Note: This page contains sample records for the topic vacterl vertebral anomalies from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

A rare association of fibromuscular dysplasia, renal agenesis, renal arteriovenous fistulae, and vertebral anomalies: expanding the V in VACTERL association.  

PubMed

We report on the association of renal agenesis, renal arteriovenous fistulae, fibromuscular dysplasia and vertebral body anomaly in a young female patient with renovascular hypertension. We believe these vertebral and vascular anomalies can be included under the "V" of the VACTERL association; expanding the vascular spectrum of this complex disorder. PMID:23023878

Alomari, Ahmed K; Alomari, Ahmad I

2012-09-28

2

Analysis of genitourinary anomalies in patients with VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, Limb abnormalities) association.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to describe a novel pattern of genitourinary (GU) anomalies in VACTERL association,which involves congenital anomalies affecting the vertebrae,anus, heart, trachea and esophagus, kidneys, and limbs.We collected clinical data on 105 patients diagnosed with VACTERL association and analyzed a subset of 89 patients who met more stringent inclusion criteria. Twenty-one percent of patients have GU anomalies, which are more severe (but not more frequent) in females. Anomalies were noted in patients without malformations affecting the renal, lower vertebral, or lower gastrointestinal systems. There should be a high index of suspicion for the presence of GU anomalies even in patients who do not have spatially similar malformations. PMID:21235632

Solomon, Benjamin D; Raam, Manu S; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E

2011-06-01

3

Lumbocostovertebral syndrome with associated VACTERL anomaly.  

PubMed

Lumbocostovertebral syndrome is a rare clinical association syndrome rarely accompanied by associated VACTERL anomalies. Only one similar case has been reported previously. We describe the second case, where a male neonate born at 38 weeks of gestation had an unusually high number of congenital anomalies including thoracic hemivertebrae with kyphoscoliosis, a high anorectal malformation, dextrocardia with an atrial septal defect, renal pelvic pyelectasis, hypospadias, and congenital talipes equinovarus. PMID:20850610

Lyngdoh, Toijam S; Mahalik, Santosh; Naredi, Bikash; Samujh, Ram; Khanna, Sanat

2010-09-01

4

Posterior Vertebral Column Resection for VATER\\/VACTERL Associated Spinal Deformity: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VATER\\/VACTERL association is a syndrome notable for congenital vertebral malformations, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies,\\u000a tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and renal or limb malformations. Vertebral malformations may include the entire\\u000a spectrum of congenital spinal deformities, including kyphosis, as was seen in this case. A 14-year-old girl presented to our\\u000a institution with severe rigid sagittal deformity in the thoracolumbar spine that

Matthew E. Cunningham; Gina Charles; Oheneba Boachie-Adje

2007-01-01

5

[Unusual branchial arch, dermoepidermal and nervous system anomalies in a neonate with VACTERL-H syndrome].  

PubMed

VACTERL-H syndrome is a complex disorder of congenital malformations that implies vertebrae, anus, heart, trachea, esophagus, kidneys, limbs and hydrocephalus. Its etiology has been identified in a fraction of patients largely due to their sporadic nature and its high degree of clinical heterogeneity. This report presents a newborn with VACTERL-H syndrome, associated with unusual branchial arch, dermoepidermal and nervous system anomalies, which are compared with those described in the medical literature. Based on our experience, the presentation of this case not only expands the knowledge of the spectrum of anomalies that can occur in VACTERL-H syndrome, but also can be useful in identifying patients with this heterogeneous phenotype. PMID:22859335

Salinas-Torres, Víctor M; Ramos-Márquez, Martha E; Serra-Ruiz, Leticia; Angulo-Castellanos, Eusebio

2012-08-01

6

VACTERL association: a new case with biotinidase deficiency and annular pancreas.  

PubMed

VACTERL (V - Vertebral anomalies, A - Anal atresia, C - Cardiovascular anomalies, T - Tracheoesophageal fistula, E - Esophageal atresia, R - Renal (Kidney) and/or radial anomalies, L - Limb defects) association includes vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal dysplasia, and limb anomalies. Less frequent defects seen with VACTERL association are prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, laryngeal stenosis, ear anomaly, large fontanels, defect of lower limb, rib anomaly, tethered cord, and defects of external genitalia. We report a case of VACTERL association who had concomitant biotinidase deficiency and annular pancreas, which has not been previously reported. PMID:22010814

Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Aydemir, Gökhan; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Paketci, Cem; Aydinoz, Secil

2011-10-20

7

VACTERL anomalies in patients with esophageal atresia: an updated delineation of the spectrum and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VACTERL complex refers to anomalies of the bony spinal column (V), atresias in the gastrointestinal tract (A), congenital\\u000a heart lesions (C), tracheoesophageal defects (TE), renal and distal urinary tract anomalies (R) and limb lesions (L). The\\u000a incidence of each of these components has not been precisely quantified in the recent literature and the full array of anomalies\\u000a within each

Scott J. Keckler; Shawn D. St. Peter; Patricia A. Valusek; KuoJen Tsao; Charles L. Snyder; George W. Holcomb; Daniel J. Ostlie

2007-01-01

8

VACTERL Association.  

PubMed

Here we report a case of VACTERL ASSOCIATION in a twenty three years old married female patient primigravida with 3 months of amenorrhea admitted with history of fever and gastroenteritis along with congenital developmental defects such as scoliosis (V), small ventricular septal defect (C), right sided hemifacial dysmorphic features (right mandibular hypoplasia), small sized right sided kidney (R), bilateral hypoplastic thumb (L). For the diagnosis of VACTERL atleast three out of seven anomalies should be present while our patient had four anomalies. PMID:22315751

Pandey, Dharmendra B; Pednekar, Sangeeta J; Chavan, Swati A; Korivi, Deepa; Shah, Amit Kumar; Kulkarni, Uday P

2011-07-01

9

Cervicobrachialgia with congenital vertebral anomalies and diastematomyelia.  

PubMed

A case of diastematomyelia in an adult female patient is reported. The relationship of the cervicobrachialgia, which was the presenting sign, to the diastematomyelia and the congenital vertebral anomalies is discussed. PMID:6710330

Roosen, N; De Moor, J

1984-05-01

10

VACTERL/VATER Association.  

PubMed

VACTERL/VATER association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. In addition to these core component features, patients may also have other congenital anomalies. Although diagnostic criteria vary, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 40,000 live-born infants. The condition is ascertained clinically by the presence of the above-mentioned malformations; importantly, there should be no clinical or laboratory-based evidence for the presence of one of the many similar conditions, as the differential diagnosis is relatively large. This differential diagnosis includes (but is not limited to) Baller-Gerold syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Currarino syndrome, deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Feingold syndrome, Fryns syndrome, MURCS association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, and VACTERL with hydrocephalus. Though there are hints regarding causation, the aetiology has been identified only in a small fraction of patients to date, likely due to factors such as a high degree of clinical and causal heterogeneity, the largely sporadic nature of the disorder, and the presence of many similar conditions. New genetic research methods offer promise that the causes of VACTERL association will be better defined in the relatively near future. Antenatal diagnosis can be challenging, as certain component features can be difficult to ascertain prior to birth. The management of patients with VACTERL/VATER association typically centers around surgical correction of the specific congenital anomalies (typically anal atresia, certain types of cardiac malformations, and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula) in the immediate postnatal period, followed by long-term medical management of sequelae of the congenital malformations. If optimal surgical correction is achievable, the prognosis can be relatively positive, though some patients will continue to be affected by their congenital malformations throughout life. Importantly, patients with VACTERL association do not tend to have neurocognitive impairment. PMID:21846383

Solomon, Benjamin D

2011-08-16

11

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and VACTERL Association.  

PubMed

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is vital for the patterning and organogenesis of almost every system. The specificity of these developmental processes is achieved through a tight spatio-temporal regulation of Hh signaling. Mice with defective Hh signal exhibit a wide spectrum of anomalies, including Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Renal dysplasia, and Limb defects, that resemble strikingly the phenotypes observed in VACTERL association in humans. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of mammalian Hh signaling and highlight the relevance of various mouse models for studying the etiology and pathogenesis of VACTERL association. In addition, recent advances in genetic study for unraveling the complexity of genetic inheritance of VACTERL and the implication of the Sonic hedgehog pathway in disease pathogenesis are also discussed. PMID:23653575

Ngan, E S-W; Kim, K-H; Hui, C-C

2013-02-01

12

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is vital for the patterning and organogenesis of almost every system. The specificity of these developmental processes is achieved through a tight spatio-temporal regulation of Hh signaling. Mice with defective Hh signal exhibit a wide spectrum of anomalies, including Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Renal dysplasia, and Limb defects, that resemble strikingly the phenotypes observed in VACTERL association in humans. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of mammalian Hh signaling and highlight the relevance of various mouse models for studying the etiology and pathogenesis of VACTERL association. In addition, recent advances in genetic study for unraveling the complexity of genetic inheritance of VACTERL and the implication of the Sonic hedgehog pathway in disease pathogenesis are also discussed.

Ngan, E.S.-W.; Kim, K.-H.; Hui, C.-c.

2013-01-01

13

Mitochondrial Factors and VACTERL Association-Related Congenital Malformations.  

PubMed

VACTERL/VATER association is a group of congenital malformations characterized by at least 3 of the following findings: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. To date, no unifying etiology for VACTERL/VATER association has been established, and there is strong evidence for causal heterogeneity. VACTERL/VATER association has many overlapping characteristics with other congenital disorders that involve multiple malformations. In addition to these other conditions, some of which have known molecular causes, certain aspects of VACTERL/VATER association have similarities with the manifestations of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can result from a number of distinct causes and can clinically manifest in diverse presentations; accurate diagnosis can be challenging. Case reports of individuals with VACTERL association and confirmed mitochondrial dysfunction allude to the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in the pathogenesis of VACTERL/VATER association. Further, there is biological plausibility involving mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible etiology related to a diverse group of congenital malformations, including those seen in at least a subset of individuals with VACTERL association. PMID:23653577

Siebel, S; Solomon, B D

2013-02-01

14

Mitochondrial Factors and VACTERL Association-Related Congenital Malformations  

PubMed Central

VACTERL/VATER association is a group of congenital malformations characterized by at least 3 of the following findings: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. To date, no unifying etiology for VACTERL/VATER association has been established, and there is strong evidence for causal heterogeneity. VACTERL/VATER association has many overlapping characteristics with other congenital disorders that involve multiple malformations. In addition to these other conditions, some of which have known molecular causes, certain aspects of VACTERL/VATER association have similarities with the manifestations of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can result from a number of distinct causes and can clinically manifest in diverse presentations; accurate diagnosis can be challenging. Case reports of individuals with VACTERL association and confirmed mitochondrial dysfunction allude to the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in the pathogenesis of VACTERL/VATER association. Further, there is biological plausibility involving mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible etiology related to a diverse group of congenital malformations, including those seen in at least a subset of individuals with VACTERL association.

Siebel, S.; Solomon, B.D.

2013-01-01

15

VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects.

Brosens, E.; Eussen, H.; van Bever, Y.; van der Helm, R.M.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Zaveri, H.P.; Wijnen, R.; Scott, D.A.; Tibboel, D.; de Klein, A.

2013-01-01

16

VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations.  

PubMed

Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects. PMID:23653573

Brosens, E; Eussen, H; van Bever, Y; van der Helm, R M; Ijsselstijn, H; Zaveri, H P; Wijnen, R; Scott, D A; Tibboel, D; de Klein, A

2013-02-01

17

Congenital vertebral anomalies: aetiology and relationship to spina bifida cystica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family survey of 337 patients with congenital vertebral anomalies has been carried out from the Scoliosis Clinics of Edinburgh and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. From genetic and epidemiological evidence it is clear that multiple vertebral anomalies (without apparent spina bifida) are aetiologically related to anencephaly and spina bifida cystics, carrying a 5-10% risk to subsequent sibs for

R Wynne-Davies

1975-01-01

18

Adriamycin-Induced Models of VACTERL Association.  

PubMed

Animal models are of great importance for medical research. They have enabled analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of complex congenital malformations and have also led to major advances in the surgical and therapeutic management of these conditions. Animal models allow us to comprehend the morphological and molecular basis of disease and consequently to discover novel approaches for both surgical and medical therapy. The anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was incidentally found to have teratogenic effects on rats, producing a range of defects remarkably similar to the VACTERL association of congenital anomalies in humans, providing a reproducible animal model of this condition. VACTERL association is a spectrum of birth defects which includes vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, tracheo-oesophageal, renal and limb anomalies. In recent years, adriamycin rodent models of VACTERL have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of this complex association, particularly in relation to tracheo-oesophageal malformations. The adriamycin rat model and adriamycin mouse model are now well established in the investigation of the morphology of faulty organogenesis and the regulation of gene expression in tracheo-oesophageal anomalies. PMID:23653576

Mc Laughlin, D; Hajduk, P; Murphy, P; Puri, P

2013-02-01

19

VATER/VACTERL Association: Evidence for the Role of Genetic Factors.  

PubMed

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least 3 of the following congenital malformations: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities. The involvement of genetic factors in the development of this rare association is suggested by reports of familial occurrence, the increased prevalence of component features among first-degree relatives of affected individuals, high concordance rates among monozygotic twins, chromosomal (micro-)aberrations or single gene mutations in individuals with the VATER/VACTERL phenotype, as well as murine knock-out models. Despite substantial efforts over the past decade, the genetic etiology of the VATER/VACTERL association in most instances remains elusive. The application of new genomic technologies such as high-resolution copy number variation studies or next-generation exome sequencing might lead to the identification of some of these causes. PMID:23653572

Reutter, H; Ludwig, M

2013-02-01

20

VATER/VACTERL Association: Evidence for the Role of Genetic Factors  

PubMed Central

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least 3 of the following congenital malformations: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities. The involvement of genetic factors in the development of this rare association is suggested by reports of familial occurrence, the increased prevalence of component features among first-degree relatives of affected individuals, high concordance rates among monozygotic twins, chromosomal (micro-)aberrations or single gene mutations in individuals with the VATER/VACTERL phenotype, as well as murine knock-out models. Despite substantial efforts over the past decade, the genetic etiology of the VATER/VACTERL association in most instances remains elusive. The application of new genomic technologies such as high-resolution copy number variation studies or next-generation exome sequencing might lead to the identification of some of these causes.

Reutter, H.; Ludwig, M.

2013-01-01

21

Long-term outcomes of adults with features of VACTERL association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association involves the presence of specific congenital, multi-organ malformations that tend to co-occur. Clinical and research efforts typically center on pediatric patients, and there is a scarcity of information in the literature regarding VACTERL-related issues and outcomes in adulthood. We describe here 11 adults with features of VACTERL association ascertained through our research study on the condition. In our cohort of adult patients, approximately 25% of medically significant malformations that are component features of VACTERL association, including 40% of vertebral, 50% of cardiac, and 50% of renal anomalies, were not identified during childhood. Additionally, medical sequelae of many of the primary malformations identified in infancy or early childhood persist or are first reported in adulthood. These sequelae can involve challenging medical and surgical management in adulthood. As most adults with VACTERL association are not specifically followed for VACTERL-related issues, a more uniform diagnostic work-up and a low threshold for investigation of medical sequelae of the primary disorder may enhance the quality of clinical management in these patients. PMID:20888933

Raam, Manu S; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Hadley, Donald W; Solomon, Benjamin D

2010-10-01

22

Long-term outcomes of adults with features of VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association involves the presence of specific congenital, multi-organ malformations that tend to co-occur. Clinical and research efforts typically center on pediatric patients, and there is a scarcity of information in the literature regarding VACTERL-related issues and outcomes in adulthood. We describe here 11 adults with features of VACTERL association ascertained through our research study on the condition. In our cohort of adult patients, approximately 25% of medically significant malformations that are component features of VACTERL association, including 40% of vertebral, 50% of cardiac, and 50% of renal anomalies, were not identified during childhood. Additionally, medical sequelae of many of the primary malformations identified in infancy or early childhood persist or are first reported in adulthood. These sequelae can involve challenging medical and surgical management in adulthood. As most adults with VACTERL association are not specifically followed for VACTERL-related issues, a more uniform diagnostic work-up and a low threshold for investigation of medical sequelae of the primary disorder may enhance the quality of clinical management in these patients.

Raam, Manu S.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

23

Is Duane retraction syndrome part of the VACTERL association?  

PubMed

We report here a patient with type 1 Duane's retraction syndrome and multiple congenital abnormalities as a result of the VACTERL association. The presented combination of Duane's retraction syndrome and the VACTERL association has not been reported in the literature. The present case was instructive for reviewing the continuous spectrum of ocular anomalies that accompany the VACTERL association. PMID:23658476

Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Kavadarli, Isilay; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-03-20

24

Functional independence of Taiwanese children with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects, which may include anomalies of the vertebral column, limbs, kidneys, and heart; anal atresia; tracheoesophageal fistula; and esophageal atresia. The presence of two or more of the defects establishes the diagnosis. The aim of our study is to describe the functional independence of children with VACTERL association and compare the results to unaffected children. These results will enable clinicians to provide more realistic prognostic information to parents and families. We used the WeeFIM questionnaire to assess the functional skills of 23 patients who had been diagnosed with VACTERL association at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from June 1994 to June 2009. The total WeeFIM scores and sub-scores for three domains (self-care, mobility, and cognition) correlated significantly with age (P?VACTERL association were similar to those of unaffected children. PMID:23165933

Lin, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Kao, Hsin-An; Hung, Han-Yang; Peng, Chun-Chih; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Ren; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

2012-11-19

25

Exome Sequencing and High-Density Microarray Testing in Monozygotic Twin Pairs Discordant for Features of VACTERL Association.  

PubMed

Exome sequencing offers an efficient and affordable method to interrogate genetic factors involved in human disease. Performing exome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities) association-type congenital malformations was hypothesized to potentially reveal discordant variants that could demonstrate disease cause(s). After demonstrating monozygosity, we applied high-density microarrays and exome sequencing to 2 twin pairs in which 1 twin had features of VACTERL association while the other was phenotypically normal (demonstrated through comprehensive clinical and radiological evaluation). No obvious discordant genotypic results were found that would explain phenotypic discordance. We conclude that VACTERL association is a complex disease, and while performing microarray analysis and exome sequencing on phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins may hypothetically reveal genetic causes of disorders, challenges remain in applying these methods in this circumstance. PMID:23653574

Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Hadley, D W; Hansen, N F; Kamat, A; Donovan, F X; Chandrasekharappa, S C; Hong, S-K; Roessler, E; Mullikin, J C

2013-02-01

26

Exome Sequencing and High-Density Microarray Testing in Monozygotic Twin Pairs Discordant for Features of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing offers an efficient and affordable method to interrogate genetic factors involved in human disease. Performing exome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities) association-type congenital malformations was hypothesized to potentially reveal discordant variants that could demonstrate disease cause(s). After demonstrating monozygosity, we applied high-density microarrays and exome sequencing to 2 twin pairs in which 1 twin had features of VACTERL association while the other was phenotypically normal (demonstrated through comprehensive clinical and radiological evaluation). No obvious discordant genotypic results were found that would explain phenotypic discordance. We conclude that VACTERL association is a complex disease, and while performing microarray analysis and exome sequencing on phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins may hypothetically reveal genetic causes of disorders, challenges remain in applying these methods in this circumstance.

Solomon, B.D.; Pineda-Alvarez, D.E.; Hadley, D.W.; Hansen, N.F.; Kamat, A.; Donovan, F.X.; Chandrasekharappa, S.C.; Hong, S.-K.; Roessler, E.; Mullikin, J.C.

2013-01-01

27

De novo microduplications at 1q41, 2q37.3, and 8q24.3 in patients with VATER/VACTERL association.  

PubMed

The acronym VATER/VACTERL association describes the combination of at least three of the following congenital anomalies: vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia (TE), renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L). We aimed to identify highly penetrant de novo copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to VATER/VACTERL association. Array-based molecular karyotyping was performed in a cohort of 41 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and 6 patients with VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype including all of the patients' parents. Three de novo CNVs were identified involving chromosomal regions 1q41, 2q37.3, and 8q24.3 comprising one (SPATA17), two (CAPN10, GPR35), and three (EPPK1, PLEC, PARP10) genes, respectively. Pre-existing data from the literature prompted us to choose GPR35 and EPPK1 for mouse expression studies. Based on these studies, we prioritized GPR35 for sequencing analysis in an extended cohort of 192 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype. Although no disease-causing mutation was identified, our mouse expression studies suggest GPR35 to be involved in the development of the VATER/VACTERL phenotype. Follow-up of GPR35 and the other genes comprising the identified duplications is warranted.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 3 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.58. PMID:23549274

Hilger, Alina; Schramm, Charlotte; Pennimpede, Tracie; Wittler, Lars; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Bartels, Enrika; Engels, Hartmut; Zink, Alexander M; Degenhardt, Franziska; Müller, Annette M; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Hosie, Stuart; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Wijers, Charlotte Hw; Marcelis, Carlo Lm; van Rooij, Iris Alm; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko; Draaken, Markus

2013-04-03

28

Analysis of FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster in patients with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association, a relatively common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000 -35,000 births, is a non-random association of birth defects that includes vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-esophageal fistula (TE), renal anomalies (R) and limb malformations (L). Although the etiology is unknown in the majority of patients, there is evidence that it is causally heterogeneous. Several studies have shown evidence for inheritance in VACTERL, implying a role for genetic loci. Recently, patients with component features of VACTERL and a lethal developmental pulmonary disorder, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV), were found to harbor deletions or mutations affecting FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24. We investigated this gene through direct sequencing and high-density SNP microarray in 12 patients with VACTERL association but without ACD/MPV. Our mutational analysis of FOXF1 showed normal sequences and no genomic imbalances affecting the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24 in the studied patients. Possible explanations for these results include the etiologic and clinical heterogeneity of VACTERL association, the possibility that mutations affecting this gene may occur only in more severely affected individuals, and insufficient study sample size. PMID:21315191

Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Keaton, Amelia A; Warren-Mora, Nicole; Raam, Manu S; Kamat, Aparna; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Solomon, Benjamin D

2011-02-26

29

Clinical geneticists' views of VACTERL/VATER association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association (sometimes termed "VATER association" depending on which component features are included) is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations, which tend to statistically co-occur in affected individuals: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities. Although the clinical criteria for VACTERL association may appear to be straightforward, there is wide variability in the way clinical geneticists define the disorder and the genetic testing strategy they use when confronted with an affected patient. In order to describe this variability and determine the most commonly used definitions and testing modalities, we present the results of survey responses by 121 clinical geneticists. We discuss the results of the survey responses, provide a literature review and commentary from a group of physicians who are currently involved in clinical and laboratory-based research on VACTERL association, and offer an algorithm for genetic testing in patients with this association. PMID:23165726

Solomon, Benjamin D; Bear, Kelly A; Kimonis, Virginia; de Klein, Annelies; Scott, Daryl A; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Tibboel, Dick; Reutter, Heiko; Giampietro, Philip F

2012-11-19

30

Congenital anophthalmia with caudal vertebral anomalies in Japanese Brown cattle.  

