Sample records for vacterl vertebral anomalies

  1. VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, E.; Eussen, H.; van Bever, Y.; van der Helm, R.M.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Zaveri, H.P.; Wijnen, R.; Scott, D.A.; Tibboel, D.; de Klein, A.

    2013-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects. PMID:23653573

  2. VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations.

    PubMed

    Brosens, E; Eussen, H; van Bever, Y; van der Helm, R M; Ijsselstijn, H; Zaveri, H P; Wijnen, R; Scott, D A; Tibboel, D; de Klein, A

    2013-02-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects. PMID:23653573

  3. Adriamycin-Induced Models of VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Mc Laughlin, D.; Hajduk, P.; Murphy, P.; Puri, P.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are of great importance for medical research. They have enabled analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of complex congenital malformations and have also led to major advances in the surgical and therapeutic management of these conditions. Animal models allow us to comprehend the morphological and molecular basis of disease and consequently to discover novel approaches for both surgical and medical therapy. The anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was incidentally found to have teratogenic effects on rats, producing a range of defects remarkably similar to the VACTERL association of congenital anomalies in humans, providing a reproducible animal model of this condition. VACTERL association is a spectrum of birth defects which includes vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, tracheo-oesophageal, renal and limb anomalies. In recent years, adriamycin rodent models of VACTERL have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of this complex association, particularly in relation to tracheo-oesophageal malformations. The adriamycin rat model and adriamycin mouse model are now well established in the investigation of the morphology of faulty organogenesis and the regulation of gene expression in tracheo-oesophageal anomalies. PMID:23653576

  4. Clinical, cytogenetic, environmental and inheritance findings in Mexican neonates with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Torres, Victor M; Pérez-García, Nicolás; Pérez-García, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    In this series the authors evaluate clinical, cytogenetic, environmental and inheritance characteristics of neonates with VACTERL association. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with VACTERL association and had a normal somatometric profile. Fifty-eight percent cases were males. The frequency of each component was: vertebral defects (V), 77 %; anal atresia (A), 62 %; tracheo-esophageal fistula/esophageal atresia (TEF/EA), 58 %; renal anomalies (R), 58 %; limb abnormalities (L), 50 %, and cardiac malformations (C), 42 %. The most frequent combination was VAR (n = 3). Sixteen patients had non-VACTERL anomalies such as bilateral cryptorchidism (n = 4). Two probands (8 %) had first or second-degree relatives with two components. Five patients (19 %) had environmental factors that interacted with occurrence of VACTERL association. All patients had a normal karyotype. This study contributes to a better characterization of VACTERL phenotype in neonatal period. In spite of predominant sporadic occurrence, underlying genetic susceptibility and environmental influences point to a complex interplay between genes and environmental factors in VACTERL association. PMID:25008186

  5. Kidney transplantation in an adult patient with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Cimen, Sertac; Nantais, Jordan; Guler, Sanem; Lawen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb birth defects (VACTERL) association is a rare, non-random constellation of congenital abnormalities among which urinary tract anomalies can be included. In the presence of these anomalies, patients are suspected to have a higher rate of renal failure than average. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with VACTERL association and consequent end stage renal failure. A live-related kidney transplant was carried out successfully and the postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient had immediate graft function. Risk factors that may complicate kidney transplant surgery in this patient population as well as considerations relevant to peritransplant management are discussed. PMID:26106170

  6. De novo microduplications at 1q41, 2q37.3, and 8q24.3 in patients with VATER/VACTERL association

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Alina; Schramm, Charlotte; Pennimpede, Tracie; Wittler, Lars; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Bartels, Enrika; Engels, Hartmut; Zink, Alexander M; Degenhardt, Franziska; Müller, Annette M; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Hosie, Stuart; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Wijers, Charlotte HW; Marcelis, Carlo LM; van Rooij, Iris ALM; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko; Draaken, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The acronym VATER/VACTERL association describes the combination of at least three of the following congenital anomalies: vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia (TE), renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L). We aimed to identify highly penetrant de novo copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to VATER/VACTERL association. Array-based molecular karyotyping was performed in a cohort of 41 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and 6 patients with VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype including all of the patients' parents. Three de novo CNVs were identified involving chromosomal regions 1q41, 2q37.3, and 8q24.3 comprising one (SPATA17), two (CAPN10, GPR35), and three (EPPK1, PLEC, PARP10) genes, respectively. Pre-existing data from the literature prompted us to choose GPR35 and EPPK1 for mouse expression studies. Based on these studies, we prioritized GPR35 for sequencing analysis in an extended cohort of 192 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype. Although no disease-causing mutation was identified, our mouse expression studies suggest GPR35 to be involved in the development of the VATER/VACTERL phenotype. Follow-up of GPR35 and the other genes comprising the identified duplications is warranted. PMID:23549274

  7. Exome Sequencing and High-Density Microarray Testing in Monozygotic Twin Pairs Discordant for Features of VACTERL Association.

    PubMed

    Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Hadley, D W; Hansen, N F; Kamat, A; Donovan, F X; Chandrasekharappa, S C; Hong, S-K; Roessler, E; Mullikin, J C

    2013-02-01

    Exome sequencing offers an efficient and affordable method to interrogate genetic factors involved in human disease. Performing exome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities) association-type congenital malformations was hypothesized to potentially reveal discordant variants that could demonstrate disease cause(s). After demonstrating monozygosity, we applied high-density microarrays and exome sequencing to 2 twin pairs in which 1 twin had features of VACTERL association while the other was phenotypically normal (demonstrated through comprehensive clinical and radiological evaluation). No obvious discordant genotypic results were found that would explain phenotypic discordance. We conclude that VACTERL association is a complex disease, and while performing microarray analysis and exome sequencing on phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins may hypothetically reveal genetic causes of disorders, challenges remain in applying these methods in this circumstance. PMID:23653574

  8. Mutations in PTF1A are not a common cause for human VATER/VACTERL association or neural tube defects mirroring Danforth's short tail mouse.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Nirmala; Grosse, Greta; Draaken, Markus; Hilger, Alina C; Nauman, Nuzhat; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Merz, Waltraut M; Reutter, Heiko; Ludwig, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Danforth's short tail (Sd) mutant mice exhibit defects of the neural tube and other abnormalities, which are similar to the human vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheosophageal fistula and/or esophageal atresia, renal and radial abnormalities, and limb defects (VATER/VACTERL) association, including defects of the hindgut. Sd has been shown to underlie ectopic gene expression of murine Ptf1a, which encodes pancreas?specific transcription factor 1A, due to the insertion of a retrotansposon in its 5' regulatory domain. In order to investigate the possible involvement of this gene in human VATER/VACTERL association and human neural tube defects (NTDs), a sequence analysis was performed. DNA samples from 103 patients with VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL?like association, all presenting with anorectal malformations, and 72 fetuses with NTDs, where termination of pregnancy had been performed, were included in the current study. The complete PTF1A coding region, splice sites and 1.5 kb of the 5' flanking promotor region was sequenced. However, no pathogenic alterations were detected. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that high penetrant mutations in these regions of PTF1A are involved in the development of human VATER/VACTERL association or NTDs, although rare mutations may be detectable in larger patient samples. PMID:25775927

  9. Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); and others

    1996-01-02

    Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Congenital Achiasma and See-Saw Nystagmus in VACTERL Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Saurabh; Dumoulin, Serge; Fischbein, Nancy; Wandell, Brian A.; Liao, Yaping Joyce

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old man with vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal defects, and limb defects (VACTERL) presented with headache, photophobia, and worsening nystagmus. He had near-normal visual acuity and visual fields, absent stereopsis, and see-saw nystagmus. Brain MRI revealed a thin remnant of the optic chiasm but normal-sized optic nerves. Functional MRI during monocular visual stimulation demonstrated non-crossing of the visual evoked responses in the occipital cortex, confirming achiasma. These findings have not previously been reported in VACTERL. PMID:20182207

  11. New dysostosis showing multilevel absence of vertebral pedicles: unique developmental anomaly of vertebral arches?

    PubMed

    Verloes, A; Muller, C; Philippet, P

    2000-12-18

    We report on an apparently normal child who shows hypopaplasia of the vertebral pedicles and posterior arches of several cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae with normally fused spinous apophyses, hypoplastic sacrum, lumbar epidural lipomatosis, synostoses of some cervical vertebral disks, and sacral spina bifida. The most likely mechanism is an abnormal differentiation of the spinal processes, due most probably to an absence of differentiation in cartilage of the dense mesenchyme forming their most anterior part. Because the anomalies affect multiple levels, we highly suspect a genetic basis to this unusual dysostosis affecting the development of the posterior sclerotomes. PMID:11146469

  12. Vertebral anomaly in fossil sea cows (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Voss, Manja; Asbach, Patrick; Hilger, André

    2011-06-01

    Four incompletely preserved caudal vertebrae lacking the neural arches of two fossil sirenian individuals of Halitherium schinzii (Oligocene) from the Rhine area in Germany and northern Belgium reveal osteological alterations. The caudal vertebrae possess a transverse process with growth retardation. This asymmetry indicates that the affected transverse processes are less developed than their counterparts and, consequently, deviate from the norm. Computed tomography (CT) scans reveal osteosclerotic patterns, a morphological feature that characterizes sea cows and supports the nonpathological state of the vertebrae. Additionally, no indications of vertebral fractures or any other occurrences due to external factors are present. This is the oldest documentation of such an anomaly in any sirenian and is interpreted here as hypoplasia, the underdevelopment of an organ or parts of it that might cause a functional deficiency. PMID:21538937

  13. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged. PMID:22654139

  14. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

    PubMed

    Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged. PMID:22654139

  15. Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Patient With Congenital Vertebral Body Anomaly: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Atabey, Cem; Topuz, Ali Kivanc; Velio?lu, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is characterized with low back and leg pain resulting from the degenerated lumbar disc compressing the spinal nerve root. The etiology of degenerative spine is related to age, smoking, microtrauma, obesity, disorders of familial collagen structure, occupational and sports-related physical activity. However, disc herniations induced by congenital lumbar vertebral anomalies are rarely seen. Vertebral fusion defect is one of the causes of congenital anomalies. The pathogenesis of embryological corpus vertebral fusion anomaly is not fully known. In this paper, a 30-year-old patient who had the complaints of low back and right leg pain after falling from a height is presented. She had right L5-S1 disc herniation that had developed on the basis of S1 vertebra corpus fusion anomaly in Lumbar computed tomography. This case has been discussed in the light of literature based on evaluations of Lumbar Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This case is unique in that it is the first case with development of lumbar disc herniation associated with S1 vertebral corpus fusion anomaly. Congenital malformations with unusual clinical presentation after trauma should be evaluated through advanced radiological imaging techniques. PMID:25620987

  16. Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

    2014-10-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods?A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results?Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion?We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

  17. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly. PMID:24479055

  18. Ventricular Septal Defect Closure in a Patient with VACTERL Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Ali Can; Gursoy, Mete; Ceviker, Kadir; Tongut, Aybala; Cetin, Gurkan; Celebi, Serdar; Kansiz, Erhan

    2008-01-01

    Noncardiac components of genetic disorders can complicate the operative and postoperative courses of pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Prolonged hospital stay, increased treatment cost, morbidity, and death are more likely in this subgroup of patients. Ventricular septal defect, which is a component of various genetic disorders, has a 22.3% incidence in VACTERL syndrome—a rare, nonrandom pattern of birth defects. Herein, we discuss the impact of ventricular septal defect closure in a 4-month-old girl who was diagnosed after birth with Vacterl syndrome. PMID:18612485

  19. Unilateral fixation for treatment of occipitocervical instability in children with congenital vertebral anomalies of the craniocervical junction.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcus D; Ravindra, Vijay M; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2015-04-01

    OBJECT Patients with occipitocervical (OC) instability from congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) often have bony abnormalities that make instrumentation placement difficult. Within this patient population, some bilateral instrumentation constructs either fail or are not feasible, and a unilateral construct must be used. The authors describe the surgical management and outcomes of this disorder in patients in whom unilateral fixation constructs were used to treat OC instability. METHODS From a database of OC fusion procedures, the authors identified patients who underwent unilateral fixation for the management of OC instability. Patient characteristics, surgical details, and radiographic outcomes were reviewed. In each patient, CT scans were performed at least 4 months after surgery to evaluate for fusion. RESULTS Eight patients with CVAs of the CCJ underwent unilateral fixation for the treatment of OC instability. For 4 patients, the procedure occurred after a bilateral OC construct failed or infection forced hardware removal. For the remainder, it was the primary procedure. Two patients required reoperation for hardware revision and 1 developed nonunion requiring revision of the bone graft. Ultimately, 7 patients demonstrated osseous fusion on CT scans and 1 had a stable fibrous union. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate that a unilateral OC fixation is effective for the treatment of OC instability in children with CVAs of the CCJ in whom bilateral screw placement fails or is not feasible. PMID:25828503

  20. VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5.

    PubMed

    Szumska, Dorota; Pieles, Guido; Essalmani, Rachid; Bilski, Michal; Mesnard, Daniel; Kaur, Kulvinder; Franklyn, Angela; El Omari, Kamel; Jefferis, Joanna; Bentham, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer M; Schneider, Jurgen E; Arnold, Sebastian J; Johnson, Paul; Tymowska-Lalanne, Zuzanna; Stammers, Dave; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Morris, Andrew; Brown, Steve D; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Constam, Daniel; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

    2008-06-01

    We have identified an ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced recessive mouse mutation (Vcc) with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes cardiac, tracheoesophageal, anorectal, anteroposterior patterning defects, exomphalos, hindlimb hypoplasia, a presacral mass, renal and palatal agenesis, and pulmonary hypoplasia. It results from a C470R mutation in the proprotein convertase PCSK5 (PC5/6). Compound mutants (Pcsk5(Vcc/null)) completely recapitulate the Pcsk5(Vcc/Vcc) phenotype, as does an epiblast-specific conditional deletion of Pcsk5. The C470R mutation ablates a disulfide bond in the P domain, and blocks export from the endoplasmic reticulum and proprotein convertase activity. We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to having anteroposterior patterning defects and renal and palatal agenesis, also have a presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and exomphalos. Pcsk5 mutation results in abnormal expression of several paralogous Hox genes (Hoxa, Hoxc, and Hoxd), and of Mnx1 (Hlxb9). These include known Gdf11 targets, and are necessary for caudal embryo development. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCSK5 in patients with VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb malformation OMIM 192350) and caudal regression syndrome, the phenotypic features of which resemble the mouse mutation. We propose that Pcsk5, at least in part via GDF11, coordinately regulates caudal Hox paralogs, to control anteroposterior patterning, nephrogenesis, skeletal, and anorectal development. PMID:18519639

  1. Whole exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association

    PubMed Central

    Saisawat, Pawaree; Kohl, Stefan; Hilger, Alina C.; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Gee, Heon Yung; Dworschak, Gabriel C.; Tasic, Velibor; Pennimpede, Tracie; Natarajan, Sivakumar; Sperry, Ethan; Matassa, Danilo S.; Staji?, Nataša; Bogdanovic, Radovan; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L.M.; Wijers, Charlotte H.W.; Bartels, Enrika; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Mäzheuser, Stefanie; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Ludwig, Michael; Nöhen, Markus M.; Draaken, Markus; Brosens, Erwin; Heij, Hugo; Tibboel, Dick; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; de Klein, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; Esposito, Franca; Reutter, Heiko M.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum-stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle’s loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or CAKUT in VACTERL association. PMID:24152966

  2. Clinical and etiological heterogeneity in patients with tracheo-esophageal malformations and associated anomalies.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Erwin; Ploeg, Mirjam; van Bever, Yolande; Koopmans, Anna E; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Rottier, Robbert J; Wijnen, Rene; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies

    2014-08-01

    Esophageal Atresia (EA) is a severe developmental defect of the foregut that presents with or without a Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula (TEF). The prevalence of EA/TEF over time and around the world has been relatively stable. EA/TEF is manifested in a broad spectrum of anomalies: in some patients it manifests as an isolated atresia or fistula, but in over half it affects several organ systems. While the associated malformations are often those of the VACTERL spectrum (Vertebral, Anorectal, Cardiac, Tracheo-Esophageal, Renal and Limb), many patients are affected by other malformations, such as microcephaly, micrognathia, pyloric stenosis, duodenal atresia, a single umbilical artery, and anomalies of the genitourinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Though EA/TEF is a genetically heterogeneous condition, recurrent genes and loci are sometimes affected. Tracheo-Esophageal (TE) defects are in fact a variable feature in several known single gene disorders and in patients with specific recurrent Copy Number Variations and structural chromosomal aberrations. At present, a causal genetic aberration can be identified in 11-12% of patients. In most, EA/TEF is a sporadic finding; the familial recurrence rate is low (1%). As this suggests that epigenetic and environmental factors also contribute to the disease, non-syndromic EA/TEF is generally believed to be a multifactorial condition. Several population-based studies and case reports describe a wide range of associated risks, including age, diabetes, drug use, herbicides, smoking and fetal alcohol exposure. The phenotypical and genetic heterogeneity seen in EA/TEF patients indicates not one underlying cause, but several. Unraveling the complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology of EA/TEF and associated features will require large cohorts of patients. Combined statistical analysis of component findings, genome sequencing, and genome wide association studies will elucidate new causal genetic defects and predisposing loci in the etiology within specific sub-populations. Improved knowledge of environmental risk factors, genetic predisposition and causal genetic syndromes may improve prediction and parental counseling, and prevent co-morbidity. PMID:24931924

  3. Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with vertebral anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajniti; Srivastava, G N; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2013-01-01

    We report a two-and-half–year-old boy who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections. He had cortriatum of right atrium, spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra and dysplastic right thumb. On CT of chest, he had also unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis. The case is being reported because of common manifestations of rare disease and its associated cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:23784756

  4. Embolization for Vertebral Metastases of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN W. A. SMIT; G. JAN VIELVOYE; BERNARD M. GOSLINGS

    The technique of selective embolization has been applied for years in the treatment of vascular anomalies, severe hemorrhage and be- nign or malignant tumors, notably vertebral metastases of renal cell carcinoma. Because this technique is relatively easy to perform and offers immediate relief of symptoms, it is an attractive option for patients with vertebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma with signs

  5. SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2003-02-03

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

  6. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keng Yeow Tay; Jean Marie U-King-Im; Rikin A. Trivedi; Nicholas J. Higgins; Justin J. Cross; John R. Davies; Peter L. Weissberg; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based

  7. Imaging of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J; Baruah, Udismita

    2014-05-01

    Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

  8. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Baruah, Udismita

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

  9. Vertebral artery stump syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Raymond, J; Mahmoud, M; Weill, A; Roy, D; Guilbert, F

    2008-01-01

    After occlusion of flow in an artery, further ischaemic episodes are not expected due to lack of a flow conduit to carry the embolus. In the carotid stump syndrome, ongoing ischaemic events may continue due to collateral flow via the external carotid artery. We report two patients presenting with posterior circulation strokes after documented vertebral artery occlusion, due to a vertebral stump syndrome. Their presentation, the pathophysiology of cervico-vertebral anastomoses and management are described. PMID:18079301

  10. Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis Clarissa L. Waites,1 Ann Marie Craig,2 and Craig C. Garner1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT REGULATION OF SYNAPTOGENESIS . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Synapse Elimination

  11. Persistent carotid-vertebral anastomosis associated with contralateral accessory middle cerebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Briganti; Fabio Tortora; Andrea Elefante; Antonio Volpe; Francesco Maiuri

    2005-01-01

    An exceptional case is reported of a complex anomaly of the brain arteries including low left carotid bifurcation, persistent\\u000a carotid-vertebral anastomosis on the left and accessory middle cerebral artery on the right; the whole posterior circulation\\u000a was only filled through the anomalous anastomotic vessel which joined with the vertebral artery because of a contralateral\\u000a hypoplasic vertebral artery and the absence

  12. Fossil Halls: Vertebrate Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of a larger virtual tour of the Museum's famed Fossil Halls, this Web site has an interactive cladogram with 20 clickable evolutionary branching points. It shows vertebrate evolution for the following three AMNH halls: Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Dinosaurs and Hall of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives.

  13. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and clinical features of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a registry-based study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Doray, Berenice; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Scarano, Gioacchino; Tucker, David

    2014-08-01

    Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a complex developmental disorder characterised mainly by anomalies of the ear, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aetiology is largely unknown, and the epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date, using data provided by the large network of congenital anomalies registries in Europe. The study population included infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum during the 1990-2009 period from 34 registries active in 16 European countries. Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340/355) live born, 0.8% (3/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly/anomalies associated with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye (24.3%) anomalies. There was a high rate (69.5%) of associated anomalies of other organs/systems. The most common were congenital heart defects present in 27.8% of patients. The prevalence of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, defined as microtia/ear anomalies and at least one major characteristic anomaly, was 3.8 per 100,000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder. PMID:24398798

  14. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  15. Investigating Classification: Minnesota Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is an interactive game that helps students learn that vertebrates are classified into five groups and that each group has common characteristics that distinguish the animal group from other respective groups.

  16. Aging changes in vertebral morphometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Diacinti; M. Acca; E. D'Erasmo; E. Tomei; G. F. Mazzuoli

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the vertebral morphometry of healthy premenopausal women and their changes with age and menopause in order to better define the reference population for the clinical and epidemiological evaluation of vertebral fractures. Vertebral morphometry has been performed on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films from 50 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal normal women, age range 39–74 years. Vertebral heights and

  17. Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

  18. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

    2008-01-01

    Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

  19. Vertebral hydatidosis and paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Karray, S; Zlitni, M; Fowles, J V; Zouari, O; Slimane, N; Kassab, M T; Rosset, P

    1990-01-01

    We report the management of two children and 11 adults with paraplegia secondary to vertebral hydatidosis. Destruction of pedicles, posterior vertebral elements and discs as well as the vertebral bodies was common and all six patients with thoracic disease had involvement of adjacent ribs. The 13 patients had a total of 42 major surgical procedures; two patients died from postoperative complications and four from complications of the disease and paraplegia. All eight patients initially treated by laminectomy or anterior decompression alone relapsed within two years and seven required further surgery. Circumferential decompression and grafting gave the best results, six of nine patients being in remission an average of three years and six months later. The prognosis for such patients is poor; remission is the aim, rather than cure. Anthelminthic drugs may improve the prognosis, but radical surgery is likely to remain the keystone of treatment in the foreseeable future. PMID:2298801

  20. Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

    1983-01-01

    Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained. PMID:21283322

  1. Posterior vertebral rim fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I BEGGS; J ADDISON

    Fracture of the posterior vertebral endplate is a cause of low back pain in adolescents and young adults. Clinically it resembles an acute disc prolapse with low back pain and radiculopa- thy, but may present with neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis in older patients. The lesions may be incidental findings. Plain radiographs are diagnostic in about 40% of cases.

