaly induced by nanoconfinement  

E-print Network

We explore the structural properties of anomalous fluids confined in a nanopore using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The fluid is modeled by core-softened (CS) potentials that have a repulsive shoulder and an attractive well at a further distance. Changing the attractive well depth of the fluid-fluid interaction potential, we studied the behavior of the anomalies in the translational order parameter $t$ and excess entropy $s_{ex}$ for the particles near to the nanopore wall (contact layer) for systems with two or three layers of particles. When the attractive well of the CS potential is shallow, the systems present a three to two layers transition and, additionally to the usual structural anomaly, a new anomalous region in $t$ and $s_{ex}$. For attractive well deep enough, the systems change from three layers to a bulk-like profile and just one region of anomaly in $t$ and $s_{ex}$ is observed. Our results are discussed in the basis of the fluid-fluid and fluid-surface interactions.

Leandro B. Krott; José Rafael Bordin; Marcia Barbosa

2014-10-21

442

Transcutaneous angioplasty of vertebral artery atheromatous ostial stricture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report experience of intravascular angioplasty of atheromatous ostial strictures of the vertebral artery in 24 patients. After reviewing the technique, they outline the indications provided through Doppler velocimetric data. The results seem to be encouraging as symptoms disappeared completely in 21 patients.

P. Courtheoux; A. Tournade; J. Theron; J. P. Henriet; D. Maiza; J. M. Derlon; G. Pelouze; C. Evrard

1985-01-01

443

MRI in spontaneous dissection of vertebral and carotid arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients were observed between 1987 and 1990: there were six with angiographically confirmed vertebral artery dissection, and 9 with carotid artery dissection. Results showed concordance of MRI and angiographic findings, in all cases but one. The dissected portion consistently showed a semilunar hyperintensity narrowing the residual eccentric signal void of the lumen when the artery was not completely occluded.

F. Gelbert; E. Assouline; J. E. Hodes; D. Reizine; F. Woimant; B. George; M. Hagueneau; J. J. Merland

1991-01-01

444

INTRODUCTION Numerous marine vertebrates undergo long-distance migrations,  

E-print Network

2504 INTRODUCTION Numerous marine vertebrates undergo long-distance migrations, including various; Quinn and Dittman, 1990). Little is known about the mechanisms that guide these long-distance migrations coast of Florida, USA, embark on one of the most spectacular marine migrations. Turtles enter the sea

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

445

INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into  

E-print Network

, mutants with disrupted notochord development have a loss of muscle pioneers, and muscle pioneer loss of Engrailed-expressing muscle pioneers. In addition, mutant embryos have partial cyclopiaINTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into multiple fiber types based

Devoto, Stephen H.

446

Angioplasty and stenting in the carotid and vertebral arteries.  

PubMed Central

Carotid and vertebral artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting are new, experimental techniques. Their potential uses are discussed and the results and complications reported to date are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9538479

Crawley, F.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A. G.

1998-01-01

447

INTRODUCTION The intracellular localization of myosin-II in vertebrate  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The intracellular localization of myosin-II in vertebrate nonmuscle cells is well established by fluorescent antibody staining and by microinjection of fluorescent myosin (Fujiwara and Pollard-Stewart, 1974). Myosin- II is a double-headed myosin with an alpha-helical coiled-coil tail that associates

448

Dragon Promoter Finder: recognition of vertebrate RNA polymerase II promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Dragon Promoter Finder (DPF) locates RNA polymerase II promoters in DNA sequences of vertebrates by predicting Transcription Start Site (TSS) positions. DPF's algorithm uses sensors for three functional regions (promoters, exons and introns) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Results on a large and diverse evaluation set indicate that DPF exhibits a superior predicting ability for TSS location compared

Vladimir B. Bajic; Seng Hong Seah; Allen Chong; Guanglan Zhang; Judice L. Y. Koh; Vladimir Brusic

2002-01-01

449

Fertile Triploid Males--An Uncommon Case Among Hybrid Vertebrates  

E-print Network

- dently in many groups and may involve asexual or modified forms of sexual reproduction (reviewed and fully functional. Flow cytometry and analysis of sequences of a fragment of the beta-actin nuclear gene. These alternative modes of reproduction among hybrid lineages of vertebrates are known to have evolved indepen

450

Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three-  

E-print Network

2057 Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three- dimensional structure, the development of which is not well understood. Brain morphogenesis begins during, and continues subsequent to, neural tube closure. One aspect of brain structure that is highly conserved throughout