PubMed

Anophthalmia and caudal vertebral anomalies such as taillessness or wry tail were morphologically examined in ten Japanese Brown calves obtained in Kumamoto Prefecture. The anomalous calves lacked eyeball bilaterally or unilaterally but had small-sized eyelids and narrow palpebral fissures. A small cystic, solid or spot-like remnant of eyeball (REB) was buried in the mixture of vestigial extraocular muscles, lacrimal gland and adipose tissue of the orbit. The REB was composed of irregularly arranged elements of ocular wall such as sclera, choroid and retina. The retina was often dysplastic and connected to the hypoplastic optic nerve. These morphological changes might represent the defective processes after the formation of the optic vesicle or cup. Therefore, this eye defect may be defined as degenerative anophthalmia. The defects of the vertebral body such as wedge vertebra, hemivertebra, and sagittal cleft vertebra seen in the lumbar, sacral, and coccygial regions and the meandering of the axial line of abnormal vertebrae may suggest the failure of notochord formation in the early fetal period. From the embryological point of view, it seemed possible that the calves were exposed to teratogen at the critical time of optic organogenesis and notochordal formation. The cause of anomalies could not be determined in this study. PMID:8519900

Moritomo, Y; Koga, O; Miyamoto, H; Tsuda, T

1995-08-01

31

Concomitant Slide Tracheoplasty and Cardiac Operation for Congenital Tracheal Stenosis Associated With VACTERL.  

PubMed

The association of congenital tracheal stenosis and tracheoesophageal (TE) fistula is rare. Here, we report 2 patients with tracheobronchial stenosis (complete cartilage ring) involving the lower trachea and right bronchus. Both patients had associated VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, TE, renal, and limb defects) congenital cardiac defects and tracheal diverticula after repair of the TE fistula in type C esophageal atresia. The stenotic segment began at the orifice of the TE fistula, which became diverticula after the TE fistula was repaired. Concomitant repair of congenital cardiac defects and a slide tracheoplasty with elimination of the diverticula were performed successfully. PMID:24088476

Wu, En-Ting; Wang, Ching-Chia; Lin, Ming-Tai; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Chen, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shu-Chien

2013-10-01

32

Considering the Embryopathogenesis of VACTERL Association.  

PubMed

The nonrandom co-occurrence of vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, genitourinary, and limb malformations, recognized as the VACTERL association, has not been satisfactorily explained from either a causation or embryopathogenesis standpoint. Few familial cases have been identified and maternal diabetes is the only environmental influence implicated to date. Mutations in single genes have been found in a number of syndromes with one or more of the VACTERL malformations, but these syndromes usually have other features which distinguish them from the VACTERL association. Animal models have provided clues to molecular pathways that may be involved in the embryogenesis of the VACTERL structures. What is lacking is the systematic study of individual genes and pathways in well-composed cohorts of patients, which is now possible with high throughput molecular technologies. PMID:23653571

Stevenson, R E; Hunter, A G W

2013-02-01

33

Considering the Embryopathogenesis of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

The nonrandom co-occurrence of vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, genitourinary, and limb malformations, recognized as the VACTERL association, has not been satisfactorily explained from either a causation or embryopathogenesis standpoint. Few familial cases have been identified and maternal diabetes is the only environmental influence implicated to date. Mutations in single genes have been found in a number of syndromes with one or more of the VACTERL malformations, but these syndromes usually have other features which distinguish them from the VACTERL association. Animal models have provided clues to molecular pathways that may be involved in the embryogenesis of the VACTERL structures. What is lacking is the systematic study of individual genes and pathways in well-composed cohorts of patients, which is now possible with high throughput molecular technologies.

Stevenson, R.E.; Hunter, A.G.W.

2013-01-01

34

Vertebral anomaly in fossil sea cows (Mammalia, Sirenia).  

PubMed

Four incompletely preserved caudal vertebrae lacking the neural arches of two fossil sirenian individuals of Halitherium schinzii (Oligocene) from the Rhine area in Germany and northern Belgium reveal osteological alterations. The caudal vertebrae possess a transverse process with growth retardation. This asymmetry indicates that the affected transverse processes are less developed than their counterparts and, consequently, deviate from the norm. Computed tomography (CT) scans reveal osteosclerotic patterns, a morphological feature that characterizes sea cows and supports the nonpathological state of the vertebrae. Additionally, no indications of vertebral fractures or any other occurrences due to external factors are present. This is the oldest documentation of such an anomaly in any sirenian and is interpreted here as hypoplasia, the underdevelopment of an organ or parts of it that might cause a functional deficiency. PMID:21538937

Voss, Manja; Asbach, Patrick; Hilger, André

2011-04-28

35

Relationship between esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and vertebral anomalies in mammalian embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: The association of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and vertebral anomalies is well known, although the embryology of the combined defects has not yet been analysed. The present study describes the origin and development of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and vertebral anomalies in embryos using a rat model of VATER association produced by Adriamycin administration.Results: The lung buds

Jamal Merei; Suzanne Hasthorpe; Pamela Farmer; John M Hutson

1998-01-01

36

Aberrant abdominal umbilical arteries in VACTERL--association: a first case report.  

PubMed

A 38-week-gestational age male neonatal death from a 27-year-old-mother was reported. The autopsy found multiple congenital anomalies such as scoliosis of thoracic spine with 13 pairs of ribs, anal atresia, bilateral renal agenesis, and clubfeet. These anomalies were diagnosed VACTERL--association that must include at least three out of six principal anomalies of previously mentioned, e.g., (1) V--vertebral defects, (2) A--anal atresia, (3) C--cardiac anomalies, (4) TE--tracheo-esophageal fistula, (5) R--renal anomalies, and (6) L--limb abnormalities. In addition, other anomalies were also observed in this case, i.e., cryptorchidism both sides, jejunal diverticulum, and aberrant abdominal umbilical arteries. PMID:23193752

Peonim, Vichan; Sujirachato, Kanchana; Udnoon, Jitta; Chudoung, Ubon; Wongwichai, Sompong

2012-10-01

37

Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged. PMID:22654139

Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

2011-12-01

38

Inheritance of the VATER/VACTERL association.  

PubMed

VATER/VACTERL association refers to the non-random co-occurrence of the following component features: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal atresia, renal abnormalities, and limb defects. Recently, Solomon et al. (Hum Genet 127:731-733, 2010) observed an increased prevalence of component features among first-degree relatives of VATER/VACTERL patients suggesting that in some patients, the disorder may be inherited. To replicate these findings, we investigated 87 VATER/VACTERL patients with the presence of a minimum of three component features and their first-degree relatives (n = 271). No increase in the overall prevalence of component features was observed in first-degree relatives compared to the general population (?² = 2.68, p = 0.10). Separate analysis for the prevalence of single component features showed a higher prevalence of tracheoesophageal fistula/atresia among first-degree relatives compared to the general population (OR 17.65, 95% CI 2.47-126.05). However, this was based on occurrence in one family only. Our findings suggest that although familial occurrence renders a genetic contribution likely, the overall risk of recurrence among the first-degree relatives of patients with VATER/VACTERL association is probably very low. Since the patients in the present study were young and no offspring could be studied, estimation of the role of de novo mutations in the development of VATER/VACTERL was not possible. PMID:22581124

Bartels, Enrika; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Solomon, Benjamin D; Ludwig, Michael; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Schmidt, Dominik; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Hosie, Stuart; Weih, Sandra; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Palta, Markus; Leonhardt, Johannes; Schäfer, Mattias; Kujath, Christina; Rissmann, Anke; Nöthen, Markus M; Reutter, Heiko; Zwink, Nadine

2012-05-12

39

Staged male urethroplasty transferring megalourethra tissue as free graft dorsal inlay to proximal urethral atresia in VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Megalourethra is a rare spectrum of urologic malformations of penile corporal structures frequently associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as prune belly syndrome or vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal, renal, and limb (VACTERL association) defects. A 6-year-old boy with VACTERL association and proximal urethral atresia with distal fusiform megalourethra underwent staged reconstruction, including appendicovesicostomy, perineal urethrostomy, and first-stage urethroplasty with a dorsal inlay free graft of megalourethra tissue to the proximal urethral atretic region, followed by second-stage urethroplasty. At 2.6 years of follow-up, he was continent, voids per urethra without postvoid residual urine volume, and no longer performs clean intermittent catheterization by way of the appendicovesicostomy. PMID:21601242

Bagrodia, Aditya; Yucel, Selcuk; Baker, Linda A

2011-05-23

40

Vertebral artery anomaly causing C2 suboccipital neuralgia, relieved by neurovascular decompression.  

PubMed

We report imaging and surgical findings of a symptomatic 40-year-old male with an anomalous left vertebral artery. MR, CT myelography, angiography, and intraoperative photos demonstrate the vertebral artery entering the thecal sac at the C1-C2 intervertebral foramen and compressing the dorsal C2 nerve rootlets against the cord. Open microvascular decompression alleviated the patient's long-standing suboccipital and posterior cervical neck pain. An embryologic review of the vertebral and lateral spinal artery systems reveals possible developmental explanations for this variant. Intradural course of the vertebral artery at C2 is one of the few symptomatic developmental vertebral artery anomalies. Recognition of this condition is important because surgical intervention can alleviate associated neck pain. PMID:21682793

Trimble, Christopher; Reeves, Alexa; Pare, Laura; Tsai, Fong

2011-06-17

41

A single-center experience with kidney transplantation in the verteberal, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb birth detects (VACTERL) association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association is a nonrandom association of birth defects in vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb structures. Renal anomalies are observed in ?60%-90% of VACTERL patients. We present 3 cases to demonstrate the clinical and surgical challenges that these patients present for renal transplantation. One pediatric and 2 adult patients with the VACTERL association were transplanted at a single center; their follow-up times were 6 years, 4 years, and 3 months. Only 1 of them had a suitable native bladder to receive the kidney graft; the other 2 required bladder augmentation, 1 of which was performed after the loss of the first graft. None of these patients had an uneventful posttransplantation course. Two patients had acute rejection episodes, and 2 had reoperations for urologic complications. One patient needed a surgical intervention owing to a sigmoid prolapse. All 3 grafts worked at last examination. The 2 patients with bladder reconstructions and longer follow-ups suffered recurrent pulmonary and urinary infections and had been hospitalized several times during each posttransplantation year. In conclusion, multiorgan involvement in VACTERL patients greatly complicates medical care after transplantation; urinary tract reconstruction seems to be essential before transplantation. PMID:21620102

Telkes, G; Reusz, G; Szabó, A J; Langer, R M

2011-05-01

42

The early origin of vertebral anomalies, as illustrated by a 'butterfly vertebra'.  

PubMed Central

An anomalous (butterfly) eleventh thoracic vertebra in a fetus of 63 mm greatest length is described and graphic reconstructions (together with normal controls) are provided. The cartilaginous hemicentra are separated by disc-like material. Cartilaginous bars to adjacent vertebrae are present. The neural arch is complete. The notochord is not duplicated. Only one comparable case in the embryonic period has been described previously. After a discussion of cleft vertebrae in the human and in experimental animals, a developmental timetable of the appearance of several vertebral anomalies is provided. The sensitive period for butterfly vertebrae, depending on the mode of origin, seems to be 3-6 postovulatory weeks. More severe anomalies, such as the split notochord syndrome, appear earlier. It is concluded that most of the vertebral anomalies discussed arise during the embryonic period proper, although the timing of a few, such as spina bifida occulta, extends into the early fetal period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5

Muller, F; O'Rahilly, R; Benson, D R

1986-01-01

43

The characteristics of patients with type 1: intraforaminal vertebral artery anomalies?  

PubMed

In a previous study, intraforaminal anomalies were found to occur at a rate of 7.6%. This increases the risk of injury to this vessel if the surgeon is unaware of such abnormalities preoperatively. The aim of our retrospective study was to identify patient factors that may predict anomalous intraforaminal vertebral arteries. Patient records were obtained from a previous study. In that study, the records of each consecutive patient who underwent cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for axial neck pain, radiculopathy, or myelopathy between January 2007 and January 2008 were reviewed. The social and medical histories of each patient were evaluated with respect to the presence or absence of an aberrant vertebral artery. We reviewed the medical records of the 250 patients whose MRIs were reviewed in the previous study. Seven patients were excluded for incomplete records. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare the normal vertebral artery anatomy patients to the aberrant patients. The medical records of 19 patients with aberrant vertebral arteries and 224 patients with normal vertebral arteries were reviewed. The aberrant group was significantly older than the normal group (P=.00015). The only diagnostic condition that represented a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups was incidence of cancer. A relationship may exist between patient age, cancer, and medialization of the vertebral artery. The mechanism of this possible relationship is unclear. Although aberrant vertebral arteries are rare, a surgeon should have raised suspicion of this possibility in patients with a history of cancer. PMID:21667905

Eskander, Mark S; Aubin, Michelle E; Major, Joshua W; Huning, Bree A; Drew, Jacob; Marvin, Julianne; Connolly, Patrick J

2011-06-14

44

VATER/VACTERL association: identification of seven new twin pairs, a systematic review of the literature, and a classical twin analysis.  

PubMed

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. The identification of 14 twin pairs with an initial diagnosis of VATER/VACTERL association at our clinical centers led to the performance of a classical twin study. This involved a thorough evaluation of these 14 twin pairs and a further 55 twin pairs identified from a systematic review of the literature. The zygosity, concordance, and malformation status of all 69 twin pairs were evaluated. Twenty-four twin pairs fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in a comparison of the concordance rates between monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twin pairs. The pairwise concordance rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4-42%] for MZ and 18% (95% CI 5-48%) for DZ twin pairs (P=0.53). The probandwise concordance rates were 27% (95% CI 11-52%) for MZ and 31% (95% CI 13-58%) for DZ twin pairs (P=0.40). Although based on a limited number of twin pairs, the findings of the present study are consistent with the low number of familial cases reported to date, and suggest that the role of inherited genetic factors in the majority of VATER/VACTERL cases is limited. PMID:22895008

Bartels, Enrika; Schulz, Anna C; Mora, Nicole W; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Wijers, Charlotte H W; Marcelis, Carlo M; Stressig, Rüdiger; Ritgen, Jochen; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Mattheisen, Manuel; Draaken, Markus; Hoffmann, Per; Hilger, Alina C; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Baudisch, Friederike; Ludwig, Michael; Bagci, Soyhan; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Bartmann, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Solomon, Benjamin D; Reutter, Heiko M

2012-10-01

45

A male newborn with VACTERL association and Fanconi anemia with a FANCB deletion detected by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).  

PubMed

We report on a male newborn with multiple congenital abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis of VACTERL association (vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal, and limb anomalies), who had Fanconi anemia (complementation group B) recognized by the detection of a deletion in chromosome Xp22.2 using an oligonucleotide array. The diagnosis of Fanconi anemia was confirmed by increased chromosomal breakage abnormalities observed in cultured cells that were treated with cross-linking agents. This is the first report in the literature of Fanconi anemia complementation group B detected by oligonucleotide array testing postnatally. PMID:22052692

Umaña, Luis A; Magoulas, Pilar; Bi, Weimin; Bacino, Carlos A

2011-11-03

46

Familial occurrence of the VATER/VACTERL association.  

PubMed

The acronym VATER/VACTERL association is used to describe the non-random co-occurrence of vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-esophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia (TE), renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L). We report a familial case of VATER/VACTERL association in which both the index case and her maternal uncle displayed four major component features of the disorder. A systematic literature search identified 12 previously described familial cases. However, on comparison, both members fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for VATER/VACTERL association only in one instance, and ours is the second such report. Although, a SNP array-based analysis identified no causal genomic alteration, the findings in the present family suggest that genetic factors are implicated in the development of the disorder. PMID:22422375

Hilger, Alina; Schramm, Charlotte; Draaken, Markus; Mughal, Sadaf S; Dworschak, Gabriel; Bartels, Enrika; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Reutter, Heiko; Ludwig, Michael

2012-03-16

47

Urorectal septum malformation sequence in a newborn with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS) is an extremely rare anomaly, consists of multiple system anomalies including ambiguous genitalia, absence of a perineal opening, an imperforate anus, and urological, colonic and lumbosacral defects. We describe a newborn with characteristic URSMS who also had features of congenital varus deformity of leg, polydactyly, tracheo-oesophageal fistula, cardiac defect, anal atresia and hydronephrosis in antenatal ultrasound characteristic of VACTERL association. PMID:22313652

Patra, Soumya; Purkait, Radheshyam

2012-02-01

48

Genetics Home Reference: VACTERL association  

MedlinePLUS

... be in an individual. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of VACTERL association? These resources address the diagnosis ... and Esophageal Atresia Repair You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of VACTERL association in Educational resources and Patient ...

49

Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with Full Spectrum of VACTERL in a New Born  

PubMed Central

Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Many associations of PBS with other malformations were previously reported, but only few cases of the association with VACTERL have been described. We report a rare case of a Moroccan new born with PBS and complete VACTERL association. The cause of this association is still unknown, but a common etiology is possible, especially when for the two syndromes, a defect in mesodermal differentiation, in early first trimester, has been suggested.

Younous, Said; Zarrouki, Youssef; Boutbaoucht, Mustapha; Mouaffak, Youssef; El Idrissi, Kawtar Ennour; Aboussair, Nissrine; Saiad, Mohammed O

2012-01-01

50

VACTERL Association and Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Summary BACKGROUND VACTERL association includes the presence of malformations affecting the vertebrae, anus, heart, trachea and esophagus, kidneys, and limbs. The causes remain largely unknown, but rare patients with mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported. Although clinical signs and symptoms consistent with possible mitochondrial disease are not uncommon in patients with VACTERL association, the necessary testing to confirm mitochondrial dysfunction is infrequently performed. METHODS We describe a patient with relatively classic signs of VACTERL association who had an onset of clinical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction at 13 months of age. These signs included progressive muscle weakness, autonomic dysregulation, episodic hypoglycemia, and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. The patient was later shown to have evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (cytochrome c oxidase deficiency). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal mitochondrial function may be associated with VACTERL association, and clinicians who encounter patients with VACTERL association should have a low threshold for considering mitochondrial dysfunction.

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Pineda-Alvarez1, Daniel E.

2012-01-01

51

VACTERL with the mitochondrial NP 3243 point mutation  

SciTech Connect

The VACTERL association of vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, tracheo-esophageal, renal, and limb defects is one of the more common congenital disorders with limb deficiency arising during blastogenesis. The cause is probably heterogeneous; a molecular basis has not been defined. We report on a family in which a female infant with VACTERL was born in 1977 and died at age 1 month due to renal failure. Because her mother and sister later developed classical mitochondrial cytopathy associated with the A-G point mutation at nucleotide position (np) 3243 of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, we performed a molecular analysis of mt DNA in preserved kidney tissue from the VACTERL case. We discovered 100% mutant mt DNA in multicystic and 32% mutant mt DNA in normal kidney tissue. Mild deficiency of complex I respiratory chain enzyme activity was found in the mother`s muscle biopsy. Other maternal relatives were healthy but had low levels of mutant mt DNA in blood. This is the first report to provide a precise molecular basis for a case of VACTERL. The differing tissue pathology depending on the percentage of mutant mt DNA suggests a causal connection between the mutation and symptoms. VACTERL, and this type of multicystic renal dysplasia, are new phenotypes for the np 3243 point mutation. The possibility of a mitochondrial disorder should be born in mind and also that VACTERL may occur as a first manifestation of a mutation that has been present for generations. This would have major implications for patient management and for genetic counselling regarding both the risk of recurrence and risk of other mitochondrial syndromes in affected families. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Damian, M.S.; Dorndorf, W.; Schachenmayr, W. [Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Seibel, P.; Reichmann, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

1996-04-24

52

Monochorionic twin fetus with VACTERL association after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of a monochorionic twin gestation after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in which one of the fetuses had VACTERL association. A 27-year-old woman became pregnant by ICSI and was found to have monochorionic twin fetuses. One fetus was noted to have the following anomalies: a multicystic, dysplastic left kidney with a hydroureter, and a dilated colon. A normal-sized stomach and normal amount of amniotic fluid were observed during the prenatal period with no other anomalies. The postnatal examination revealed hypospadias, and anal, esophageal, and duodenal atresia; thus, a diagnosis of VACTERL association was established. Although the prenatal diagnosis of this disorder is a challenge, even in a singleton, some of the characteristic features observed during antepartum ultrasonography may be a clue to the diagnosis, especially in a twin pregnancy after ICSI. PMID:23751045

Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Terata, Miyuki; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Fukushima, Akimune; Sugiyama, Toru

2013-06-01

53

Novel association of VACTERL, neural tube defect and crossed renal ectopia: sonic hedgehog signaling: a point of coherence?  