  2. Pheromonal communication in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Brennan; Frank Zufall

    2006-01-01

    Recent insights have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of chemical signals in influencing vertebrate behaviour. Previously unknown families of pheromonal signals have been identified that are expanding the traditional definition of a pheromone. Although previously regarded as functioning independently, the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems have been found to have considerable overlap in terms of the chemosignals they detect

  3. Duration tuning across vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

  4. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  5. The role of Zic3 in vertebrate development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Herman; H. M. El-Hodiri

    2002-01-01

    Zic3 is a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor that is involved in early patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Human patients with mutations in the X-linked ZIC3 gene have a complex developmental phenotype that includes laterality defects, congenital heart disease, and lumbosacral and anal anomalies, including neural tube defects. Similar phenotypes are found in the bent tail (Bn) mouse, a spontaneous

  6. Spinal dermoid sinus in a Dachshund with vertebral and thoracic limb malformations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dermoid sinus is an uncommon epithelial-lined fistula that may be associated with vertebral malformations. In humans, Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare condition characterized by congenital cervical vertebral fusion and may be associated with other developmental defects, including dermoid sinus. The present case report describes an adult Dachshund with cervical and cranial thoracic vertebral malformations as well as thoracic limb malformations resembling KFS with a concurrent type IV dermoid sinus. Case presentation A 1.5 year-old Dachshund with congenital thoracic limbs deformities and cervical-thoracic vertebral malformations presented with cervical hyperesthesia, rigidity of the cervical musculature and tetraparesis. Neurologic, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) (2D, 3D, CT fistulography) examinations revealed skeletal anomalies, a dermoid sinus in the cranial thoracic region and epidural gas within the vertebral canal. Surgical resection and histopathological evaluation of the sinus tract were performed and confirmed a type IV dermoid sinus. The clinical signs progressively recovered postoperatively, and no recurrent signs were observed after 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Cervical vertebral malformations associated with limbs anomalies have not been reported in dogs and may represent a condition similar to KFS in humans. KFS can occur concurrently with other congenital conditions including dermoid sinus and should be included among the complex congenital anomalies described in dogs. PMID:24593884

  7. Aging changes in vertebral morphometry.

    PubMed

    Diacinti, D; Acca, M; D'Erasmo, E; Tomei, E; Mazzuoli, G F

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed the vertebral morphometry of healthy premenopausal women and their changes with age and menopause in order to better define the reference population for the clinical and epidemiological evaluation of vertebral fractures. Vertebral morphometry has been performed on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films from 50 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal normal women, age range 39-74 years. Vertebral heights and the anterior height/posterior height ratio are significantly lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Vertebral anterior height decreases about 1.5 mm/year, whereas middle and posterior height decreases about 1.3 and 1.2/mm year, respectively. A statistically significant reduction of vertebral heights by around 1 mm/vertebra was observed in postmenopausal (n = 16) compared with premenopausal women (n = 20) of the same age (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that vertebral heights are lower with advancing age and menopause and that the vertebral heights difference in elderly people is not only the consequence of a cohort effect. The results also contribute to better defining the reference population to be chosen for evaluating vertebral deformation. PMID:8581874

  8. Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed Central

    Schittek, A

    1999-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:10217474

  9. Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function In contrast to products of human design natural selection for function acting on existing structures. Vertebrate morphology thus depends, etc. - shared by broad groups of vertebrates. Because these characteristics also form the basis

  10. Preliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011)

    E-print Network

    Lundstedt- Enkel and Jonas Malmsten 09.00 ­ 9.30 Anomalies of the reproductive system in the St. LawrencePreliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011) 7 ­ 8 in context with other stressors: effects on wildlife reproduction and sustainability Val Beasley, Key note

  11. Embolization for vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Smit, J W; Vielvoye, G J; Goslings, B M

    2000-03-01

    The technique of selective embolization has been applied for years in the treatment of vascular anomalies, severe hemorrhage and benign or malignant tumors, notably vertebral metastases of renal cell carcinoma. Because this technique is relatively easy to perform and offers immediate relief of symptoms, it is an attractive option for patients with vertebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma with signs of spinal cord compression. In these patients, other treatment modalities like radioactive iodine, external irradiation, or surgery are more cumbersome or less effective in the short term. We describe four patients with metastasized follicular thyroid carcinoma, presenting with neurological symptoms due to vertebral metastases. All patients had undergone total thyroidectomy, ranging from 1 month to 4 yr before embolization. Embolization was combined with iodine-131 therapy when appropriate. Selective catheterization of the arteries feeding the metastases was performed, followed by infusion of polyvinyl alcohol particles (Ivalon). The procedure was technically successful in all patients without adverse effects. In the patients described, embolization resulted in rapid resolution of neurological symptoms, sometimes within hours. The therapeutic effect lasted from months to years. We conclude that embolization of vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma is an attractive palliative therapeutic option that may offer rapid relief of symptoms. PMID:10720028

  12. The Vertebral Column Mead Retires

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    by means of jury- rigged mechanisms. Also, when he turned 16 and was qualified to work at a regular job, he NEWSLETTER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL., 22, NO. 3 #12

  13. Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics

    E-print Network

    Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics CALLUM F. ROSS* Department of Organismal Biology in vertebrate biomechanics. These papers are salient examples of the use of FEA to test hypotheses regarding in the methodological arsenal of vertebrate biomechanics. One of the central aims of vertebrate biomechanics

  14. Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhikun Gai; Philip C. J. Donoghue; Min Zhu; Philippe Janvier; Marco Stampanoni

    2011-01-01

    Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or `ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron

  15. [Neural crest and vertebrate evolution].

    PubMed

    Le Douarin, Nicole M; Creuzet, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a remarkable structure of the Vertebrate embryo, which forms from the lateral borders of the neural plate (designated as neural folds) during neural tube closure. As soon as the NC is formed, its constitutive cells detach and migrate away from the neural primordium along definite pathways and at precise periods of time according to a rostro-caudal progression. The NC cells aggregate in definite places in the developing embryo, where they differentiate into a large variety of cell types including the neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, the pigment cells dispersed throughout the body and endocrine cells such as the adrenal medulla and the calcitonin producing cells. At the cephalic level only, in higher Vertebrates (but along the whole neural axis in Fishes and Amphibians), the NC is also at the origin of mesenchymal cells differentiating into connective tissue chondrogenic and osteogenic cells. Vertebrates belong to the larger group of Cordates which includes also the Protocordates (Cephalocordates and the Urocordates). All Cordates are characterized by the same body plan with a dorsal neural tube and a notochord which, in Vertebrates, exists only at embryonic stages. The main difference between Protocordates and Vertebrates is the very rudimentary development of cephalic structures in the former. As a result, the process of cephalization is one of the most obvious characteristics of Vertebrates. It was accompanied by the apparition of the NC which can therefore be considered as an innovation of Vertebrates during evolution. The application of a cell marking technique which consists in constructing chimeric embryos between two species of birds, the quail and the chicken, has led to show that the vertebrate head is mainly formed by cells originating from the NC, meaning that this structure was an important asset in Vertebrate evolution. Recent studies, described in this article, have strengthened this view by showing that the NC does not only provide the cells that build up the facial skeleton and most of the skull but plays a major role in early brain neurogenesis. It was shown that the cephalic NC cells produce signaling molecules able to regulate the activity of the two secondary organizing centers previously identified in the developing brain: the anterior neural ridge and the midbrain-hindbrain junction, which secrete Fgf8, a potent stimulator of early brain neurogenesis. PMID:21831339

  16. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

  17. Evolution of vertebrate retinal photoreception

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Trevor D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings shed light on the steps underlying the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. Vertebrate ciliary photoreceptors are not as wholly distinct from invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors as is sometimes thought. Recent information on the phylogenies of ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins has helped in constructing the likely routes followed during evolution. Clues to the factors that led the early vertebrate retina to become invaginated can be obtained by combining recent knowledge about the origin of the pathway for dark re-isomerization of retinoids with knowledge of the inability of ciliary opsins to undergo photoreversal, along with consideration of the constraints imposed under the very low light levels in the deep ocean. Investigation of the origin of cell classes in the vertebrate retina provides support for the notion that cones, rods and bipolar cells all originated from a primordial ciliary photoreceptor, whereas ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells all originated from rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Knowledge of the molecular differences between cones and rods, together with knowledge of the scotopic signalling pathway, provides an understanding of the evolution of rods and of the rods' retinal circuitry. Accordingly, it has been possible to propose a plausible scenario for the sequence of evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. PMID:19720653

  18. SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2003-02-03

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

  19. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

  20. The evolution of vertebrate gastrulation.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, E M; Fainsod, A; Gont, L K; Steinbeisser, H

    1994-01-01

    The availability of molecular markers now permits the analysis of the common elements of vertebrate gastrulation. While gastrulation appears to be very diverse in the vertebrates, by analyzing a head-organizer marker, goosecoid, and a marker common to all forming mesoderm, Brachyury, we attempt to identify homologous structures and equivalent stages in Xenopus, zebrafish, chick and mouse gastrulation. Using a tail-organizer marker, Xnot-2, we also discuss how the late stages of gastrulation lead to the formation of the postanal tail, a structure characteristic of the chordates. PMID:7579512

  1. Carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Dumont, Travis M; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Levy, Elad I

    2013-03-01

    Extracranial carotid artery disease is commonly seen in patients presenting with stroke symptoms. It is also a frequent incidental finding in patients undergoing evaluation as part of a routine examination in the outpatient setting. Several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently available. Treatment strategies include medical and surgical management. Multiple randomized trials conducted over the past decade have laid a foundation for guidelines on the management of extracranial carotid disease. Evaluation and treatment of patients with vertebral artery stenosis is less understood. We review the evidence for the detection and treatment of patients with extracranial carotid artery and vertebral artery disease. PMID:23402465

  2. Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications. PMID:19109308

  3. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  4. Fenestration and duplication of the vertebral artery: the anatomical and clinical points of view.

    PubMed

    Polguj, Micha?; Podgórski, Micha?; J?drzejewski, Kazimierz; Topol, Miros?aw; Majos, Agata

    2013-11-01

    The vertebral artery (VA) acts as a foundation for the posterior circulation of the head and neck. It presents a number of anomalies that can be easily visualized thanks to modern imaging techniques, such as MR and CT angiography or color Doppler ulrasonography. Determining the appropriate terminology for those anomalies can be sometimes more challenging than their recognition. One particular challenge concerns the differentiation between VA fenestration and duplication. Because of the different clinical prognoses associated with those anomalies, confusion should be avoided. Knowledge of the morphological anomalies associated with the VA is important for both radiologists and head and neck surgeons, because any injury to the VA can result in a threat to the vascular supply of the brain stem, the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres, the thalamus, cervical nerve roots and particularly the lateral medulla (Wallenberg's syndrome). This article analyses world literature concerning the issue of VA fenestration and duplication to facilitate a differential diagnosis. PMID:23553773

  5. Osmoregulation by Vertebrates in Aquatic

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    , freshwater vertebrates face a net osmotic influx of water and net loss of salt by diffusion; marine forms from that of their freshwater or marine environment, they face net movements of water and salt across years ago, and many of these early forms apparently entered fresh water soon after they evolved

  6. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

  7. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  8. Anomaly detection using topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basener, Bill; Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Messinger, David W.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present a new topology-based algorithm for anomaly detection in dimensionally large datasets. The motivating application is hyperspectral imaging where the dataset can be a collection of ~ 10 6 points in R k, representing the reflected (or radiometric) spectra of electromagnetic radiation. The algorithm begins by building a graph whose edges connect close pairs of points. The background points are the points in the largest components of this graph and all other points are designated as anomalies. The anomalies are ranked according to their distance to the background. The algorithm is termed Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD). The algorithm is tested on hyperspectral imagery collected with the HYDICE sensor which contains targets of known reflectance and spatial location. Anomaly maps are created and compared to results from the common anomaly detection algorithm RX. We show that the TAD algorithm performs better than RX by achieving greater separation of the anomalies from the background for this dataset.

  9. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE IN VERTEBRATES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    i QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE IN VERTEBRATES By SRIKANTH KANNAN August, 2008 reproduce the mastication motion. Reproduction of the mastication motion of a vertebrate with a robotic capture system was used for capture the 3D mastication motion of different vertebrates. 3D laser scanning

  10. Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 7RH Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively

  11. VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS R.D.M. PAGE, J.A. COTTON Division-mail: r.page@bio.gla.ac.uk Ancient gene duplication events have left many traces in vertebrate genomes of vertebrates largely in agreement with other data. We formulate the problem of locating episodes of gene

  12. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Harington

    2011-01-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least

  13. Vertebral artery reconstruction: Results in 106 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Habozit

    1991-01-01

    Between January 1982 and December 1989, we performed 109 revascularizations of the vertebral artery in 106 patients. Eighty-six patients (81%) had isolated vertebrobasilar insufficiency, 18 (17%) had associated carotid and vertebrobasilar pathology while two (2%) had isolated carotid symptoms. The procedures performed included 98 revascularizations of the proximal vertebral artery and 11 reconstructions of the distal vertebral artery. One distal

  14. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  15. [Vascular anomalies: information documents].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Magalon, G

    2011-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are composed of hemangiomas and other vascular tumors and congenital vascular malformations: venous, lymphatic, arteriovenous and capillary malformations. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach. To help patients to understand their pathology, we have made some information documents. PMID:20598795

  16. Anomalies from Immersions

    E-print Network

    Ospina, J F

    2001-01-01

    Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.

  17. Anomalies from Immersions

    E-print Network

    Juan Ospina

    2001-08-15

    Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.

  18. Patterns of anomalies in children with malformed ears.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I; Ruben, R J

    1976-10-01

    Sixteen children with anomalies of the auricle and/or middle ear who presented malformations of the face, mouth, upper airway, spine, limbs, heart, gastrointestinal (GI), and/or genitourinary (GU) systems, were described. While clusters of anomalies suggested syndromes such as the oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome of Goldenhar, hamifacial microsomia, mandibulo-facial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome), Pierre Robin, Klippel-Feil, Moebius, Duane, and/or VATER syndromes, many children did not fit what are usually considered even minimal criteria for these syndromes. Several children had malformations which fit the description of more than one syndrome. The importance of investigating the children for unsuspected anomalies, especially of the GU system, was emphasized. Life threatening problems in this group consisted of airway problems, congenital heart disease, and major anomalies of the GI and GU systems. Better management of sucking, swallowing and airway problems might have decreased the early morbidity and mortality (3/16) in this group. Children with multiple defacing anomalies may not be mentally retarded so that aggressive management of their visceral anomalies and hearing problems, and early educational intervention are mandatory. Delay in development may be due to hearing loss, vestibular impairment, ataxia, the consequences of early malnutrition, and multiple hospitalizations rather than to mental retardation. A pessimistic attitude in infancy is unwarranted since it is impossible to predict which children will end up competitive individuals. PMID:966914

  19. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Harington

    2011-01-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species

  20. Unmethylated domains in vertebrate DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D N; Taggart, M H; Bird, A P

    1983-01-01

    We have detected a fraction that is rich in unmethylated HpaII and HhaI sites by end-labelling HpaII fragments of chicken DNA. The fraction is not obvious when DNA fragments are stained with ethidium bromide as it amounts to less than 2% of the genome. The average frequency of sites for HpaII is over thirteen times greater in the unmethylated fraction than in total DNA. Partial digests indicate that the unmethylated sites are clustered in the genome. Similar unmethylated fractions were detected in six other vertebrates in both somatic and germ line DNA. Images PMID:6188105

  1. Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Dam T. Son; Piotr Surowka

    2009-07-13

    We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserve current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomalies coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy ion collisions.

  2. Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Dam T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Surowka, Piotr [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-11-06

    We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserved current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomaly coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Anomalies on orbifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  4. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schubert; J. D. Anderson; R. A. Jacobson; E. L. Lau; W. B. Moore; J. Palguta

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of radio Doppler data from the Galileo spacecraft's flybys of Ganymede has detected the existence of mass anomalies on Ganymede that plausibly lie near the interface between the ice and silicate shells and near the surface.

  5. Prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Melton; C. Cooper; R. Eastell; W. M. O'Fallon; B. L. Riggs

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to identify vertebral fractures from radiographs taken at a single point in time, but considerable controversy surrounds the methods to be used. We extended a data set to comprise baseline radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine on an age-stratified random sample of 762 Rochester, Minnesota, women and used revised methods to define vertebral deformities morphometrically.

  6. Agnathans and the origin of jawed vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Forey; Philippe Janvier

    1993-01-01

    The origins of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) lie somewhere within the ranks of long-extinct jawless fishes, represented today as the lampreys and hagfishes. Recent discoveries of hitherto unknown kinds of jawless fishes (agnathans), together with re-examination of known agnathans and advances in systematic methods, have revitalized debates about the relationships of ancient fishes and given fresh insights into early vertebrate history.

  7. Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Minor Keith

    A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

  8. Reconstructive surgery on the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carstensen; Evangelisches Krankenhaus

    1980-01-01

    Summary In the last nine years 32 reconstructive operations were performed on the vertebral artery. In proportion to the 1032 operations on the carotid artery, is not the number of vertebral operations, at 3.1% unusually small? Is vertebro-basilar insufficiency too rarely recognized?

  9. Idiopathic segmental sclerosis of vertebral bodies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, E.F.; Dorfman, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    Five cases of idiopathic vetebral sclerosis are presented. The features of this condition are segmental vertebral sclerosis of a single lumbar vertebra in a young adult without disc space narrowing or alteration of vertebral contour. The differential diagnosis is discussed. Lumbar vertebra biopsies of three patients showed reactive nonspecific osteosclerosis.

  10. Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

  11. Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

    A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

  12. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. de Diego; Darío Núñez

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has\\u000aindicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which\\u000ahas become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is\\u000auncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some\\u000arelevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We

  13. The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

  14. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least risk. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy of the vertebral artery is mandatory prior to performing cervical spine surgery, and since the vertebral artery can have a variable course, especially in the upper cervical spine, the surgeon must minimize the possibility of an arterial injury by preoperatively assessing the artery with a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intraoperatively, the surgeon must be aware of when the vertebral artery is most at risk, and take precautions to avoid an injury. In the event of an arterial injury, the surgeon must have a plan of action to (1) Achieve control of the hemorrhage. (2) Prevent acute central nervous system ischemia. (3) Prevent postoperative complications such as embolism and pseudoaneurysm Conclusion: Prior to performing cervical spine surgery, one must understand the four A's of vertebral artery injuries: Anatomy, Assessment, Avoidance, and Action. PMID:24340233

  15. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  16. Cerebral developmental venous anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego San Millán Ruíz; Philippe Gailloud

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformation. As such,\\u000a they are often observed incidentally during routine CT and MRI studies. Yet, what DVAs represent from a clinical perspective\\u000a is frequently not common knowledge and DVAs, therefore, still generate uncertainty and concern amongst physicians. This article\\u000a reviews our current understanding of developmental venous anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In

  17. Classical Trace Anomaly

    E-print Network

    M. Farhoudi

    2005-11-03

    We seek an analogy of the mathematical form of the alternative form of Einstein's field equations for Lovelock's field equations. We find that the price for this analogy is to accept the existence of the trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor even in classical treatments. As an example, we take this analogy to any generic second order Lagrangian and exactly derive the trace anomaly relation suggested by Duff. This indicates that an intrinsic reason for the existence of such a relation should perhaps be, classically, somehow related to the covariance of the form of Einstein's equations.

  18. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  19. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  20. Planar cell polarity signaling in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Chonnettia; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Summary Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the polarization of a field of cells within the plane of a cell sheet. This form of polarization is required for diverse cellular processes in vertebrates, including convergent extension (CE), the establishment of PCP in epithelial tissues and ciliogenesis. Perhaps the most distinct example of vertebrate PCP is the uniform orientation of stereociliary bundles at the apices of sensory hair cells in the mammalian auditory sensory organ. The establishment of PCP in the mammalian cochlea occurs concurrently with CE in this ciliated epithelium, therefore linking three cellular processes regulated by the vertebrate PCP pathway in the same tissue and emerging as a model system for dissecting PCP signaling. This review summarizes the morphogenesis of this model system to assist the interpretation of the emerging data and proposes molecular mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in vertebrates. PMID:17226800

  1. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature.

  2. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  3. Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sues, Hans-Dieter

    2000-08-01

    Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

  4. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database

    PubMed Central

    Ashurst, J. L.; Chen, C.-K.; Gilbert, J. G. R.; Jekosch, K.; Keenan, S.; Meidl, P.; Searle, S. M.; Stalker, J.; Storey, R.; Trevanion, S.; Wilming, L.; Hubbard, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) has been designed to be a community resource for browsing manual annotation of finished sequences from a variety of vertebrate genomes. Its core database is based on an Ensembl-style schema, extended to incorporate curation-specific metadata. In collaboration with the genome sequencing centres, Vega attempts to present consistent high-quality annotation of the published human chromosome sequences. In addition, it is also possible to view various finished regions from other vertebrates, including mouse and zebrafish. Vega displays only manually annotated gene structures built using transcriptional evidence, which can be examined in the browser. Attempts have been made to standardize the annotation procedure across each vertebrate genome, which should aid comparative analysis of orthologues across the different finished regions. PMID:15608237

  5. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, J L; Chen, C-K; Gilbert, J G R; Jekosch, K; Keenan, S; Meidl, P; Searle, S M; Stalker, J; Storey, R; Trevanion, S; Wilming, L; Hubbard, T

    2005-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) has been designed to be a community resource for browsing manual annotation of finished sequences from a variety of vertebrate genomes. Its core database is based on an Ensembl-style schema, extended to incorporate curation-specific metadata. In collaboration with the genome sequencing centres, Vega attempts to present consistent high-quality annotation of the published human chromosome sequences. In addition, it is also possible to view various finished regions from other vertebrates, including mouse and zebrafish. Vega displays only manually annotated gene structures built using transcriptional evidence, which can be examined in the browser. Attempts have been made to standardize the annotation procedure across each vertebrate genome, which should aid comparative analysis of orthologues across the different finished regions. PMID:15608237

  6. Update of vertebral cementoplasty in porotic patients.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Masala, Salvatore; Muto, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Vertebroplasty (VP) is a percutaneous mini-invasive technique developed in the late 1980s as antalgic and stabilizing treatment in patients affected by symptomatic vertebral fracture due to porotic disease, traumatic injury and primary or secondary vertebral spine tumors. The technique consists of a simple metameric injection of an inert cement (poly-methyl-methacrylate, PMMA), through a needle by trans-peduncular, parapeduncular or trans-somatic approach obtaining a vertebral augmentation and stabilization effect associated with pain relief. The technique is simple and fast, and should be performed under fluoroscopy or CT guidance in order to obtain a good result with low complication rate. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the utility of VP, the indications-contraindications criteria, how to technically perform the technique using imaging guidance, and the results and complications of this treatment in patients affected by symptomatic vertebral compression fracture. PMID:26015527

  7. Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network Lauren A. O'Connell1 and Hans A. Hofmann1 genes across 12 brain regions important for decision-making in 88 species representing five vertebrate vertebrates. Our analysis suggests that the diversity of social behavior in vertebrates can be explained

  8. Bilateral spontaneous dissection of extracranial vertebral arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Leys; F. Lesoin; J. P. Pruvo; G. Gozet; M. Jomin; H. Petit

    1987-01-01

    A previously healthy 35-year-old man suddenly developed vertebrobasilar ischaemia while playing tennis. Cerebral arteriography revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the cervical portion of both vertebral arteries. The neurological deficit and the angiographic features resolved with anticoagulant treatment alone. Only 15 patients with non-traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection have been previously reported. It is necessary to recognize the condition very quickly,

  9. Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

  10. Cave site contributions to vertebrate history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNEST L. LUNDELIUS JR

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate fossils from cave deposits and karst features are recorded as early as the Mississippian with later occurrences of Permian vertebrates from fissures in Oklahoma, Triassic\\/Jurassic faunas from Wales and southwest England and Eocene to Oligocene faunas from France. Plio-Pleistocene cave fossil sites are numerous and are well known worldwide.The sheltered depositional environment in caves has facilitated the preservation of

  11. Atherosclerotic vertebral artery disease in the neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Caplan

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Atherosclerotic lesions are very common at the origin and first few centimeters of the vertebral artery in the neck. These\\u000a lesions are often missed when using noninvasive diagnostic strategies. These lesions cause transient hypoperfusion and transient\\u000a ischemic attacks, characterized mostly by vestibulocerebellar symptoms. Strokes are caused by embolism from these lesions.\\u000a Patients with nonstenosing vertebral artery plaques should be

  12. Vertebral artery occlusion and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Ask-Upmark, E; Bickerstaff, E R

    1976-01-01

    If vertebral artery occlusion occurs in degenerative arterial disease it is almost invariably left-sided, but in vertebral artery deficiency syndromes associated with oral contraceptives a striking preponderance of right-sided involvement has been shown. This observation adds support to the view that causes other than changes in the wall of the vessel at the site of occlusion must be sought as an explanation of the occlusion. PMID:1252812

  13. Gravity Anomaly Simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. F. Gerrard; L. Strickland; A. L. Wade; H. K. Reynolds

    1957-01-01

    An instrument that will simulate the anomalous gravity effects of a subsurface body, having a density differing from that of its surroundings, is described. The device makes use of the similarity between the gravity equation and Lambert's cosine ? law, and enables the geophysicist to synthesize the anomaly producing body in a time much shorter than that required for conventional

  14. The Flyby Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Lämmerzahl; Hansjörg Dittus

    2008-01-01

    At various occasions a significant unexplained velocity increase by a few mm\\/s of satellites after an Earth swing-by has been observed what is called the flyby anomaly. We discuss the validity of these observations and discuss general features.