Lowery, Laura Anne

451

Expression and phylogeny of claudins in vertebrate primordia  

E-print Network

family may have expanded along the chordate stem lineage from urochordates to gnathostomes, in parallel and remain 12­18 nm apart. Tight junctions are in general characteristic of chordates, whereas septate deleterious effects of mutations. During the evolution of vertebrates, for example, the chordate body plan

Hudspeth, A. James

452

Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum  

PubMed Central

Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings. PMID:23171835

Hersh, Michelle H.; Tibbetts, Michael; McHenry, Diana J.; Duerr, Shannon; Brunner, Jesse; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

2012-01-01

453

Molecular Dating in the Evolution of Vertebrate Poxviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The goal of this work was to study the evolutionary history of the vertebrate poxviruses using the Bayesian relaxed clock and a large set of highly conserved vitally important viral genes. Methods: Phylogenetic analysis was performed by the maximum likelihood method using the Paup program. The dating method of Bayes, realized in the Multidivtime, was made. Results: The rate

Igor V. Babkin; Irina N. Babkina

2011-01-01

454

Stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal and sciatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stenosis of the vertebral canal is a form of compressive stenosis in contrast to transport stenosis of vessels or other channels. The concept, definition and pathomorphological properties are discussed. As it is a form of compressive stenosis, the diagnosis is based on measurements of diameters rather than of cross-sectional surfaces. The biomechanical action of compressive stenosis is compression of

H. Verbiest

1980-01-01

455

JANUARY 2009 VOL. 22, NO. 1 The Vertebral Column...  

E-print Network

written two book reviews of ex- cellent volumes documenting the extinction of this remarkable animal-class collections of vertebrates are important. Thylacines, or Tasmanian Tigers, were the largest known carnivorous-headed pouched one," an apt description. Driven to extinction by humans early in the last century, the Thylacine

Mathis, Wayne N.

456

Vertebrate Design and Evolution Biology 403 Lecture Syllabus  

E-print Network

Trip, Saturday 27th, Bison Range) Sep. 29, Oct. 1 Muscular anatomy; comparative form and function Ch 10 Oct. 6, 8 Muscle form and function cont.; Exam #1 (50 points) Ch 11 Oct. 13, 15 Vertebrate nervous system: Coordination and integration Ch 13, 14 Oct. 20, 22 Comparative locomotion, Biomechanics

Vonessen, Nikolaus

457

Vertebral compression fractures: manage aggressively to prevent sequelae.  

PubMed

New drugs to treat osteoporosis, along with two new minimally invasive surgical procedures, are important options for preventing vertebral compression fractures and treating severe back pain and disability. However, the mainstay treatments remain cautious use of analgesics, limited bed rest, and physical rehabilitation. PMID:12636346

Mazanec, Daniel J; Podichetty, Vinod K; Mompoint, Alex; Potnis, Amarish

2003-02-01

458

VERTEBRATES FROM THE CUTLER GROUP OF MONUMENT VALLEY AND VICINITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ology of Baars will be followed here. Based on comparisons of vertebrate fossils from the Cutler of Monument Valley with those from the Lower Permian of north-central Texas, it would seem that the Halgaito Shale and Cedar Mesa Sandstone are of Wolfcampian age and that the Organ Rock Shale is probably the equivalent of beds near the boundary of the

PETER PAUL VAUGHN

459

Molecular and Functional Asymmetry at a Vertebrate Electrical Synapse  

E-print Network

junctions. This molecular asym- metry is associated with rectification of electrical transmission that may of electrical transmission in those systems. Electrical synaptic transmission is mediated by clustersNeuron Article Molecular and Functional Asymmetry at a Vertebrate Electrical Synapse John E. Rash,1

Rash, John E.

460

A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary lipids (bile salts, phospholipids, choles- terol, plant sterols) were determined in 89 vertebrate species (cartilaginous and bony fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals), and individual phospholipid classes were measured in 35 species. All samples contained conjugated bile salts (C 27 bile alcohol sulfates and\\/or N -acyl amidates of C 27 and\\/or C 24 bile acids). Phospholipids were generally absent in

Antonio Moschetta; Fang Xu; Lee R. Hagey; Gerard P. van Berge-Henegouwen; Karel J. van Erpecum; Jos F. Brouwers; Jonathan C. Cohen; Molly Bierman; Helen H. Hobbs; Joseph H. Steinbach; Alan F. Hofmann

2005-01-01