PubMed

The present case report describes two patients with a novel combination of VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb), neural tube defect and crossed renal ectopia. Though cases of VACTERL associated with crossed renal ectopia have been described, the present case report is the first to describe its combination with neural tube defect. The cases reported here are significant because central nervous system manifestations are scarce in VACTERL syndrome. The role of sonic hedgehog pathway has been proposed in VACTERL association and neural tube defects. Axial Sonic hedgehog signaling has also been implicated in the mediolateral positioning of the renal parenchyma. With this knowledge, the etiopathogenesis of this novel combination is discussed to highlight the role of sonic hedgehog signaling as a point of coherence. PMID:23181497

Vaze, Dhananjay; Mahalik, Santosh; Rao, Katragadda L N

2012-12-01

54

Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with Full Spectrum of VACTERL in a New Born.  

PubMed

Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Many associations of PBS with other malformations were previously reported, but only few cases of the association with VACTERL have been described. We report a rare case of a Moroccan new born with PBS and complete VACTERL association. The cause of this association is still unknown, but a common etiology is possible, especially when for the two syndromes, a defect in mesodermal differentiation, in early first trimester, has been suggested. PMID:24027688

Younous, Said; Zarrouki, Youssef; Boutbaoucht, Mustapha; Mouaffak, Youssef; El Idrissi, Kawtar Ennour; Aboussair, Nissrine; Saiad, Mohammed O

2012-01-01

55

De novo microduplication at 22q11.21 in a patient with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

The non-random association of vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia (TE), renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L) is termed VACTERL association. The aim of the present study was to identify microaberrations characterized by a loss or gain of genomic material that contribute to VACTERL association at a genome-wide level. Molecular karyotyping was performed in a cohort of 12 patients with anorectal malformations and at least two additional cardinal features of the VACTERL association. A de novo microduplication at chromosomal region 22q11.21 was identified in a patient presenting with three cardinal VACTERL features (V, A, R) and vesicoureteral reflux, penile hypospadias, caudal regression syndrome, and right-sided congenital equinovarus deformity. Chromosomal region 22q11.2 is known for its susceptibility to rearrangements. Associated syndromes include the velo-cardio-facial and DiGeorge deletion syndromes, and the complementary 22q11.2 duplication syndrome. The findings of the present study extend the phenotypic spectrum of the 22q11.2 duplication syndrome, and indicate that it also predisposes to VACTERL association. We discuss the overlap between the phenotypic features of our patient and those reported for other 22q11.2 aberrations, and propose that dosage-sensitive loci for all of these phenotypic features may reside on 22q11.2. PMID:20849991

Schramm, Charlotte; Draaken, Markus; Bartels, Enrika; Boemers, Thomas M; Aretz, Stefan; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Nöthen, Markus M; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

2010-09-16

56

Anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Anomalies have a diverse impact on many aspects of physical phenomena. The role of anomalies in determining physical structure from the amplitude for decay to the foundations of superstring theory will be reviewed. 36 refs.

Bardeen, W.A.

1985-08-01

57

Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

58

X-linked VACTERL with hydrocephalus syndrome: further delineation of the phenotype caused by FANCB mutations.  

PubMed

X-linked VACTERL-hydrocephalus syndrome (X-linked VACTERL-H) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the gene FANCB which underlies Fanconi Anemia (FA) complementation group B. Cells from affected males have increased chromosome breakage on exposure to DNA cross-linking agents. Only five FANCB mutations found in six affected males, including an affected uncle and nephew, have been reported. We have identified FANCB mutations in a further four affected families. The VACTERL-H phenotype segregates as an X-linked recessive trait in three of these. Each mutation is predicted to truncate the FANCB open reading frame and results in highly skewed X-inactivation in unaffected carrier females. Phenotypic data were available on six affected males. Comparison of the clinical findings in our patients with published clinical data (total 12 patients) shows that ventriculomegaly, bilateral absent thumbs and radii, vertebral defects, renal agenesis, and growth retardation are the major phenotypic signs in affected males. Less frequent are brain, pituitary, ear and eye malformations, gastrointestinal atresias (esophageal, duodenal and anal), tracheoesophageal fistula, lung segmentation defects, and small genitalia. Three of six of our patients survived the perinatal period. One boy lived up to 2 years 10 months but developed aplastic anemia and died of renal failure. These data show that loss-of-function FANCB mutations result in a recognizable, multiple malformation phenotype in hemizygous males for which we propose clinical criteria to aid diagnosis. PMID:21910217

McCauley, Joanna; Masand, Navta; McGowan, Ruth; Rajagopalan, Sulekha; Hunter, Alasdair; Michaud, Jacques L; Gibson, Kate; Robertson, Jeremy; Vaz, Fiona; Abbs, Stephen; Holden, Simon T

2011-09-09

59

Sirenomelia: a new type, showing VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome and a review of literature.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia or "mermaid syndrome" is a rare congenital anomaly known since antiquity. This congenital anomaly is defined as a polymalformative syndrome that associates major muscle and skeleton abnormalities (unique lower limbs) with visceral abnormalities (unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis, anomalies of the abdominal vascularisation). This phenotype, typical of sirenomelia syndrome, may be more or less severe. The pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome are still debated and its etiology remains unknown. We report here a new type of sirenomelia that we observed in a fetus belonging to the collection of the Department of Anatomy of Reims, which led us to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject: this type has never been reported and cannot be classified according to the Stocker and Heifetz classification. Moreover, this case also presents a VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome. PMID:23526679

Lhuaire, Martin; Jestin, Agnès; Boulagnon, Camille; Loock, Mélanie; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Gaillard, Dominique; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

2013-03-01

60

Bilateral Radial Ulnar Synostosis and Vertebral Anomalies in a Child with a De Novo 16p13.3 Interstitial Deletion  

PubMed Central

We describe an 8-year-old boy with developmental delay, clinical bilateral radial ulnar synostosis, Klippel-Feil anomaly, and other vertebral deformities who was found to have a de novo deletion of 114.5kb at 16p13.3. The deletion contains five genes and three miRNAs. The genes are E4F1, DNASE1L2, ECI1, RNPS1, and ABCA3; miRNAs are MIR3677, MIR940, and MIR4717. The specific deletion has never been previously reported. We describe the phenotype of the boy and review the genes in the deleted region. None of the regulatory elements have any known linkage to skeletal formation and/or maintenance. We believe this deletion is causative given that it was de novo and that this patient cannot be easily explained as having any other specific recognizable pattern of human malformation.

Tam, Allison; Lee, Kit Shan; Lee, Sansan; Burkhalter, William; Pascua, Lucio U.; Slavin, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

61

Anomalies associated with oesophageal atresia in Asians and Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oesophageal atresia (OA) is often associated with anomalies of other systems. The genetic contribution to the formation of\\u000a the VACTERL association is not clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of associated anomalies in\\u000a two different racial populations. The associated anomalies in neonates with OA managed in an Asian and a European paediatric\\u000a surgical centre from

L. W. E. van Heurn; W. Cheng; B. de Vries; H. Saing; N. J. G. Jansen; G. Kootstra; P. K. H. Tam

2002-01-01

62

A novel murine allele of Intraflagellar Transport Protein 172 causes a syndrome including VACTERL-like features with hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

The primary cilium is emerging as a crucial regulator of signaling pathways central to vertebrate development and human disease. We identified atrioventricular canal 1 (avc1), a mouse mutation that caused VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, or VACTERL-H. We showed that avc1 is a hypomorphic mutation of intraflagellar transport protein 172 (Ift172), required for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Phenotypically, avc1 caused VACTERL-H but not abnormalities in left-right (L-R) axis formation. Avc1 resulted in structural cilia defects, including truncated cilia in vivo and in vitro. We observed a dose-dependent requirement for Ift172 in ciliogenesis using an allelic series generated with Ift172(avc1) and Ift172(wim), an Ift172 null allele: cilia were present on 42% of avc1 mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and 28% of avc1/wim MEFs, in contrast to >90% of wild-type MEFs. Furthermore, quantitative cilium length analysis identified two specific cilium populations in mutant MEFS: a normal population with normal IFT and a truncated population, 50% of normal length, with disrupted IFT. Cells from wild-type embryos had predominantly full-length cilia, avc1 embryos, with Hh signaling abnormalities but not L-R abnormalities, had cilia equally divided between full-length and truncated, and avc1/wim embryos, with both Hh signaling and L-R abnormalities, were primarily truncated. Truncated Ift172 mutant cilia showed defects of the distal ciliary axoneme, including disrupted IFT88 localization and Hh-dependent Gli2 localization. We propose a model in which mutation of Ift172 results in a specific class of abnormal cilia, causing disrupted Hh signaling while maintaining L-R axis determination, and resulting in the VACTERL-H phenotype. PMID:21653639

Friedland-Little, Joshua M; Hoffmann, Andrew D; Ocbina, Polloneal Jymmiel R; Peterson, Mike A; Bosman, Joshua D; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Steven Y; Anderson, Kathryn V; Moskowitz, Ivan P

2011-06-08

63

Ureteral triplication: a rare anomaly with a variety of presentations.  

PubMed

Ureteral triplication remains a very rare congenital malformation of the urinary tract with a wide spectrum of presentation. The sporadic nature of this condition and its association with other anomalies makes evidence-based management difficult. We report two cases of triplication in association with the VACTERL syndrome, one developing pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction and the other vesico-ureteric reflux. PMID:21216673

Kokabi, N; Price, N; Smith, G H H; Gibbons, P J; Holland, A J A

2011-01-08

64

Tracheal agenesis with broncho-esophageal fistula in VACTERL / TACRD association.  

PubMed

Tracheal agenesis (TA) is an extremely rare malformation. We report here autopsy findings in a case of TA with bronchoesophageal fistula of Floyd type III. The other malformations present included laryngeal atresia, Right lung hypolobulation, ventricular septal defect in membranous portion, bilateral cystic renal dysplasia, spleninculus, Meckel's diverticulum, and imperforate anus. The constellations of malformations present in our case have overlapping features with Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies, Limb anomalies and Tracheal atresia or laryngo tracheal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Renal anomalies, Duodenal atresia association described previously in the literature. PMID:23901199

Mandrekar, Suresh R S; Amoncar, Sangeeta; Pinto, R G W

2013-01-01

65

Tracheal agenesis with broncho-esophageal fistula in VACTERL / TACRD association  

PubMed Central

Tracheal agenesis (TA) is an extremely rare malformation. We report here autopsy findings in a case of TA with bronchoesophageal fistula of Floyd type III. The other malformations present included laryngeal atresia, Right lung hypolobulation, ventricular septal defect in membranous portion, bilateral cystic renal dysplasia, spleninculus, Meckel's diverticulum, and imperforate anus. The constellations of malformations present in our case have overlapping features with Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies, Limb anomalies and Tracheal atresia or laryngo tracheal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Renal anomalies, Duodenal atresia association described previously in the literature.

Mandrekar, Suresh R. S.; Amoncar, Sangeeta; Pinto, R. G. W

2013-01-01

66

VACTERL-H Association and Fanconi Anemia.  

PubMed

Patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) often have birth defects that suggest the diagnosis of VATER association. A review of 2,245 cases of FA reported in the literature from 1927 to 2012 identified 108 cases with at least 3 of the defining features of VATER association; only 29 had been so noted by the authors. The FA VATER signature was the significantly higher frequency of renal and limb (radial and/or thumb) anomalies (93% of cases had both) compared with less than 30% of VATER patients; the presence of one or both of these birth defects should lead to testing for FA. The relative frequencies of the genotypes of the patients with FA VATER were strikingly different from those expected from the general FA population; only 19% were FANCA, while 21% were FANCB, 14% FANCD1/BRCA2, and 12% FANCD2. Consistent with their genotypes, those with the FA VATER phenotype had a worse prognosis than FA patients with milder phenotypes, with shorter median survival and earlier onset of malignancies. The early identification of FA patients among infants with VATER association should lead to earlier more proactive management, such as cancer surveillance and genetic counseling. PMID:23653579

Alter, B P; Rosenberg, P S

2013-02-01

67

VACTERL-H Association and Fanconi Anemia  

PubMed Central

Patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) often have birth defects that suggest the diagnosis of VATER association. A review of 2,245 cases of FA reported in the literature from 1927 to 2012 identified 108 cases with at least 3 of the defining features of VATER association; only 29 had been so noted by the authors. The FA VATER signature was the significantly higher frequency of renal and limb (radial and/or thumb) anomalies (93% of cases had both) compared with less than 30% of VATER patients; the presence of one or both of these birth defects should lead to testing for FA. The relative frequencies of the genotypes of the patients with FA VATER were strikingly different from those expected from the general FA population; only 19% were FANCA, while 21% were FANCB, 14% FANCD1/BRCA2, and 12% FANCD2. Consistent with their genotypes, those with the FA VATER phenotype had a worse prognosis than FA patients with milder phenotypes, with shorter median survival and earlier onset of malignancies. The early identification of FA patients among infants with VATER association should lead to earlier more proactive management, such as cancer surveillance and genetic counseling.

Alter, B.P.; Rosenberg, P.S.

2013-01-01

68

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Shirah, Greg; Allen, Jesse; Adamec, David

2003-02-03

69

VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5.  

PubMed

We have identified an ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced recessive mouse mutation (Vcc) with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes cardiac, tracheoesophageal, anorectal, anteroposterior patterning defects, exomphalos, hindlimb hypoplasia, a presacral mass, renal and palatal agenesis, and pulmonary hypoplasia. It results from a C470R mutation in the proprotein convertase PCSK5 (PC5/6). Compound mutants (Pcsk5(Vcc/null)) completely recapitulate the Pcsk5(Vcc/Vcc) phenotype, as does an epiblast-specific conditional deletion of Pcsk5. The C470R mutation ablates a disulfide bond in the P domain, and blocks export from the endoplasmic reticulum and proprotein convertase activity. We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to having anteroposterior patterning defects and renal and palatal agenesis, also have a presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and exomphalos. Pcsk5 mutation results in abnormal expression of several paralogous Hox genes (Hoxa, Hoxc, and Hoxd), and of Mnx1 (Hlxb9). These include known Gdf11 targets, and are necessary for caudal embryo development. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCSK5 in patients with VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb malformation OMIM 192350) and caudal regression syndrome, the phenotypic features of which resemble the mouse mutation. We propose that Pcsk5, at least in part via GDF11, coordinately regulates caudal Hox paralogs, to control anteroposterior patterning, nephrogenesis, skeletal, and anorectal development. PMID:18519639

Szumska, Dorota; Pieles, Guido; Essalmani, Rachid; Bilski, Michal; Mesnard, Daniel; Kaur, Kulvinder; Franklyn, Angela; El Omari, Kamel; Jefferis, Joanna; Bentham, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer M; Schneider, Jurgen E; Arnold, Sebastian J; Johnson, Paul; Tymowska-Lalanne, Zuzanna; Stammers, Dave; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Morris, Andrew; Brown, Steve D; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Constam, Daniel; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

2008-06-01

70

Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with vertebral anomaly.  

PubMed

We report a two-and-half-year-old boy who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections. He had cortriatum of right atrium, spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra and dysplastic right thumb. On CT of chest, he had also unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis. The case is being reported because of common manifestations of rare disease and its associated cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:23784756

Prasad, Rajniti; Srivastava, G N; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant

2013-06-19

71

Right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia, hepatic pulmonary fusion, duodenal atresia, and imperforate anus in an infant.  

PubMed

We present a case of a neonate with VACTERL-like association, with the VACTERL association defined as the non-random association of vertebral, anal, cardiac, esophageal, renal/kidney, and limb defects, as manifested by a hemivertebra, imperforate anus, and digit anomalies, in rare association with duodenal atresia and right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. This constellation is previously undescribed and may offer insight into the pathogenesis of VACTERL and associated birth defects. PMID:21763847

Castle, Shannon L; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi J; Torres, Manuel B

2011-07-01

72

Gravitational anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly

H. Leutwyler; S. Mallik

1986-01-01

73

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

74

Gravitational anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in certain parity-violating theories in 4k+2 dimensions, general covariance is spoiled by anomalies at the one-loop level. This occurs when Weyl fermions of spin-1\\/2 or -3\\/2 or self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields are coupled to gravity. (For Dirac fermions there is no trouble.) The conditions for anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin is investigated. In six

Luis Alvarez-Gaumé; Edward Witten

1984-01-01

75

Right esophageal lung in a preterm child with VACTERL association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a preterm girl (birth weight 1,200 g) with a right esophageal lung in esophageal atresia type VIag (according to the extended classification of Kluth). Additionally, the child suffered from an atrioseptal defect, a dextrocardia with a left descending aorta, a duodenal atresia, a high type of anal atresia (VACTERL association), agenesis of the left kidney, and agenesis of

F. Linke; W. Kraemer; M. Ansorge; R. Brzezinska; S. Berger

2005-01-01

76

From VACTERL-H to heterotaxy: variable expressivity of ZIC3-related disorders.  

PubMed

The ZIC3 gene encodes a zinc finger protein which functions as a transcription factor in early stages of left-right body axis formation. Mutations in this X-linked gene cause a variety of clinical manifestations including heterotaxy, complex or isolated heart defect as well as other midline urogenital and hindgut malformations. We report a four generation family with X-linked heterotaxy associated with a deletion of the ZIC3 gene at Xq26.3. The index fetus of our proband showed classical features of heterotaxy while her maternal uncle and one brother had imperforate anus and her other brother had features suggestive of VACTERL-H without heterotaxy. A 1.4?Mb deletion in Xq26.3 including the ZIC3 gene was found in the fetus. Six females in the family were found to be asymptomatic carriers. Our report indicates that some of the cases with VACTERL-H syndrome may be caused by a mutation or deletion of the ZIC3 gene. PMID:21465648

Chung, Brian; Shaffer, Lisa G; Keating, Sarah; Johnson, Joan; Casey, Bret; Chitayat, David

2011-04-04

77

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

78

Congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have emerged as a novel, experimental approach for the treatment of a wide variety of congenital anomalies diagnosed either in utero or postnatally. There are a number of unique properties of amniotic fluid stem cells that have allowed it to become a major research focus. These include the relative ease of accessing amniotic fluid cells in a minimally invasive fashion by amniocentesis as well as the relatively rich population of progenitor cells obtained from a small aliquot of fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells, c-kit positive stem cells, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells have all been derived from human amniotic fluid in recent years. This article gives a pediatric surgeon’s perspective on amniotic fluid stem cell therapy for the management of congenital anomalies. The current status in the use of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, particularly as they relate as substrates in tissue engineering-based applications, is described in various animal models. A roadmap for further study and eventual clinical application is also proposed.

Kunisaki, Shaun M.

2012-01-01

79

Detection of vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of vertebral compression fractures, there is much that remains uncertain. There is no "gold standard" for the definition which has led to epidemiologic and study differences. Height loss is a way to suspect vertebral fractures but it has its own issues. There are multiple radiographic systems for defining vertebral fractures, both prevalent and incident; risk factors for prevalent fractures have already been delineated. Recent studies have elucidated the risk factors for incident vertebral fractures including age, low weight, late menarche, lower bone mineral density, history of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, smoking, and use of a walking aid. Fan beam densitometers have had improving ability to image the spine, a procedure now known as vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Recently (in the United States) a CPT code and reimbursement was established. Yet, many vertebral fractures go undiagnosed, diagnosed but unreported, or reported but not utilized in patient care. Because of this, the International Osteoporosis Foundation developed a Vertebral Fracture Initiative for radiologists and the International Society for Clinical Densitometry began a VFA course. Both teaching programs use the semi-quantitative assessment of Genant to aid the radiologists and clinicians in detecting vertebral fractures. PMID:16303112

Schwartz, Elliott N; Steinberg, Dee

2005-12-01

80

Injury of an aberrant vertebral artery during a routine corpectomy: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case report:A case report of a 58-year-old man who sustained a laceration of his left vertebral artery during a routine corpectomy for cervical myelopathy is reported.Objective:To report iatrogenic injury of a tortuous vertebral artery during anterior cervical spine surgery and discuss appropriate diagnosis and treatment options for this complication.Setting:UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA.Background data:Vertebral artery anomalies, although rare,

M S Eskander; P J Connolly; J P Eskander; D D Brooks; Eskander

2009-01-01

81

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

82

Vertebral deformities and scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scoliosis, especially idiopathic scoliosis, is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine in which the vertebral deformities are known, cuneal deformation being the most commonly known deformity but not the only one. We report here data concerning these specific vertebral deformities in chickens. A pinealectomy was performed in a controlled series of animal experiments. This technique induces progressive scoliosis in

C. Coillard; C. H. Rivard

1996-01-01

83

ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION  

SciTech Connect

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2009-06-10

84

Global gravitational anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the

Edward Witten

1985-01-01

85

Chiral anomalies and differential geometry  

SciTech Connect

Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

Zumino, B.

1983-10-01

86

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

87

Vertebral body stenting / stentoplasty.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are frequent. Although the majority of fractures follow a benign course, there are certain fracture types which result in severe spinal deformity and / or are associated with neurological complications. These patients should be detected early and undergo surgical treatment. Vertebroplasty remains an important and effective treatment option for acute painful vertebral fractures showing progressive collapse. By this procedure the fracture can be stabilised, the pain is controlled and the progression of height loss is also halted. If a vertebral body shows a higher degree of collapse and kyphotic deformity or even some posterior wall involvement, the stentoplasty procedure (further evolution of kyphoplasty) allows height resotartion by the stent and the stabilisation of the vertebral body by cement. PMID:22869449

Heini, Paul F; Teuscher, Regula

2012-08-06

88

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

89

Characteristics and associated anomalies in radial ray deficiencies in Finland--a population-based study.  