  15. Orbital Anomalies FLORIN DIACU

    E-print Network

    Diacu, Florin

    other parameters beyond gravita- tion, such as magnetic effects and solar wind. To know the exact they understand gravity at all. The Pioneer Anomaly On March 2, 1972, Pioneer 10 was launched from Cape Canaveral cosmic rays, magnetic fields, solar wind, neutral hydrogen, dust particles; the Jovian aurorae, radio

  16. Anomaly detection for diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Maxion

    1990-01-01

    The author presents a method for detecting anomalous events in communication networks and other similarly characterized environments in which performance anomalies are indicative of failure. The methodology, based on automatically learning the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, has been implemented as part of an automated diagnosis system from which performance results are drawn and presented. The dynamic nature of

  17. Anomaly detection: A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varun Chandola; Arindam Banerjee; Vipin Kumar

    2009-01-01

    to difierentiate between normal and anomalous behavior. When applying a given technique to a particular domain, these assumptions can be used as guidelines to assess the efiectiveness of the technique in that domain. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and then show how the difierent existing techniques in that category are variants of the basic tech-

  18. A Principled Anomalies as

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Erik M. Ferragut (ferragutem@ornl.gov) Jason Laska (laskaja@ornl.gov) Robert A. Bridges (bridgesra@ornl Application Conclusion Cyber Operational Challenge Question. How can intrusions be detected in an enterprise as Rare Events Anomaly Definition Main Theorem Application Conclusion Cyber Data and Requirements Cyber

  19. Congenital Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gravereaux, Edwin C.; Nguyen, Louis L.; Cunningham, Leslie D.

    2004-04-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia, ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of large, symptomatic arteriovenous malformations often requires catheter-directed embolization prior to the attempt at complete surgical excision. Later recurrence, due to collateral recruitment, is frequent. Graded compression stockings and leg elevation are the mainstays of treatment for the predominantly venous congenital vascular anomalies. Most congenital central venous disorders are clinically silent. An exception is the retrocaval ureter. Retroaortic left renal vein, circumaortic venous ring, and absent, left-sided or duplicated inferior vena cava are relevant when aortic or inferior vena cava procedures are planned. The treatment of the venous disorders is directed at prevention or management of symptoms. Persistent sciatic artery, popliteal entrapment syndrome, and aberrant right subclavian artery origin are congenital anomalies that are typically symptomatic at presentation. Because they mimic more common diseases, diagnosis is frequently delayed. Delay can result in significant morbidity for the patient. Failure to make the diagnosis of persistent sciatic artery and popliteal entrapment can result in critical limb ischemia and subsequent amputation. Unrecognized aberrant right subclavian artery origin associated with aneurysmal degeneration can rupture and result in death. The treatment options for large-vessel arterial anomalies are surgical, sometimes in combination with endovascular techniques. PMID:15066242

  20. Cladogram Construction and Vertebrate Phylogeny

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah Fowell

    The first page of the presentation includes photos of 12 animals. I print this page, cut up the photos, and give a set of photos to each group of students. Working in groups of 2 or 3, the students spend ~10 minutes arranging the photos to depict the evolutionary relationships among the animals. This exercise is followed by 4 clicker questions about relationships that students commonly misconstrue due to convergence or shared primitive features. I use the clicker questions to initiate class discussion of group results. Then we discuss the evidence (anatomy, biochemistry) for current thinking about these relationships. Once we have established a consensus, students are asked to place pictures of a subset of the animals at the tips of the branches on a pre-designed cladogram. The activity gives me insight into students' preconceptions regarding vertebrate phylogeny, encourages students to identify their own misconceptions, promotes peer instruction and highlights problems associated with determining relationships based on shared primitive features. Placing the animals on a pre-designed cladogram allows students to translate their hypothesis about relationships into a visual diagram, an exercise that I hope will help students to extract the phylogenetic hypotheses depicted on cladograms in papers and textbooks. Once we have established a consensus cladogram, students must go one step further and add evidence (synapomorphies) to their cladograms. Students spend ~ 10 minutes brainstorming with their group to place synapormorphies at each node of the diagram. An example is provided for whales and hippos, groups for which the evidence of shared ancestry is difficult to recognize based on the anatomy of living specimens. After adding synapomorphies to their diagrams, students will work together as a class, contributing shared derived features to a group cladogram. If time permits, it would also be possible to complete the exercise with a gallery walk, where each group posts a copy of their cladogram + synapomorphies on the wall for other groups to examine and edit.

  1. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Fallbacher, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.

    2015-07-01

    We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  2. Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

  3. Vascular Anomalies and Airway Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Caroline; Lee, Edward I.; Edmonds, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, both tumors and malformations, can occur anywhere in the body, including the airway, often without any external manifestations. However, vascular anomalies involving the airway deserve special consideration as proper recognition and management can be lifesaving. In this article, the authors discuss vascular anomalies as they pertains to the airway, focusing on proper diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:25045336

  4. Anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Alwis, S. P. de [Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    A discrepancy between the anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is nonzero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.

  5. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  6. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  7. Yukawa Textures and Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Pierre Binetruy; Pierre Ramond

    1994-12-29

    We augment the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with a gauged family-dependent $U(1)$ to reproduce Yukawa textures compatible with experiment. In the simplest model with one extra chiral electroweak singlet field, acceptable textures require this $U(1)$ to be anomalous. The cancellation of its anomalies by a generic Green-Schwarz mechanism requires $\\sin^2\\theta_w=3/8$ at the string scale, suggesting a superstring origin for the standard model.

  8. Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cindy Starr

    2003-10-23

    This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

  9. Anomaly for Model Building

    E-print Network

    Utpal Sarkar

    2006-06-19

    A simple algorithm to calculate the group theory factor entering in anomalies at four and six dimensions for SU(N) and SO(N) groups in terms of the Casimir invariants of their subgroups is presented. Explicit examples of some of the lower dimensional representations of $SU(n), n \\leq 5$ and SO(10) groups are presented, which could be used for model building in four and six dimensions.

  10. Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

  11. Artificial Immune Systems for Self-Nonself Discrimination: Application to Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjoy Das; Min Gui; Anil Pahwa

    Self-nonself discrimination is the ability of the vertebrate immune systems to distinguish between foreign objects and the\\u000a body’s own self. It provides the basis for several biologically inspired approachs for classification. The negative selection\\u000a algorithm, which is one way to implement self-nonself discrimination, is becoming increasingly popular for anomaly detection\\u000a applications. Negative selection makes use of a set of detectors

  12. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  13. Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D

    2013-09-01

    Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

  14. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anselmetti, Giovanni C; Tutton, Sean M; Facchini, Francis R; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA) utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No complications were reported, pain completely resolved within 24 hours, and use of intravenous narcotics was progressively diminished within 1 week. Complete pain relief was maintained throughout 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion The Kiva System represents a novel and effective minimally invasive treatment option for patients suffering from severe pain due to osteolytic vertebral metastasis. PMID:23754917

  15. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cheng-Loong; Wang, Hao-Kwan; Syu, Fei-Kai; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation. Methods We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure) and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses. Results The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36), advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08), diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88), cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76), dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33), blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95), hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47), and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22). Patients taking calcium/vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93), bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61), or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77) were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08), acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83), or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (AOR=6.14; 95% CI: 5.08–7.41) were more likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation. Conclusion We conclude that the incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation is rather high. An understanding of risk factors predicting repeat vertebral augmentation provides valuable basis to improve health care for geriatric populations. PMID:25848240

  16. Water: Thermodynamic and Dynamic Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Marcia C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-19

    While the majority of fluids contract upon cooling, water expands when cooled below T = 4 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. This effect is called density anomaly. Besides the density anomaly, there are more than 60 other anomalies known for water. Diffusivity is one of them. For normal liquids the diffusion coefficient decreases under compression. However, experimental results have shown that for water at temperatures below approximately 10 deg. C, the diffusion coefficient increases under compression and has a maximum. The temperature of maximum density line, inside which the density anomaly occurs, and the line of maximum in diffusivity are located in the same region of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of water. We show how simulations for water also show thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are then demonstrated to be related to two length scales effective potential.

  17. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also in actively flying vertebrates. digestion gut morphometrics nutrient absorption paracellular uptake Birds have

  18. Vertebrate metacommunity structure along an extensive elevational gradient

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    RESEARCH PAPER Vertebrate metacommunity structure along an extensive elevational gradient of three vertebrate orders (Chiroptera, Rodentia and Passeriformes) along an extensive elevational gradient. Using elevation as a proxy for variation in abiotic characteristics and the known elevational

  19. Vena Caval Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Rajakulasingam, Ramyah; Francis, Rohin; Rajakulasingam, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous vena cavae can have significant implications for procedures on the right side of the heart. We report a rare anatomical configuration in a 44-year-old female, which to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of such an association. She had a bicuspid aortic valve in conjunction with a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) draining into the coronary sinus, and a left-sided inferior vena cava (IVC) draining into a left superior vena cava via the hemiazygos vein. Comprehensive assessment of these anomalies is crucial given the widespread use of invasive cardiac procedures. PMID:24404410

  20. Rare earth and trace elements of fossil vertebrate bioapatite as palaeoenvironmental and sedimentological proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigait?, Živil?; Fadel, Alexandre; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth (REE) and trace element compositions of fossil vertebrate dental microremains have been studied in Silurian and Devonian vertebrate dental scales and spines in-situ, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Samples were selected from the well-known Silurian bone beds of Vesiku and Ohesaare in Saaremaa island of Estonia, and a number of Lower Devonian localities from Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Andrée Land group. Biomineral preservation was assessed using spot semi-quantitative elemental chemistry (SEM-EDS) and electron back-scatter difractometry (EBSD) for cristallinity imaging. The obtained PAAS shale-normalised REE concentrations were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE patterns from the Lower Devonian vertebrate apatite from Andrée Land, Spitsbergen (Wood Bay and Grey Hœk formations) did not show any recognisable taxon-specific behavior, but had rather well expressed differences of REE compositions related to biomineral structure and sedimentary settings, suggesting REE instead to reflect burial environments and sedimentological history. The Eu anomaly recorded in two of the studied localities but not in the other indicate different taphonomic conditions and palaeoenvironment, while La/Sm, La/Yb ratios sugeest considerable influence of terrestrial freshwater during the early diagenesis. The La/Yb and La/Sm plots also agree with the average REE concentrations, reflecting domination of the adsoption over substitution as principal REE uptake mechanism in the fossils which had significantly lower overall REE concentrations, and vice versa. Vesiku (Homerian, Wenlock) microremains yielded very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with strong enrichment in middle REE and depletion in heavy REE. Negative Europium (Eu) anomaly was pronounced in all the profiles, but Cerium (Ce) anomalies were not detected suggesting possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of Vesiku bone bed. In Ohesaare (Pridoli), the REE compositions were nearly identical across all the morphotypes and histologies of acanthodian microremains showing flat REE patterns with slight depletion in HREE. There were no visible enrichment in MREE, indicating relatively good preservation of original bioapatite and likely absence of any pronounced fractionated REE incorporation during later stages of diagenesis. The shale normalised (La/Yb)SN and (La/Sm)SN REE ratio compilations showed addsorption as dominating REE uptake mechanism across all the studied microfossils. The absence of well-defined Ce anomaly suggest oxic palaeoseawater conditions, which agrees with existing interpretations of Ohesaare sequence as high-energy shoal and regressive open ocean sedimentary environment.

  1. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VERTEBRATE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua R. Sanes; Jeff W. Lichtman

    1999-01-01

    We describe the formation, maturation, elimination, maintenance, and regen- eration of vertebrate neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the best studied of all synapses. The NMJ forms in a series of steps that involve the exchange of signals among its three cellular components—nerve terminal, muscle fiber, and Schwann cell. Although essentially any motor axon can form NMJs with any muscle fiber, an additional

  3. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  4. Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony J. Prescott; Peter Redgrave; Kevin Gurney

    1998-01-01

    We review recent research in robotics, neuroscience, evolutionary neurobiology, and ethology with the aim of highlighting some points of agreement and convergence. Specifically, we compare Brooks' (1986) subsumption architecture for robot control with research in neuroscience demonstrating layered control systems in vertebrate brains, and with research in ethology that emphasizes the decomposition of control into multiple, intertwined behavior systems. From

  5. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  6. Late Development of Hagfish Vertebral Elements

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that hagfishes, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates, have cartilaginous vertebral elements. Embryological and gene expression analyses have also shown that this group of animals develops a sclerotome, the potential primordium of the axial skeleton. However, it has not been shown unequivocally that the hagfish sclerotome truly differentiates into cartilage, because access to late-stage embryos and information about the cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) are lacking for these animals. Here we investigated the expression patterns of the biglycan/decorin (BGN/DCN) gene in the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. The homologue of this gene encodes the major noncollagenous component of the cartilaginous ECM among gnathostomes. We clearly identified the expression of this gene in adult vertebral tissues and in embryonic mesenchymal cells on the ventral aspect of the notochord. Taking into account that the sclerotome in the gnathostomes expresses BGN/DCN gene during the chondrogenesis, it is highly expected the hagfish BGN/DCN-positive mesenchymal cells are derived from the sclerotomes. We propose that hagfishes and gnathostomes share conserved developmental mechanisms not only in their somite differentiation, but also in chondrogenesis of their vertebral elements. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:129–139, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23401412

  7. Tail bud determination in the vertebrate embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail S. Tucker; Jonathan M. W. Slack

    1995-01-01

    Background: Although as humans we lose our tails in the second month of embryonic development, a persistent tail is a prominent structural feature of most adult vertebrates. Indeed, the post-anal tail is part of the definition of a chordate. The internal organization of the developing tail — with neural tube, notochord and paired somites — is the same as that

  8. Injury of the carotid and vertebral arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Davis; R. A. Zimmerman

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomic relationships of the carotid and vertebral arteries, as well as the biomechanics by which traumatic injury occurs to these vessels, is important both in the interpretation of diagnostic arteriograms and in the clinical assessment of the injured patient.

  9. Alternative adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Brantley R; Cooper, Max D

    2010-08-01

    Jawless vertebrates use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are generated by RAG-independent combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat cassettes for Ag recognition, instead of the Ig-based Ag receptors used by jawed vertebrates. The VLR genes encode for crescent-shaped proteins that use variable beta-strands and a C-terminal loop to bind to Ags rather than the six CDR loops used by BCRs and TCRs. VLR mAbs have been isolated recently, which enabled the structure of VLR-Ag complexes to be defined. The jawless vertebrate adaptive immune system has many similarities to the Ig-based system of jawed vertebrates, including the compartmentalized development of B-like and T-like lymphocyte lineages that proliferate and differentiate into VLR-secreting plasmacytes and proinflammatory cytokine-producing cells in response to Ags. The definition of common features of the VLR-based and Ig-based systems offers fresh insight into the evolution of adaptive immunity. PMID:20660361

  10. Transposon-mediated Genome Manipulations in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ivics, Zoltán; Li, Meng Amy; Mátés, Lajos; Boeke, Jef D.; Bradley, Allan; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Transposable elements are segments of DNA with the unique ability to move about in the genome. This inherent feature can be exploited to harness these elements as gene vectors for diverse genome manipulations. Transposon-based genetic strategies have been established in vertebrate species over the last decade, and current progress in this field indicates that transposable elements will serve as indispensable tools in the genetic toolkit of vertebrate models. In particular, transposons can be applied as vectors for somatic and germline transgenesis, and as insertional mutagens in both loss-of-function and gain-of-function forward mutagenesis screens. The major advantage of using transposons as genetic tools is that they facilitate analysis of gene function in an easy, controlled and scalable manner. Transposon-based technologies are beginning to be exploited to link sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. In this article, we provide an overview of transposon-based methods used in vertebrate model organisms, and highlight the most important considerations concerning genetic applications of the transposon systems. PMID:19478801

  11. New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Cisneros

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of an Early-Middle Pleistocene continental vertebrate fauna from El Salvador is here reported. These fossils provide information about a poorly studied geographic area that played an important role during the Great American Faunal Interchange. The fauna is dominated by numerous remains of the proboscidean Cuvieronius tropicus and probably represents the largest known concentration of this genus in America.

  12. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  13. Phylogenetical aspects of brain gangliosides in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinrich Rahmann; Reinhard Hilbig

    1983-01-01

    The concentration and composition of brain gangliosides in 78 vertebrate species belonging to the classes of Agnathes, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were investigated.1.An increase in the concentration of gangliosides takes place with anagenetic progress of nervous organization during phylogeny which is accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the content of neuronal sialo-glycoproteins. This tendency can be observed

  14. Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

  15. HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

    Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

  16. Treatment of spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissections.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, T; Takeichi, Y; Yokoi, T; Fukami, T; Jito, J; Nitta, N; Takagi, K; Nozaki, K

    2011-10-31

    Spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissections may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage and often result in devastating damage. Increased use of noninvasive imaging studies has allowed larger numbers of patients to be diagnosed. In addition, intracranial vertebral artery dissection tends to induce multiple lesions affecting both intracranial vertebral arteries recurrently. Although unruptured dissections in this area usually have a benign nature, some authors have reported on the incidence of rupture from this lesion. Once hemorrhage from a dissecting vessel wall has occurred, it needs to be treated in the acute phase because of the high risk of rebleeding resulting in high morbidity and mortality. From December 2004 to July 2010, we managed 47 patients with spontaneous vertebral artery dissection, 31 patients were ruptured and 16 were unruptured. All patients who suffered from subarachnoid hemorrhage were treated with endovascular procedures. Most of the patients with unruptured dissection received medical therapy, but if the aneurysmal dilatation persisted or grew, surgical interventions were performed. Stenting with or without coils was deployed for 13 patients with posterior inferior cerebellar artery involvement at the site of dissection and/or were affected on the dominant side. In some patients, stenting was performed even if they were in the acute phase. For other ruptured patients, internal coil trappings were performed. Six patients died due to severe initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and one patient, who underwent stent deployment with coils for the dominant vertebral artery, with bilateral dissection continuing to the basilar artery died due to rerupture while the next additional coiling was planning. There were two cases of complications related to the intervention. During the follow-up period no bleeding occurred in any of the patients except for the previously mentioned patient. In conclusion, internal coil trapping or stent placement with or without coils was effective in preventing rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery dissection. If the dissection is unruptured, it is necessary to detect the risk of bleeding with careful watching and when progress appears to be made, patients should be treated promptly. Stent-assisted therapy for preserving the patency of the parent artery and major branches is a promising treatment for vertebral artery dissection, even in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the risk of acute rerupture and recurrence remains even with the porous stent placement with or without coils. PMID:24059764

  17. Lunar Orbit Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, L.

    2012-12-01

    Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

  18. Appendix 57 Predicted Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates Species

    E-print Network

    Appendix 57 Predicted Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates Species In Idaho and Montana #12;PREDICTED DISTRIBUTIONS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES IN IDAHO AND MONTANA Acres and Percent native terrestrial vertebrates that breed in Montana and Idaho, with emphasis placed on National Forest

  19. A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate Mark Mackiewicz1, , Andrey Tatarenkov2 instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove architectures known in any other vertebrate species. Advantages of a mixed-mating strategy in K. marmoratus

  20. Neofunctionalization in Vertebrates: The Example of Retinoic Acid Receptors

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Neofunctionalization in Vertebrates: The Example of Retinoic Acid Receptors Hector Escriva1¤a , Ste the role of gene duplications in establishing vertebrate innovations is one of the main challenges of Evo RAR genes--RARa, b, and c--which resulted from genome duplications at the origin of vertebrates

  1. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes and Liqing Zhang2

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liqing

    Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes Deng Pan1 and Liqing Zhang2 1 Department of Computer a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72-94%) have

  2. Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,

    E-print Network

    Socha, Jake

    #12;3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes- off for most vertebrates can broadly be described as a rapid straightening of bent limbs that produces, whereas an animal crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take

  3. Accepted Manuscript Mathematical Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yong-Tao

    Accepted Manuscript Review Mathematical Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development Yong-Tao Zhang.A. Newman, Mathematical Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development, Mathematical Biosciences (2012), doi: http Modeling of Vertebrate Limb Development Yong-Tao Zhang1, *, Mark S. Alber1,2, *, Stuart A. Newman3, * 1

  4. Positional Behavior and Vertebral Morphology in Atelines and Cebines

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Liza

    Positional Behavior and Vertebral Morphology in Atelines and Cebines STEIG E. JOHNSON AND LIZA J studies because they converge with hominoids in postcranial anatomy, including the vertebral column. Currently, our understanding of ateline vertebral morphology is limited to mainly qualitative descriptions

  5. DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger status. The criteria used for determining candidate species differed among vertebrate groups based

  6. The stages of vertebrate evolutionary J. Todd Streelman1

    E-print Network

    Danley, Patrick

    The stages of vertebrate evolutionary radiation J. Todd Streelman1 and Patrick D. Danley2 1 Hubbard and sexual selection in vertebrate groups that are considered to be exemplars of evolu- tionary radiation different vertebrate radiations follow similar evolutionary trajectories. Groups diverge along axes

  7. Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,

    E-print Network

    Socha, Jake

    3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes, lizards vertebrates can broadly be described as a rapid straightening of bent limbs that produces an acceleratory jump crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take-off presents a unique problem

  8. Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimir Soukup1

    E-print Network

    Horacek, Ivan

    LETTERS Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimi´r Soukup1 , Hans-Henning Epperlein2 , Ivan Hora´cek1 & Robert Cerny1 The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise to dentin and pulp3­5 . Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity6

  9. Probing the mechanical architecture of the vertebrate meiotic spindle

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Probing the mechanical architecture of the vertebrate meiotic spindle Takeshi Itabashi1,2, Jun and examine the mechanical features, such as deformability and stiffness, of the vertebrate meiotic spindle the mechanical architecture of the vertebrate meiotic spindle with the application of nanoNewton forces

  10. Author's personal copy Mathematical modeling of vertebrate limb development

    E-print Network

    Newman, Stuart A.

    Author's personal copy Review Mathematical modeling of vertebrate limb development Yong-Tao Zhang a 3 December 2012 Keywords: Vertebrate limb development Mathematical model Computational model Multi of vertebrate limb develop- ment and their roles in accounting for different aspects of this process. The main

  11. Design Principles of Insect and Vertebrate Visual Systems

    E-print Network

    Zipursky, Lawrebce

    Neuron Review Design Principles of Insect and Vertebrate Visual Systems Joshua R. Sanes1,* and S in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common

  12. Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

  13. Percutaneous vertebral angioplasty before coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuo Fukuda; Wahei Mihara; Akinobu Sasaki; Seigo Gomi

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old male with three-vessel coronary heart disease complicated by stenosis of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Triple coronary bypass grafting, using arterial conduits, was successfully performed after percutaneous balloon angioplasty of the left vertebral artery. Precedent angioplasty of a stenotic vertebral artery is safe and protects the brain from ischemia during extracorporeal circulation.