PubMed

Upper-limb defects with deficiencies of the radial ray have varying etiologies, with a low proportion of true Mendelian disorders. We carried out a population-based study to elucidate the birth prevalence and clinical spectrum of radial ray deficiencies in Finland. We identified all births with radial ray deficiency reported to the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations in 1993-2005. Altogether 138 cases were identified (123 live births), with a birth prevalence of 1.83 per 10,000 births and a live birth prevalence of 1.64 per 10,000 live births. The proportion of infant deaths was as high as 35%. The majority of the cases were associated with known syndromes or multiple anomalies; only 13% were true isolated radial ray deficiencies. The most common syndrome was trisomy 18, and the most common in multiple anomalies was VACTERL association. In 8.7% of cases an association between radial ray deficiency and heart anomaly was observed. The high proportion of cases with associated major anomalies indicates that radial ray deficiency can be regarded isolated only after thorough assessment of the various organ systems in an affected infant. PMID:23322606

Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Koskimies, Eeva; Ritvanen, Annukka; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä; Mäkitie, Outi

2013-01-15

90

Unusual variant of scimitar syndrome associated with an absent right pulmonary artery, stenosis of the inferior vena cava, hemi-azygous continuation and the VACTERL association.  

PubMed

We report on a two-month-old infant with an unusual form of scimitar syndrome, associated with an absent right pulmonary artery, obstructed inferior vena cava, hemi-azygous continuation and the VACTERL association. The infant posed a major management problem and eventually died from a lower respiratory tract infection. PMID:23728126

Takawira, Farirai F; Omar, Fareed

2013-04-23

91

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Shirah, Greg; Allen, Jesse; Adamec, David

2003-02-03

92

FISH SKELETAL ANOMALIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of skeletal deformities in fish has been proposed as a means of monitoring pollution effects in marine environments. Effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on bone integrity are similar in that vertebral anomalies are produced, although they may develop through...

93

The Elliptic Anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the ...

G. Janin V. R. Bond

1980-01-01

94

Familial Poland anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Poland anomaly is usually a non-genetic malformation syndrome. This paper reports two second cousins who both had a typical left sided Poland anomaly, and this constitutes the first recorded case of this condition affecting more than one member of a family. Despite this, for the purposes of genetic counselling, the Poland anomaly can be regarded as a sporadic condition

T J David

1982-01-01

95

Peters' Anomaly - Anaesthetic Management  

PubMed Central

Summary Peters' anomaly occurs as an isolated ocular abnormality, in association with other systemic abnormality or one component of a number of well-defined syndromes. We review our experience of anaesthetic management and systemic association of peters' anomaly. To the best of our knowledge there are no reports in the literature of Peters' anomaly with relevant to anaesthesia.

M, Senthilkumar; V, Darlong; Punj, Jyotsna; Pandey, Ravinder

2009-01-01

96

Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained.

Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

1983-01-01

97

Vertebrate GABA receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiologic-pharmacologic studies in vivo and with tissue cultures have revealed that synaptic GABA receptors exist in the vertebrate CNS. The GABA antagonist, bicuculline, can be used to detect synaptic GABA receptors in both the presence and absence of Na+, even though GABA binding to cerebral subcellular fractions occurs mainly to transport (uptake) receptors in the presence of Na+.

Francis V. DeFeudis

1978-01-01

98

Vertebrate limb development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing limb is a good model for exploring mechanisms that establish cell and tissue plans during vertebrate development. A set of inductive cell interactions along each of the three limb axes specify the pattern of structures that involve the production of a signal by one group of cells and the response to this signal by a second group of

C. Tickle

1996-01-01

99

Duration tuning across vertebrates.  

PubMed

Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

2012-05-01

100

The taxonomy of vertebrate viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses that infect vertebrates (i.e. humans and higher animals) exhibit great diversity. They also create a variety of diseases that arise from interaction with their vertebrate hosts. This review presents the diversity of the biological and molecular properties of vertebrate viruses that aid their transmission and survival using the currently accepted taxonomic system. The Universal System of Virus Taxonomy has

Craig R. Pringle

2006-01-01

101

Head segmentation in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze.

Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

2008-01-01

102

Vertebrate heart development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes recent studies of the cellular and molecular events involved in the determination and differentiation of cardiac myocytes in vertebrate embryos. Fate-mapping studies in mouse, chick, amphibian and zebrafish embryos suggest that cardiac muscle precursors are specified shortly before or at the time of gastrulation. Nuclear factors, such as dHAND, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, GATA-6, Nkx-2.3, growth arrest homeobox

Gary E Lyons

1996-01-01

103

Were vertebrates octoploid?  

PubMed Central

It has long been suggested that gene and genome duplication play important roles in the evolution of organismal complexity. For example, work by Ohno proposed that two rounds of whole genome doubling (tetraploidy) occurred during the evolution of vertebrates: the extra genes permitting an increase in physiological and anatomical complexity. Several modifications of this 'two tetraploidies' hypothesis have been proposed, taking into account accumulating data, and there is wide acceptance of the basic scheme. In the past few years, however, several authors have raised doubts, citing lack of direct support or even evidence to the contrary. Here, we review the evidence for and against the occurrence of tetraploidies in early vertebrate evolution, and present a new compilation of molecular phylogenetic data for amphioxus. We argue that evidence in favour of tetraploidy, based primarily on genome and gene family analyses, is strong. Furthermore, we show that two observations used as evidence against genome duplication are in fact compatible with the hypothesis: but only if the genome doubling occurred by two closely spaced sequential rounds of autotetraploidy. We propose that early vertebrates passed through an autoautooctoploid phase in the evolution of their genomes.

Furlong, Rebecca F; Holland, Peter W H

2002-01-01

104

Non-vertebrate melatonin.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been detected in bacteria, eukaryotic unicells, macroalgae, plants, fungi and various taxa of invertebrates. Although precise determinations are missing in many of these organisms and the roles of melatonin are still unknown, investigations in some species allow more detailed conclusions. Non-vertebrate melatonin is not necessarily circadian, and if so, not always peaking at night, although nocturnal maxima are frequently found. In the cases under study, the major biosynthetic pathway is identical with that of vertebrates. Mimicking of photoperiodic responses and concentration changes upon temperature decreases have been studied in more detail only in dinoflagellates. In plants, an involvement in photoperiodism seems conceivable but requires further support. No stimulation of flowering has been demonstrated to date. A participation in antioxidative protection might be possible in many aerobic non-vertebrates, although evidence for a contribution at physiological levels is mostly missing. Protection from stress by oxidotoxins or/and extensions of lifespan have been shown in very different organisms, such as the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium, the ciliate Paramecium, the rotifer Philodina and Drosophila. Melatonin can be taken up from the food, findings with possible implications in ecophysiology as well as for human nutrition and, with regard to high levels in medicinal plants, also in pharmacology. PMID:12662344

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard

2003-05-01

105

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools.

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

106

Biomechanics of vertebral bone augmentation.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation is a successful means of relieving pain and reducing disability after vertebral compression fracture; however, the exact mechanism by which vertebral augmentation eliminates pain remains unproven. Most likely, pain relief is because of stabilization of microfractures. The biomechanical effects of vertebral fracture and subsequent vertebral augmentation therapy, however, are topics for continued investigation. Altered biomechanical stresses after treatment may affect the risk of adjacent fracture in an osteoporotic patient; that risk may be different after vertebral augmentation with cavity creation (balloon assisted vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) when compared with vertebral augmentation without cavity creation (vertebroplasty). Polymethyl methacrylate cement used in these procedures may have an important effect on the load transfer and disk mechanics, and therefore, the variables of cement volume, formulation, and distribution should also be evaluated. Finally, the question of whether prophylactic treatment of adjacent intact levels is indicated must be considered. PMID:20439011

Hadley, Celene; Awan, Omer Abdulrehman; Zoarski, Gregg H

2010-05-01

107

[Heredity of orthodontic anomalies].  

PubMed

The survey of most common orthodontic anomalies is given in this article. Authors, utilizing literature data, their own research as well as their therapeutic experience, try to elucidate the role of genetics in determination of dental anomalies and malocclusion. They emphasise the fact that genetically determined orthodontic anomalies are not easy to treat. Retention of treatment result could also be a problem. Occurrence of an anomaly in one member of the family should lead to the examination of other members, especially the young ones. PMID:24041019

Svábová, Miroslava; Racek, Jaroslav; Marková, Marie

2013-01-01

108

Anomalies in Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results in cognitive psychology and experimental economics indicate that under identifiable conditions individuals do not act in an economically rational way. These results are important for Political Economy. Anomalies appear in the behaviour of voters, politicans and administrators. Economic markets do not fully eliminate anomalies in the aggregation process. It is shown that political aggregation by democracy, bargaining or bureaucracy

Bruno S. Frey; Reiner Eichenberger

1991-01-01

109

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

110

Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.  

PubMed

Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

2007-07-03

111

Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies  

SciTech Connect

We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserved current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomaly coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy-ion collisions.

Son, Dam T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Surowka, Piotr [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2009-11-06

112

Vascular anomalies in children.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies are divided in two major categories: tumours (such as infantile hemangiomas) and malformations. Hemangiomas are common benign neoplasms that undergo a proliferative phase followed by stabilization and eventual spontaneous involution, whereas vascular malformations are rare structural anomalies representing morphogenetic errors of developing blood vessels and lymphatics. It is important to properly diagnose vascular anomalies early in childhood because of their distinct differences in morbidity, prognosis and need for a multidisciplinary management. We discuss a number of characteristic clinical features as clues for early diagnosis and identification of associated syndromes. PMID:22090176

Weibel, L

2011-11-01

113

Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with bilateral carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carotid and vertebral artery dissections from blunt cervical trauma are uncommon injuries that in recent years are becoming increasingly recognized as a result of angiographic screening protocols in trauma patients. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas are even less common events, but represent the most common intracranial vascular anomaly after head injury. The present report details the unique case of a

R. L. Yong; N. S. Heran

2005-01-01

114

NFAT signaling in vertebrate development  

Microsoft Academic Search

NFATc proteins transduce Ca2+ signals to the nucleus and then pair with other proteins on DNA to generate NFAT complexes that activate transcription in response to both electrical and tyrosine kinase signaling. The four NFATc genes arose at the origin of vertebrates, implying that they have evolved for the development of vertebrate-specific functions, such as a complex nervous system, a

Isabella A Graef; Feng Chen; Gerald R Crabtree

2001-01-01

115

Tuberculosis affecting multiple vertebral bodies.  

PubMed

Spinal tuberculosis usually occurs in a single vertebral body or two to three adjacent vertebrae; it rarely occurs in multiple vertebral bodies. Surgery is indicated in cases that do not improve with conservative therapy, or when paralysis is evident. Two cases regarding patients with spinal tuberculosis in multiple vertebral bodies on whom surgery was performed are reported. Case 1, the patient was a 77-year-old woman with spinal tuberculosis in four vertebral bodies from the lower thoracic to the lumbar spine. As she had pronounced lower back pain, posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Case 2, the patient was a 29-year-old Indonesian man with spinal tuberculosis in 17 vertebral bodies of the spine who was unable to stand due to paralysis of both legs, thus posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Good results were obtained from tuberculostatic drug therapy and surgical instrumentation. PMID:24066219

Baba, Hideo; Tagami, Atsushi; Adachi, Shinji; Hiura, Takeshi; Osaki, Makoto

2013-09-04

116

Tuberculosis Affecting Multiple Vertebral Bodies  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis usually occurs in a single vertebral body or two to three adjacent vertebrae; it rarely occurs in multiple vertebral bodies. Surgery is indicated in cases that do not improve with conservative therapy, or when paralysis is evident. Two cases regarding patients with spinal tuberculosis in multiple vertebral bodies on whom surgery was performed are reported. Case 1, the patient was a 77-year-old woman with spinal tuberculosis in four vertebral bodies from the lower thoracic to the lumbar spine. As she had pronounced lower back pain, posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Case 2, the patient was a 29-year-old Indonesian man with spinal tuberculosis in 17 vertebral bodies of the spine who was unable to stand due to paralysis of both legs, thus posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Good results were obtained from tuberculostatic drug therapy and surgical instrumentation.

Baba, Hideo; Tagami, Atsushi; Adachi, Shinji; Hiura, Takeshi

2013-01-01

117

Skyrmions and Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on Skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective Lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenome...

M. Rho

1987-01-01

118

Recurrent chest wall anomalies.  

PubMed

Chest wall anomalies are a heterogeneous group of malformations requiring repair. Recurrence and the need for secondary repair may occur. Congenital anomalies, including bifid sternum, pentalogy of Cantrell, Jeunes's syndrome and Poland's anomaly, rarely recur. Pectus carinatum may recur in the original surgical area or an adjacent area and most often recurs in patients who undergo repair before completion of teenage growth. Pectus excavatum may recur in approximately 5% of patients. Simple recurrence, floating sternum, or Acquired Jeune's syndrome may result. All of these would require reoperation. Each chest wall anomaly recurrence requires an individualized approach to timing and type of repair. Overall excellent results should be obtained for operative repair of recurrences. PMID:12728394

Colombani, Paul M

2003-05-01

119

Anomalies and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F ? F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications

Eckehard W. Mielke; Eckehard W

2006-01-01

120

Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.  

PubMed

Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction. PMID:23625763

Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

2013-04-27

121

De novo inv(2)(p12q34) associated with Klippel-Feil anomaly and hypodontia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present case report describes a patient with Klippel-Feil anomaly (KFA) and oligodontia, carrying a de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome 2 (p12q34). KFA is characterised by congenital vertebral fusion of the cervical spine and a wide spectrum of associated anomalies. It therefore constitutes a heterogenous group of clinical conditions and has been classified morphologically, although its aetiology remains unclear.

Manolis J. Papagrigorakis; Philippos N. Synodinos; Constandinos P. Daliouris; Caterina Metaxotou

2003-01-01

122

Biomechanics of Vertebral Fractures and the Vertebral Fracture Cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures (VFxs) are the most common osteoporotic fracture, and are a strong risk factor for future fracture. The\\u000a presence of a VFx greatly increases the risk of sustaining subsequent VFxs—a phenomenon often referred to as the “vertebral\\u000a fracture cascade.” VFxs do not occur uniformly along the spine, but occur more often at the mid-thoracic and thoracolumbar\\u000a regions than elsewhere.

Blaine A. Christiansen; Mary L. Bouxsein

2010-01-01

123

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

124

Carotid and Vertebral Artery Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONCarotid and vertebral artery dissections are potentially disabling and yet probably under-diagnosed, and mainly seem to affect young and middle-aged people (Bogousslavsky et al. 1987). Our review focuses on the mechanisms, possible underlying causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools, treatment and prognosis of both carotid and vertebral dissection.EPIDEMIOLOGYCervical artery dissection accounts for up to 20% of strokes in patients under 30

Marcel Arnold; Marie-Germaine Bousser

2005-01-01

125

The Structure of Vertebrate Retinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The vertebrate retina is formed from six distinct neuronal classes: (1) photoreceptors; (2) bipolar cells; (3) ganglion cells; (4) horizontal cells ; (5) amacrine cells and (6) interplexiform cells. Most vertebrates possess a single type of rod photoreceptor and most non-mammalians,have morphologically,pleomorphic,cone photoreceptors displaying different pigments and\\/or connectivities. Cartilaginous fishes and mammals,possess monomorphic,cones of similar forms regardless of pigment

Robert E. Marc

126

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates approximately 450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A; Larhammar, Dan

2008-10-01

127

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679

Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2011-07-27

128

Gravity anomalies on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doppler radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus orbiter has provided gravity measures over a significant portion of Venus. Feature resolution is approximately 300-1000 km within an area extending from 10 deg S to 40 deg N latitude and from 70 deg W to 130 deg E longitude (approximately equal to 200 deg). Many anomalies were detected, and there is considerable correlation with radar altimetry topography (Pettengill et al., 1980). The amplitudes of the anomalies are relatively mild and similar to those on earth at this resolution. Calculations for isostatic adjustment reveal that significant compensation has occurred.

Sjogren, W. L.; Phillips, R. J.; Birkeland, P. W.; Wimberly, R. N.

1980-12-01

129

Common Congenital Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies account for a substantial proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. They have become proportionately larger because of the decline of such other categories as infections or birth trauma. Approximately 3% of newborns have a serious handicapping or potentially lethal condition; in longterm studies the frequency is much higher. There is no good evidence to suggest that the rates of congenital anomalies are increasing, although this is a common perception. This article discusses diagnosis and management (especially genetic implications) of heart defects, neural tube defects, orofacial clefting, dislocated hip, clubfoot, and hypospadias.

Lowry, R. B.

1985-01-01

130

Chapter 2 Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in the molecular genetics, paleobiology, and the evolutionary developmental biology of vertebrate skeletogenesis have improved our understanding of the early evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton. These studies have involved genetic analysis of model organisms, human genetics, comparative developmental studies of basal vertebrates and nonvertebrate chordates, and both cladistic and histological analyses of fossil vertebrates. Integration of

GuangJun Zhang; B. Frank Eames; Martin J. Cohn

2009-01-01

131

Gravity anomalies on Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus orbiter has provided gravity measures over a significant portion of Venus. Feature resolution is approximately 300-1000 km within an area extending from 10 deg S to 40 deg N latitude and from 70 deg W to 130 deg E longitude (approximately equal to 200 deg). Many anomalies were detected, and there is considerable

W. L. Sjogren; R. J. Phillips; P. W. Birkeland; R. N. Wimberly

1980-01-01

132

Superstrings, anomalies and unification  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the lectures covering the main lines of developments in the presently most active field of particle physics: string field theory, anomalies, unification and physics beyond the Planck length. The lectures are generally pedagogical in style, designed at the postdoctoral level, but at the same time they introduce one to the most recent results in the field.

Martinis, M.; Andric, I.

1987-01-01

133

The Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ˜ 6× 10^{-9} Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of a_P = (8.74 ± 1.33)× 10^{-10} m/s^2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.

2010-09-01

134

Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A microcomputer based expert system is being developed to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects, a...

H. C. Koons D. J. Gorney

1988-01-01

135

Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous, automated audits. A workflow, process, or procedure,...

T. J. Smith S. Bryant

2005-01-01

136

Evolution of vertebrate retinal photoreception  

PubMed Central

Recent findings shed light on the steps underlying the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. Vertebrate ciliary photoreceptors are not as wholly distinct from invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors as is sometimes thought. Recent information on the phylogenies of ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins has helped in constructing the likely routes followed during evolution. Clues to the factors that led the early vertebrate retina to become invaginated can be obtained by combining recent knowledge about the origin of the pathway for dark re-isomerization of retinoids with knowledge of the inability of ciliary opsins to undergo photoreversal, along with consideration of the constraints imposed under the very low light levels in the deep ocean. Investigation of the origin of cell classes in the vertebrate retina provides support for the notion that cones, rods and bipolar cells all originated from a primordial ciliary photoreceptor, whereas ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells all originated from rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Knowledge of the molecular differences between cones and rods, together with knowledge of the scotopic signalling pathway, provides an understanding of the evolution of rods and of the rods' retinal circuitry. Accordingly, it has been possible to propose a plausible scenario for the sequence of evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

Lamb, Trevor D.

2009-01-01

137

Hepatic exstrophy complicating Poland's anomaly.  

PubMed

Poland's anomaly is comprised of a constellation of anomalies. To be included in the syndrome, a child must have a deficiency of the pectoralis major and minor muscles and an associated anomaly of either the ipsilateral breast or hand. Associated defects may include syndactyly osseous and cartilagenous costal aplasia and adactyly. A case of hepatic exstrophy through a full-thickness chest wall defect in an infant with Poland's anomaly is reported. PMID:12149703

Puder, Mark; Greene, Arin; Mooney, David

2002-08-01

138

Hepatic exstrophy complicating Poland's anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poland's anomaly is comprised of a constellation of anomalies. To be included in the syndrome, a child must have a deficiency of the pectoralis major and minor muscles and an associated anomaly of either the ipsilateral breast or hand. Associated defects may include syndactyly osseous and cartilagenous costal aplasia and adactyly. A case of hepatic exstrophy through a full-thickness chest

Mark Puder; Arin Greene; David Mooney

2002-01-01

139

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial task for paleontologists and paleobiologists is the reconstruction of the appearance, movements, and behavior of extinct vertebrates from studies of their bones or other, more rarely preserved parts. A related issue is the boundary between the scientific evidence for reconstruction and the need to resort to imagination. In this book, sixteen paleontologists and biologists discuss these questions, review the current status of functional studies of extinct vertebrates in the context of similar work on living animals, and present a broad philosophical view of the subject's development within the framework of phylogenetic analysis. The authors describe and debate methods for making realistic inferences of function in fossil vertebrates, and present examples where we may be confident that our reconstructions are both detailed and accurate.

Thomason, Jeffrey J.

1997-10-01

140

Segmentation anomalies of the vertebras and ribs: a developmental field defect: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed

Opitz has defined developmental field defects (DFD) as "any dysmorphogenetically reactive unit of the developing organism that leads to final structure." We have incorporated in our coding system specific codes to identify individual DFDs in each child, irrespective of the cause or type of the MCA pattern (i.e., chromosomal, mendelian, environmental, or unknown). Using this approach, we can analyze the group of defects included in the expression of each DFD as a discrete unit. To confirm our hypothesis that vertebral and rib anomalies constitute a DFD, we have studied all of our cases with segmentation anomalies of the spine and ribs, including hemivertebrae, fused or absent vertebrae, and "crab-like" thorax, all of which fall into the loosely defined groups of spondylothoracic dysplasia, costovertebral dysplasia, Jarcho-Levin syndrome, and others. The study was performed using the 18,743 malformed children from the ECEMC data files, 110 of them having vertebral/rib anomalies. PMID:8172249

Martínez-Frías, M L; Urioste, M

1994-01-01

141

Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations\\u000a in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly\\u000a unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal

Nicholas K. Cheung; Xenia Doorenbosch; John G. Christie

2011-01-01

142

Holographic gravitational anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the AdS\\/CFT correspondence one encounters theories that are not invariant under diffeomorphisms. In the boundary theory this is a gravitational anomaly, and can arise in 4k+2 dimensions. In the bulk, there can be gravitational Chern-Simons terms which vary by a total derivative. We work out the holographic stress tensor for such theories, and demonstrate agreement between the bulk and

Per Kraus; Finn Larsen

2006-01-01

143

Mixed states from anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several instances where quantum anomalies of continuous and discrete classical symmetries play an important role in fundamental physics. Examples come from chiral anomalies in the Standard Model of fundamental interactions and gravitational anomalies in string theories. Their generic origin is the fact that classical symmetries may not preserve the domains of quantum operators like the Hamiltonian. In this work, we show by simple examples that anomalous symmetries can often be implemented at the expense of working with mixed states having nonzero entropies. In particular there is the result on color breaking by non-abelian magnetic monopoles. This anomaly can be rectified by using impure states. We also argue that non-abelian groups of twisted bundles are always anomalous for pure states sharpening an earlier argument of Sorkin and Balachandran [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).]. This is the case of mapping class groups of geons [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).] indicating that large diffeos are anomalous for pure states in the presence of geons. Nevertheless diffeo invariance may be restored by using impure states. This work concludes with examples of these ideas drawn from molecular physics. The above approach using impure states is entirely equivalent to restricting all states to the algebra of observables invariant under the anomalous symmetries. For anomalous gauge groups such as color, this would mean that we work with observables singlet under global gauge transformations. For color, this will mean that we work with color singlets, a reasonable constraint.

Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, Amilcar R.

2012-01-01

144

Complex vascular anomalies.  

PubMed

The classification system for vascular anomalies now used by experts worldwide comprises two distinct disease entities that differ in their biologic and pathologic features: vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors include infantile and congenital hemangiomas, tufted angiomas, and kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas. Infantile hemangiomas, the most common vascular anomaly, generally have a predetermined life cycle (proliferation and subsequent involution). GLUT-1, a glucose transporter, is a marker for these specific lesions during all phases of development. Vascular malformations are classified according to their vascular tissue of origin and include capillary, venous, arteriovenous, lymphatic, and mixed malformations. Complex lymphatic malformations and complex mixed malformations, which may have most vascular components, are the most difficult vascular malformations to successfully treat. These lesions are present at birth and often expand or grow in response to trauma, infection, or hormonal changes. Imaging advancements have enabled more accurate assessments and improved management of vascular anomalies. In addition, many lesions are now being managed with targeted pharmacologic therapy. Propranolol and steroids are used for complex or disfiguring tumors, and new anti-angiogenesis inhibitors such as sirolimus are selectively used to treat lymphatic and venous lymphatic malformations that are poorly responsive to sclerotherapy, embolization, and surgical excision. Multimodal therapies are often essential for complex lesions and require the combined expertise of an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23989523

Azizkhan, Richard G

2013-10-01

145

Space Weather and Satellite Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth's magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment, are presented. Anomaly data from the "Kosmos" series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are com-bined in one database, together with similar information on other spacecrafts. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of the space weather: geo-magnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high ( 5000 events) and low (about 800 events) altitude orbit satellites. No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satel-lite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (?1500 km) and low (¡1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in a behavior. Satellites were divided on several groups according to the orbital char-acteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits that should be taken into account under developing of the anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented. Keywords: Space weather; Satellite anomalies; Energetic particles; Magnetic storms

Dorman, Lev; Iucci, N.; Levitin, A. E.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Villoresi, G.; Chizhenkov, G. V.; Gromova, L. I.; Parisi, M.; Tyasto, M. I.; Yanke, V. G.

146

Geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This Russian textbook provides a sufficiently complete and systematic illumination of physico-geologic and mathematical aspect of complex problem of interpretation of gravity anomalies. The rational methods of localization of anomalies are examined in detail. All methods of interpreting gravity anomalies are described which have found successful application in practice. Also given are ideas of some new methods of the interpretation of gravity anomalies, the prospects for further development and industrial testing. Numerous practical examples to interpretation are given. Partial Contents: Bases of gravitational field theory; Physico-geologic bases of gravitational prospecting; Principles of geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies; Conversions and calculations of anomalies; Interpretation of gravity anomalies for bodies of correct geometric form and for bodies of arbitrary form; Geologic interpretation of the results of regional gravitational photographing; Searches and prospecting of oil- and gas-bearing structures and of deposits of ore and nonmetalliferous useful minerals.

Andreyev, B.A.; Klushin, I.G.

1990-04-19

147

Anomaly General Circulation Models.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of the anomaly model is assessed using barotropic and baroclinic models. In the barotropic case, both a stationary and a time-dependent model has been formulated and constructed, whereas only the stationary, linear case is considered in the baroclinic case. Results from the barotropic model indicate that a relation between the stationary solution and the time-averaged non-linear solution exists. The stationary linear baroclinic solution can therefore be considered with some confidence. The linear baroclinic anomaly model poses a formidable mathematical problem because it is necessary to solve a gigantic linear system to obtain the solution. A new method to find solution of large linear system, based on a projection on the Krylov subspace is shown to be successful when applied to the linearized baroclinic anomaly model. The scheme consists of projecting the original linear system on the Krylov subspace, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the matrix to be inverted to obtain the solution. With an appropriate setting of the damping parameters, the iterative Krylov method reaches a solution even using a Krylov subspace ten times smaller than the original space of the problem. This generality allows the treatment of the important problem of linear waves in the atmosphere. A larger class (nonzonally symmetric) of basic states can now be treated for the baroclinic primitive equations. These problem leads to large unsymmetrical linear systems of order 10000 and more which can now be successfully tackled by the Krylov method. The (R7) linear anomaly model is used to investigate extensively the linear response to equatorial and mid-latitude prescribed heating. The results indicate that the solution is deeply affected by the presence of the stationary waves in the basic state. The instability of the asymmetric flows, first pointed out by Simmons et al. (1983), is active also in the baroclinic case. However, the presence of baroclinic processes modifies the dominant response. The most sensitive areas are identified; they correspond to north Japan, the Pole and Greenland regions. A limited set of higher resolution (R15) experiments indicate that this situation is still present and enhanced at higher resolution. The linear anomaly model is also applied to a realistic case. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Navarra, Antonio

148

Translational control in vertebrate development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translational control plays a large role in vertebrate oocyte maturation and contributes to the induction of the germ layers. Translational regulation is also observed in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The features of an mRNA that mediate translational control are found both in the 5? and in the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs). In the 5? UTR, secondary structure,

Cornelia H. de Moor; Joel D. Richter

2001-01-01

149

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness,

Ignasi Galtés; Juan Carlos Borondo; Mònica Cos; Mercè Subirana; Carles Martín; Josep Castellà; Jordi Medallo

150

Understanding Vertebrate Brain Evolution1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Four major questions can be asked about vertebrate brain evolution: 1) What major changes have occurred in neural organization and function? 2) When did these changes occur? 3) By what mecha- nisms did these changes occur? 4) Why did these changes occur? Comparative neurobiologists have been very successful in recognizing major changes in brain structure. They have also made

R. GLENN NORTHCUTT

2002-01-01

151

Tracking vertebrates for conservation: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching mission of Endangered Species Research (ESR), when founded, was to support the protection of nature (Kinne 2004). Management and conservation efforts for many vertebrate species need explicit data on animal spatial ecology, and acquisition of these are often problematic because many species prefer not to be seen and may travel large distances in habitats that prove difficult for

Brendan J. Godley; Rory P. Wilson

2008-01-01

152

Vertebral Artery Dissection Diagnosed with CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Vertebral artery dissection after neck manipulation has been well described. A case of bilateral vertebral artery dissection diagnosed with dynamic CT scanning of the neck is reported. The CT appearances and correlative angiographic and MR findings are presented.

J. R. Soper; G. D. Parker; J. M. Hallinan

153

Familial Poland anomaly revisited.  

PubMed

Poland anomaly (PA) is a pectoral muscle hypoplasia/aplasia variably associated with ipsilateral thoracic (TA) and/or upper limb anomalies (ULA). PA is usually sporadic and sometimes familial, making recurrence risk an issue in genetic counseling. Multidisciplinary evaluation of 240 PA patients was carried out, including physical examination of patients and their parents in 190 PA (subjects of the study). Familial conditions were classified into three groups. Group1: true familial PA (F-PA): pectoral muscle defects with familial recurrence: 8(4.2%). Group2: familial Poland-like anomaly families (F-PLA): PA index case and ?1 relative(s) showing normal pectoral muscles but ULA and/or TA common in PA: 16(8.4%). Group3: sporadic PA (S-PA): 166(87.4%). F-PA indicated a stronger male (87.5%) and left side (62.5%) prevalence, but fewer ULA (37.5%) compared to the other two groups. Maternal transmission (6/8) was more common in F-PA. Statistical significance was not reached due to the small number of F-PA and F-PLA. Karyotyping and array-comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 13 families. Three maternally inherited copy number variants were identified in three patients: 1p31.1 deletion, Xp11.22 duplication, and 16q23.1 duplication. Interestingly, the proband's mother carrying the 16q23.1 duplication displayed moderate breast and areola asymmetry, but normal pectoral muscles on ultrasound. Though there is no recent review discussing recurrence of PA, we reviewed 31 published PA families. On the basis of our study and previous reports, familial PA is not uncommon. Nonetheless, no information can be derived either regarding a molecular basis or clinical tools with which to identify cases with recurrence risk. PMID:22110015

Baban, Anwar; Torre, Michele; Costanzo, Sara; Gimelli, Stefania; Bianca, Sebastiano; Divizia, Maria Teresa; Sénès, Filippo Maria; Garavelli, Livia; Rivieri, Francesca; Lerone, Margherita; Valle, Maura; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Calevo, Maria Grazia

2011-11-22

154

Homeobox genes and the vertebrate head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several Drosophila genes important in the control of embryonic development contain a characteristic se- quence of DNA, known as the homeobox. Homeobox sequences are also present in a family of vertebrate genes, which may therefore have regulatory roles during vertebrate embryogenesis. In this article, data concerning the spatial patterns of vertebrate homeo- box gene expression are discussed in relation

PETER W. H. HOLLAND

1988-01-01

155

Vertebral artery dissection with amphetamine abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is an important cause of disabling stroke in young adults, recognition of its presenting features and risk factors is paramount for expeditious diagnosis and preventive treatment. Numerous risk factors for vertebral artery dissection have been reported; trauma is the most common. This case report describes a patient with amphetamine abuse, who had posterior circulation stroke from vertebral

Osama O. Zaidat; Jeffery Frank

2001-01-01

156

Water: Thermodynamic and Dynamic Anomalies  

SciTech Connect

While the majority of fluids contract upon cooling, water expands when cooled below T = 4 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. This effect is called density anomaly. Besides the density anomaly, there are more than 60 other anomalies known for water. Diffusivity is one of them. For normal liquids the diffusion coefficient decreases under compression. However, experimental results have shown that for water at temperatures below approximately 10 deg. C, the diffusion coefficient increases under compression and has a maximum. The temperature of maximum density line, inside which the density anomaly occurs, and the line of maximum in diffusivity are located in the same region of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of water. We show how simulations for water also show thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are then demonstrated to be related to two length scales effective potential.

Barbosa, Marcia C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

2009-04-19

157

Automated anomaly detection processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

2002-07-01

158

Thermodynamics, gravitational anomalies and cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By studying the Euclidean partition function on a cone, we argue that pure and mixed gravitational anomalies generate a "Casimir momentum" which manifests itself as parity violating coefficients in the hydrodynamic stress tensor and charge current. The coefficients generated by these anomalies enter at a lower order in the hydrodynamic gradient expansion than would be naively expected. In 1 + 1 dimensions, the gravitational anomaly affects coefficients at zeroth order in the gradient expansion. The mixed anomaly in 3 + 1 dimensions controls the value of coefficients at first order in the gradient expansion.

Jensen, Kristan; Loganayagam, R.; Yarom, Amos

2013-02-01

159

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail.

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

160

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-03-07

161

Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities might reveal cytogenetic abnormalities of an unexpected complexity. Results We report a 24 years old male patient with lower spinal anomalies, hypospadia, bifid scrotum, cryptorchism, anal atresia, kidney stones, urethra anomalies, radial dysplasia, and a hypoplastic thumb. Some of the anomalies overlap with the VACTERL association. Chromosome analysis of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed an additional ring chromosome in 13% of the metaphases. Both parents had a normal karyotype, demonstrating the de novo origin of this ring chromosome. FISH analysis using whole chromosome paints showed that the additional chromosomal material was derived from chromosome 18. Chromosome analysis of cultured fibroblasts revealed only one cell with the supernumerary ring chromosome in the 400 analyzed. To characterize the ring chromosome in more detail peripheral blood derived DNA was analyzed using SNP-arrays. The array results indicated a 5 Mb gain of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 18q10-q11.2. FISH analysis using BAC-probes located in the region indicated the presence of 6 signals on the r(18) chromosome. In addition, microsatellite analysis demonstrated that the unique supernumerary ring chromosome was paternally derived and both normal copies showed biparental disomy. Conclusions We report on an adult patient with multiple congenital abnormalities who had in 13% of his cells a unique supernumerary ring chromosome 18 that was composed of 6 copies of the 5 Mb gene rich region of 18q11.

2010-01-01

162

External Genital Anomalies in Newborn Babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: External genital anomalies are common congenital anomalies, especially in male newborns. It seems that the incidence of these anomalies is increasing. Although the etiology of these anomalies is obscure in most cases, genetic and environmental factors have important roles. This study aimed to determine the types and frequency of these anomalies in newborn babies and to compare the results

Siamak Shiva; Pediatric Endocrinologist; Mohammad-Hosein Hoseinian

2008-01-01

163

The earnings-price anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores systematic explanations for the anomalous evidence in the relation between accounting earnings and stock prices. The anomaly is that estimated future abnormal returns are predicted by public information about future earnings, contained in (1) current earnings and (2) current financial statement ratios. The current-earnings anomaly appears due to either market inefficiency or substantial costs of investors acquiring

Ray Ball

1992-01-01

164

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for

Wanda M. Solano

2007-01-01

165

Power Coefficient Anomaly in JOYO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power Coefficient Anomaly appeared in JOYO, which occurred in 75MW Power Ascension Test, Summer 1979. The substance of this anomaly was the non-reproducible power coefficient during the initial power-up from 50MWt to 75MWt and the permanent reactivity los...

M. Ishikawa Y. Yamashita Y. Nara H. Yamamoto

1981-01-01

166

Gravity Anomalies over Ocean Ridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The presence of positive free-air gravity anomalies over ocean ridges is supported by both the global solutions derived essentially from satellite observations and by surface measurements. The anomalies over the ridges observed by the satellite solutions are described by the harmonics of degree 8 or 9 and higher and they can be supported statically if maximum shear stresses in

Kurt Lambeck

1972-01-01

167

Anomalies in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several observations show unexplained phenomena in our solar system. These observations are e.g. the Pioneer Anomaly, an unexplained constant acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, the Flyby Anomaly, an unexplained increase of the velocity of a series of spacecraft after Earth gravity assists, the recently reported increase of the Astronomical Unit defined by the distance of the planets

Hansjoerg Dittus

2008-01-01

168

Congenital cardiac anomalies in calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven cases of congenital cardiac anomalies in calves were reviewed from the files of the Ohio Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The collection of material occurred during a six-month period from June 1977 to January 1978. The major clinical signs were dyspnoea, failure to gain weight and sudden death in young animals. The cardiac defects included two patent ductus arteriosus, two anomalies

GE Sandusky; CW Smith

1981-01-01

169

Anomaly equations and intersection theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six-dimensional supergravity theories with mathcal{N} = (1, 0) supersymmetry must satisfy anomaly equations. These equations come from demanding the cancellation of gravitational, gauge and mixed anomalies. The anomaly equations have implications for the geometrical data of Calabi-Yau threefolds, since F-theory compactified on an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold with a section generates a consistent six-dimensional mathcal{N} = (1, 0) supergravity theory. In this paper, we show that the anomaly equations can be summarized by three intersection theory identities. In the process we also identify the geometric counterpart of the anomaly coefficients — in particular, those of the abelian gauge groups — that govern the low-energy dynamics of the theory. We discuss the results in the context of investigating string universality in six dimensions.

Park, Daniel S.

2012-01-01

170

Anomaly mediation from unbroken supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When supergravity (SUGRA) is spontaneously broken, it is well known that anomaly mediation generates sparticle soft masses proportional to the gravitino mass. Recently, we showed that one-loop anomaly-mediated gaugino masses should be associated with unbroken supersymmetry (SUSY). This counterintuitive result arises because the underlying symmetry structure of (broken) SUGRA in flat space is in fact (unbroken) SUSY in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. When quantum corrections are regulated in a way that preserves SUGRA, the underlying AdS curvature (proportional to the gravitino mass) necessarily appears in the regulated action, yielding soft masses without corresponding goldstino couplings. In this paper, we extend our analysis of anomaly mediation to sfermion soft masses. Already at tree-level we encounter a number of surprises, including the fact that zero soft masses correspond to broken (AdS) SUSY. At one-loop, we explain how anomaly mediation appears when regulating SUGRA in a way that preserves super-Weyl invariance. We find that recent claims in the literature about the non-existence of anomaly mediation were based on a Wilsonian effective action with residual gauge dependence, and the gauge-invariant 1PI effective action contains the expected anomaly-mediated spectrum. Finally, we calculate the sfermion spectrum to all orders, and use supertrace relations to derive the familiar two-loop soft masses from minimal anomaly mediation, as well as unfamiliar tree-level and one-loop goldstino couplings consistent with renormalization group invariance.

D'Eramo, Francesco; Thaler, Jesse; Thomas, Zachary

2013-09-01

171

Vertebral morphometry: current methods and recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis and are associated with increased morbility and mortality. Because a\\u000a majority of vertebral fractures often occur in absence of specific trauma and are asymptomatic, their identification is radiographic.\\u000a The two most widely used methods to determine the severity of vertebral fractures are the visual semiquantitative (SQ) assessment\\u000a and the morphometric quantitative approach, involving

G. Guglielmi; D. Diacinti; C. van Kuijk; F. Aparisi; C. Krestan; J. E. Adams; T. M. Link

2008-01-01

172

Reactor antineutrino anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 238}U, increasing the mean flux by about 3%. To a good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976{+-}0.024. With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943{+-}0.023, leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth nonstandard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-{nu} data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |{Delta}m{sub new}{sup 2}|>1.5 eV{sup 2} (95%) and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub new})=0.14{+-}0.08 (95%). Constraints on the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle are revised.

Mention, G.; Fechner, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lasserre, Th.; Cribier, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A. [CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-04-01

173

Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates.

Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

174

Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

Li, Yi

2006-03-01

175

A neonate with anorectal malformation with rare limb defects report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-day-old male infant, born of a non-consanguineous marriage and uneventful pregnancy was found to have anomalies of vertebral,\\u000a anal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, radial and limb (VACTERL) association. The striking feature was the simultaneous occurrence\\u000a of two rare limb defects of right upper and lower limb in the baby who also had imperforate anus and ventricular septal defect.\\u000a These limb defects

Simmi K Ratan; Kamal Nain Rattan; John Ratan; Punita Kumari Sodhi; Vipin Bhatia

2005-01-01

176

TAT-NIDS: An Immune-Based Anomaly Detection Architecture for Network Intrusion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One emergent, widely used metaphor and rich source of inspiration for computer security has been the vertebrate Immune System\\u000a (IS). This is mainly due to its intrinsic nature of having to constantly protect the body against harm inflicted by external\\u000a (non-self) harmful entities. The bridge between metaphor and the reality of new practical systems for anomaly detection is cemented\\u000a by

Mário Antunes; Manuel Correia

2008-01-01

177

Lateral vertebral assessment: a valuable technique to detect clinically significant vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many vertebral fractures are clinically silent, they are associated with increased risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures. A substantial number of these fractures are demonstrable using instant vertebral assessment with Hologic densitometers. Whether similar recognition is possible using dual-energy lateral vertebral assessment (LVA) with GE Lunar densitometers remains uncertain. Thus, we evaluated the ability of clinicians using LVA to detect

Neil Binkley; D. Krueger; R. Gangnon; H. K. Genant; M. K. Drezner

2005-01-01

178

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

179

Axial Anomaly in Nonrenormalizable Theories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anomaly for the axial current in nonrenormalizable theories with electromagnetic coupling is considered. The spinor electrodynamics with Pauli term is examined in detail using the Feynman graph technique and the point-splitting method. The same finite...