  14. The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  15. The variety of vertebrate mechanisms of sex determination.

    PubMed

    Trukhina, Antonina V; Lukina, Natalia A; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D; Smirnov, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  16. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Girondot, Marc

    458 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458­461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate, or similar devices. Bone Center Images of bone sections can be obtained using a video camera or a regular

  17. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):468470, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Pennilyn

    468 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):468­470, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate. Abbreviations and Terminology Abbreviations L and R denote left and right teeth, respectively. Mea- surement

  18. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Claessens, Leon

    89 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89­106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION LEON P. A. M. CLAESSENS Museum of Comparative

  19. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOB

  20. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER

  1. Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflexia, but motor and sensory examinations were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed basilar invagination and spinal cord compression at his craniovertebral junction. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an anomalous course of his bilateral vertebral arteries, both of which showed a persistent first intersegmental artery that entered the spinal canal at the caudal portion of the C1 posterior arch. In this case, the arteries were nearly pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of the C2. C1 laminectomy and occiput-cervical fusion (O-C2) was performed using an instrumentation system. After surgery, the syncope was not observed. Conclusions Syncope can be related to compression of extracranial arteries within the neck. In this case, transient brain ischemia caused by the anomalous course of vertebral arteries that were pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of C2 in cervical motion was the suspected cause of the syncope. PMID:25296768

  2. Determination of vertebral pose in 3D by minimization of vertebral asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The vertebral pose in three dimensions (3D) may provide valuable information for quantitative clinical measurements or aid the initialization of image analysis techniques. We propose a method for automated determination of the vertebral pose in 3D that, in an iterative registration scheme, estimates the position and rotation of the vertebral coordinate system in 3D images. By searching for the hypothetical points, which are located where the boundaries of anatomical structures would have maximal symmetrical correspondences when mirrored over the vertebral planes, the asymmetry of vertebral anatomical structures is minimized. The method was evaluated on 14 normal and 14 scoliotic vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT). For each vertebra, 1000 randomly initialized experiments were performed. The results show that the vertebral pose can be successfully determined in 3D with mean accuracy of 0.5mm and 0.6° and mean precision of 0.17mm and 0.17. according to the 3D position and 3D rotation, respectively.

  3. Kitchen & Packer: Complexity in vertebrate societies Kitchen, D. M. & Packer, C. 1999. Complexity in vertebrate societies. In: Levels of

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Kitchen & Packer: Complexity in vertebrate societies 1 Kitchen, D. M. & Packer, C. 1999. Complexity in vertebrate societies. In: Levels of Selection in Evolution, (L. Keller, editor), Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, pp. 176-196. 9COMPLEXITY IN VERTEBRATE SOCIETIES DAWN M. KITCHEN AND CRAIG

  4. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Clark, James M.

    683 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683­704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW SPECIMEN OF HESPEROSUCHUS AGILIS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NEW MEXICO of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada; 3 Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum

  5. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

  6. Anomaly, Charge Quantization and Family

    E-print Network

    C. Q. Geng

    2001-01-30

    We first review the three known chiral anomalies in four dimensions and then use the anomaly free conditions to study the uniqueness of quark and lepton representations and charge quantizations in the standard model. We also extend our results to theory with an arbitrary number of color. Finally, we discuss the family problem.

  7. Anomalies in the Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansjoerg Dittus

    2008-01-01

    Several observations show unexplained phenomena in our solar system. These observations are e.g. the Pioneer Anomaly, an unexplained constant acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, the Flyby Anomaly, an unexplained increase of the velocity of a series of spacecraft after Earth gravity assists, the recently reported increase of the Astronomical Unit defined by the distance of the planets

  8. Anomaly detection in IP networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

    2003-01-01

    Network anomaly detection is a vibrant research area. Researchers have approached this problem using various techniques such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and state machine modeling. In this paper, we first review these anomaly detection methods and then describe in detail a statistical signal processing technique based on abrupt change detection. We show that this signal processing technique is effective

  9. Graph-based anomaly detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caleb C. Noble; Diane J. Cook

    2003-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an area that has received much attention in recent years. It has a wide variety of applications, including fraud detection and network intrusion detection. A good deal of research has been performed in this area, often using strings or attribute-value data as the medium from which anomalies are to be extracted. Little work, however, has focused on

  10. Chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory

    E-print Network

    Waalewijn, Wouter Jonathan

    Anomalies have infrared and ultraviolet ingredients, and are often realized in effective theories in a nontrivial way. We study the chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory (SCET), where the anomaly equation has ...

  11. Impact of Sampling on Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    ? ISPs interested in detecting and stopping anomalous traffic early ­ Additional service to stub networks of Sampling on Anomaly Detection ­ Volume Anomaly Detection ­ Portscan Detection ­ Entropy-based Traffic Profiling Towards Accurate Measurements for Anomaly Detection ­ Filtered Sampling ­ Programmable

  12. Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks

    E-print Network

    Ji, Chuanyi

    Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks Marina Thottan, Guanglei Liu, Chuanyi Ji Abstract In recent years network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from

  13. Graph-Based Anomaly Detection Bill Eberle

    E-print Network

    Eberle, William

    SIAM Southeastern Sectional Annual Meeting #12;Anomaly Detection Challenge: Insider Threats ScenariosGraph-Based Anomaly Detection Bill Eberle Department of Computer Science Tennessee Tech University or leak sensitive information? March 24, 2013 2 #12;Anomaly Detection Challenge: Fraud Detection

  14. Anomaly detection in clinical processes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful anomalies in clinical processes may be related to caring performance or even the patient survival. It is imperative that the anomalies be timely detected such that useful and actionable knowledge of interest could be extracted to clinicians. Many previous approaches assume prior knowledge about the structure of clinical processes, using which anomalies are detected in a supervised manner. For a majority of clinical settings, however, clinical processes are complex, ad hoc, and even unknown a prior. In this paper, we investigate how to facilitate detection of anomalies in an unsupervised manner. An anomaly detection model is presented by applying a density-based clustering method on patient careflow logs. Using the learned model, it is possible to detect whether a particular patient careflow trace is anomalous with respect to normal traces in the logs. The approach has been validated over real data sets collected from a Chinese hospital. PMID:23304307

  15. Miocene vertebrates and North Florida shorelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, S.J.

    1968-01-01

    Vertebrate fossils from ten localities, spread across northern Florida, give evidence of shorelines and deltas that have previously been established on geologic evidence or invertebrates alone. Terrestrial mammal remains, in association with shallow-water forms, indicate a deltaic assemblage and in several instances specific animals suggest restricted water depths at the time of sediment deposition. Fortunately diagnostic fragments of Miocene horses, Merychippus and Parahippus, are present in these beds, allowing for a rather close age evaluation of these sediments. Adequate fossil material has been collected from these localities to suggest the past environment and ecological conditions for the forms represented. By utilizing a suggested course of experiments with stream table apparatus it is possible to use the orientation of the fossil vertebrate remains as aids in determining past conditions of sediment accumulation. ?? 1968.

  16. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular basis of morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingqun; Steinbeisser, Herbert

    2009-07-01

    Gastrulation is a crucial step in early embryogenesis. During gastrulation, a set of morphogenetic processes takes place leading to the establishment of the basic body plan and formation of primary germ layers. A rich body of knowledge about these morphogenetic processes has been accumulated over decades. The understanding of the molecular mechanism that controls the complex cell movement and inductive processes during gastrulation remains a challenge. Substantial progress has been made recently to identify and characterize pathways and molecules implicated in the modulation of morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation. Here, we summarize recent findings in the analysis of signaling pathways implicated in gastrulation movements, with the aim to generalize the basic molecular principles of vertebrate morphogenesis. PMID:19347571

  18. Treatment of proximal vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shutze, William; Gierman, Joshua; McQuade, Karen; Pearl, Gregory; Smith, Bertram

    2014-04-01

    Vertebral arterial disease (VAD) is a less commonly recognized and treated source of cerebrovascular ischemia compared with carotid artery disease. Patients are often referred for treatment after they have developed symptoms in the form of transient ischemic attacks or had a posterior hemispheric stroke. Traditional treatment of VAD has been surgical. More recently, endovascular treatment of VAD has been utilized. We performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience in treating VAD from 2001 to 2010. For treatment of proximal VAD, perioperative morbidity is lower for the endovascular group than for the surgical group, but six-week mortality was higher for the endovascular group. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred more frequently with surgery than with endovascular therapy. Therefore surgical reconstruction appears to be preferable to angioplasty and stenting for treatment of proximal vertebral artery occlusive disease. PMID:23518836

  19. Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

    1982-11-01

    The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

  20. Cervical vertebral column morphology in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea assessed using lateral cephalograms and cone beam CT. A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sonnesen, L; Jensen, KE; Petersson, AR; Petri, N; Berg, S; Svanholt, P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have described morphological deviations in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients on two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalograms, and the reliability of 2D radiographs has been discussed. The objective is to describe the morphology of the cervical vertebral column on cone beam CT (CBCT) in adult patients with OSA and to compare 2D lateral cephalograms with three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images. Methods: For all 57 OSA patients, the cervical vertebral column morphology was evaluated on lateral cephalograms and CBCT images and compared according to fusion anomalies and posterior arch deficiency. Results: The CBCT assessment showed that 21.1% had fusion anomalies of the cervical column, i.e. fusion between two cervical vertebrae (10.5%), block fusions (8.8%) or occipitalization (1.8%). Posterior arch deficiency occurred in 14% as partial cleft of C1 and in 3.5% in combination with block fusions. The agreement between the occurrence of morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column between lateral cephalograms and CBCT images showed good agreement (??=?0.64). Conclusions: Prevalence and pattern in the cervical column morphology have now been confirmed on CBCT. The occurrence of morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column showed good agreement between lateral cephalograms and CBCT images. This indicates that 2D lateral cephalograms (already available after indication in connection with, e.g. treatment planning) are sufficient for identifying morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column. For a more accurate diagnosis and location of the deviations, CBCT is required. New 3D methods will suggest a need for new detailed characterization and division of deviations in cervical vertebral column morphology. PMID:23503808

  1. The GATA family (vertebrates and invertebrates)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger K Patient; James D McGhee

    2002-01-01

    Over the past year, vertebrate GATA factors have been found to participate directly in several signal-transduction pathways. Smad3, phosphorylated by TGF-? signalling, interacts with GATA3 to induce differentiation of T helper cells. Hypertrophic stimuli act through RhoA GTPase and ROCK kinase to activate GATA4 in cardiac myocytes. In the liver, GATA4 is elevated by BMP and FGF signalling, and is

  2. Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Togawa; Isador H. Lieberman

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease currently afflicting approx 44 million Americans; this figure will increase as the population\\u000a ages. It results in progressive bone mineral loss and concurrent changes in bony architecture that leave bone vulnerable to\\u000a fracture, often after minimal or no trauma. The spine is the most common site of osteoporotic fracture, with vertebral compression\\u000a fracture (VCF) occurring

  3. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  4. Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Han

    2013-11-01

    The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

  5. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sean P; Hassan, Hassan K; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

  6. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  7. Anomaly mediation from unbroken supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Thaler, Jesse; Thomas, Zachary

    2013-09-01

    When supergravity (SUGRA) is spontaneously broken, it is well known that anomaly mediation generates sparticle soft masses proportional to the gravitino mass. Recently, we showed that one-loop anomaly-mediated gaugino masses should be associated with unbroken supersymmetry (SUSY). This counterintuitive result arises because the underlying symmetry structure of (broken) SUGRA in flat space is in fact (unbroken) SUSY in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. When quantum corrections are regulated in a way that preserves SUGRA, the underlying AdS curvature (proportional to the gravitino mass) necessarily appears in the regulated action, yielding soft masses without corresponding goldstino couplings. In this paper, we extend our analysis of anomaly mediation to sfermion soft masses. Already at tree-level we encounter a number of surprises, including the fact that zero soft masses correspond to broken (AdS) SUSY. At one-loop, we explain how anomaly mediation appears when regulating SUGRA in a way that preserves super-Weyl invariance. We find that recent claims in the literature about the non-existence of anomaly mediation were based on a Wilsonian effective action with residual gauge dependence, and the gauge-invariant 1PI effective action contains the expected anomaly-mediated spectrum. Finally, we calculate the sfermion spectrum to all orders, and use supertrace relations to derive the familiar two-loop soft masses from minimal anomaly mediation, as well as unfamiliar tree-level and one-loop goldstino couplings consistent with renormalization group invariance.

  8. Evolution of Vertebrate GnRH Receptors from the Perspective of a Basal Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Sower, Stacia A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Joseph, Nerine T.; Freamat, Mihael

    2012-01-01

    This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R) in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian), type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that two whole rounds of genome duplication (2R) occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates. PMID:23181055

  9. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

  10. Feature-based anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.

    2007-04-01

    A feature-based approach for detecting anomalies in spectral, spatial, temporal, and other domains is described. When the frequency of occurrence is small relative to the background, anomalies such as man-made objects in natural image backgrounds do not form their own clusters, but are instead assigned the nearest background cluster, becoming an outlier (statistical anomaly) in that cluster. Our method clusters data, which may be spectral, spatial, or temporal in nature, into one or more background types and computes the Mahalanobis distance between the data and assigned model (background cluster). The detection of a variety of objects and phenomena in panchromatic and multispectral imagery, and video are illustrated.

  11. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Obstetric consequences of uterovaginal anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, J.A.; Schlaff, W.D.

    1985-05-01

    This review discusses the diagnosis and classification of utero-vaginal anomalies as well as obstetric considerations in their management. Diagnosis is usually made by hysterosalpingography antepartum. Ultrasonography is also recommended. 40 references, 10 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Kohn anomalies in graphene nanoribbons

    E-print Network

    Dresselhaus, Mildred

    The quantum corrections to the energies of the ? point optical phonon modes (Kohn anomalies) in graphene nanoribbons (NRs) are investigated. We show theoretically that the longitudinal optical (LO) modes undergo a Kohn ...

  14. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

    1994-02-01

    An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

  15. More anomalies from fractional branes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bertolini; P. Di Vecchia; M. Frau; A. Lerda; R. Marotta

    2002-01-01

    In this Letter we show how the anomalies of both pure and matter coupled N=1,2 supersymmetric gauge theories describing the low energy dynamics of fractional branes on orbifolds can be derived from supergravity.

  16. Triangle Anomalies, Thermodynamics, and Hydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Kristan Jensen

    2012-04-11

    We consider 3+1-dimensional fluids with U(1)^3 anomalies. We use Ward identities to constrain low-momentum Euclidean correlation functions and obtain differential equations that relate two and three-point functions. The solution to those equations yields, among other things, the chiral magnetic conductivity. We then compute zero-frequency functions in hydrodynamics and show that the consistency of the hydrodynamic theory also fixes the anomaly-induced conductivities.

  17. Satellite elevation magnetic anomaly maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is currently being resubmitted and should be implemented shortly for quantitative comparison with free-air gravity anomaly, geothermal, and tectonic data.

  18. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (principal investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  19. The Vertebrate Primary Cilium in Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Jantje M.; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Cilia are complex structures that have garnered interest because of their roles in vertebrate development and their involvement in human genetic disorders. In contrast to multicellular invertebrates in which cilia are restricted to specific cell types, these organelles are found almost ubiquitously in vertebrate cells, where they serve a diverse set of signaling functions. Here, we highlight properties of vertebrate cilia, with particular emphasis on their relationship with other subcellular structures, and explore the physiological consequences of ciliary dysfunction. PMID:19345185

  20. Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D.-G. Shu; S. Conway Morris; J. Han; Z.-F. Zhang; K. Yasui; P. Janvier; L. Chen; X.-L. Zhang; J.-N. Liu; Y. Li; H.-Q. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Agnathan fish hold a key position in vertebrate evolution, especially regarding the origin of the head and neural-crest-derived tissue. In contrast to amphioxus, lampreys and other vertebrates possess a complex brain and placodes that contribute to well-developed eyes, as well as auditory and olfactory systems. These sensory sytems were arguably a trigger to subsequent vertebrate diversifications. However, although they are

  1. Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

  2. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Daly; E. Raymond S. Ross; Heather Norris; Charles N. McCollum

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery\\u000a are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with\\u000a anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications\\u000a associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral

  3. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  4. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  5. Limbus lumbar and sacral vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Jorge S; Huete, Isidro L; Tagle, Patricio M

    2002-03-01

    We evaluated the fractures of the lumbar and sacral vertebral limbus by disc impingement at the peripheral ring apophysis in 23 adults associated with trauma in 16 of them. Lumbalgia, radicular pain and narrow canal symptoms are the presenting forms of this underdiagnosed pathology. CT is the best method of examination, while plain roentgenograms and MR are usually negative. Accurate diagnosis and surgical technique with larger exposure are needed to resect the fractured fragments and protruded disc material for decompressing the roots and the dural sac. Our results were very good on the majority of cases. PMID:11877896

  6. Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Moremen, Kelley W.; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nairn, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of ‘information content’ to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates. PMID:22722607

  7. Introduction The vertebrate axial musculoskeletal system emerges from

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    515 Introduction The vertebrate axial musculoskeletal system emerges from somites ­ segmentally), a tendon-specific bHLH transcription factor, has Proper formation of the musculoskeletal system requires

  8. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  9. Retooling Spare Parts: Gene Duplication And Vertebrate Cognitive Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Belgard, T Grant; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Two new studies experimentally demonstrate how ancient genomic duplications of synaptic genes provided the substrate for diversification that ultimately expanded vertebrate cognitive complexity. PMID:23257927

  10. Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

  11. Reconstruction of the vertebrate ancestral genome reveals dynamic genome reorganization in early vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoichiro; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kohara, Yuji; Morishita, Shinichi

    2007-09-01

    Although several vertebrate genomes have been sequenced, little is known about the genome evolution of early vertebrates and how large-scale genomic changes such as the two rounds of whole-genome duplications (2R WGD) affected evolutionary complexity and novelty in vertebrates. Reconstructing the ancestral vertebrate genome is highly nontrivial because of the difficulty in identifying traces originating from the 2R WGD. To resolve this problem, we developed a novel method capable of pinning down remains of the 2R WGD in the human and medaka fish genomes using invertebrate tunicate and sea urchin genes to define ohnologs, i.e., paralogs produced by the 2R WGD. We validated the reconstruction using the chicken genome, which was not considered in the reconstruction step, and observed that many ancestral proto-chromosomes were retained in the chicken genome and had one-to-one correspondence to chicken microchromosomes, thereby confirming the reconstructed ancestral genomes. Our reconstruction revealed a contrast between the slow karyotype evolution after the second WGD and the rapid, lineage-specific genome reorganizations that occurred in the ancestral lineages of major taxonomic groups such as teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and marsupials. PMID:17652425

  12. Vertebrate Endothelial Lipase: Comparative Studies of an Ancient Gene and Protein in Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S; VandeBerg, John L; Cox, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endothelial lipase (LIPG; E.C.3.1.1.3) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from 15 other human lipase genes examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a ‘stop’ codon’ within exon 9. Vertebrate LIPG protein subunits shared 58–97% sequence identity as compared with 38–45% sequence identities with human LIPC (hepatic lipase) and LIPL (lipoprotein lipase). Four previously reported human LIPG N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate LIPG sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key LIPG amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (LIPP) (Bourne et al., 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the 5?-untranslated regions of the human, mouse and rat LIPG genes; a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3?-untranslated region and several transcription factor binding sites within the human LIPG gene. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families [LIPC and LIPL], other neutral lipase gene families [LIPP, LIPR1, LIPR2, LIPR3, LIPI, LIPH and LIPS], and the extended family of mammalian acid lipases (LIPA, LIPF, LIPJ, LIPK, LIPM, LIPN and LIPO). It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution > 500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

  13. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  14. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. G. Cheng; Y. Sun; S. Boonen; P. H. F. Nicholson; P. Brys; J. Dequeker; D. Felsenberg

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between\\u000a the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy\\u000a women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each

  15. Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Associated With Lower Trabecular BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Shet, Keerthi; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Bone marrow fat (BMF) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) are negatively correlated. However, little is known about the association of BMF with fracture or with separate trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between vertebral BMF, BMD by quantitative computed tomography, and fracture in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures included vertebral BMF (L1–L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and DXA scans of the hip and spine, and DXA vertebral fracture assessments. Previous clinical fracture was determined from medical records. Results: In 257 participants without recent bone-active medication use, mean age was 79 (SD 3.1) years. Mean BMF was 53.5% ± 8.1% in men and 55.0% ± 8.4% in women. Those with prevalent vertebral fracture (21 men, 32 women) had higher mean BMF in models adjusted for BMD. In separate models by sex, the difference was statistically significant only in men (57.3% vs 52.8%, P = 0.02). BMF was associated with lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the spine (?10.5% difference for each 1 SD increase in BMF, P < 0.01), total hip, and femoral neck, but not with cortical vBMD, in women. In men, BMF was marginally associated with trabecular spine vBMD (?6.1%, P = 0.05). Total hip and spine areal BMD (aBMD) were negatively correlated with BMF in women only. Conclusion: Higher marrow fat correlated with lower trabecular, but not cortical, BMD in older women but not men. Higher marrow fat was associated with prevalent vertebral fracture in men, even after adjustment for BMD. PMID:23553860

  16. Application of vertebral artery ultrasonography in enlistment-age male student pilots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuping; Li, Li; Yao, Kechun; Li, Wenxiu; Wang, Na; Cui, Li; Zou, Zhikang; Ma, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vertebral artery (VA) morphology of enlistment-age male student pilots with ultrasound to provide a basis for early diagnosis of potentially asymptomatic cervical vertigo. Ultrasound results of the origin position, diameter and hemodynamics of the VA in 935 cases of student pilots with a mean age of 18.0 y were analyzed. The inner diameters of both sides of the VA differ: the left is larger than the right statistically (p < 0.001). Moreover, the peak systolic velocity of the left VA is significantly greater than that of the right (p < 0.001). Congenital VA anomalies in age-appropriate male student pilots included inner diameter variation, course variation and origin position variation. The incidence of course variation or origin position proportion was low (3.46%, 32/925), and origin position variation was often accompanied by inner diameter variation or course variation. This study confirms that there are a variety of congenital abnormalities in the vertebral arteries of enlistment-age male student pilots, and a VA diameter <2.5 mm may be a reasonable criterion for diagnosis of VA hypoplasia. PMID:25023108

  17. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  18. Intraembryonic hematopoietic cell migration during vertebrate development.

    PubMed Central

    Detrich, H W; Kieran, M W; Chan, F Y; Barone, L M; Yee, K; Rundstadler, J A; Pratt, S; Ransom, D; Zon, L I

    1995-01-01

    Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells are derived from vental mesoderm, which is postulated to migrate to both extra- and intraembryonic positions during gastrula and neurula stages. Extraembryonic migration has previously been documented, but the origin and migration of intraembryonic hematopoietic cells have not been visualized. The zebrafish and most other teleosts do not form yolk sac blood islands during early embryogenesis, but instead hematopoiesis occurs solely in a dorsal location known as the intermediate cell mass (IM) or Oellacher. In this report, we have isolated cDNAs encoding zebrafish homologs of the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1 and GATA-2 and have used these markers to determine that the IM is formed from mesodermal cells in a posterior-lateral position on the yolk syncytial layer of the gastrula yolk sac. Surprisingly, cells of the IM then migrate anteriorly through most of the body length prior to the onset of active circulation and exit onto the yolk sac. These findings support a hypothesis in which the hematopoietic program of vertebrates is established by variations in homologous migration pathways of extra- and intraembryonic progenitors. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479870

  19. A convenient fluorescent assay for vertebrate collagenases.

    PubMed

    Bond, M D; Auld, D S; Lobb, R R

    1986-06-01

    A versatile, convenient assay for vertebrate collagenases has been developed using the fluorescent peptide substrate dansyl-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-D-Arg. This sequence resembles that of collagen at the site of cleavage but includes modifications designed to eliminate nonspecific hydrolysis by contaminating peptidases. Both human skin fibroblast and bovine corneal cell collagenases cleave the substrate specifically at the Gly-Ile bond. Plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase B, and bacterial collagenase do not cleave the substrate. Elastase and angiotensin converting enzyme display 20- and 400-fold less activity than the vertebrate collagenases, respectively, and cleave the peptide at different positions. The assay is performed by incubating a 5- to 25-microliters aliquot of trypsin-activated sample with an equal volume of 2 mM substrate overnight at 33 degrees C and pH 7.5. Thin-layer chromatography then separates the fluorescent product from the substrate in less than 20 min and allows the detection of subnanogram levels of collagenase. The assay is applicable to the screening of large numbers of samples under different conditions of pH and ionic strength and is readily adaptable for use in a variety of collagenase-dependent systems, such as assays for collagenase activating and/or inducing factors. PMID:3014920

  20. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  1. The road to the vertebral formula.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

  2. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L.; Egaña, José T.

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  3. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  4. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  5. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm yr-1. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists, including us, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  6. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    E-print Network

    John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

    2009-08-06

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  7. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  8. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  9. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  10. Neurobiological Bases of Rhythmic Motor Acts in Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sten Grillner

    1985-01-01

    The general principles governing the nervous control of innate motor acts in vertebrates are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the control of locomotion in both mammals and lower vertebrates. One in vitro model of the lamprey central nervous system has been developed. It can be maintained in vitro for several days and the motor pattern underlying locomotion can be

  11. Genetics and evolution of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shozo Yokoyama; Yongsheng Shi

    2000-01-01

    Various vertebrates use ultraviolet (UV) vision for such basic behaviors as mating, foraging, and predation. We have successfully interchanged the color-sensitivities of the mouse UV pigment and the human blue pigment by introducing forward and reverse mutations at five sites. This unveils for the first time the general mechanism of UV vision. Most contemporary UV pigments in vertebrates have maintained

  12. Timing and mechanism of ancient vertebrate genome duplications

    E-print Network

    Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Genetik

    that most genes are present as single copies, whereas the genomes of jawless vertebrates, such as lamprey and hagfish, con- tained at least two orthologs and mammals contained three orthologs or more [2 of homologouschromosomesduringmeiosis/mitosis(diploidmodeofinheritance). Gnathostomes: all jawed vertebrates. Molecular

  13. JANUARY, 2010 VOL. 23, NO. 1 The Vertebral Column...

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    In November, 1976, two weeks into her new job, Vertebrate Zoology's Joy Gold was confronted with masses OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VZ Loses Jewel Joy Pearl Gold Retires By Don E. Wilson its letters and/or suggesting other sources for such answers. And that was Joy's initial job. So who

  14. Clinical significance of retrograde flow in the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Nicholls; Theodore C. Koutlas; D. Eugene Strandness

    1991-01-01

    Although retrograde vertebral artery flow was described over 100 years ago, its relationship to symptoms remains unclear. We documented 43 patients who were found by duplex scanning to have reverse flow in the vertebral artery. Of this group, seven patients (16%) were found to have symptoms described as typical for the “subclavian steal” syndrome. Nearly one-third were asymptomatic. Of the

  15. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kloen; J. D. Patterson; B. I. Wintman; R. M. Ozuna; G. W. Brick

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  16. The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Kasahara; Kiyoshi Naruse; Shin Sasaki; Yoichiro Nakatani; Wei Qu; Budrul Ahsan; Tomoyuki Yamada; Yukinobu Nagayasu; Koichiro Doi; Yasuhiro Kasai; Tomoko Jindo; Daisuke Kobayashi; Atsuko Shimada; Atsushi Toyoda; Yoko Kuroki; Asao Fujiyama; Takashi Sasaki; Atsushi Shimizu; Shuichi Asakawa; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Shin-Ichi Hashimoto; Jun Yang; Yongjun Lee; Kouji Matsushima; Sumio Sugano; Mitsuru Sakaizumi; Takanori Narita; Kazuko Ohishi; Shinobu Haga; Fumiko Ohta; Hisayo Nomoto; Keiko Nogata; Tomomi Morishita; Tomoko Endo; Tadasu Shin-I; Hiroyuki Takeda; Shinichi Morishita; Yuji Kohara

    2007-01-01

    Teleosts comprise more than half of all vertebrate species and have adapted to a variety of marine and freshwater habitats. Their genome evolution and diversification are important subjects for the understanding of vertebrate evolution. Although draft genome sequences of two pufferfishes have been published, analysis of more fish genomes is desirable. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of

  17. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  18. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

    1999-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

  19. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    E-print Network

    Miller, Webb

    Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes Adam Siepel,1%­53%), Caenorhabditis elegans (18%­37%), and Saccharaomyces cerevisiae (47%­68%) genomes. From yeasts to vertebrates://genome.ucsc.edu). The phastCons program is part of a software package called PHAST (PHylogenetic Analysis with Space

  20. Why did the acquired immune system of vertebrates evolve?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Rolff

    2007-01-01

    Rapidly expanding genomic information offers important insights into the mechanisms of acquired immunity and has fostered progress in comparative immunology. However, the question of why the acquired immune system, a trait restricted to jawed vertebrates, evolved has rarely been addressed. Here, I will examine three unique features of early vertebrate evolution, during the 50 million years when the acquired immune

  1. Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny Roderic for nine vertebrate genes (aldolase, -feto- protein, lactate dehydrogenase, prolactin, rhodopsin with currently accepted vertebrate relationships. 2000 Academic Press INTRODUCTION ``Regarding the analysis

  2. Vertebrate Homologs of Drosophila Suppressor of Fused Interact with the Gli Family

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    Vertebrate Homologs of Drosophila Suppressor of Fused Interact with the Gli Family during metazoan development. Although originially characterized in Drosophila, vertebrate homologs have to the Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis proteins. Vertebrate Su(fu) is widely expressed

  3. Conservation of the photoperiodic neuroendocrine axis among vertebrates: Evidence from the teleost fish, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Conservation of the photoperiodic neuroendocrine axis among vertebrates: Evidence from the teleost other vertebrates is not well known. We use the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus are conserved across vertebrates. Ó 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Proper timing

  4. Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates Frédéric or urochordates (appendicularians, salps, and sea squirts), cephalochordates (lancelets) and vertebrates, cephalochordates are considered as the closest living relatives of vertebrates with tunicates representing

  5. Instructions for use Functional Characterization of Vertebrate Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Isoforms

    E-print Network

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Instructions for use #12;1 Functional Characterization of Vertebrate Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Isoforms), is expressed specifically in the central nervous system of vertebrates. To examine the role of the B2 insert of vertebrates (9, 10). Th

  6. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27?:?1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  7. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

  8. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    E-print Network

    Amador, X E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

  9. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    E-print Network

    Xavier Amador

    2008-09-03

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

  10. Analysis of DSN software anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galorath, D. D.; Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Reifer, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.

  11. The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanrong; Barton, Kelly; De Maria, Alicia; Petrash, J Mark; Shiels, Alan; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-05-15

    The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusion pathway (LMDP). We used the tamoxifen-induced expression of GFP to investigate the nature and role of the LMDP in living, intact lenses. Our data indicate that the LMPD preferentially connects cells lying within a stratum of the lens cortex and that formation of the LMPD depends on the expression of Lim2, a claudin-like molecule. The conduits for intercellular protein exchange are most likely regions of partial cellular fusion, which are commonly observed in wild-type lenses but rare or absent in Lim2-deficient lenses. The observation that lens tissue constitutes a stratified syncytium has implications for the transparency, refractive function and pathophysiology of the tissue. PMID:19401333

  12. The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanrong; Barton, Kelly; De Maria, Alicia; Petrash, J. Mark; Shiels, Alan; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Summary The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusion pathway (LMDP). We used the tamoxifen-induced expression of GFP to investigate the nature and role of the LMDP in living, intact lenses. Our data indicate that the LMPD preferentially connects cells lying within a stratum of the lens cortex and that formation of the LMPD depends on the expression of Lim2, a claudin-like molecule. The conduits for intercellular protein exchange are most likely regions of partial cellular fusion, which are commonly observed in wild-type lenses but rare or absent in Lim2-deficient lenses. The observation that lens tissue constitutes a stratified syncytium has implications for the transparency, refractive function and pathophysiology of the tissue. PMID:19401333

  13. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    E-print Network

    Morelli, Luis G; Herrgen, Leah; Schroeter, Christian; Julicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C; 10.2976/1.3027088

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock's collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock's collective period depends on delay...

  14. The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ashurst; C.-K. Chen; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Jekosch; S. Keenan; Patrick Meidl; Stephen M. J. Searle; Jim Stalker; R. Storey; S. Trevanion; L. G. Wilming; Tim J. P. Hubbard

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Vertebrate,Genome,Annotation,(Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was,first made,public in 2004 and,has,been,designed,to view,manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences,produced,at the Wellcome,Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human,annotated,loci has,more,than,doubled,to close,to 33000 and,now,contains,comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole,mouse,chromosomes,and,around,40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we,offer manual,annotation,of a number,of haplo- type,regions,in mouse,and,human,and,regions,of

  15. The vertebrate genome annotation (Vega) database.

    PubMed

    Wilming, L G; Gilbert, J G R; Howe, K; Trevanion, S; Hubbard, T; Harrow, J L

    2008-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) was first made public in 2004 and has been designed to view manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences produced at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human annotated loci has more than doubled to close to 33 000 and now contains comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole mouse chromosomes and around 40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we offer manual annotation of a number of haplotype regions in mouse and human and regions of comparative interest in pig and dog that are unique to Vega. PMID:18003653

  16. The vertebrate genome annotation (Vega) database

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, L. G.; Gilbert, J. G. R.; Howe, K.; Trevanion, S.; Hubbard, T.; Harrow, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk) was first made public in 2004 and has been designed to view manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences produced at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human annotated loci has more than doubled to close to 33 000 and now contains comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole mouse chromosomes and around 40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we offer manual annotation of a number of haplotype regions in mouse and human and regions of comparative interest in pig and dog that are unique to Vega. PMID:18003653

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Signaling in Vertebrate Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Chun, Jerold

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a cell membrane phospholipid metabolite that can act as an extracellular signal. Its effects are mediated through at least five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1-5, and likely others as well. Studies in multiple species including LPA receptor-deficient mice and humans have identified or implicated important roles for receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of vertebrate reproduction. These include ovarian function, spermatogenesis, fertilization, early embryo development, embryo implantation, embryo spacing, decidualization, pregnancy maintenance, and parturition. LPA signaling may also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and ovarian cancer. Here we review recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to female and male reproduction. PMID:19836970

  18. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  19. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Martin Zebaze Djoumessi; Ghassan Maalouf; Joseph Wehbe; Alexandre Nehme; Naim Maalouf; Ego Seeman

    2004-01-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of ‘fracture’. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define ‘fracture’. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal

  20. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

  1. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172­185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

  2. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

  3. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Mike

    695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA Paleontology and Paleoanthropol- ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; 4Department

  4. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Clark, James M.

    7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION A NEW TROODONTID THEROPOD FROM UKHAA TOLGOD, MONGOLIA MARK A. NORELL1 , PETER J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

  5. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

  6. Leptospirosis in poikilothermic vertebrates. A review.

    PubMed

    Minette, H P

    1983-12-01

    Autochthanous leptospirosis does occur in the poikilothermic vertebrates, as evidenced by positive serological reactions and by the isolation of pathogenic leptospiral serovars. These findings in aquatic members of this group are of special importance in view of the increased worldwide interest in aquaculture farming. Since 1975, 24 of the 101 (23.7%) reported human cases of leptospirosis in Hawaii have been associated with aquaculture industries (taro farms, prawn farms and watercress farms). Antibody synthesis and persistence in these animals is variable, and seems to depend to some extent on environmental temperatures. Some members of the group apparently lack the capacity for immunological memory, experience a considerable delay (lag-phase) in antibody formation, demonstrate the "paradoxical reaction" found in other animals, and can maintain living pathogenic leptospirae in their organs in the absence of detectable antibody utilizing our present serologic methods. For these reasons, serological studies as the sole source of evidence for leptospiral infection cannot be recommended. The immunologic mechanism of lower vertebrates is not known, some studies suggesting that there may be more than one antibody system active in these animals, especially the turtles, and further investigation at the cellular and subcellular levels is indicated. The growth temperatures and nutritional requirements of leptospirae isolated from other than warm-blooded animals is also poorly understood. Some knowledge has been contributed by various investigators in recent years, but much more work needs to be done in studying the nutritional and metabolic requirements of leptospirae isolated from all sources, including the various fauna resident in and around the fresh water streams and ponds. PMID:6373645

  7. Health Impact Associated with Vertebral Deformities: Results from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Matthis; U. Weber; T. W. O'Neill; H. Raspe

    1998-01-01

    :   To study the association between vertebral deformities and subjective health outcome indicators, including back pain and\\u000a disability, a cross-sectional survey with spinal radiographs and personal interviews was carried out in 36 study centres in\\u000a 19 European countries on a total of 15570 men and women aged 50–79 years (population-based stratified random samples). No\\u000a interventions were done. The main outcome

  8. Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  9. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology.

    PubMed

    Patel, N P; Kumar, R; Kinkhabwala, M; Wengrover, S I

    1988-01-01

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. PMID:3293918

  10. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5

  11. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It

  12. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  13. Development anomalies of the occiput

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wickenhauser; O. Hochberg

    1974-01-01

    Four patients with classical features of bathrocephalism are described. Three further patients with developmental anomalies of the occiput are described and these are contrasted with those having classical bathrocephalism. The distinction between the two groups is emphasised. Reference is made to cases described in the pediatric literature which appears at times to depart from the traditional norms and classical notation.

  14. Anomaly detection from hyperspectral imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. J. Stein; S. G. Beaven; L. E. Hoff; E. M. Winter; A. P. Schaum; A. D. Stocker

    2002-01-01

    We develop anomaly detectors, i.e., detectors that do not presuppose a signature model of one or more dimensions, for three clutter models: the local normal model, the global normal mixture model, and the global linear mixture model. The local normal model treats the neighborhood of a pixel as having a normal probability distribution. The normal mixture model considers the observation

  15. Anomalies, Unitarity, and Quantum Irreversibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damiano Anselmi

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and ?R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a, and a?, the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Considerations about unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total

  16. Local gravity anomalies produced by dislocation sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Dilatancy, in general, does not correspond to the absence of a free air anomaly, as might be suggested by the special case of a spherical source of dilatation. For two-dimensional models a cylindrical source of dilatation produces no free air gravity anomaly, dip-slip faulting produces no Bouguer anomaly, and open cracks produce a Bouguer anomaly equal to that which would be produced had the material within the crack been mined out without deforming the solid. -from Author

  17. Lorentz Accelerations in the Earth Flyby Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin A. Atchison; Mason A. Peck

    2010-01-01

    Mission engineers have detected an unexpected anomaly on six spacecraft during low-altitude gravity-assist maneuvers around Earth. This Earth flyby anomaly involves an acceleration that, to date, researchers cannot account for based on known forces or errors in measurement or modeling. This paper evaluates Lorentz accelerations associated with spacecraft electrostatic charging as a possible explanation for the Earth flyby anomaly. This

  18. Payload Content based Network Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep A. Thorat; Amit K. Khandelwal; Bezawada Bruhadeshwar; K. Kishore

    2008-01-01

    We present payload content based network anomaly detection, we call as PCNAD. PCNAD is an improvement to PAYL system which is considered one of the complete systems for payload based anomaly detection. PAYL takes into consideration the entire payload for profile calculation and effectively for anomaly detection. Payload length is very high on port numbers like 21 and 80. Hence

  19. Diagnosing network-wide traffic anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anukool Lakhina; Mark Crovella; Christophe Diot

    2004-01-01

    Anomalies are unusual and significant changes in a network's traffic levels, which can often span multiple links. Diagnosing anomalies is critical for both network operators and end users. It is a difficult problem because one must extract and interpret anomalous patterns from large amounts of high-dimensional, noisy data.In this paper we propose a general method to diagnose anomalies. This method

  20. Spectrum of anomalies in Fanconi anaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Glanz; F C Fraser

    1982-01-01

    The frequency of various anomalies was compared in probands with Fanconi anaemia and their affected sibs. As probands are usually ascertained because of a 'characteristic' array of physical anomalies, the frequencies of these specific anomalies may be overestimated in probands, whereas their affected sibs may provide a more accurate estimate. The frequencies of growth retardation, skin hyperpigmentation, radial ray deformities,

  1. Detecting BGP Anomalies with Wavelet Jianning Mai

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    Detecting BGP Anomalies with Wavelet Jianning Mai ECE Department, UC Davis jnmai@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract--In this paper, we propose a BGP anomaly detection framework called BAlet that delivers both property and earlier success in applying it for network anomaly detection motivate us to apply the same

  2. Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes

    E-print Network

    Vasconcelos, Nuno M.

    Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes Weixin Li, Student Member, IEEE, Vijay that the latter achieves state-of- the-art anomaly detection results. Index Terms--Video analysis, surveillance, anomaly detection, crowded scene, dynamic texture, center-surround saliency Ç 1 INTRODUCTION SURVEILLANCE

  3. CONCURRENT ATMOSPHERE-LAND-OCEAN ANOMALIES

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    deviation can be used as threshold Duration of this anomaly A standard deviation with respect to the annual and 850hPa RV anomalies. #12;Annual number (contours) and average life span (shades) Geographical anomalies that exceeded one quarter of the standard deviation (w.r.t. the annual cycle) we counted

  4. Considerations on evolution and healing of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Raymond; Trevisan, Carlo; Nava, Veronica; Riccardi, Domenico; Recalcati, Wilmer

    2013-10-01

    Only little is known when talking about the evolution of a vertebral fracture. From the few studies available in the literature, we can deduce that the risk a vertebral compression fracture has to worsen its deformity is consistent. It is important to try to make a prognosis on how the fracture is going to heal based on the type of fracture encountered. A chapter of its own is the occurrence of a vertebral fracture non-union that is difficult to diagnose and treat, but comes along with a poor prognosis. PMID:24046049

  5. BY DEFINITION UNDEFINED: ADVENTURES IN ANOMALY (AND ANOMALOUS CHANGE) DETECTION

    E-print Network

    Theiler, James

    BY DEFINITION UNDEFINED: ADVENTURES IN ANOMALY (AND ANOMALOUS CHANGE) DETECTION James Theiler Los for the detection of anomalies and anomalous changes in hyperspectral imagery. The technical emphasis in anomaly. In general, the detection of anomalies is complicated by the fact that anomalies are rare and that anomalies

  6. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Robert S.; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of ‘soft’ cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2?1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella. PMID:20947532

  7. Apollo experience report: Flight anomaly resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobb, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The identification of flight anomalies, the determination of their causes, and the approaches taken for corrective action are described. Interrelationships of the broad range of disciplines involved with the complex systems and the team concept employed to ensure timely and accurate resolution of anomalies are discussed. The documentation techniques and the techniques for management of anomaly resolution are included. Examples of specific anomalies are presented in the original form of their progressive documentation. Flight anomaly resolution functioned as a part of the real-time mission support and postflight testing, and results were included in the postflight documentation.

  8. Anomaly detection and diagnosis in Grid environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.; Liu, C.; Schopf, J. M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Microsoft Corp.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying and diagnosing anomalies in application behavior is critical to delivering reliable application-level performance. In this paper we introduce a strategy to detect anomalies and diagnose the possible reasons behind them. Our approach extends the traditional window-based strategy by using signal-processing techniques to filter out recurring, background fluctuations in resource behavior. In addition, we have developed a diagnosis technique that uses standard monitoring data to determine which related changes in behavior may cause anomalies. We evaluate our anomaly detection and diagnosis technique by applying it in three contexts when we insert anomalies into the system at random intervals. The experimental results show that our strategy detects up to 96% of anomalies while reducing the false positive rate by up to 90% compared to the traditional window average strategy. In addition, our strategy can diagnose the reason for the anomaly approximately 75% of the time.

  9. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  10. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  11. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  12. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  13. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei Klioner; P. Kenneth Seidelmann

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric\\u000adata. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby\\u000atrajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a\\u000achange in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the\\u000aastronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It

  14. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID:11541324

  15. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  16. Extracellular matrix dynamics during vertebrate axis formation.

    PubMed

    Czirók, András; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

    2004-04-01

    The first evidence for the dynamics of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) pattern formation during embryogenesis is presented below. Fibrillin 2 filaments were tracked for 12 h throughout the avian intraembryonic mesoderm using automated light microscopy and algorithms of our design. The data show that these ECM filaments have a reproducible morphogenic destiny that is characterized by directed transport. Fibrillin 2 particles initially deposited in the segmental plate mesoderm are translocated along an unexpected trajectory where they eventually polymerize into an intricate scaffold of cables parallel to the anterior-posterior axis. The cables coalesce near the midline before the appearance of the next-formed somite. Moreover, the ECM filaments define global tissue movements with high precision because the filaments act as passive motion tracers. Quantification of individual and collective filament "behaviors" establish fate maps, trajectories, and velocities. These data reveal a caudally propagating traveling wave pattern in the morphogenetic movements of early axis formation. We conjecture that within vertebrate embryos, long-range mechanical tension fields are coupled to both large-scale patterning and local organization of the ECM. Thus, physical forces or stress fields are essential requirements for executing an emergent developmental pattern-in this case, paraxial fibrillin cable assembly. PMID:15031109

  17. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  18. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  19. A Creative Teacher's Innovative-Mind-Expanding Vertebrate Project Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Faye H.

    1981-01-01

    The article provides a collection of teaching ideas about vertebrate animals. Ideas include making a poem book about a group of animals, rhyming words with animal names, and finding animal names in a puzzle. (DB)

  20. Three Periods of Regulatory Innovation During Vertebrate Evolution

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    The gain, loss, and modification of gene regulatory elements may underlie a substantial proportion of phenotypic changes on animal lineages. To investigate the gain of regulatory elements throughout vertebrate evolution, ...

  1. INTRODUCTION Aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates commonly use oscillating

    E-print Network

    Richards, Chris

    #12;3181 INTRODUCTION Aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates commonly use oscillating paired limbs of the joints, feet and body were obtained from high speed video of X. laevis frogs (N=4) during swimming over

  2. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  3. VERTEBRATE CHEMICAL DEFENSE: SECRETED AND TOPICALLY ACQUIRED DETERRENTS OF ARTHROPODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropods profoundly affect the fitness of terrestrial vertebrates. Some arachnids, centipedes, and insects opportunistically prey on small tetrapods. Some social hymenopterans launch massive foraging swarms and fiercely defend their colonies via stinging or biting attacks. Pelage- or plumage-degr...

  4. Speciation durations and Pleistocene effects on vertebrate phylogeography

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    Speciation durations and Pleistocene effects on vertebrate phylogeography John C. Avise* , De to evaluate Pleistocene phylogeographic e¡ects and to estimate temporal spans of the speciation process and birds, Pleistocene conditions played an important role in initiating phylogeographic di

  5. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance. PMID:20399726

  6. international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife

    E-print Network

    The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

  7. A New Mechanistic Scenario for the Origin and Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cattell; Su Lai; Robert Cerny; Daniel Meulemans Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of cellular cartilage was a defining event in vertebrate evolution because it made possible the physical expansion of the vertebrate “new head”. Despite its central role in vertebrate evolution, the origin of cellular cartilage has been difficult to understand. This is largely due to a lack of informative evolutionary intermediates linking vertebrate cellular cartilage to the acellular cartilage

  8. INTRODUCTION As the most basal extant vertebrate, the lamprey is in a critical

    E-print Network

    McCauley, David W.