S. Marculescu L. Mezincescu

1978-01-01

180

Dual Origin of the Vertebral Artery Mimicking Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Vertebral artery injury may occur at the time of cer- vical fracture or dislocation. Congenital vertebral artery varia- tions, especially a double vertebral artery origin, may be respon- sible for angiographic findings that mimic vertebral artery dissection. Two cases of cervical spine fracture with ipsilateral double vertebral artery are presented. Conventional cerebral an- giography is the easiest and best

Thomas E. Nogueira; A. Alan Chambers; Mary T. Brueggemeyer; Timothy J. Miller

181

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

182

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

2007-09-21

183

Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD): confirmation of a recessive disorder with abnormal vertebral ossification and nephroblastomatosis.  

PubMed

We report on four patients from three families, with similar radiological findings: absent (or severely delayed) ossification of vertebral bodies and associated anomalies. The babies were stillborn or died soon after birth of respiratory insufficiency. Two patients are sibs (female and male) born to first cousin Malian parents. The two others were non-consanguineous. This perinatally lethal entity comprises short neck, short wide thorax, and normally shaped limbs. Associated, inconstant anomalies are myelomeningocele, cystic kidneys with nephrogenic rests (in the sibs), and cleft palate. Radiologically, the hallmarks are absence of ossification of the vertebral bodies and sacrum, abnormal position of the vertebral pedicles, which are lamellar and angulated, ribbon-like ribs reduced in number, narrow pelvis, upward widening of the iliac wings, and unusual tilt of the ischiopubic rami, contrasting with the normal appendicular skeleton. Maroteaux briefly described one of the patients in the 2002 edition of "Maladies osseuses de l'enfant" and three sibs with similar renal and radiological findings were reported in 2003 in this Journal. Combined with the latter cases, these four new patients allow delineation of a specific lethal AR syndrome with ossification defect of the axial skeleton and renal dysplasia. We propose to name this entity diaphanospondylodysostosis. PMID:15988748

Gonzales, Marie; Verloes, Alain; Saint Frison, Marie-Hélène; Perrotez, Chantal; Bourdet, Odile; Encha-Razavi, Ferechte; Joyé, Nicole; Taillemite, Jean-Louis; Walbaum, Roland; Pfeiffer, Rudolf; Maroteaux, Pierre

2005-08-01

184

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

185

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using

Julien Roux; Marc Robinson-Rechavi

2008-01-01

186

Vertebrate evolution: recent perspectives from fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in understanding the evolution of vertebrate genomes has been rapid, and previous notions that all such genomes could be regarded as equivalent in their gene content have been rendered outdated. This notion, often embodied in the representation that vertebrates possess four Hox complexes, still appears in contemporary textbooks of developmental biology. Recent data from the genomes of teleost

Samuel Aparicio

2000-01-01

187

Vertebral artery dissection causing stroke in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of vertebral arterial dissection occurring in sport are presented. These cases emphasise the diagnostic and management difficulties in this setting. Stroke in sport, although uncommon, is predominantly due to arterial dissection in either the vertebral or carotid arteries. Physicians involved in athlete care need to be aware of this diagnosis.

Paul McCrory

2000-01-01

188

Spinal cord compression due to vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

This article presents a case of multiple vertebral hemangiomas in a 58-year-old man with pain in the dorsal region and bilateral progressive foot numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple vertebral hemangiomas. One hemangioma at the T7 level demonstrated epidural extension, causing spinal cord compression. After treatment with radiotherapy, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. PMID:19292199

Aksu, Gorkem; Fayda, Merdan; Saynak, Mert; Karadeniz, Ahmet

2008-02-01

189

HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF WEST INDIAN VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate fauna of the West Indies (1262 species) exhibits high levels of en­ demism and has a taxonomic composition characteristic of more isolated oceanic islands. Many groups that are widespread on the mainland are absent in the is­ lands, and some of those present are characterized by large adaptive radiations. The growing fossil record of West Indian vertebrates, including

S. Blair Hedges

1996-01-01

190

Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

191

Segmental patterning of the vertebrate embryonic axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body axis of vertebrates is composed of a serial repetition of similar anatomical modules that are called segments or metameres. This particular mode of organization is especially conspicuous at the level of the periodic arrangement of vertebrae in the spine. The segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis when the somites — the embryonic segments of vertebrates — are rhythmically

Mary-Lee Dequéant; Olivier Pourquié

2008-01-01

192

Hox Genes and Axial Specification in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The colinear, anterior to posterior expression domains of the Hox genes in vertebrate embryos is strongly correlated with regional changes in ver- tebral morphology. The limbs of tetrapods are consistently aligned with specific areas of the vertebral column. However, control of limb development is apparently situated in the lateral plate mesoderm, and has been experimentally shown to be independent

Ann Campbell Burke; Julie L. Nowicki

2001-01-01

193

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively. These three events coincide with bursts of character acquisition and increases in phenotypic complexity, and many researchers have suggested a causal relationship between the two. However, this pattern is derived from data for

Philip C. J. Donoghue; Mark A. Purnell

2005-01-01

194

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation: vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty and skyphoplasty.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a safe, inexpensive, and effective interventional vertebral augmentation technique that provides pain relief and stabilization in carefully selected patients with severe back pain due to vertebral compression. Complications from percutaneous vertebroplasty can be devastating, but are rare and avoidable with application of a meticulous technique. Percutaneous vertebroplasty has a role in the management pathway of patients presenting with painful vertebral compression fractures. Kyphoplasty uses a balloon tamp with the aim of restoring vertebral body height, improving kyphotic deformity, and creating a cavity into which bone cement is injected. Kyphoplasty is as effective and safe as vertebroplasty in treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures. Skyphoplasty, a modification of kyphoplasty, is a promising new technique. PMID:18707964

Peh, Wilfred C G; Munk, Peter L; Rashid, Faisal; Gilula, Louis A

2008-05-01

195

Lamprey Dlx genes and early vertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

Gnathostome vertebrates have multiple members of the Dlx family of transcription factors that are expressed during the development of several tissues considered to be vertebrate synapomorphies, including the forebrain, cranial neural crest, placodes, and pharyngeal arches. The Dlx gene family thus presents an ideal system in which to examine the relationship between gene duplication and morphological innovation during vertebrate evolution. Toward this end, we have cloned Dlx genes from the lamprey Petromyzon marinus, an agnathan vertebrate that occupies a critical phylogenetic position between cephalochordates and gnathostomes. We have identified four Dlx genes in P. marinus, whose orthology with gnathostome Dlx genes provides a model for how this gene family evolved in the vertebrate lineage. Differential expression of these lamprey Dlx genes in the forebrain, cranial neural crest, pharyngeal arches, and sensory placodes of lamprey embryos provides insight into the developmental evolution of these structures as well as a model of regulatory evolution after Dlx gene duplication events.

Neidert, Adam H.; Virupannavar, Vikrant; Hooker, Gillian W.; Langeland, James A.

2001-01-01

196

A Lebanese family with autosomal recessive oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum and review of the literature: is OAV a genetically heterogeneous disorder?  

PubMed Central

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum summarizes a continuum of ocular, auricular, and vertebral anomalies. Goldenhar syndrome is a variant of this spectrum and is characterized by pre-auricular skin tags, microtia, facial asymmetry, ocular abnormalities, and vertebral anomalies of different sizes and shapes. Most cases are thought to be sporadic. However, a few families were reported to have an autosomal recessive inheritance and other families’ presentation of the syndrome strongly supported an autosomal dominant inheritance. We report OAV in a female infant presenting with tracheomalacia, diaphragmatic hernia, encephalomeningocele, sacral neural tube defect, and cardiac defect and her brother having no more than dysmorphic features. The mode of inheritance in this family supports an autosomal recessive inheritance where the transmission was from normal first-degree consanguineous parents to one of the sons and to the daughter. This report further broadens the clinical presentation and symptoms of OAV and supports the hypothesis advancing OAV as a genetically heterogeneous disorder.

Farra, Chantal; Yunis, Khaled; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Charafeddine, Lama; Wakim, Rima; Awwad, Johnny

2011-01-01

197

Vertebral body innervation: Implications for pain.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures often cause intractable pain. To define the involvement of vertebral body innervation in pain, we collected specimens from male and female patients during percutaneous kyphoplasty, a procedure used for reconstruction of the vertebral body. Specimens were taken from 31 patients (9 men and 22 women) suffering high-intensity pain before surgery. In total, 1,876 histological preparations were obtained and analysed. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to locate the nerves in the specimens. The nerve fibres were labelled by indirect immunofluorescence with the primary antibody directed against Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a pan-neuronal marker; another primary antibody directed against type IV collagen (Col IV) was used to identify vessels and to determine their relationship with vertebral nerve fibres. The mean percentage of samples in which it was possible to identify nerve fibres was 35% in men and 29% in women. The percentages varied depending on the spinal level considered and the sex of the subject, nerve fibres being mostly present around vessels (95%). In conclusion, there is scarce innervation of the vertebral bodies, with a clear prevalence of fibres located around vessels. It seems unlikely that this pattern of vertebral body innervation is involved in vertebral pain or in pain relief following kyphoplasty. PMID:20020509

Buonocore, Michelangelo; Aloisi, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Massimo; Gatti, Anna Maria; Bonezzi, Cesare

2010-03-01

198

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

199

Back pain in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review article examines the epidemiology and pathogenesis of back pain and vertebral fractures in osteoporosis, reviewing\\u000a the management of pain in patients with vertebral fractures and the direct and indirect effect of osteoporosis treatments\\u000a on back pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The management of patients with vertebral fractures has largely concentrated on the prevention of further fractures by the\\u000a treatment of underlying osteoporosis,

R. M. Francis; T. J. Aspray; G. Hide; A. M. Sutcliffe; P. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

200

Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-05-27

201

Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

McCollum, Gin

2003-05-01

202

Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rudiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

203

[Vascular anomaly of the iris].  

PubMed

A 48-year-old man presented with a vascular anomaly of the iris in the left eye. Slit-lamp microscopy revealed dilated and tortuous vessels of the iris between 12 and 4 o'clock. Fluorescein angiography confirmed a diagnosis of arteriovenous (AV) malformation of the iris. The vessel originated at the iris base, passed to the pupillary margin and returned to the base. Such AV-malformations of the iris are very rare, benign vascular anomalies that have to be distinguished from other, potentially malignant pathologies of the iris (e. g. tortuous vessels in iris melanoma). PMID:22526009

Ponto, K A; Mirshahi, A

2012-07-01

204

Congenital cardiac anomalies in calves.  

PubMed

Seven cases of congenital cardiac anomalies in calves were reviewed from the files of the Ohio Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The collection of material occurred during a six-month period from June 1977 to January 1978. The major clinical signs were dyspnoea, failure to gain weight and sudden death in young animals. The cardiac defects included two patent ductus arteriosus, two anomalies of the coronary vessels, one persistent truncus arteriosus, one transposition of the aorta and pulmonary artery and one ventricular septal defect. PMID:7210447

Sandusky, G E; Smith, C W

1981-02-21

205

4.2.1 Vertebral Fusion Studies  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionStryker Biotech Briefing for 31 March 2009 Advisory Committee Meeting 4.2.1 Vertebral Fusion Studies (Content from P060021/A011 Section IV ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

206

The Exotic Vertebrates of South Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species of introduced exotic vertebrates of south Florida (Lake Okeechobee southward) are identified and described. The principal factors responsible for their introductions are explored and recommendations are made for alleviation of current problems cau...

J. P. Crowder

1974-01-01

207

Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

Sues, Hans-Dieter

2000-08-01

208

Reference values for vertebral shape in young Chinese women: implication for assessment of vertebral deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The race- and sex-specific reference values for vertebral shape are important to determine the prevalence of osteoporotic\\u000a vertebral fracture. However, these reference values are absent in Chinese women. In the present study, the anterior, middle\\u000a and posterior heights and the ratios of these heights were measured from 14 vertebral bodies (T4–L5) in 60 premenopausal Chinese\\u000a women (aged 19–25 years). Cutoff values

Lingjun Gao; Tianyou Fan; Yongqiang Chen; Shijing Qiu

2010-01-01

209

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

210

Bilateral spontaneous dissection of extracranial vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously healthy 35-year-old man suddenly developed vertebrobasilar ischaemia while playing tennis. Cerebral arteriography revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the cervical portion of both vertebral arteries. The neurological deficit and the angiographic features resolved with anticoagulant treatment alone. Only 15 patients with non-traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection have been previously reported. It is necessary to recognize the condition very quickly,

D. Leys; F. Lesoin; J. P. Pruvo; G. Gozet; M. Jomin; H. Petit

1987-01-01

211

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in

Katherine A. Hartley; Chenghong Li; Fred H. Laningham; Matthew J. Krasin; Xiaoping Xiong; Thomas E. Merchant

2008-01-01

212

Cilia in vertebrate development and disease  

PubMed Central

Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. This ancient organelle has now emerged as a crucial component of certain signaling and sensory perception pathways in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction.

Oh, Edwin C.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2012-01-01

213

Quantum tunneling and trace anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute the corrections, using the tunneling formalism based on a quantum WKB approach, to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein–Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole. The results are related to the trace anomaly and are shown to be equivalent to findings inferred from Hawking's original calculation based on path integrals using zeta function regularization. Finally, exploiting the corrected temperature

Rabin Banerjee; Bibhas Ranjan Majhi

2009-01-01

214

Möbius Syndrome with Poland's Anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-year-old boy with Möbius syndrome, Poland's anomaly, and dextrocardia is described. These malformations have not been previously reported. The propositus had ipsilateral absence of the sternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle associated with acromicria, syndactyly, brachydactyly of the index, middle, ring, and fifth finger, as well as radiological evidence of hypoplasia of the index middle and ring fingers,

Gerald I. Sugarman; Herbert H. Stark

1973-01-01

215

Coral can have growth anomalies  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

216

Lunar rocks and thermal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent microwave and infrared spectral observations of several of the large bright-rayed craters on the moon suggest that the thermal anomalies in these craters are produced by large rocks, boulders, and exposed rock strata. The data for the crater Tycho can be simulated by a surface consisting of 16% loose rocks of I-meter size and 4% exposed rock strata. A

David Buhl

1971-01-01

217

Building envelope thermal anomaly analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study has been made of building energy thermal anomalies (BETA's) in a large modern office building using computer simulation, on-site inspections, and infrared thermography. The goal was to better understand the heat and moisture flow through these ''bridges,'' develop the beginnings of a classification scheme, and establish techniques for assessing the potential for retrofit or initial design modifications.

B. S. Melton; P. Mulroney; T. Scott; K. W. Childs

1987-01-01

218

Anomaly detection from hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop anomaly detectors, i.e., detectors that do not presuppose a signature model of one or more dimensions, for three clutter models: the local normal model, the global normal mixture model, and the global linear mixture model. The local normal model treats the neighborhood of a pixel as having a normal probability distribution. The normal mixture model considers the observation

D. W. J. Stein; S. G. Beaven; L. E. Hoff; E. M. Winter; A. P. Schaum; A. D. Stocker

2002-01-01

219

Anomaly-specified virtual dimensionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual dimensionality (VD) has received considerable interest where VD is used to estimate the number of spectral distinct signatures, denoted by p. Unfortunately, no specific definition is provided by VD for what a spectrally distinct signature is. As a result, various types of spectral distinct signatures determine different values of VD. There is no one value-fit-all for VD. In order to address this issue this paper presents a new concept, referred to as anomaly-specified VD (AS-VD) which determines the number of anomalies of interest present in the data. Specifically, two types of anomaly detection algorithms are of particular interest, sample covariance matrix K-based anomaly detector developed by Reed and Yu, referred to as K-RXD and sample correlation matrix R-based RXD, referred to as R-RXD. Since K-RXD is only determined by 2nd order statistics compared to R-RXD which is specified by statistics of the first two orders including sample mean as the first order statistics, the values determined by K-RXD and R-RXD will be different. Experiments are conducted in comparison with widely used eigen-based approaches.

Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

2013-09-01

220

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

221

Registries of congenital anomalies: EUROCAT.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies are one of the potential adverse effects of the environment on reproductive health. Registries of congenital anomalies are useful to detect abnormal frequencies, clusters, and trends. Such registries should meet a number of conditions, including an appropriate population denominator, an efficient system for collecting information, standardized diagnostic procedures, postmortem examinations of still-births, and linkage of records. The EUROCAT (European Registration of Congenital Anomalies and Twins) program is a Concerted Action of the Commission of the European Communities initiated in 1979. One of its objectives is the surveillance of congenital anomalies as related to environmental hazards. This surveillance system covers at present 350,000 births per year in 15 countries. A number of problems encountered in the development of EUROCAT and in the course of ongoing activities are reviewed: populations coverage, classification of malformations, coding, definition and coverage of late fetal death, registration of induced abortion, validation of diagnostic information, registration of late diagnosed cases, and maintenance of motivation in data collection. The issue of confidentiality and the need for strict safeguards for the protection of individual privacy are emphasized. PMID:8243386

Lechat, M F; Dolk, H

1993-07-01

222

Pregnancy outcome and Ebstein's anomaly.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Ebstein's anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac abnormality that may be associated with cyanosis and arrhythmias. For those female patients with the anomaly who survive to adult life there is little information available about pregnancy, maternal complications, and fetal outcome. This study was designed to address this issue so that these patients can receive appropriate advice and management. METHODS AND RESULTS--Forty two pregnancies in 12 women with Ebstein's anomaly were studied. The mothers' cardiac lesions were assessed on the basis of symptoms, the presence of cyanosis or arrhythmia, and by echocardiographic grading of severity. In the absence of important maternal cyanosis or arrhythmia, pregnancy was well tolerated. Neonatal outcome was good though there was an increased risk of prematurity and dysmaturity in the babies born to mothers with cyanosis. CONCLUSIONS--This study indicates that women with Ebstein's anomaly who reach child-bearing age can be advised that pregnancy is likely to be well tolerated with good fetal outcome. Maternal arrhythmia or cyanosis are indications for closer maternal and fetal observation.

Donnelly, J E; Brown, J M; Radford, D J

1991-01-01

223

Anomalies: Ultimatums, Dictators and Manners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics can be distinguished from other social sciences by the belief that most (all?) behavior can be explained by assuming that agents have stable, well-defined preferences and make rational choices consistent with those pref- erences in markets that (eventually) clear. An empirical result qualifies as an anomaly if it is difficult to \\

Colin Camerer; Richard H. Thaler

224

Accounting Anomalies and Information Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether rational investor responses to information uncertainty explain properties of and returns to accounting-based trading anomalies. We proxy for information uncertainty with two measures of earnings quality: the standard deviation of the residuals from a Dechow and Dichev (2002) model relating accruals to cash flows, and the absolute value of performance-adjusted abnormal accruals from a modified Jones (1991)

Jennifer Francis; Ryan LaFond; Per Olsson; Katherine Schipper

2003-01-01

225

Cladogram Construction and Vertebrate Phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first page of the presentation includes photos of 12 animals. I print this page, cut up the photos, and give a set of photos to each group of students. Working in groups of 2 or 3, the students spend ~10 minutes arranging the photos to depict the evolutionary relationships among the animals. This exercise is followed by 4 clicker questions about relationships that students commonly misconstrue due to convergence or shared primitive features. I use the clicker questions to initiate class discussion of group results. Then we discuss the evidence (anatomy, biochemistry) for current thinking about these relationships. Once we have established a consensus, students are asked to place pictures of a subset of the animals at the tips of the branches on a pre-designed cladogram. The activity gives me insight into students' preconceptions regarding vertebrate phylogeny, encourages students to identify their own misconceptions, promotes peer instruction and highlights problems associated with determining relationships based on shared primitive features. Placing the animals on a pre-designed cladogram allows students to translate their hypothesis about relationships into a visual diagram, an exercise that I hope will help students to extract the phylogenetic hypotheses depicted on cladograms in papers and textbooks. Once we have established a consensus cladogram, students must go one step further and add evidence (synapomorphies) to their cladograms. Students spend ~ 10 minutes brainstorming with their group to place synapormorphies at each node of the diagram. An example is provided for whales and hippos, groups for which the evidence of shared ancestry is difficult to recognize based on the anatomy of living specimens. After adding synapomorphies to their diagrams, students will work together as a class, contributing shared derived features to a group cladogram. If time permits, it would also be possible to complete the exercise with a gallery walk, where each group posts a copy of their cladogram + synapomorphies on the wall for other groups to examine and edit.

Fowell, Sarah

226

Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera.

Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

1998-01-01

227

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.  

PubMed

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2012-06-15

228

Fenestration and duplication of the vertebral artery: The anatomical and clinical points of view.  

PubMed

The vertebral artery (VA) acts as a foundation for the posterior circulation of the head and neck. It presents a number of anomalies that can be easily visualized thanks to modern imaging techniques, such as MR and CT angiography or color Doppler ulrasonography. Determining the appropriate terminology for those anomalies can be sometimes more challenging than their recognition. One particular challenge concerns the differentiation betweenVA fenestration and duplication. Because of the different clinical prognoses associated with those anomalies, confusion should be avoided. Knowledge of the morphological anomalies associated with the VA is important for both radiologists and head and neck surgeons, because any injury to the VA can result in a threat to the vascular supply of the brain stem, the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres, the thalamus, cervical nerve roots and particularly the lateral medulla (Wallenberg's syndrome). This article analyses world literature concerning the issue of VA fenestration and duplication to facilitate a differential diagnosis. Clin. Anat. 26:933-943, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23553773

Polguj, Micha?; Podgórski, Micha?; J?drzejewski, Kazimierz; Topol, Miros?aw; Majos, Agata

2013-03-28

229

Threshold anomaly in doublet nd-scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The doublet nd-scattering amplitude behaviour near the three-particle threshold is studied analytically and numerically. The scattering amplitude possesses an anomaly caused by the small energy of singlet deuteron virtual level. The anomaly manifests itse...