    INTRODUCTION As the most basal extant vertebrate, the lamprey is in a critical position to provide important insights into our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate traits. Two cell populations that distinguish vertebrates from cephalochordates, closely related non-vertebrate chordates, are neural crest

  9. The effect of osteoporotic vertebral fracture on predicted spinal loads in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Briggs; Tim V. Wrigley; Jaap H. van Dieën; Bev Phillips; Sing Kai Lo; Alison M. Greig; Kim L. Bennell

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of osteoporotic vertebral fractures is multi-factorial, and cannot be explained solely by low bone mass. After sustaining an initial vertebral fracture, the risk of subsequent fracture increases greatly. Examination of physiologic loads imposed on vertebral bodies may help to explain a mechanism underlying this fracture cascade. This study tested the hypothesis that model-derived segmental vertebral loading is greater

  10. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  11. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction ...

  12. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). The medical and prosthetic aspects were dealt with in Part I of this paper. Part II describes, in a joint report, the results of psychiatric, psychological and educational assessments. There was no evidence of major emotional disorder in any of the patients, although conflicts were intensified by the presence of the physical anomaly. No relation was found between intelligence, emotional adjustment and disability. The patient's attitude towards his disability and prosthesis is definitely influenced by the degree of parental acceptance of the handicap and by the character of the emotional undertones in the total environment. In order to favour the occurrence of the healthiest modes of development in these children, the authors believe that the medical profession should be made fully aware of the physical and emotional problems which may arise after the birth of a deformed child. It is considered very important that the mother should receive psychotherapeutic support as soon as possible after the child is born. PMID:14174527

  13. Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fractures in Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Legrand; D. Chappard; C. Pascaretti; M. Duquenne; C. Rondeau; Y. Simon; V. Rohmer; M.-F. Basle; M. Audran

    1999-01-01

    :   In women, many studies indicate that the risk of vertebral fragility fractures increases as bone mineral density (BMD) declines.\\u000a In contrast, few studies are available for BMD and vertebral fractures in men. It is uncertain that the strength of the relationship\\u000a between BMD and fractures is similar in magnitude in middle-aged men and in postmenopausal women. In the present

  14. Brain Comparison of Animals from the Five Vertebrate Classes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-08-01

    Students observe and record similarities and differences among brains of animals from different vertebrate classes. Students gain an understanding of the basic five-part structure of the vertebrate brain by noting the modifications that take place in the basic brain structure as animals become more complex, as well as changes that reflect structural adaptation. Students also learn to organize observational data into comprehensive summary charts.

  15. Biomechanics of vertebral compression fractures and clinical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Adams; Patricia Dolan

    Local biomechanical factors in the etiology of vertebral compression fractures are reviewed. The vertebral body is particularly\\u000a vulnerable to compression fracture when its bone mineral density (BMD) falls with age. However, the risk of fracture, and\\u000a the type of fracture produced, does not depend simply on BMD. Equally important is the state of degeneration of the adjacent\\u000a intervertebral discs, which

  16. Bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion for giant vertebrobasilar aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sluzewski; E. H. Brilstra; W. J. van Rooij; D. Wijnalda; C. A. F. Tulleken; G. J. E. Rinkel

    2001-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation, radiological and clinical results in six consecutive patients with a giant vertebrobasilar\\u000a aneurysm treated by bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion. Five patients presented with headache and signs of brain-stem\\u000a compression and one with subarachnoid haemorrhage. In all patients vertebral artery balloon occlusion was performed. In four,\\u000a this followed successful test occlusion. In one patient, who

  17. Recognition of Vertebral Fracture in a Clinical Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Gehlbach; C. Bigelow; M. Heimisdottir; S. May; M. Walker; J. R. Kirkwood

    2000-01-01

    :   Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have important health consequences for older individuals, including disability and\\u000a increased mortality. Because these fractures can be prevented with appropriate medications, recognition and treatment of high-risk\\u000a patients is warranted. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a large, regional hospital in New England to examine the\\u000a frequency with which vertebral fractures are identified and treated by

  18. Modeling vertebrate diversity in Oregon using satellite imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Elizabeth Cablk

    1997-01-01

    Vertebrate diversity was modeled for the state of Oregon using a parametric approach to regression tree analysis. This exploratory data analysis effectively modeled the non-linear relationships between vertebrate richness and phenology, terrain, and climate. Phenology was derived from time-series NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery for the year 1992 using two methods: principal component analysis and derivation of EROS data center greenness metrics.

  19. Sex-role reversal in vertebrates: behavioural and endocrinological accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Eens; Rianne Pinxten

    2000-01-01

    Sex-role reversal occurs when females compete more intensely than males for access to mates. In this paper, we survey the occurrence of sex-role reversal in vertebrates: we focus on behavioural aspects of sex-role reversal and we examine possible endocrinological correlates of this phenomenon. The best documented cases among vertebrates of sex-role reversal occur in fish and birds. In nearly all

  20. The vertebrate urinary bladder: osmoregulatory and other uses.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The bladder may serve more biological uses than simple storage. The importance of bladder functions can be inferred from its presence among vertebrates, its anatomy and histology. From an evolutionary perspective, bladders have evolved at least twice in the vertebrates. The variability of permeability of the urinary bladder to water and solutes among species is discussed. Finally, the urinary bladder may play an osmoregulatory role. PMID:538956

  1. Vertebrate frugivory and seed dispersal of a Chihuahuan Desert cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Montiel; Carlos Montaña

    2000-01-01

    Vertebrate frugivory of fleshy-fruited plants may be very important for the recruitment of sexually derived seedlings if it represents the main mechanism of primary seed-dispersal.Opuntia rastrera produces fleshy fruits rich in water and sugars that are attractive to vertebrate frugivores. However, there is a very low rate of seedling recruitment in natural conditions. One of the causes that can influence

  2. The genetic and evolutionary basis of colour variation in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hofreiter; Torsten Schöneberg

    2010-01-01

    Variation in pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in vertebrates. Although mammals show less variation\\u000a in body pigmentation than other vertebrate groups, the genetics of colour determination and variation is best understood for\\u000a them. More than 150 genes have been identified that influence pigmentation, and in many cases, the cause for variation in\\u000a pigmentation has been identified

  3. On the equatorial anomaly of the ionospheric total electron content near the northern anomaly crest region

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Cheng, K.; Chen, S. (Telecommunication Training Institute, Ministry of Communications, Taipei, Taiwan (TW))

    1989-10-01

    Daily contour charts of the ionospheric total electron content in latitude versus local time coordinates have been used to study the behavior of the development of the equatorial anomaly around the northern anomaly crest region. The daily development of the equatorial anomaly shows quite large day-to-day variabilities not only on magnetically disturbed days but also on quiet days. The daily maximum anomaly crest moves poleward as the magnitude of the total electron content of the daily maximum anomaly crest increases. The increase of the equatorial electrojet strength also results in a poleward movement of the anomaly crest. No significant correlation exists between the anomaly crest and the magnetic {ital Ap} index. The monthly mean diurnal development of the equatorial anomaly shows a remarkable seasonal difference, with the anomaly largest in equinoxes and slightly larger in winter than in summer. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  4. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  5. Posterior circulation hyperperfusion syndrome after bilateral vertebral artery intracranial stenting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renliang; Zhou, Guangyi; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Hyperperfusion syndrome is a well-documented clinical complication after endarterectomy and carotid stenting. However, little is known about this complication immediately after vertebral artery stenting. A 51-year-old woman who had repeated episodes of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting was diagnosed with vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. The patient underwent bilateral vertebral stenting due to severe stenosis in both intracranial segments of the vertebral arteries. Three hours after the procedure, she had severe headache with vomiting and gradually went into a coma. An urgent brain computed tomographic scan showed hemorrhage in the right cerebellum and subarachnoid region. Also, transcranial Doppler revealed approximate doubling of blood flow velocity in vertebral artery area compared with her baseline value. Cerebral blood flow and blood pressure monitoring, together with intensive antihypertensive therapy, are necessary to reduce the risk of hyperperfusion syndrome after vertebral stenting. Moreover, the safety and efficacy of intracranial vertebral stenting should be further reevaluated by large-scale randomized trials. PMID:18973983

  6. Audiological findings in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective?To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods?Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results?Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions?The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  7. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of ?-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate ?-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of ?-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact ?-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the ?-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of ?-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact ?-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The ?-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of ?-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate ?-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how ?-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  8. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant byproducts of the anomaly lexicon compilation effort. For example, (1) Allows determination of the frequency distribution of anomalies to help identify those with the potential for high return on investment if included in automated detection as part of an ISHM system, (2) Availability of a regular lexicon could provide the base anomaly name choices to help maintain consistency in the DR collection process, and (3) Although developed for the rocket engine test environment, most of the anomalies are not specific to rocket testing, and thus can be reused in other applications.

  9. Structural conservation of interferon gamma among vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Savan, Ram; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R; Sakai, Masahiro; Young, Howard A

    2009-04-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), being the hallmark of the T-cell T(H)1 response, has been extensively studied with respect to its expression and regulation of immune function. This gene has been extensively characterized in many mammalian species, making it one of the most widely cloned immunoregulatory genes. Recently, the gene has been identified in avian and piscine species and we have identified the gene in the frog genome. Based on these identified DNA sequences, we have constructed an evolutionary history of IFN-gamma that shows this molecule can be traced back more than 450 million years ago. Our analysis shows that type II interferon (IFN-gamma) function evolved before the tetrapod-fish split, a finding that contrasts earlier studies showing its origins in tetrapods. The IFN-gamma gene has undergone a further duplication event in teleosts after the tetrapod-fish split suggesting a specific-evolutionary adaptation in fish. The analyses of IFN-gamma, IL-22 and IL-26 genomic region in mammals, chicken, frog and fish reveal an evolutionary conservation of the loci and several regulatory elements controlling IFN-gamma gene transcription. Furthermore, across the vertebrata, the first intron of IFN-gamma gene contains a polymorphic microsatellite that has been closely correlated with disease susceptibility. Comparative-modeling of IFN-gamma structure revealed differences among the representative species but with an overall conservation of the fold, dimer interface and some interactions with the receptor. The structural and functional conservation of IFN-gamma suggests the presence of an innate, natural killer (NK) like response or even an adaptive T(H)1 immune response in lower vertebrates. PMID:19268624

  10. Transradial approach for vertebral artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Tekieli, ?ukasz; Kab?ak-Ziembicka, Anna; Paluszek, Piotr; Trystu?a, Mariusz; Wójcik-P?dziwiatr, Magdalena; Machnik, Roman; Pieni??ek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introductuion Symptomatic severe vertebral artery (VA) stenosis may be treated safely with stent supported angioplasty via femoral access. There is limited clinical data on transradial approach for VA angioplasty in case of peripheral artery disease. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transradial angioplasty of symptomatic VA stenosis. Material and methods Fifteen patients (age 66 ±7.4 years, 73% men, with VA > 80% stenosis, 11 right-side, all symptomatic from posterior circulation (history of stroke, TIA, or chronic ischaemia symptoms)) with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or unsuccessful attempt via femoral approach were scheduled for VA angioplasty by radial access. Clinical and duplex ultrasound (DUS) follow-up were performed before discharge and 1, 12, and 24 months after VA angioplasty. Results The technical success rate was 100%. In all cases VA angioplasty was performed with the use of single balloon-mounted stent (9 bare metal stents, 6 drug-eluting stents). The mean NASCET VA stenosis was reduced from 85.3% to 5.3% (p < 0.001). No periprocedural death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or transient ischaemic attack occurred. During 24-months follow-up, in 12 of 15 patients chronic ischaemia symptoms release was observed, and no new acute ischaemic neurological symptoms were diagnosed in all patients. One patient died 20 months after intervention from unknown causes. There was one symptomatic borderline VA in-stent stenosis 12 months after angioplasty. Conclusions Transradial VA stenting may be a very effective and safe procedure, and it may constitute an alternative to the femoral approach in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis. PMID:25848368

  11. Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2013-04-01

    We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

  12. Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Gerrard, M B

    2008-01-01

    Applying Newtonian dynamics in five dimensions rather than four, to a universe that is closed, isotropic and expanding, suggests that under certain circumstances an additional and previously unidentified acceleration can arise affecting the four dimensional motion of spacecraft. The reported acceleration anomalies from several Earth flybys and from the Pioneer spacecrafts are in reasonable agreement with the predicted values of this additional acceleration. Equations governing this additional acceleration have been derived from first principles, without the introduction of free parameters or new constants and without amendment to the law of gravity.

  13. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  14. Chiral and gravitational anomalies in any dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Delbourgo, R.; Matsuki, T.

    1985-06-01

    Gravitational contributions to the chiral anomaly in 4N space-time dimensions as well as the purely gravitational anomaly in 4N-2 dimensions are expressed in terms of the Riemann--Christoffel tensor. Using this formula, we give a simple proof that if N > or = 4 there is no way to cancel the gravitational anomalies using fields of spin- 1/2 , - (3)/(2) , and -1.

  15. ?-Wars episode I: the phantom anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Intriligator; Jason Kumar

    2002-01-01

    As pointed out, chiral non-commutative theories exist, and examples can be constructed via string theory. Gauge anomalies require the matter content of individual gauge group factors, including U(1) factors, to be non-chiral. All “bad” mixed gauge anomalies, and also all “good” (e.g., for ?0???) ABJ type flavor anomalies, automatically vanish in non-commutative gauge theories. We interpret this as being analogous

  16. Discovery of mass anomalies on Ganymede.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John D; Schubert, Gerald; Jacobson, Robert A; Lau, Eunice L; Moore, William B; Palguta, Jennifer L

    2004-08-13

    We present the discovery of mass anomalies on Ganymede, Jupiter's third and largest Galilean satellite. This discovery is surprising for such a large icy satellite. We used the radio Doppler data generated with the Galileo spacecraft during its second encounter with Ganymede on 6 September 1996 to model the mass anomalies. Two surface mass anomalies, one a positive mass at high latitude and the other a negative mass at low latitude, can explain the data. There are no obvious geological features that can be identified with the anomalies. PMID:15310898

  17. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (principal investigators); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  18. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-07-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136

  19. Anomaly-free sets of fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.

    2005-10-01

    We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

  20. ?-Wars episode I: the phantom anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, Ken; Kumar, Jason

    2002-01-01

    As pointed out, chiral non-commutative theories exist, and examples can be constructed via string theory. Gauge anomalies require the matter content of individual gauge group factors, including U(1) factors, to be non-chiral. All "bad" mixed gauge anomalies, and also all "good" (e.g., for ?0? ??) ABJ type flavor anomalies, automatically vanish in non-commutative gauge theories. We interpret this as being analogous to string theory, and an example of UV/IR mixing: non-commutative gauge theories automatically contain "closed string", Green-Schwarz fields, which cancel these anomalies.

  1. Hemosomegenesis and hemoglobin biosynthesis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brunner Júnior, A; de Rizzo, E; Morena, D D; Cianciarullo, A M; Jared, C; Morena, P

    1992-08-01

    1. Ultrastructural observations on maturing rabbit embryo erythroid cells led to the finding of hemoglobinized organelles distinguishable from mitochondria due to their highly dense matrix, two or three longitudinally arranged double lamellae, and smaller diameters. Intraorganellar 50-60 A particles identical to those contained in the hemoglobinized cytoplasm were found. 2. Their hemoglobin (Hb) content was demonstrated by electrophoresis of the concentrated supernatant from the isolated, washed, and osmotically lysed organellar fraction. We have proposed that these organelles are the sites for heme integration into the globin (G) polypeptide chains and subunits assembly. The term hemosome has been suggested for such entities. 3. This hypothesis has been sustained by several analytical and experimental works based on the postulation that hemosomes should be found at higher frequencies where the Hb biosynthesis rate is more intensive, or where the induction of this biosynthesis is always dependent on the formation of hemosomes. 4. Maturing erythroid cells of the circulating embryo blood contain hemosomes in higher frequency than in liver erythroid cells, coinciding with the higher Hb biosynthesis rate in peripheral blood than in the liver. In bleeding anemia, the decay of Hb concentration parallels the reduction of the mean number of hemosomes per reticulocyte, in comparison with normal reticulocytes. 5. In HeLa cells and epithelial cultured cells induced to synthesize Hb, it was shown that this biosynthesis is ever concomitant with the formation of hemosomes and depends on the presence of erythropoietin, as occurs in erythroid cells. 6. Studies on hemosomegenesis and Hb biosynthesis experimentally effected in epithelial cultured cells, allowed the interpretation of the sequence of events leading to hemosome formation in maturing erythroid cells. Simultaneously with iron uptake, mitochondria differentiate to lamellated bodies and, successively, expansions rise for ferruginous compounds and G polypeptides gathering, followed by prehemosome vesicles formation, which condense and change to prohemosomes that afterwards evolve to hemosomes. 7. These dynamics, and organellar Hb have been detected in immature erythrocytes of mammalians, including humans, avians, reptilians, amphibians and representative fish specimens. It appears that these events occur in the erythrocytary maturation of all vertebrate classes. PMID:1355029

  2. Nme protein family evolutionary history, a vertebrate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Background The Nme family, previously known as Nm23 or NDPK, is involved in various molecular processes including tumor metastasis and some members of the family, but not all, exhibit a Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) activity. Ten genes are known in humans, in which some members have been extensively studied. In non-mammalian species, the Nme protein family has received, in contrast, far less attention. The picture of the vertebrate Nme family remains thus incomplete and orthology relationships with mammalian counterparts were only partially characterized. The present study therefore aimed at characterizing the Nme gene repertoire in vertebrates with special interest for teleosts, and providing a comprehensive overview of the Nme gene family evolutionary history in vertebrates. Results In the present study, we present the evolutionary history of the Nme family in vertebrates and characterize the gene family repertoire for the first time in several non-mammalian species. Our observations show that vertebrate Nme genes can be separated in two evolutionary distinct groups. Nme1, Nme2, Nme3, and Nme4 belong to Group I while vertebrate Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, Nme8, and Nme9 belong to Group II. The position of Nme10 is in contrast more debatable due to its very specific evolutionary history. The present study clearly indicates that Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, and Nme8 originate from duplication events that occurred before the chordate radiation. In contrast, Nme genes of the Group I have a very different evolutionary history as our results suggest that they all arise from a common gene present in the chordate ancestor. In addition, expression patterns of all zebrafish nme transcripts were studied in a broad range of tissues by quantitative PCR and discussed in the light of the function of their mammalian counterparts. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework that will pave the way for future studies on vertebrate Nme proteins and provides a unified vertebrate Nme nomenclature that is consistent with the nomenclature in use in mammals. Based on protein structure and expression data, we also provide new insight into molecular functions of Nme proteins among vertebrates and raise intriguing questions on the roles of Nme proteins in gonads. PMID:19852809

  3. Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (; )

    2005-02-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

  4. Vertebrate extinctions and survival across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffetaut, Eric

    1990-01-01

    A critical analysis of the fossil vertebrate record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary shows that the available evidence is far less accurate than that concerning invertebrates and microfossils. Far-reaching conclusions have been drawn from generalisations about vertebrate extinctions in the continental realm based on the local record from western North America, but little is known about patterns of terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions in other parts of the world, and even the western North American record is ambiguous. Despite this unsatisfactory record, it clearly appears that terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions were highly selective, with some groups (e.g. dinosaurs) becoming completely extinct, whereas others seem to be virtually unaffected. This argues against devastating catastrophes of the kind postulated by some recent impact scenarios. However, the survival of groups known to be sensitive to climatic deterioration (such as crocodilians and other non-dinosaurian reptiles) indicates that alternative hypotheses involving gradual but fairly important climatic changes on a world-wide scale are not convincing either. The pattern of extinction and survival among vertebrates across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary may be explained as a consequence of the disruption of some food chains following a crisis in the plant kingdom, which itself may have been the result of the atmospheric consequences of unusual extraterrestrial or internal events.

  5. Micromechanics of the Human Vertebral Body for Forward Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J.; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2012-01-01

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E = 8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E = 2,500 MPa. As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean ± SD for n = 22: 41.3% ± 7.4% compression; 44.1% ± 8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

  6. Amines from vertebrates guide triatomine bugs to resources.

    PubMed

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Guerin, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Most triatomine bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are nest-living insects that require vertebrate blood or invertebrate haemolymph to complete their life cycle. Vertebrates accumulate excretory products in or near their nesting sites and we hypothesize that triatomines use emanations from such host wastes when searching for resources. Here we recount how triatomine bugs increase upwind locomotion on a servosphere in response to volatile amine constituents of vertebrate excretions. Fresh chicken faeces is strongly attractive to Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. Ammonia induces attraction and an increase in both speed and total path length by R. prolixus on the servosphere. Whereas ethylamine and dimethylamine attract R. prolixus, Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus geniculatus, other amine constituents of vertebrate excretions such as isobutylamine and hexylamine induce R. prolixus nymphs to walk faster and for a longer period. These amines are derived from generally occurring metabolites of vertebrates and from gut flora metabolism. We conclude that amines and other products associated with nesting hosts serve as signals for foraging triatomines. PMID:25260571

  7. Advances and innovations in revascularization of extracranial vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Spetzler, Robert F; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2014-02-01

    Revascularization of the extracranial vertebral artery has evolved significantly since the adoption of endovascular techniques. The current neurosurgical armamentarium includes microsurgical and endovascular approaches. The indications for each treatment modality, however, still need to be further delineated. In contrast to carotid artery endarterectomy and carotid artery angioplasty/stenting, there is limited comparative evidence on the efficacy of medical, open, and endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial vertebral artery. More recently, drug-eluting stents have gained momentum after high rates of in-stent restenosis have been reported with bare metal stents placed in the vertebral artery. In this article, we discuss the indications, clinical assessment, and surgical nuances of microsurgical and endovascular revascularization for atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial vertebral artery. Despite a general tendency to consider endovascular treatment in the majority of patients, ultimately, open and endovascular revascularization of extracranial vertebral artery should be regarded as complementary therapies and both treatment options need to be discussed in selected patients. PMID:24402479

  8. Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies

    E-print Network

    M. B. Gerrard; T. J. Sumner

    2010-04-09

    Applying Newtonian dynamics in five dimensions rather than four, to a universe that is closed, isotropic and expanding,suggests that under certain circumstances an additional and previously unidentified acceleration, a_A, can arise affecting the four dimensional motion of spacecraft. The two cases of this acceleration being either real or virtual are considered. In the real case, simple estimates of a_A are shown to be in partial agreement with reported acceleration anomalies from several Earth flybys and from the Pioneer spacecraft. However, these estimates do not fully reconcile with radio Doppler tracking data. The virtual case, by contrast, appears to overcome these and other difficulties with the real case, and is discussed in an addendum. Furthermore, the virtual case has an altitude dependence which makes detection of any anomaly unlikely above ~2000 km. Equations governing this additional acceleration have been derived from first principles, without the introduction of free parameters or new constants and without amendment to the law of gravity.