D. V. Shapoval I. V. Simenog

1988-01-01

230

ANOMALIES OF THE FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS MUSCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three anomalies of the human flexor digitorum superficialis are presented. The normal development of this muscle from the amphibian to the human is discussed and the described anomalies of the muscle in humans classified.

D ELLIOT; A. R KHANDWALA; M KULKARNI

1999-01-01

231

In utero sonography of genitourinary anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system represent the commonest fetal anomaly. The sonographic findings in hydronephrosis,\\u000a multicystic kidney (dysplastic kidney) polycystic kidney, and renal agenesis are reviewed.

R. C. Sanders

1992-01-01

232

Lateral vertebral assessment: a valuable technique to detect clinically significant vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Although many vertebral fractures are clinically silent, they are associated with increased risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures. A substantial number of these fractures are demonstrable using instant vertebral assessment with Hologic densitometers. Whether similar recognition is possible using dual-energy lateral vertebral assessment (LVA) with GE Lunar densitometers remains uncertain. Thus, we evaluated the ability of clinicians using LVA to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. Dual-energy LVA and conventional thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were concurrently obtained in 80 postmenopausal women. Using an established visual semiquantitative system, vertebral fractures were identified individually by two non-radiologist clinicians on LVA images, and the results were compared with spinal radiograph evaluation by an expert radiologist. Using LVA, 95% of vertebral bodies from T7 through L4 were evaluable, but a majority (66%) of vertebrae from T4 to T6 were not adequately visualized. In the LVA-evaluable vertebrae, prevalent fractures were identified in 40 vertebral bodies by radiography. In this regard, the clinicians using LVA detected 17 of 18 radiographically evident vertebral fractures of grade 2 or 3, a false negative rate of 6%. They identified 50% (11/22) of grade 1 fractures. Additionally, the vast majority of evaluable non-fractured vertebrae, (764/794, 96.2%) were correctly classified as normal by LVA. Thus, clinicians utilizing LVA correctly identified the vast majority of grade 2 or 3 vertebral compression fractures and normal vertebral bodies, although detection of grade 1 fractures was less effective. In conclusion, the low-radiation, dual-energy LVA technique provides a rapid and convenient way for clinicians to identify patients with, and without, grade 2 or 3 vertebral fractures, thereby enhancing care of osteoporotic patients. PMID:15834512

Binkley, Neil; Krueger, D; Gangnon, R; Genant, H K; Drezner, M K

2005-04-15

233

The aetiology of sigma model anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain nonlinear sigma models with fermions are ill-defined due to an anomaly which exhibits characteristics of both the nonabelian gauge theory anomaly and the SU(2) anomaly. The simplest way to diagnose the anomaly involves consideration of the global topology of the theory. We review the mathematical methods needed for this analysis and apply them to several supersymmetric sigma models. Some of these are found to be anomalous.

Moore, Gregory; Nelson, Philip

1985-03-01

234

Magnetic anomalies, layered intrusions and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of remanence-controlled magnetic anomalies on Earth provide possibilities to interpret the nature of crustal rocks that cause the large remanent anomalies on Mars. What types of conditions on Earth can create large remanent magnetic anomalies? Such an anomaly, extending for 20 km centered over a norite layer in the Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) Intrusion, shows a minimum ?13000 nT below background

S. A. McEnroe; J. R. Skilbrei; P. Robinson; F. Heidelbach; F. Langenhorst; L. L. Brown

2004-01-01

235

Severity of prevalent vertebral fractures and the risk of subsequent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures: results from the MORE trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalent vertebral fractures and baseline bone mineral density (BMD) predict subsequent fracture risk. The objective of this analysis is to examine whether baseline vertebral fracture severity can predict new vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. In the randomized, double-blind 3-year Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial, 7705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (low BMD or prevalent vertebral fractures) were randomly assigned

P. D Delmas; H. K Genant; G. G Crans; J. L Stock; M Wong; E Siris; J. D Adachi

2003-01-01

236

Safeguarding SCADA Systems with Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will show how the accuracy and security of SCADA systems can be improved by using anomaly detection to identify bad values caused by attacks and faults. The performance of invariant induction and n- gram anomaly-detectors will be compared and this paper will also outline plans for taking this work further by integrating the output from several anomaly- detecting

John Bigham; David Gamez; Ning Lu

2003-01-01

237

A signal analysis of network traffic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying anomalies rapidly and accurately is critical to the efficient operation of large computer networks. Accurately characterizing important classes of anomalies greatly facilitates their identification; however, the subtleties and complexities of anomalous traffic can easily confound this process. In this paper we report results of signal analysis of four classes of network traffic anomalies: outages, flash crowds, attacks and measurement

Paul Barford; Jeffery Kline; David Plonka; Amos Ron

2002-01-01

238

Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the

T J David

1982-01-01

239

Poland anomaly in mother and daughter.  

PubMed

We report on Poland anomaly in a mother and her daughter. Further family history was negative for abnormalities of the hands or the pectoralis major muscle. A review of published cases of familial Poland anomaly is presented. Implications concerning the possible etiology of familial cases of Poland anomaly are given. PMID:2556920

Cobben, J M; Robinson, P H; van Essen, A J; van der Wiel, H L; ten Kate, L P

1989-08-01

240

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC.

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

241

Is kyphoplasty reliable for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with vertebral wall deficiency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVertebral compression fractures are a common clinical manifestation of osteoporosis. The introduction of kyphoplasty has allowed minimally invasive treatment of these fractures. However, in patients with loss of vertebral wall integrity, balloon kyphoplasty is contraindicated due to the possibility of extruding wall fragments into the canal and cement extravasation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of kyphoplasty in the treatment

Jun Zou; Xin Mei; Minfeng Gan; Genlin Wang; Jian Lu; Huilin Yang

2010-01-01

242

Post-traumatic Vertebral Compression Fracture Treated with Minimally Invasive Biologic Vertebral Augmentation for Reconstruction.  

PubMed

In the United States, there is a high incidence of motor vehicle and sports injuries among the active population causing symptomatic post-traumatic vertebral compression fracture. At our institution, 28 cases of painful post-traumatic vertebral compression fractures (PPT-VCFs) were successfully treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (VA) for stabilization and reconstruction with intravertebral polyethylene mesh sac (OptiMesh®, Spineology, Inc., Stillwater, MN) and biological morcelized bone graft. The surgical approach provides an efficacious and controlled minimally invasive delivery mechanism to stabilize and reconstruct VCFs, as well as avoiding serious complications from Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The construct for biological bone graft/vertebral augmentation is osteoconductive and osteoinductive, and is used to create biologic vertebral stabilization and reconstruction. The adjacent vertebra integrity is protected by the construct with similar elasticity and physical characteristics of the biologic morcelized bone, more matched to that of adjacent bone than PMMA. The surgical techniques are described herein. PMID:22505001

Chiu, John C; Maziad, Ali M

2011-12-01

243

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

244

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

245

Population-wide Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of disease outbreaks, particularly an outbreak due to an act of bioterrorism, is a critically important problem due to the potential to reduce both morbidity and mortality. One of the most lethal bioterrorism scenarios is a large-scale release of inhalational anthrax. The Population-wide Anomaly Detection and Assessment (PANDA) algorithm (1) is specifically designed to monitor health-care data for

Weng-Keen Wong; Gregory F. Cooper; Denver H. Dash; John D. Levander; John N. Dowling; William R. Hogan; Michael M. Wagner

246

Surgical treatment of cloacal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1989–1998 14 patients were treated with cloacal anomalies: 5 typical cloacas (PC), 5 posterior cloacas, and 4 cloacal\\u000a exstrophies (CE); 12 underwent surgery. Four typical cloacas were resolved with posterior sagittal anorectovagino-urethroplasty\\u000a (PSARVUP), whereas in the 5th total urogenital mobilization (TUM) was used. Three PCs were managed with transanorectal TUM\\u000a and 2 with anterior TUM without opening the anal

Z. D. Krstic; M. Lukac; R. Lukac; Z. Smoljanic; V. Vukadinovic; D. Varinac

2001-01-01

247

[An obscure anomaly: regional odontodysplasia].  

PubMed

In a 3-year-old child, acute dental abscesses in combination with clinical and radiographic impressions of a number of deciduous teeth indicated regional odontodysplasia as probable diagnosis. Histological examination of the removed deciduous teeth confirmed the diagnosis. Early determination of this regional developmental anomaly in the odontogenesis is of great importance for optimal guidance of the dental care of a patient with regional odontodysplasia. PMID:20446549

Hoff, M; van der Haring, I S; van der Wal, J E; Vissink, A

2010-04-01

248

Lunar thermal anomalies: infrared observations.  

PubMed

The lunar craters Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus have been observed during lunar night at wavelengths between 3 and 14 microns. After an initial fast decrease to a color temperature of 220 degrees K, the temperature remains nearly constant through the lunar night. The data suggest that these thermal anomalies (craters) contain hot and cold regions with the hot portions constituting 2 to 10 percent of the area and probably thermally connected to a subsurface temperatuer of about 200 degrees K. PMID:17800369

Allen, D A; Ney, E P

1969-04-25

249

The evolution of somatostatin in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Somatostatins (SS) play important roles in the regulation of growth in vertebrates. In the present study, we identified six SS genes in zebrafish and named them SS1, SS2, SS3, SS4, SS5 and SS6. We subsequently found that five SS genes (SS1, SS2, SS3, SS4 and SS5) also existed in stickleback, medaka, Takifugu and Tetraodon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that vertebrate SS genes were grouped into five clades. Using a comparative genomic approach, we further investigated the evolutionary origin of these SS genes in vertebrates, and the results revealed that: (1) SS1, SS2 and SS5 were generated by two rounds of genome duplications (2R) that happened during the early stages of vertebrate evolution; (2) SS4 is an SS1 paralog generated by a third genome duplication (3R) that occurred to most teleost fish; and (3) SS3 and SS6 were produced by tandem duplication of SS1 and SS2 in teleost fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that all six SS genes were functionally expressed in different zebrafish tissues. These data indicate that both genome-wide duplication and local duplication contribute to the expansion of SS genes in vertebrates. PMID:20472043

Liu, Yun; Lu, Danqi; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

2010-05-21

250

Energy Anomaly and Polarizability of Carbon Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

The energy of Fermi sea perturbed by an external potential is analyzed with the help of an energy anomaly. Using an example of massive Dirac fermions on a circle, we illustrate how the anomaly accounts for the contribution of the deep-lying states. The energy anomaly is a universal function of the applied field and is related to known field-theoretic anomalies. Applied to the transverse polarizability of carbon nanotubes, the anomaly reveals universality and scale invariance of the response dominated by {pi} electrons. The electron band transformation in a strong field-effect regime is predicted.

Novikov, D.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Levitov, L.S. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2006-01-27

251

Anomaly detection and diagnosis in Grid environments.  

SciTech Connect

Identifying and diagnosing anomalies in application behavior is critical to delivering reliable application-level performance. In this paper we introduce a strategy to detect anomalies and diagnose the possible reasons behind them. Our approach extends the traditional window-based strategy by using signal-processing techniques to filter out recurring, background fluctuations in resource behavior. In addition, we have developed a diagnosis technique that uses standard monitoring data to determine which related changes in behavior may cause anomalies. We evaluate our anomaly detection and diagnosis technique by applying it in three contexts when we insert anomalies into the system at random intervals. The experimental results show that our strategy detects up to 96% of anomalies while reducing the false positive rate by up to 90% compared to the traditional window average strategy. In addition, our strategy can diagnose the reason for the anomaly approximately 75% of the time.

Yang, L.; Liu, C.; Schopf, J. M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Microsoft Corp.

2007-01-01

252

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

253

Vascular anomaly at the craniocervical junction presenting with sub arachnoid hemorrhage: Dilemma in Imaging Diagnosis, Endovascular Management and Complications  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm that mimicked a presumed vascular anomaly by CTA (Computerized Tomographic Angiography). A parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the craniocervical junction can present with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cannot be differentiated from a vertebral artery dissection by non invasive imaging. Catheter based cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of a diminutive right vertebral artery terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) that to our knowledge has not been previously reported. NBCA (N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate) embolization of the pseudoaneurysm lumen and sacrifice of the parent vessel resulted in cerebellar infarction, requiring an emergent decompressive craniectomy. The patient recovered to a functional neurologic status.

Gordhan, Ajeet

2010-01-01

254

Atherosclerosis in the vertebral artery: an intrinsic risk factor in the use of spinal manipulation?  

PubMed

The presence of atherosclerotic plaques and their influence on the vertebral artery is of clinical importance within the scope of spinal manipulation. Manipulation may stimulate the development of atherosclerotic plaques, could detach an embolus with ensuing infarction, injure the endothelium or may directly cause a dissection in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. In order to identify the sites and frequency of atherosclerotic plaques and to determine its relation to the tortuous course of the vertebral artery, a cadaveric study was performed. The vertebral arteries of 57 human cadavers were studied. The vertebral artery was virtually divided into four segments: the pre-vertebral (V1), the vertebral (V2), the atlanto-axial (V3), and the intracranial segment (V4). Abnormalities in the origin and course of the vertebral artery were noted, along with any associated osseous, or cartilaginous anomalies in the neck. After dissection, the artery was opened and macroscopically screened for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. In 22.8% of the cases, no atherosclerotic plaques were present. In 35.1% of the cases, the atherosclerotic plaques were unilateral, of which 60.0% was on the left side, 40.0% on the right side, and in 42.1%, the occurrence was bilateral. Atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more present in the V3 segment than in the V1 (0.007) and V2 segment (0.049). In the V1 (P=0.008) and V2 segment (P=0.002), there was a correlation between a tortuous course of the vessel and the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques. In individuals with marked atherosclerotic disease, stretching and compression effects of rotational manipulative techniques on atherosclerotic vessels impose a further risk factor for vertebrobasilar insufficiency. As direct evidence of atherosclerotic plaques are rarely available, therapists should avoid manipulative techniques at all levels of the cervical spine in the presence of any indirect sign of atherosclerotic disease or in the presence of calcified arterial walls or tortuosities of the vessels visible on routinely available X-ray images of the cervical or thoracic spine. It is strongly recommended, that if any doubt exists about the nature of a clinical presentation, vigorous manual procedures should be avoided until either the diagnosis is definitive or gentle manual therapy has proven effective. PMID:16557345

Cagnie, Barbara; Barbaix, Erik; Vinck, Elke; D'Herde, Katharina; Cambier, Dirk

2006-03-24

255

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-06-19

256

The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land.

Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

2009-01-01

257

Wnt signaling in vertebrate axis specification.  

PubMed

The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development. PMID:22914799

Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y

2013-01-01

258

Reference values for vertebral shape in young Chinese women: implication for assessment of vertebral deformity.  

PubMed

The race- and sex-specific reference values for vertebral shape are important to determine the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. However, these reference values are absent in Chinese women. In the present study, the anterior, middle and posterior heights and the ratios of these heights were measured from 14 vertebral bodies (T4-L5) in 60 premenopausal Chinese women (aged 19-25 years). Cutoff values were set as standard deviations (3 and 3.5 SD) and percentages (15 and 20%) below the means of vertebral height (VH) ratios to define vertebral deformities. The number of subjects with a VH ratio lower than -15% cutoff were significantly more than those with a VH ratio lower than -3 SD cutoff (p < 0.05), but this difference did not occur when a -20% cutoff was selected. A few VH ratios were distributed below -20% and -3 SD cutoffs, and none was below -3.5 SD. The vertebral shape defined by VH ratios was different between Chinese and European women. We conclude that 3.5 SD below the reference mean is an ideal cutoff value for the definition of prevalent vertebral fractures in Chinese women, and reference data should be obtained from young premenopausal women. PMID:20186444

Gao, Lingjun; Fan, Tianyou; Chen, Yongqiang; Qiu, Shijing

2010-02-26

259

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA) utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No complications were reported, pain completely resolved within 24 hours, and use of intravenous narcotics was progressively diminished within 1 week. Complete pain relief was maintained throughout 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion The Kiva System represents a novel and effective minimally invasive treatment option for patients suffering from severe pain due to osteolytic vertebral metastasis.

Anselmetti, Giovanni C; Tutton, Sean M; Facchini, Francis R; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

260

Abnormal course of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction in patients with Down syndrome visualized by three-dimensional CT angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We determined the incidence of vertebral artery (VA) anomalies at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in patients with Down\\u000a syndrome, and characterized the VA anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The course of the VA in 46 consecutive patients who were due to undergo posterior arthrodesis surgery at the CVJ were evaluated\\u000a by three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA). Included were five patients with Down syndrome who suffered

Masashi Yamazaki; Akihiko Okawa; Mitsuhiro Hashimoto; Atsuomi Aiba; Yukio Someya; Masao Koda

2008-01-01

261

Survival of children born with congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the survival to age 5 years of children born with congenital anomalies. Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 6153 live born cases of congenital anomaly were diagnosed and registered by the population based Glasgow Register of Congenital Anomalies. They were retrospectively followed to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 5 years. Results: The proportions of all live born infants with congenital anomalies surviving to the end of the first week, and first and fifth year were 94%, 89%, and 88%, respectively. Survival to age 5, the end point of follow up, was significantly poorer for infants with chromosomal anomalies (48%) compared to neural tube defects (72%), respiratory system anomalies (74%), congenital heart disease (75%), nervous system anomalies (77%), and Down's syndrome (84%). Conclusion: Although almost 90% of all live born infants with congenital anomalies survive to 5 years, there are notable variations in survival between anomaly types. Our findings should be useful for both clinicians and geneticists to assess the prognosis of congenital anomalies. This information is also important for affected families and for the planning of health care needs for this high risk population.

Dastgiri, S; Gilmour, W; Stone, D

2003-01-01

262

Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Focal Musculoskeletal Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies. Isolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including focal limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2)] were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

Ryu, Jung Kyu; Choi, Jong Sun

2003-01-01

263

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

264

Anomaly detection for internet surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

2012-05-01

265

A new anomaly matching condition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate ``Witten'' matching conditions for confining gauge theories. The conditions are analogous to 't Hooft's, but involve Witten's global SU(2) anomaly. Using a group theoretic result of Geng, Marshak, Zhao and Okubo, we show that if the fourth homotopy group of the flavor group H is trivial (?4(H)=0) then realizations of massless composite fermions that satisfy the't Hooft conditions also satisfy the Witten conditions. If ?4(H) is nontrivial, the new matching conditioms can yield additional information about the low energy spectrum of the theory. We give a simple physical proof of Geng et al.'s result. Junior Fellow, Harvard Society of Fellows.

Bhansali, Vineer; Hsu, Stephen D. H.

1993-03-01

266

Separation of vertebral epiphyses in bovine carcases.  

PubMed

Separation of vertebral epiphyses in the thoracolumbar region is a cause of rejection of beef carcases for Intervention storage. Incidence is highest in younger cattle and the problem is associated with certain types of hide puller and dressing technique. Three dressing methods are evaluated and tensile strenght of bone specimens is measured. PMID:22056116

Cooke, M

1987-01-01

267

Injury of the carotid and vertebral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomic relationships of the carotid and vertebral arteries, as well as the biomechanics by which traumatic injury occurs to these vessels, is important both in the interpretation of diagnostic arteriograms and in the clinical assessment of the injured patient.

J. M. Davis; R. A. Zimmerman

1983-01-01

268

Late development of hagfish vertebral elements.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated recently that hagfishes, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates, have cartilaginous vertebral elements. Embryological and gene expression analyses have also shown that this group of animals develops a sclerotome, the potential primordium of the axial skeleton. However, it has not been shown unequivocally that the hagfish sclerotome truly differentiates into cartilage, because access to late-stage embryos and information about the cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) are lacking for these animals. Here we investigated the expression patterns of the biglycan/decorin (BGN/DCN) gene in the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. The homologue of this gene encodes the major noncollagenous component of the cartilaginous ECM among gnathostomes. We clearly identified the expression of this gene in adult vertebral tissues and in embryonic mesenchymal cells on the ventral aspect of the notochord. Taking into account that the sclerotome in the gnathostomes expresses BGN/DCN gene during the chondrogenesis, it is highly expected the hagfish BGN/DCN-positive mesenchymal cells are derived from the sclerotomes. We propose that hagfishes and gnathostomes share conserved developmental mechanisms not only in their somite differentiation, but also in chondrogenesis of their vertebral elements. PMID:23401412

Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

2013-02-08

269

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

270

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients (six men, three women) with extracranial vertebral artery dissection are described. Their mean age was 39.1 years (range 17–66). In four cases dissection was “spontaneous”; in the other five cases there was a history of trivial trauma. Three patients had fibromuscular dysplasia, two were migraineurs, one had elastorrhexis. Treatment varied. Six received heparin, three acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine.

E. Josien

1992-01-01

271

Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus agalactiae is a rare cause of vertebral osteomyelitis. We present four cases of spondylitis caused by this micro-organism and a review of 20 cases previously described in the literature. Only seven patients (29%) were under 50 years of age. Diabetes mellitus and neoplasms were the most frequent underlying conditions, although 37.5% of the patients did not have any predisposition.

J. Sol??s-Garcia del Pozo; E. Martinez-Alfaro; L. Abad; J. Solera

2000-01-01

272

West Nile virus in the vertebrate world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. West Nile virus (WNV), an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, had been recognized in Africa, Asia and the south of Europe for many decades. Only recently, it has been associated with an increasing number of outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and equines as well as an increasing number of infections in vertebrates of a wide variety of

K. M. van der Meulen; M. B. Pensaert; H. J. Nauwynck

2005-01-01

273

The development of the vertebrate inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

1998-01-01

274

Managing acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures with calcitonin.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To inform family physicians of current issues in the management of acute vertebral fractures and to examine the evidence specifically supporting a role for calcitonin in ameliorating pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations for use of calcitonin were based primarily on a MEDLINE review of the literature for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the present using key words calcitonin, osteoporosis, pain, and vertebral fracture. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of review articles. Eight trials were identified, and the conclusions drawn were based on data reported in all eight trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Several randomized, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that calcitonin had a rapid onset and a strong analgesic effect on patients with acute vertebral fractures. Nasal and subcutaneous administration were both beneficial. Pain relief occurred within the first 2 weeks, could continue for at least 4 months, and might occur if treatment were instituted any time within the first year after fracture. Side effects were generally inconvenient rather than serious. CONCLUSIONS: Calcitonin in a dose of 50 to 100 IU daily, given subcutaneously or intranasally, should be offered to all patients with serious pain related to acute vertebral fractures for symptom relief and to facilitate mobilization.