  9. Anomaly Detection over Noisy Data using Learned Probability Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleazar Eskin

    2000-01-01

    Traditional anomaly detection techniques focus on detecting anomalies in new data after training on normal (or clean) data. In this paper we present a technique for detecting anomalies without training on normal data. We present a method for detecting anomalies within a data set that contains a large number of normal elements and relatively few anomalies. We present a mixture

  10. Challenging the Supremacy of Traffic Matrices in Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Challenging the Supremacy of Traffic Matrices in Anomaly Detection Augustin Soule Thomson Fernando-wide anomaly detection techniques pro- posed in the literature define an anomaly as a statistical outlier- bones. Then, a network-wide anomaly detection method is applied to each formalism. All anomalies

  11. VIDEO ANOMALY DETECTION IN SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTEXT , Junsong Yuan2

    E-print Network

    Tsaftaris, Sotirios

    VIDEO ANOMALY DETECTION IN SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTEXT Fan Jiang1 , Junsong Yuan2 , Sotirios A are detected as anomalies. Experiments on real traffic video prove that the detected video anomalies are defined as anomaly. Despite the success of clustering-based approaches for anomaly detection

  12. Depth of principal mass anomalies contributing to the earth's geoidal undulations and gravity anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Bowin

    1983-01-01

    To help decipher the distribution of the principal mass anomalies within the earth, an analysis is made of the earth's potential field by simultaneously considering both gravity and geoid anomalies. Ancillary knowledge about the earth from astronomical, angular momentum, seismological, and plate tectonic studies aids in deciding between deep or broad shallow?mass anomalies as the causative source of certain potential

  13. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C

    2015-07-21

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  14. Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.

    PubMed

    Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

  15. GONAD MORPHOGENESIS IN VERTEBRATES: DIVERGENT MEANS TO A CONVERGENT END

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Capel, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    A critical element of successful sexual reproduction is the generation of sexually dimorphic adult reproductive organs, the testis and ovary, which produce functional gametes. The examination of different vertebrate species shows that the adult gonad is remarkably similar in its morphology across different phylogenetic classes. Surprisingly, however, the cellular and molecular programs employed to create similar organs are not evolutionarily conserved. We highlight the mechanisms used by different vertebrate model systems to generate the somatic architecture necessary to support gametogenesis. In addition, we examine the different vertebrate patterns of germ cell migration from their site of origin to colonize the gonad, and highlight their roles in sex-specific morphogenesis. We also discuss the plasticity of the adult gonad and consider how different genetic and environmental conditions can induce transitions between testis and ovary morphology. PMID:19807280

  16. Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

    2014-04-01

    Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

  17. Percutaneous Technique for Sclerotherapy of Vertebral Hemangioma Compressing Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M. [Al-Azhar University Medical Center, Sayed GalalHospital, Port Saeed Str. 540, Cairo 11563 (Egypt)

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: In this study we report a percutaneous technique to achieve sclerosis of vertebral hemangioma and decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Methods: Under CT guidance the affected vertebral body is punctured by a biopsy needle and sclerosant is injected directly into the tumor. In the case of large paravertebral extension, additional injection is given in the paravertebral soft tissue component to induce shrinkage of the whole tumor mass and release of the compressed spinal cord. Results: Using this technique we treated five patients in whom vertebral hemangioma gave rise to neurologic symptoms.In three patients, sclerotherapy was the only treatment given. In the other two patients, sclerotherapy was preceded by transcatheter embolization. Neither decompressive surgery, radiation therapy nor stabilization was required with this technique. Conclusion: Our experience with CT-guided intraosseous sclerotherapy has proved highly satisfactory.

  18. Vertebral burst fractures: CT analysis of the retropulsed fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J. Jr.; Garfin, S.R.; Resnick, D.

    1984-12-01

    Ten cases of retropulsed thoracolumbar vertebral body fragments that had been documented by CT were reviewed to define and characterize the nature, appearance, and position of the retropulsed fragment. All of the retropulsed fragments arose from the superior aspect of the vertebral body. Five of ten patients had a vertical fracture within the retropulsed fragment. Six of ten patients had an associated vertical or Y-shaped fracture originating from the region of the basivertebral foramen and passing into the inferior one-half of the vertebral body. The presence of a retropulsed fragment is nearly pathognomonic of an axial compression injury. Characteristics of this lesion that may hinder surgical reduction are the intra-fragment fracture, rotation, and craniocaudad movement.

  19. Concordia discors: duality in the origin of the vertebrate tail

    PubMed Central

    Handrigan, Gregory R

    2003-01-01

    The vertebrate tail is an extension of the main body axis caudal to the anus. The developmental origin of this structure has been a source of debate amongst embryologists for the past century. Some view tail development as a continuation of the morphogenetic processes that shape the head and trunk (i.e. gastrulation). The alternative view, secondary development, holds that the tail forms in a manner similar to limb development, i.e. by secondary induction. Previous developmental studies have provided support for both views. Here I revisit these studies, describing caudal morphogenesis in select vertebrates, the associated genes and developmental defects, and, as a relevant aside, consider the developmental and evolutionary relationships of primary and secondary neurulation. I conclude that caudal development enlists both gastrulation and secondary induction, and that the application of recent high-resolution cell labelling technology may clarify how these discordant programmes interact in building the vertebrate tail. PMID:12713266

  20. [Secondary hyperparathyroidism and multiple vertebral brown tumors: cure after parathyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Turc Baron, C; Djamali, A; Delmas, S; Lopez, S; Deschodt, G; Mourad, G

    1997-01-01

    A 46 year old man was referred for severe left cruralgia and multiple vertebral cystic defects on CT-scan. He was treated by hemodialysis since 1987 for chronic renal failure secondary to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, diagnosed in 1960 on renal biopsy. Dialysis schedule consisted of 3 x 4 h/week with a polysulfone dialyser and 1.75 mMol Ca containing bicarbonate dialysate. On early 1995, the patient complained of back pain and cruralgia, which gradually worsened. Vertebral column CT-scan and MRI showed multiple lytic lesions expanding into the medullary canal. Biological hyperparathyroidism was present. To differentiate between hyperparathyroidism with brown tumors, malignancy and amyloid deposition, an iliac biopsy and a biopsy of a corporeal vertebral cyst were done. They showed florid hyperparathyroidism and brown tumors. The patient was submitted to surgical parathyroidectomy. Six months after surgery, cruralgia resumed, CT-scan and MRI showed refilling of the cysts by calcic material. PMID:9380247

  1. University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

  2. Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

  3. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  4. Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

    2007-01-01

    In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

  5. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this case the spectra and cross spectra show that the source of the noise is instability in the gyro platform. Spectral techniques should always be applied to vector data in order to avoid overinterpretation of short-wavelength features.

  6. Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly

    E-print Network

    N. Sadooghi; A. Jafari Salim

    2006-10-07

    The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U(1) axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the ``nonplanar'' axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative QED.

  7. Finding Hyperspectral Anomalies Using Multivariate Outlier Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Smetek; Kenneth W. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    This research demonstrates the adverse implications of using non-robust statistical methods for detecting anomalies in hyperspectral image data, and proposes the use of multivariate outlier detection methods as an alternative detection strategy. Existing outlier detection methods are adapted for use in a hyperspectral image context, and their performance is compared to the benchmark RX detector and a cluster-based anomaly detector.

  8. Anomaly Detection and Reconstruction From Random Projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Fowler; Qian Du

    2012-01-01

    Compressed-sensing methodology typically employs random projections simultaneously with signal acquisition to accomplish dimensionality reduction within a sensor device. The effect of such random projections on the preservation of anomalous data is investigated. The popular RX anomaly detector is derived for the case in which global anomalies are to be identified directly in the random-projection domain, and it is determined via

  9. Limb anomalies in the CHARGE association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Meinecke; A Polke; P Schmiegelow

    1989-01-01

    We report a male infant with iris coloboma, choanal atresia, postnatal retardation of growth and psychomotor development, genital anomaly, ear anomaly, and anal atresia. In addition, there was cutaneous syndactyly and nail hypoplasia of the second and third fingers on the right and hypoplasia of the left second finger nail. Comparable observations have rarely been reported and possibly represent genetic

  10. Are Flyby Anomalies an ASTG Phenomenon?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Nyambuya

    2008-01-01

    This reading expounds with expediency on the recently proposed Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG) set-up earlier. At its inspection, it was demonstrated that the ASTG is capable (among others solar anomalies) of explaining the precession of the perihelion of solar planets. In the present, we show that the ASTG is capable of explaining the puzzling observations of flyby anomalies,

  11. Revisiting Gravitational Anomalies and a Potential Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Murad

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational anomalies require investigation and resolution to understand the space environment if man is to travel beyond trans-lunar or trans-Mars region. This paper will provide a framework for further and more detailed evaluations. These anomalies include, a slight change in the sun's gravitational attraction observed by two Pioneer probes based upon trajectory deviations detected after being in flight for over

  12. Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

  13. Magnetic resonance images of neuronal migration anomalies.

    PubMed

    Jaw, T S; Sheu, R S; Liu, G C; Chou, M S

    1998-08-01

    Neuronal migration anomalies are a spectrum of brain malformations caused by insults to migrating neuroblasts during the sixth week to fifth month of gestation. To study the characteristics of MRI findings in migration anomalies, MR images of 36 patients (28 children and 8 adults) with migration anomalies were evaluated. Five patients had lissencephaly, eight had pachygyria, twelve had schizencephaly, six had heterotopias of gray matter, three had hemimegalencephaly, and two had polymicrogyria. The frequency of migration anomalies was 0.51% of all cranial MRI studies and 1.21% of pediatric cranial MRI studies at our hospital. The major clinical presentations of these patients were seizure (64%), development delay (42%), motor deficits (42%) and mental retardation (25%). Twenty-five patients (69%) associated with other brain anomalies, including: other migration anomalies in 12 cases (33%), absence of the septum pellucidum in 10 cases (28%), Dandy-Walker malformation/variant in 5 cases, arachnoid cyst in 4 cases, agenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 cases, holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, mega cisterna magna in 1 case and cephalocele in 1 case. Some of them presented with multiple complicated anomalies. As MR imaging provides superb gray-white matter distinction, details of cortical anatomy and multiplanar capability, it can clearly delineate the detail morphologic changes of the brain caused by neuronal migration disorders as well as the associated anomalies. PMID:9780601

  14. Proactive anomaly detection using distributed intelligent agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

    1998-01-01

    Proactive network anomaly detection is crucial to provide quality of service guarantees for future networks. We characterize a set of proactively detectable anomalies in terms of the management information base variables. The time series data obtained from these variables are analyzed by an intelligent agent, which is a simple and lightweight signal processor. The agent provides real-time proactive alarms that

  15. A Classification Framework for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Steinwart; Don R. Hush; Clint Scovel

    2005-01-01

    One way to describe anomalies is by saying that anomalies are not concentrated. This leads to the problem of finding level sets for the data generating density. We interpret this learning problem as a binary classification problem and compare the corresponding classification risk with the standard performance measure for the density level problem. In particular it turns out that the

  16. Information-Theoretic Measures for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenke Lee; Dong Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an essential component of the pro- tection mechanisms against novel attacks. In this pa- per, we propose to use several information-theoretic mea- sures, namely, entropy, conditional entropy, relative condi- tional entropy, information gain, and information cost for anomaly detection. These measures can be used to describe the characteristics of an audit data set, suggest the appro- priate

  17. Sensitivity of PCA for traffic anomaly detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haakon Ringberg; Augustin Soule; Jennifer Rexford; Christophe Diot

    2007-01-01

    Detecting anomalous traffic is a crucial part of managing IP networks. In recent years, network-wide anomaly de- tection based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has emerged as a powerful method for detecting a wide vari- ety of anomalies. We show that tuning PCA to operate effectively in practice is difficult and requires more robust techniques than have been presented thus

  18. Anomaly detection and classification for hyperspectral imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chein-I. Chang; Shao-Shan Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Anomaly detection becomes increasingly important in hyperspectral image analysis, since hyperspectral imagers can now uncover many material substances which were previously unresolved by multispectral sensors. Two types of anomaly detection are of interest and considered in this paper. One was previously developed by Reed and Yu to detect targets whose signatures are distinct from their surroundings. Another was designed to

  19. Anomaly intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Bhuse; Ajay Gupta

    2006-01-01

    We propose lightweight methods to detect anomaly intrusions in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main idea is to reuse the already available system information that is generated at various layers of a network stack. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such approach for anomaly intrusion detection in WSNs.

  20. Disparity : scalable anomaly detection for clusters.

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lusk, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe disparity, a tool that does parallel, scalable anomaly detection for clusters. Disparity uses basic statistical methods and scalable reduction operations to perform data reduction on client nodes and uses these results to locate node anomalies. We discuss the implementation of disparity and present results of its use on a SiCortex SC5832 system.

  1. Benchmarking Anomaly-Based Detection Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Maxion; Kymie M. C. Tan

    2000-01-01

    Anomaly detection is a key element of intrusion- detection and other detection systems in which pertur- bations of normal behavior suggest the presence of in- tentionally or unintentionally induced attacks, faults, defects, etc. Because most anomaly detectors are based on probabilistic algorithms that exploit the intrinsic structure, or regularity, embedded in data logs, a fun- damental question is whether or

  2. Video Behavior Profiling for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xiang; Shaogang Gong

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to address the problem of modelling video behaviour captured in surveillance videos for the applications of online normal behaviour recognition and anomaly detection. A novel framework is developed for automatic behaviour profiling an d online anomaly sampling\\/detection without any manual labelling of the training dataset. The framework consists of the following key components: (1) A compact and

  3. Overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Uller, Wibke; Fishman, Steven J; Alomari, Ahmad I

    2014-08-01

    Management of overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies is challenging. Careful analysis of the various clinical features by an interdisciplinary team of physicians experienced in this field is paramount to proper diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this article, we focus on the spectrum of the clinical presentation and the management strategies of the most common overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies. PMID:25241100

  4. Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

    2011-01-01

    Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

  5. iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology; )

    2008-01-01

    Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

  6. Lumbo-Costo-Vertebral Syndrome with Congenital Lumbar Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lucky; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done. PMID:24834386

  7. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with congenital lumbar hernia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lucky; Mala, Tariq Ahmed; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done. PMID:24834386

  8. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  9. Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

  10. Topological Anomaly Detection Performance with Multispectral Polarimetric Imagery

    E-print Network

    Gartley, Michael G.

    Topological Anomaly Detection Performance with Multispectral Polarimetric Imagery M.G. Gartley, W to anomaly detection, which leverages topology theory, applied to spectral polarimetric imagery. Detection and Topolog- ical Anomaly Detection (TAD) approaches. We will also present detailed results examining

  11. Gravitational Anomalies in Noncommutative Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Sendic Estrada-Jimenez; Hugo Garcia-Compean; Carlos Soto-Campos

    2004-04-14

    Gravitational axial and chiral anomalies in a noncommutative space are examined through the explicit perturbative computation of one-loop diagrams in various dimensions. The analysis depend on how gravity is coupled to noncommutative matter fields. Delbourgo-Salam computation of the gravitational axial anomaly contribution to the pion decay into two photons, is studied in detail in this context. In the process we show that the two-dimensional chiral pure gravitational anomaly does not receive noncommutative corrections. Pure gravitational chiral anomaly in 4k+2 dimensions with matter fields being chiral fermions of spin-1/2 and spin-3/2, is discussed and a noncommutative correction is found in both cases. Mixed anomalies are finally considered in both cases.

  12. Detecting Flow Anomalies in Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Chua, Freddy Chong Tat; Huberman, Bernardo A

    2014-01-01

    Deep within the networks of distributed systems often contain anomalies that affect its efficiency and performance. These anomalies are difficult to detect because the distributed systems may not have sufficient sensors to monitor the flow of traffic within the interconnected nodes of the networks. Without early detection and making corrections, these anomalies may aggravate over time and could possibly cause disastrous outcomes in the system in the unforeseeable future. Using only coarse-grained information from the two end points of network flows, we propose a network transmission model and a localization algorithm, to detect the location of anomalies and rank them using a proposed metric within distributed systems. We evaluate our approach on passengers' records of an urbanized city's public transportation system and correlate our findings with passengers' postings on social media microblogs. Our experiments show that the metric derived using our localization algorithm gives a better ranking of anomalies a...

  13. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  14. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  15. Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Sergio Benvenuti; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas; Yuji Tachikawa

    2006-07-20

    The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the gravity result is in perfect agreement with the corresponding quiver gauge theory. Our analysis reveals an interesting connection with the condensation of giant gravitons or dibaryon operators which effectively induces a rolling among Sasaki-Einstein vacua.

  16. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Coates, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Boardsen, S. A.; Moore, T. E.; Barabash, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a Hot Flow Anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venutian foreshock, expanding on an initial study by Slavin et al [2009] that employed magnetometer observations of an HFA-like event during the flyby of NASA's Messenger spacecraft. Whilst the Messenger events were indicative of an HFA, they were unable to demonstrate the unambiguous signatures of plasma heating or deflection due to the paucity of data. We examine the complex internal structure of a Venutian HFA on the 22nd of March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express magnetometer and ASPERA plasma observations to demonstrate the presence of plasma heating within one such event. Centered on an interplanetary discontinuity and bounded by shock, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFA's observed at other planets within the Solar System. Finally, we present a discussion of the implications of an HFA on the planet Venus.

  17. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomalies of 23.9 per 1,000 births for 2003-2007. 80% were livebirths. 2.5% of livebirths with congenital anomaly died in the first week of life. 2.0% were stillbirths or fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation. 17.6% of all cases were terminations of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis (TOPFA). Thus, congenital anomalies overwhelmingly concern children surviving the early neonatal period, who have important medical, social or educational needs. The prevalence of chromosomal anomalies was 3.6 per 1,000 births, contributing 28% of stillbirths/fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation with congenital anomaly, and 48% of all TOPFA. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were the most common non-chromosomal subgroup, at 6.5 per 1,000 births, followed by limb defects (3.8 per 1,000), anomalies of urinary system (3.1 per 1,000) and nervous system defects (2.3 per 1,000). In 2004, perinatal mortality associated with congenital anomaly was 0.93 per 1,000 births, and TOPFA 4.4 per 1,000 births, with considerable country variation. Primary prevention of congenital anomalies in the population based on controlling environmental risk factors is a crucial policy priority, including preconceptional care and whole population approaches. PMID:20824455

  18. Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

  19. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction of anti-mammalian LH-RH in lower vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Immunohistochemical cross-reaction of anti-mammalian LH-RH in lower vertebrates H. J. Th. GOOS P. G make it doubtful that mammalian LH-RH is identical to the GRH of lower vertebrates ; this is supported

  20. Triassic Vertebrates of Gondwanan Aspect from the Richmond Basin of Virginia

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Triassic Vertebrates of Gondwanan Aspect from the Richmond Basin of Virginia A new localityof early,SYNAPSID- dominated assemblages of terres- trial vertebrates, persisting from the late Paleozoic, gave way

  1. To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have a thorough

    E-print Network

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have brevirostris is examined by anatomical dissection, electromyography and high-speed video analysis. Three types phase characteristic of some aquatically feeding vertebrates. During the compressive phase

  2. 59 FR- Draft Policy Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-12-21

    ...Draft Policy Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments...Administration Draft Policy Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments...conservation status, or regulatory mechanisms exist that are significant in...

  3. OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate. Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit predators: supporting evidence to a dramatic increase in the population of invertebrate fruit predators. Evidence consistent

  4. Percutaneous Pediculoplasty for Vertebral Hemangioma Involving the Neural Arch: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Sokun, E-mail: sofuwa@luke.or.jp; Numaguchi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Saida, Yukihisa [St. Luke's International Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas occasionally involve the neural arch and they can be symptomatic. We report a case of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma mainly involving the unilateral neural arch which was successfully treated with percutaneous pediculoplasty using a single-needle technique.

  5. Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* David Posada, and D. James Harris*

    E-print Network

    Posada, David

    Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* à David Posada,à and D. James, Vigo, Spain After analyzing the base composition asymmetry of coding regions in vertebrate mitochondria

  6. Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern Newark Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, in Philadelphia. This paper is essentially an updated

  7. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  8. Literature for 1911 on the behavior of vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Watson

    1912-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies (1911) on the behavior of vertebrates. Studies on vision conducted on fish, reptiles and amphibians, birds and mammals have focused on stimulation in the light-adapted state, discrimination, and localization of visual centers. In audition studies, noise of boats on fish and learning of sounds in raccoons has been addressed. Studies on olfaction in fish and birds; instincts

  9. Genetic and functional analysis of topoisomerase II in vertebrates 

    E-print Network

    Petruti-Mot, Anca

    2000-01-01

    . The purpose of the present study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the topo ll? and ? mRNAs expressed in several vertebrate cell lines.The final aim of this project is to analyze the relative roles of topo ll? in chromatin condensation and chromosome...

  10. Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter D. Koenig; Dirk Van Vuren; Philip N. Hooge

    1996-01-01

    Dispersal is of central importance to population biology, behavioral ecology and conservation. However, because field studies are based on finite study areas, nearly all dispersal distributions for vertebrates currently available are biased, often highly so. The inadequacy of dispersal data obtained directly by traditional methods using population studies of marked individuals is highlighted by comparing the resulting distributions with dispersal

  11. Genetic and Physiologic Dissection of the Vertebrate Cardiac Conduction System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil C Chi; Robin M Shaw; Benno Jungblut; Jan Huisken; Tania Ferrer; Rima Arnaout; Ian Scott; Dimitris Beis; Tong Xiao; Herwig Baier; Lily Y Jan; Martin Tristani-Firouzi; Didier Y. R Stainier

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate hearts depend on highly specialized cardiomyocytes that form the cardiac conduction system (CCS) to coordinate chamber contraction and drive blood efficiently and unidirectionally throughout the organism. Defects in this specialized wiring system can lead to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Thus, a greater understanding of cardiac conduction development may help to prevent these devastating clinical outcomes. Utilizing a cardiac-specific

  12. The vertebrate cell kinetochore and its roles during mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conly L Rieder; E. D. Salmon

    1998-01-01

    A replicated chromosome possesses two discrete, complex, dynamic, macromolecular assemblies, known as kinetochores, that are positioned on opposite sides of the primary constriction of the chromosome. Here, the authors review how kinetochores control chromosome segregation during mitosis in vertebrates. They attach the chromosome to the opposing spindle poles by trapping the dynamic plus-ends of microtubules growing from the poles. They

  13. Tracking ecology over geological time: evolution within guilds of vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blaire Van Valkenburgh

    1995-01-01

    Community structure, stability and change can be observed in the fossil record over timescales that far exceed what is possible in the present. Recent quantitative studies on ecological structure withion ancient guilds of various vertebrate predators, inlcuding birds, mammals and reptiles, have revealed a common pattern of iterative replacement of feeding ecomorphs over time, despite large differences in phylogenetic composition.

  14. Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, Andrew T; Feldheim, Kevin A; Poulakis, Gregg R; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-06-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis - the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually - is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks [1-3]. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen - one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) [1]. Vertebrate parthenogens are characterized as being of the homogametic sex (e.g., females in sharks, males in birds) and by having elevated homozygosity compared to their mother [1-3], which may reduce their viability [4]. Although it is unknown if either of the parthenogenetic snakes would have been carried to term or survived in the wild, facultative parthenogenesis might have adaptive significance [1]. If this is true, it is reasonable to hypothesize that parthenogenesis would be found most often at low population density, when females risk reproductive failure because finding mates is difficult [5]. Here, we document the first examples of viable parthenogens living in a normally sexually reproducing wild vertebrate, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). We also provide a simple approach to screen any microsatellite DNA database for parthenogens, which will enable hypothesis-driven research on the significance of vertebrate parthenogenesis in the wild. PMID:26035783

  15. INTRODUCTION One central question in vertebrate development is how

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    in the nervous system (the central and peripheral nervous system, CNS and PNS), where many hundreds of different pressure and visceral distension from the periphery to the central nervous system. Visceral sensory neuronsINTRODUCTION One central question in vertebrate development is how multipotent progenitor cells

  16. Marine vertebrate zoonoses: an overview of the DAO special issue.

    PubMed

    Moore, M J; Gast, R J; Bogomolni, A L

    2008-08-19

    The role of marine birds, mammals, turtles and fish as vectors of infectious agents of potential risk to humans can be examined from a variety of perspectives. The studies in this DAO Special include a broad survey of multiple agents and species, a sequencing study of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes known to be pathogenic to humans, an assessment of risks to humans working with marine mammals, a source tracking study using E. coli ribotypes, studies of regional Salmonella and Brucella epizootiology, a serology survey and a case report of a herpes simplex infection in a dolphin. Additionally, a recently published study (Venn-Watson et al. 2008; Dis Aquat Org 79:87-93) classifying pure cultures of bacteria from a captive dolphin colony also pertains to this theme. These studies raise the following questions: whether the presence of zoonotic agents in marine vertebrates represents a risk to other marine vertebrates, humans, or both; what are the routes by which these marine vertebrate zoonotic infections are acquired and circulated in the marine ecosystem; to what degree are such agents subclinical versus causes of overt disease in marine vertebrates; what are the subsets of the human population most likely to be affected by such infections; and which human health preventive measures would seem reasonable? PMID:18828558

  17. Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica J. Reschly; Ni Ai; Sean Ekins; William J. Welsh; Lee R. Hagey; Alan F. Hofmann; Matthew D. Krasowski

    2008-01-01

    Bile salts, the major end metabolites of cho- lesterol, vary significantly in structure across vertebrate species, suggesting that nuclear receptors binding these molecules may show adaptive evolutionary changes. We com- pared across species the bile salt specificity of the major transcriptional regulator of bile salt synthesis, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). We found that FXRs have changed speci- ficity for

  18. Correlation between Genetic Variability and Body Size in Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Mezhzherin

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of allozymic variation carried out in the main groups of vertebrate animals revealed a tendency towards the increased level of genetic polymorphism in the species of small animals compared to the large ones. This tendency was clearly followed in caudate amphibians, fishes, and mammals. The data are discussed in terms of the integration of monogenic and polygenic systems

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred CG Peh; James F Griffith; Daniel KH Yip; John CY Leong

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4\\/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography

  20. Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum

    E-print Network

    Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

    REPORT Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum mycorrhizal fungal spore communities and mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) of a tropical rain forest soil and control plots. Seedlings of both plant species grown in control cores had significantly higher arbuscular-mycorrhizal

  1. OCTOBER, 2009 VOL. 22, NO. 4 The Vertebral Column...

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Bats and White Nose Syndrome by Don E. Wilson Our and wings of affected individu- als. White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a large scale epidemic that is killing Virginia, and Virginia. WNS is named after a white fungus seen growing on exposed skin of affected bats

  2. Hormonal control of salt and water balance in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. McCormick; Don Bradshaw

    2006-01-01

    The endocrine system mediates many of the physiological responses to the homeostatic and acclimation demands of salt and water transport. Many of the hormones involved in the control of salt and water transport are common to all vertebrates, although their precise function and target tissues have changed during evolution. Arginine vasopressin (vasotocin), angiotensin II, natriuretic peptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide, urotensin

  3. VERTEBRATES FROM THE CUTLER GROUP OF MONUMENT VALLEY AND VICINITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER PAUL VAUGHN

    ology of Baars will be followed here. Based on comparisons of vertebrate fossils from the Cutler of Monument Valley with those from the Lower Permian of north-central Texas, it would seem that the Halgaito Shale and Cedar Mesa Sandstone are of Wolfcampian age and that the Organ Rock Shale is probably the equivalent of beds near the boundary of the

  4. Numerical simulations of the blood flow through vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Jozwik, Krzysztof; Obidowski, Damian

    2010-01-19

    Vertebral arteries are two arteries whose structure and location in human body result in development of special flow conditions. For some of the arteries, one can observe a significant difference between flow rates in the left and the right arteries during ultrasonography diagnosis. Usually the reason of such a difference was connected with pathology of the artery in which a smaller flow rate was detected. Simulations of the flow through the selected type of the vertebral artery geometry for twenty five cases of artery diameters have been carried out. The main aim of the presented experiment was to visualize the flow in the region of vertebral arteries junction in the origin of the basilar artery. It is extremely difficult to examine this part of human circulation system, thus numerical experiments may be helpful in understanding the phenomena occurring when two relatively large arteries join together to form one vessel. The obtained results have shown that an individual configuration and diameters of particular arteries can exert an influence on the flow in them and affect a significant difference between flow rates for vertebral arteries. It has been assumed in the investigations that modelled arteries were absolutely normal, without any pathology. In the numerical experiment, the non-Newtonian model of blood was employed. PMID:19909956

  5. INTRODUCTION Studies of the neurons in both vertebrate and invertebrate

    E-print Network

    Reh, Thomas A.

    INTRODUCTION Studies of the neurons in both vertebrate and invertebrate retinas have demonstrated that pattern them, have been the subject of much investigation. In the invertebrate, a wealth of experimental and invertebrate eyes are organized in regular arrays. Although much is known about the mechanisms involved

  6. Semaphorins and their receptors in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A Raper

    2000-01-01

    The semaphorins are a family of intercellular signaling proteins that has grown to include 19 identified members in higher vertebrates. Several of its members act as axonal guidance molecules. One participates in signaling in the immune system. The majority, however, do not yet have known biological functions. Recent studies have shown that neuropilins and plexins act as receptors for semaphorins.

  7. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  8. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) in physiologic and failure biomechanics based on compression rate, spinal level, and gender. Results demonstrated a significant increase in ultimate force (i.e., fracture) from lower to higher compression rates. Ultimate stress also increased with compression rate. Displacement and strain to failure were consistent at both compression rates. Differences in ultimate mechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender. PMID:25154535

  9. Surgical reconstruction of the extracranial vertebral artery: Management and outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon Berguer; Lisa M. Flynn; Ronald A. Kline; Louis Caplan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the risk and outcome of reconstruction of the extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA). Method: The study was conducted as a retrospective review of 369 consecutive ECVA reconstructions. Results: The clinical presentations consisted of hemispheric symptoms alone in 4% of the cases, hemispheric and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 30%, and vertebrobasilar symptoms alone in

  10. Emergent endovascular treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sugiu; K. Tokunaga; K. Watanabe; W. Sasahara; S. Ono; T. Tamiya; I. Date

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of endovascular and surgical treatments for ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to determine which treatment is preferable. We evaluated the cases of 25 consecutive patients with ruptured VADAs treated in our institution. From 1992 to 1997, five patients were treated surgically. Since 1998, 20 patients with VADAs have been

  11. Participants: -1 cadaveric spine, C7-L1 vertebral elements

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Participants: - 1 cadaveric spine, C7- L1 vertebral elements Instrumentation: 1) Faro 3D Scanner a surgical skills training platform for paediatric orthopaedic spine surgery. The specific objective SPINE SURGERY Dongwoon Lee1, Reinhard Zeller2, Heather Carnahan*3, Sunita Mathur1, Anne Agur4, David

  12. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  13. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders

    PubMed Central

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  14. Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Michelle H.; Tibbetts, Michael; McHenry, Diana J.; Duerr, Shannon; Brunner, Jesse; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings. PMID:23171835

  15. Introduction The vertebrate axial musculoskeletal system arises from

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    3885 Introduction The vertebrate axial musculoskeletal system arises from somites ­ transient musculoskeletal system from these three somitic compartments is well understood (Brand-Saberi and Christ, 2000, and the dorsal dermis from dermomyotome. Yet, although a functional musculoskeletal system is entirely dependent

  16. Paleomolecular biology unravels the evolutionary mystery of vertebrate UV vision

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    . Vertebrate opsins may be clas- sified into five groups according to their phylogenetic relationships: SWS1 UV. Extensive phylogenetic surveys showed that UV vision is present in some, but not all, species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals (ref. 3; see Fig. 1C), which raised three interrelated

  17. N -Acetylaspartate in the Vertebrate Brain: Metabolism and Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris H. Baslow

    2003-01-01

    N-Acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) is an amino acid that is present in the vertebrate brain. Its concentration is one of the highest of all free amino acids and, although NAA is synthesized and stored primarily in neurons, it cannot be hydrolyzed in these cells. Furthermore, neuronal NAA is dynamic and turns over more than once each day by virtue of its continuous

  18. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wayne, E-mail: wafang@wi.rr.com; Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F. [Froedtert Hospital and Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2007-06-15

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  19. Two Rounds of Whole Genome Duplication in the Ancestral Vertebrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paramvir Dehal; Jeffrey L Boore

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relatively large and complex vertebrate genome was created by two ancient, whole genome duplications has been hotly debated, but remains unresolved. We reconstructed the evolutionary relationships of all gene families from the complete gene sets of a tunicate, fish, mouse, and human, and then determined when each gene duplicated relative to the evolutionary tree of the

  20. DNA Methylation, Epigenetics, and Evolution in Vertebrates: Facts and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution. PMID:24551476

  1. Trabecular rod buckling index in thoraco-lumbar vertebral bonedagger.

    PubMed

    Sutton-Smith, Peter; Parkinson, Ian H; Linn, Andrew M J; Kooke, Simone A; Fazzalari, Nicola L

    2006-01-01

    The need for improved mechanistic understanding of cancellous bone failure is at the core of important clinical problems such as osteoporosis, as well as basic biological issues such as bone formation and adaptation. Three-dimensional (3D) anaglyphs were produced from 15 T12 and L1 vertebral bodies, which encompass the adult life span in both sexes. The anaglyphs were viewed with red-green stereo glasses, using an image analyzer, and trabecular thickness and trabecular length were measured. From biomechanical principles, the strength of individual trabeculae can be estimated from measurement of trabecular rod thickness and trabecular rod length as the load to buckling index. The distribution of the load to buckling index was best described by a log normal curve. Trabecular rod thickness, trabecular rod length, and load to buckling index for males were consistently greater than for females. With aging, trabecular rod thickness, and the load to buckling index decrease for males while trabecular rod length increases for females. In this study, the load to buckling index for thoraco-lumbar vertebral trabecular rods potentially quantifies a greater risk of vertebral fracture for females. Decreased trabecular rod thickness or increased trabecular rod length result in the strength of trabeculae shifting closer to a putative fracture threshold. The corollary being that there is a reduced safety margin for resistance to mechanical loads for the vertebral bodies. The 3D anaglyph technique for measuring trabecular dimensions provides an accurate and precise methodology by which these morphological studies can be undertaken. PMID:16092135

  2. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

  3. Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE)

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    5139 Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) derive from domains forms the peripheral retina, a region that gives rise to several pigmented and nonpigmented, in a mixed genetic background, the progressive appearance of pigmented cells in the neural retina

  4. Vertebrate limb bud development: moving towards integrative analysis of organogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier López-Ríos; Aimée Zuniga; Rolf Zeller

    2009-01-01

    The limb bud is of paradigmatic value to understanding vertebrate organogenesis. Recent genetic analysis in mice has revealed the existence of a largely self-regulatory limb bud signalling system that involves many of the pathways that are known to regulate morphogenesis. These findings contrast with the prevailing view that the main limb bud axes develop largely independently of one another. In

  5. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates Tamar Flash1

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates Tamar Flash1 and Binyamin Hochner2 In recent, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel Corresponding author: Flash, Tamar (tamar.flash for the richness and versatility of animal and human behavior and for the ability to learn new skills and adapt

  6. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to coccobacilli of the HB group.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, M; Eykyn, S J; Walker, M; Warren, R E

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurred in which unusual, fastidious, Gram negative coccobacilli belonging to the "HB" group were isolated. The organisms were Haemophilus aphrophilus in case 1, intermediate between H aphrophilus and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in case 2, and Eikenella corrodens in case 3. All HB bacteria are sensitive to a wide range of antibiotics. PMID:6416539

  7. The sequelae of vertebral crush fractures in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Scane; A. M. Sutcliffe; R. M. Francis

    1994-01-01

    The number of osteoporotic fractures is rising in men and women, because of the demographic trend towards an aging population and an increase in the age-specific incidence of fractures. Although previous studies have examined the morbidity following hip fractures in women, there is little information on the sequelae of vertebral crush fractures in men. We have therefore collected data on

  8. INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into multiple fiber types based on contraction speeds, innervation, metabolism, morphology and the expression of specific contractile proteins. Muscle cells become committed to specific fiber type identities very early in development (for reviews

  9. Genomicsand vertebrate adaptiveradiation: a celebration of the first cichlid genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Darrin Hulsey; Suzy C. P. Renn

    2009-01-01

    The symposium ''Genomics and Vertebrate Adaptive Radiation: A Celebration of the First Cichlid Genome'' was held at the annual meeting for the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology in Boston in January, 2009. While the central topic was the genomics of adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes, the symposium integrated speakers studying genotype-to-phenotype maps in other model organisms. Genomic studies investigating

  10. Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Santini; Jeffrey L. Boore; Axel Meyer

    2003-01-01

    Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn

  11. Diagnosis of hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Meyers; S. N. Wiener

    1991-01-01

    The clinical information and imaging data from 27 patients with hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were reviewed. All patients had roentgenographic and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Seventeen patients had computed tomograms; 17 had technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans; and seven had gallium citrate Ga 67 scans. Magnetic resonance imaging, when used as a part of the initial radiologic evaluation, detected

  12. Titanium cages in the surgical treatment of severe vertebral osteomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Liljenqvist; T. Lerner; V. Bullmann; L. Hackenberg; H. Halm; W. Winkelmann

    2003-01-01

    The role of spinal implants in the presence of infection is critically discussed. In this study 20 patients with destructive vertebral osteomyelitis were surgically treated with one-stage posterior instrumentation and fusion and anterior debridement, decompression and anterior column reconstruction using an expandable titanium cage filled with morsellised autologous bone graft. The patients' records and radiographs were retrospectively analysed and follow-up

  13. A multidimensional approach for detecting species patterns in Malagasy vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Anne D.; Olson, Link E.; Hanley, Carol; Heckman, Kellie L.; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Russell, Amy L.; Ranivo, Julie; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Karanth, K. Praveen; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The biodiversity of Madagascar is extraordinarily distinctive, diverse, and endangered. It is therefore urgent that steps be taken to document, describe, interpret, and protect this exceptional biota. As a collaborative group of field and laboratory biologists, we employ a suite of methodological and analytical tools to investigate the vertebrate portion of Madagascar's fauna. Given that species are the fundamental unit of evolution, where micro- and macroevolutionary forces converge to generate biological diversity, a thorough understanding of species distribution and abundance is critical for understanding the evolutionary, ecological, and biogeographic forces that have shaped Malagasy vertebrate diversity. We illustrate the means by which we apply Mayr's “three basic tasks” of the systematist [Mayr, E. (1942) Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA)] to identify, classify, and study the organisms that together constitute Madagascar's vertebrate community. Using field inventory methods, specimen-based studies, and morphological and molecular analyses, we formulate hypotheses of species identity that then serve as the foundation for subsequent studies of biology and history. Our experience, as well as that of other investigators, has shown that much of the vertebrate species diversity in Madagascar is “cryptic” for both biological and practical reasons. Beyond issues of cryptic biological diversity, the resolution of species identity in Madagascar has been hampered because of a lack of vouchered comparative material at the population level. Through our activities, we are attempting to remedy these limitations while simultaneously enhancing research capacity in Madagascar. PMID:15851666

  14. Characteristics of vertebrate-dispersed fruits in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Corlett

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong has a native angiosperm flora of approximately 1800 species, of which 27% (482 spp.) bear fleshy, presumably vertebrate-dispersed fruits, including 76% of the 337 tree and shrub species and 70% of the 103 climber species. Morphological characteristics were determined for 255 species and nutritional characteristics of the fruit pulp for 153 species. Most fruit species were black (45.1%)

  15. Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls

    E-print Network

    Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls Callum F. Ross1 and Keith A. Metzger2 1. It is often stated that the skull is optimally designed for resisting feeding forces, where optimality gradi- ents ­ variation in bone strain magnitudes across the skull ­ which in the primate skull have

  16. Allometry of Reproduction in Poikilotherm and Homoiotherm Vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Dol'nik

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of 26 allometric empiric equations relating animal body weight and progeny weight, size and weight of the clutch, as well as the accompanying processes in various classes of vertebrates has revealed a principle of large-scale transformation specific for poikilotherms and two others specific for homoiotherm birds and mammals. The appearance of huge terrestrial eggs in reptiles and the

  17. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Bendall; C. Abate-Shen

    2000-01-01

    This review provides a comparative analysis of the expression patterns, functions, and biochemical properties of Msx and Dlx homeobox genes. These comprise multi-gene families that are closely related with respect to sequence features as well as expression patterns during vertebrate development. Thus, members of the Msx and Dlx families are expressed in overlapping, but distinct, patterns and display complementary or

  18. Beyond phytohaemagglutinin: assessing vertebrate immune function across ecological contexts

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    REVIEW Beyond phytohaemagglutinin: assessing vertebrate immune function across ecological contexts in the immune system and the role it plays in the regulation of disease susceptibility, giving rise to the field frame- work of an organism's evolutionary, ecological and life-history contexts. 3. The immune system

  19. A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Moschetta; Fang Xu; Lee R. Hagey; Gerard P. van Berge-Henegouwen; Karel J. van Erpecum; Jos F. Brouwers; Jonathan C. Cohen; Molly Bierman; Helen H. Hobbs; Joseph H. Steinbach; Alan F. Hofmann

    2005-01-01

    Biliary lipids (bile salts, phospholipids, choles- terol, plant sterols) were determined in 89 vertebrate species (cartilaginous and bony fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals), and individual phospholipid classes were measured in 35 species. All samples contained conjugated bile salts (C 27 bile alcohol sulfates and\\/or N -acyl amidates of C 27 and\\/or C 24 bile acids). Phospholipids were generally absent in

  20. HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN

    E-print Network

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN Philip D. Gingerich Abstract. INTRODUCTION One hundred years of paleontological research on early Cenozoic faunas in the Bighorn Basin have also been found on the margin of the Bighorn Basin. The history of paleontological field work

  1. Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Samuel

    2015-05-01

    We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.

  2. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  3. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

  4. Tinkering with the axial skeleton: vertebral number variation in ecologically divergent threespine

    E-print Network

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    Tinkering with the axial skeleton: vertebral number variation in ecologically divergent threespine for publication 25 March 2014 Understanding how the vertebral column is impacted as populations adapt to different in the axial skeleton. We examined variation of vertebral number and body shape in morphologically

  5. The gain and loss of genes during 600 million years of vertebrate

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    The gain and loss of genes during 600 million years of vertebrate evolution Tine Blomme, Klaas://www.psb.ugent.be Duplications in the evolution of vertebrates: Continuous mode of small-scale duplications Large-scale duplication events (whole genome duplications): > 1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates and fishes > 3R

  6. Changes in exonintron structure during vertebrate evolution affect the splicing pattern of exons

    E-print Network

    Pupko, Tal

    Research Changes in exon­intron structure during vertebrate evolution affect the splicing pattern impact on splicing is largely unknown. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed 17 vertebrate length of exons and introns. Our analyses suggest that vertebrate introns increased in length from

  7. Development/Plasticity/Repair Control of Cellular Pattern Formation in the Vertebrate Inner

    E-print Network

    Carney, Laurel H.

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Control of Cellular Pattern Formation in the Vertebrate Inner Retina, Syracuse, New York 13244-1240 The vertebrate retina is composed of cellular arrays that are nonrandom of nonrandom cellular patterns in the vertebrate retina. Key words: retina; development; growth; patterning

  8. Analysis of nuclear receptor pseudogenes in vertebrates: How the silent tell their stories

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    1 Analysis of nuclear receptor pseudogenes in vertebrates: How the silent tell their stories-mail: zdzmg@bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu) Running title: Vertebrate Nuclear Receptor Pseudogenes Keywords: nuclear-genome sequences enables a global inventory of the NR pseudogenes in a number of vertebrate model organisms. Here

  9. Generality of vertebrate developmental patterns: evidence for a dermomyotome in fish

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    Generality of vertebrate developmental patterns: evidence for a dermomyotome in fish S. H. Devoto is an ancient and conserved structure that evolved prior to the last common ancestor of all vertebrates lineage gave rise to vertebrates, most striated mus- cle became anchored to the newly evolved endoskeleton

  10. Exploiting Amoeboid and Non-Vertebrate Animal Model Systems to Study the

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Review Exploiting Amoeboid and Non-Vertebrate Animal Model Systems to Study the Virulence of Human survival during interactions with non-vertebrate hosts, suggesting that fungal virulence may have evolved small non-vertebrates that feed on microorganisms. Host innate immune responses are also broadly

  11. CORRESPONDENCE Open Access Rapid progress on the vertebrate tree of life

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    CORRESPONDENCE Open Access Rapid progress on the vertebrate tree of life Robert C Thomson* , H of life for one clade of particular research interest, the vertebrates. Results: Using an automated phylogenetic approach, we analyse all available molecular data for a large sample of vertebrate diversity

  12. OPA1 alternate splicing uncouples an evolutionary conserved function in mitochondrial fusion from a vertebrate restricted

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a vertebrate restricted function in apoptosis. Running title: OPA1 isoforms in mitochondrial fusion of the mitochondrial network. Conversely, exon 4b and exon 5b, that are vertebrate specific, define a function involved in cytochrome c release, an apoptotic process also restricted to vertebrates. The uncoupling of OPA1 functions

  13. The role of non-native plants and vertebrates in defining patterns of

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    RESEARCH PAPER The role of non-native plants and vertebrates in defining patterns of compositional-continental species exchange using the example of vertebrates. Location European countries and North America (states and non-native assemblages of vascular plants and vertebrates and related these patterns to climatic

  14. Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates Yufeng Wang, Xun- brate gene families that were generated in the early stage of vertebrates and/or shortly before occurred before the divergence be- tween vertebrate and Drosophila, indicating a possible misleading

  15. Identifying tissue-selective transcription factor binding sites in vertebrate promoters

    E-print Network

    Identifying tissue-selective transcription factor binding sites in vertebrate promoters Andrew D the highly degenerate motifs that characterize vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Results), but binding-site identification in vertebrates remains a difficult problem. Tissue-selective tran- scription

  16. Functional Analysis of the Vertebral Column based on MR and Direct Volume Rendering

    E-print Network

    Blanz, Volker

    Functional Analysis of the Vertebral Column based on MR and Direct Volume Rendering P. Hastreiter1 of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen­Nuremberg, Germany Abstract. Degenerative diseases of the vertebral column providing important functional information about the motion of vertebral segments. Avoid this time

  17. A NEW SEGMENTATION AND REGISTRATION APPROACH FOR VERTEBRAL BODY Melih S. Aslan1

    E-print Network

    Louisville, University of

    A NEW SEGMENTATION AND REGISTRATION APPROACH FOR VERTEBRAL BODY ANALYSIS Melih S. Aslan1 , Asem Ali of the vertebral bodies (VBs) are required. In this paper, we propose a new segmenta- tion and registration method of vertebral body (VB) using the Matched filter, ii) initial segmentation using the intensity and spatial

  18. Zoology 109 (2006) 5465 Differential segmental growth of the vertebral column of the rat

    E-print Network

    Bergmann, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    ZOOLOGY Zoology 109 (2006) 54­65 Differential segmental growth of the vertebral column of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) Philip J. BergmannÃ, Amanda D. Melin, Anthony P. Russell Vertebrate Morphology the development of these organisms. We investigate the segmental and regional growth of the entire vertebral

  19. Bio-inspired vertebral column, compliance and semi-passive dynamics in a lightweight humanoid robot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bio-inspired vertebral column, compliance and semi-passive dynamics in a lightweight humanoid robot-inspired multi-articulated vertebral column. We combine mechatronic compliance with structural compli- ance due-Passive Dynamic Walking, Compliance, Vertebral Column, Spine, CPG. INTRODUCTION The problem of robot locomotion

  20. Vertebrate Land Invasions--Past, Present, and Future: An Introduction to the Symposium

    E-print Network

    Gibb, Alice C.

    SYMPOSIUM Vertebrate Land Invasions--Past, Present, and Future: An Introduction to the Symposium the symposium ``Vertebrate Land Invasions ­ Past, Present, and Future'' presented at the annual meeting in vertebrate evolution because it precipitated a sudden radiation of species as new land animals diversified