Maksymowych, W. P.

1998-01-01

275

The behavioral significance of pheromones in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces the concept of pheromones, external chemical secretions having conspecific communication functions, and discusses its significance for vertebrate behavior. The physiological regulatory functions and communication functions of pheromones are distinguished. Physiological regulatroy functions discussed are related to estrous synchrony in females and include the S. Lee-L. M. Boot, W. Whitten, and H. M. Bruce effects. Communication functions discussed include sex

Kathryn K. Gleason; James H. Reynierse

1969-01-01

276

New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of an Early-Middle Pleistocene continental vertebrate fauna from El Salvador is here reported. These fossils provide information about a poorly studied geographic area that played an important role during the Great American Faunal Interchange. The fauna is dominated by numerous remains of the proboscidean Cuvieronius tropicus and probably represents the largest known concentration of this genus in America.

Juan Carlos Cisneros

2005-01-01

277

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus ), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus ) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1 ), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1 ) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

278

Sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to sex differences in the behavior of nonhuman animals may contribute to the understanding of sex differences in humans. In vertebrate model systems, a single factor—the steroid hormone testosterone—accounts for most, and perhaps all, of the known sex differences in neural structure and behavior. Here we review some of the events triggered by testosterone

John A Morris; Cynthia L Jordan; S Marc Breedlove

2004-01-01

279

Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful…

Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

280

Diverse functions of vertebrate gap junctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gap junctions are clusters of intercellular channels between adjacent cells. The channels are formed by the direct apposition of oligomeric transmembrane proteins, permitting the direct exchange of ions and small molecules (<1kDa) between cells without involvement of the extracellular space. Vertebrate gap junction channels are composed of oligomers of connexins, an enlarging family of proteins consisting of perhaps >20 members.

Alexander M Simon; Daniel A Goodenough

1998-01-01

281

Vertebrate photoreceptor cell development and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoreceptors provide an excellent model for studies of vertebrate neuronal differentiation, and many human diseases resulting in blindness primarily affect photoreceptors. There is therefore great interest in studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoreceptor development. This article discusses our current understanding of this process, including the recent discovery of the homeodomain transcription factor Crx and its potential role in

Eric M Morrow; Takahisa Furukawa; Constance L Cepko

1998-01-01

282

Morphogen gradients in vertebrate limb development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing limb is an excellent model for pattern formation in vertebrate embryos. Signalling by the polarizing region controls limb pattern across the antero-posterior axis of the chick limb. It was suggested first on theoretical grounds that signalling by the polarizing region could involve a morphogen gradient. Embryological manipulations provided evidence consistent with this model and, more recently, signalling molecules

Cheryll Tickle

1999-01-01

283

PATTERNING MECHANISMS CONTROLLING VERTEBRATE LIMB DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Vertebrate limb buds are embryonic structures for which much molecu- lar and cellular data are known regarding the mechanisms that control pattern formation during development. Specialized regions of the developing limb bud, such as the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), and the non-ridge ectoderm, direct and coordinate the development of the limb bud

Javier Capdevila; Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

2001-01-01

284

RARE AND ENDANGERED VERTEBRATES OF OHIO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, an annotated list of Ohio's rare and endangered vertebrate species, was compiled to supplement a similar national list and includes 10 mammals, 62 birds, 10 reptiles, 4 amphibians, and 33 fishes. Where possible, suggestions are made both as to causes of the rare or endangered status of these species and as to means of halting the trend. Ratings

H. G. SMITH; R. K. BURNARD; E. E. GOOD; J. M. KEENER

285

Isochores and the evolutionary genomics of vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear genomes of vertebrates are mosaics of isochores, very long stretches (?300kb) of DNA that are homogeneous in base composition and are compositionally correlated with the coding sequences that they embed. Isochores can be partitioned in a small number of families that cover a range of GC levels (GC is the molar ratio of guanine+cytosine in DNA), which is

Giorgio Bernardi

2000-01-01

286

Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter I, an outline of this thesis is given. In Chapter 2 we prospectively determined the natural course of pain in patients with conservatively treated acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). In addition, we assessed the type of conservative therapy that these patients received. The natural fracture healing, in terms of pain relief, of an acute, osteoporotic VCF mainly

C. A. H. Klazen

2010-01-01

287

Conservation anchors in the vertebrate genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic segments that do not code for proteins yet show high conservation among vertebrates have recently been identified by various computational methodologies. We refer to them as ANCORs (ancestral non-coding conserved regions). The frequency of individual ANCORs within the genome, along with their (correlated) inter-species identity scores, helps in assessing the probability that they function in transcription regulation or RNA

Ronny Aloni; Doron Lancet

2005-01-01

288

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2012-11-28

289

Vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis: Patient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing interest in new treatments aimed at preventing bone loss and conserving bone mass, insufficient attention has been given to symptomatic treatment of patients with vertebral fractures. Patients often believe that the pain and impaired mobility associated with these fractures are permanent and that little can be done to help. This is a serious misconception. Prompt intervention using

Juan Tamayo-Orozco; Pedro Arzac-Palumbo; Héctor Peón-Vidales; Rafael Mota-Bolfeta; Fernando Fuentes

1997-01-01

290

Percutaneous transvenous embolisation of iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients presented with vertebral arteriovenous fistulae following unintentional puncture of the vertebral artery. A percutaneous transvenous approach was used in both cases and the fistula was successfully embolised with microcoils. A complete cure was achieved in both patients.

S. Fukao; N. Hashimoto; K. Kazekawa; Y. Kaku

1995-01-01

291

The DiGeorge anomaly.  

PubMed

The DiGeorge anomaly, DGA (formerly termed DiGeorge syndrome), is now known to be a developmental field defect in which pharyngeal pouch derivatives do not arise, usually because of inadequate neural crest contributions. The conditions in which this occurs include exposure to teratogens, cytogenetic abnormalities, and Mendelian disorders. As a result, the facies and cardiovascular defects which occur are very characteristic. Two rare conotruncal anomalies, type B interrupted aortic arch and truncus arteriosus account for over half of the cardiac lesions seen in DGA. Failure of descent of the thymus is extremely common in DGA, but immunodeficiency which requires correction occurs only in approximately 25% of the cases. The term, complete DGA, should be reserved for those patients in need of reconstitution of the immune system. One can identify those patients requiring treatment of the thymic defect by T cell enumeration and in vitro proliferation assays. Two alternatives for therapy are thymus transplantation and bone marrow transplantation from a HLA matched sibling. PMID:1931005

Hong, R

1991-01-01

292

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic\\u000a vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss\\u000a of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS)\\u000a was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent

Robert Rotter; Heiner Martin; Sebastian Fuerderer; Michael Gabl; Christoph Roeder; Paul Heini; Thomas Mittlmeier

2010-01-01

293

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty.  

PubMed

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called "vertebral body stenting" (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean +/- SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 +/- 6.2; VBS: 3.7 +/- 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 +/- 9.4; VBS: 13.3 +/- 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation. PMID:20191393

Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

2010-03-01

294

Anomaly-free sets of fermions  

SciTech Connect

We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.

2005-10-01

295

Anomaly-free sets of fermions  

SciTech Connect

We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the standard model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

Batra, Puneet; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Spivak, David [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Mathematics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2006-08-15

296

Development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with birds and mammals, very little is known about the development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates. The development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) should provide insight into the evolution of these mechanisms. One useful model for examining the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates has

Michael S. Hedrick

2005-01-01

297

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

298

Minimally Invasive Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) to treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures is increasing. This investigation assesses the efficacy and safety of PV for refractory pain owing to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: A retrospective investigation of PV was conducted with a minimal of 1 year follow up. PV with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed on 75 patients with osteoporotic vertebral

Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Shang-Won Yu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Po-Liang Lai; Wen-Jer Chen

299

Vertebral Artery Dissection and Migraine Headaches in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strokes of the posterior circulation are uncommon in childhood. In vertebrobasilar insults, vertebral artery dissection remains a rare diagnosis. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with a history of migraine headaches who presented with acute cerebellar signs and agitation following multiple infarctions of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. Vertebral angiography demonstrated dissection of the left vertebral artery with occlusion of

Timothy E. Lotze; Juliann Paolicchi

2000-01-01

300

Uncommon ultrasound findings in traumatic extracranial vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) associated with contralateral vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The interest of this case is to discuss an unusual Doppler pattern manifesting by a spectrum of an alternating vertebral artery flow suggesting a hemodynamic contribution from the contralateral vertebral artery (VA) and a clear depiction of both antegrade (red) and retrograde (blue)

N Cals; G Devuyst; D. K Jung; N Afsar; G De Freitas; P-A Despland; J Bogousslavsky

2001-01-01

301

Cervical root injury caused by vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is a common cause of posterior circulation strokes in young and middle-aged adults. Peripheral motor deficits have been rarely described in association with vertebral artery dissection. Peripheral motor involvement may be due to compression of the spinal nerves by an enlarged vertebral artery. It may also result from ischaemia of the anterior horn or the spinal nerves

Arun Aggarwal; Keith Burton

1999-01-01

302

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a Hot Flow Anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venutian foreshock, expanding on an initial study by Slavin et al [2009] that employed magnetometer observations of an HFA-like event during the flyby of NASA's Messenger spacecraft. Whilst the Messenger events were indicative of an HFA, they were unable to demonstrate the unambiguous signatures of plasma heating or deflection due to the paucity of data. We examine the complex internal structure of a Venutian HFA on the 22nd of March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express magnetometer and ASPERA plasma observations to demonstrate the presence of plasma heating within one such event. Centered on an interplanetary discontinuity and bounded by shock, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFA's observed at other planets within the Solar System. Finally, we present a discussion of the implications of an HFA on the planet Venus.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Coates, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Boardsen, S. A.; Moore, T. E.; Barabash, S.

2011-12-01

303

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies.  

PubMed Central

We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases had cleft lip/palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, or a cardiac defect. Mental retardation was found in five of the surviving 11 patients and early death occurred in one-third. We compared the cases with OAVS and hydrocephalus with published reports of OAVS and other cerebral anomalies and found no significant clinical differences. However, the clinical characteristics were clearly more severely expressed than generally found in patients with OAVS. Children with OAVS and more severe clinical features, especially anophthalmia/microphthalmia and cleft lip/palate, seem to be at an increased risk for cerebral malformations and for mental retardation. Images

Schrander-Stumpel, C T; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hennekam, R C; Fryns, J P; Bouckaert, P X; Brouwer, O F; da Costa, J J; Lommen, E J; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P D

1992-01-01

304

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D. N.; Grand, J. B.; Arnold, J. M.

2006-01-01

305

Magnetic Anomalies in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine magnetic profiles over the Red Sea between 18 degrees N and 25 degrees N latitudes confirm previous hypotheses that strongly magnetic rocks underlie the axial trough. The symmetrical nature of the anomalies and their close correspondence to seafloor spreading magnetic models support a rifting origin for the trough. The dominant magnetic anomaly trends strike about N 35 degrees W

J. D. Phillips

1970-01-01

306

IONOSPHERIC EQUATORIAL ANOMALY STUDIES DURING SOLAR STORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionosphere is the major error source in GNSS receivers. Models for single frequency time delay correction do not work at low geomagnetic latitude regions (±20º), where the ionosphere has a peculiar behavior, known as the Ionospheric Equatorial Anomaly. In order to study the global behavior of the Ionospheric Equatorial Anomaly, dynamic maps based on IONEX data have been generated.

Alexandre B. V. Oliveira; F. Walter

307

Stochastic perturbative derivation of the axial anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axial anomaly is calculated as the infinite Langevin time limit of stochastic triangle diagrams. Their regularization is insured with the help of an analytic stochastic regulator. The usual axial anomaly is recovered only when the Langevin equations used to generate the perturbative expansion are gauge covariant.

Ader, J. P.; Wallet, J. C.

1986-12-01

308

Anomaly detection and classification for hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection becomes increasingly important in hyperspectral image analysis, since hyperspectral imagers can now uncover many material substances which were previously unresolved by multispectral sensors. Two types of anomaly detection are of interest and considered in this paper. One was previously developed by Reed and Yu to detect targets whose signatures are distinct from their surroundings. Another was designed to

Chein-I. Chang; Shao-Shan Chiang

2002-01-01

309

Junction magnetic anomaly north of Waikato River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear magnetic anomaly is traced northwards from Waikato through North Auckland and Northland until it meets the Tasman Sea west of Kaitaia. The anomaly, which has amplitudes up to 700 gammas and half-widths of 5–15 km, is believed to be due to serpentinite and probably represents the extension of the ultramafic belt which separates the principal facies of the

Trevor Hatherton; R. H. Sibson

1970-01-01

310

A Classification Framework for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to describe anomalies is by saying that anomalies are not concentrated. This leads to the problem of finding level sets for the data generating density. We interpret this learning problem as a binary classification problem and compare the corresponding classification risk with the standard performance measure for the density level problem. In particular it turns out that the

Ingo Steinwart; Don R. Hush; Clint Scovel

2005-01-01

311

Cor triatriatum dexter with imperforate Ebstein's anomaly.  

PubMed Central

A case of cor triatriatum dexter is described in which the anomalous right atrial partition is identified as the right venous valve; there is an associated anomaly of the right atrioventricular valve which combines features of Ebstein's anomaly, and an atypical, imperforate, tricuspid atresia. Images

Gerlis, L M; Anderson, R H

1976-01-01

312

The biological basis of expected utility anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the biological basis of expected utility anomalies through an experiment of the Allais paradox. A questionnaire study of 120 subjects replicates the anomalies and further gathers information about the respondents’ bio-characteristics, such as gender, age, parenthood, handedness, second to fourth digit ratio, current emotional state, past negative experiences, and religiousness. We find that some of those bio-characteristics matter

Raul Matsushita; Dinorá Baldo; Bruna Martin; Sergio Da Silva

2007-01-01

313

Minor physical anomalies in Tourette syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: The prevalence of minor physical anomalies (prenatal errors of morphogenesis) was evaluated in patients with Tourette syndrome to get indirect data on the possible role of aberrant neurodevelopment in the aetiology of Tourette syndrome. No published study is known on the minor physical anomaly preva- lence in this recently intensively investigated disorder, and connecting to current opinions

Györgyi Csábi; Júlia Gádoros; Sára Jeges; Eszter Gyenge; Mátyás Trixler; Tamás Tényi

2008-01-01

314

Detecting and analyzing relationships among anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HRL anomaly analysis tool was developed as part of the IEEE VAST Challenge 2009. One of the tasks involved processing badge and network traffic in order to detect and identify a fictitious embassy employee suspected of leaking information. The tool is designed to assist an analyst in detecting, analyzing, and visualizing anomalies and their relationships. Two key visualizations in

David Allen; Tsai-Ching Lu; Dave Huber

2009-01-01

315

Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

2010-02-19

316

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology); Mr. Keith T. Sillar (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

317

A walk though vertebrate and invertebrate protamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated comparative analysis of protamines and their corresponding genes is presented, including representative organisms\\u000a from each of the vertebrate classes and one invertebrate (squid, Loligo opalescens). Special emphasis is placed on the implications for sperm chromatin organization and the evolutionary significance. The\\u000a review is based on some of the most recent publications in the field and builds upon previously

John D. Lewis; Yue Song; Miriam E. de Jong; Sabira M. Bagha; Juan Ausió

2003-01-01

318

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above.

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

319

Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a systemic disease currently afflicting approx 44 million Americans; this figure will increase as the population\\u000a ages. It results in progressive bone mineral loss and concurrent changes in bony architecture that leave bone vulnerable to\\u000a fracture, often after minimal or no trauma. The spine is the most common site of osteoporotic fracture, with vertebral compression\\u000a fracture (VCF) occurring

Daisuke Togawa; Isador H. Lieberman

320

Classroom Cladogram of Vertebrate/Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students prepare the components for building a Colossal Classroom Cladogram of vertebrate evolution, then put it together, showing the gradual, mosaic accumulation of the traits which humans possess. A major purpose of this is to dramatize the evidence that we (and in fact all living things) did not suddenly pop into existence, but clearly evolved as an accumulation of traits over vast periods of time. A follow-up discussion helps focus on these concepts.

Flammer, Larry

321

Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.  

PubMed

We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. PMID:23454143

Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

2013-02-27

322

Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma related to pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report a case of vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy in a 21-year-old woman presenting with paraparesis\\u000a of rapid onset. An emergency MRI scan of the dorsal spine showed a lesion of the ninth thoracic vertebra with extradural extension\\u000a and marked spinal cord compression. A cesarean section was done, and this was followed by emergent laminectomy. Her symptoms

Murvet Yuksel; K. Zafer Yuksel; Deniz Tuncel; Beyazit Zencirci; Sevgi Bakaris

2007-01-01

323

Evolution of Sirtuins From Archaea to Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most eukaryotic sirtuins (sir2-like proteins) can be grouped into four classes. In deuterostomes such as vertebrates, the\\u000a urochordate sea squirt Ciona, and the echinoderm sea urchin Strongylocentrotus, there are seven sirtuins. Class I includes SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3. SIRT4 is in class II and SIRT5 is in class III. Class\\u000a IV includes SIRT6 and SIRT7. Fish have two SIRT5 orthologs

Roy A. Frye

324

Vertebral artery dissection in children: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been infrequently recognized in children. The authors have reviewed 68 reported cases of VAD in children in the existing literature. An association between routine types of neck movement in sports and the evolution of VAD was recognized in half of the reported cases. Boys outnumbered girls by a ratio of 6.6 to 1, in contrast to adults, for whom the male to female ratio is approximately equal (1.3 to 1). Neck pain, one of the hallmark symptoms of VAD in adults, was infrequently noted in this young population (12%). Most children presented with various combinations of symptoms and signs, including ataxia (53%), headache (38%) and vomiting (34%). Eye signs or symptoms were noted in 72% of patients, and paresis/paralysis of one or more extremity occurred in 54%. Angiography was the method most frequently used to diagnose VAD (63/68; 93%). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed pathognomonic signs of VAD in only 3 out of 13 patients evaluated (23%). In this series of 68 patients, 48 reports failed to indicate whether or not a cervical X-ray was performed, but in the 20 patients for whom such information was recorded, half had skeletal abnormalities in the occipital/atlas/axis region. The most common treatments were antiplatelet therapy (n = 15) and anticoagulation with (n = 8) or without (n = 7) supplemental antiplatelet therapy. Asymptomatic recovery occurred in 12 of the 15 patients (80%) who received antiplatelet therapy compared with 4 of the 15 patients (27%) who received anticoagulation therapy with or without antiplatelet therapy. There is a very high incidence of associated cervical anomalies in children with VAD. Further studies are required to determine if noninvasive examinations such as magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography and MRA could replace angiography as the modality of choice in establishing the diagnosis of VAD in children. The role of different therapies for children presenting with symptoms related to VAD is unclear. PMID:12372909

Hasan, Izhar; Wapnick, Simon; Tenner, Michael S; Couldwell, William T

2002-10-01

325

Hox patterning of the vertebrate rib cage.  

PubMed

Unlike the rest of the axial skeleton, which develops solely from somitic mesoderm, patterning of the rib cage is complicated by its derivation from two distinct tissues. The thoracic skeleton is derived from both somitic mesoderm, which forms the vertebral bodies and ribs, and from lateral plate mesoderm, which forms the sternum. By generating mouse mutants in Hox5, Hox6 and Hox9 paralogous group genes, along with a dissection of the Hox10 and Hox11 group mutants, several important conclusions regarding the nature of the ;Hox code' in rib cage and axial skeleton development are revealed. First, axial patterning is consistently coded by the unique and redundant functions of Hox paralogous groups throughout the axial skeleton. Loss of paralogous function leads to anterior homeotic transformations of colinear regions throughout the somite-derived axial skeleton. In the thoracic region, Hox genes pattern the lateral plate-derived sternum in a non-colinear manner, independent from the patterning of the somite-derived vertebrae and vertebral ribs. Finally, between adjacent sets of paralogous mutants, the regions of vertebral phenotypes overlap considerably; however, each paralogous group imparts unique morphologies within these regions. In all cases examined, the next-most posterior Hox paralogous group does not prevent the function of the more-anterior Hox group in axial patterning. Thus, the ;Hox code' in somitic mesoderm is the result of the distinct, graded effects of two or more Hox paralogous groups functioning in any anteroposterior location. PMID:17626057

McIntyre, Daniel C; Rakshit, Sabita; Yallowitz, Alisha R; Loken, Luke; Jeannotte, Lucie; Capecchi, Mario R; Wellik, Deneen M

2007-07-11

326

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

327

Vertebrate kinetochore protein architecture: protein copy number.  

PubMed

To define the molecular architecture of the kinetochore in vertebrate cells, we measured the copy number of eight kinetochore proteins that link kinetochore microtubules (MTs [kMTs]) to centromeric DNA. We used a fluorescence ratio method and chicken DT40 cell lines in which endogenous loci encoding the analyzed proteins were deleted and complemented using integrated green fluorescent protein fusion transgenes. For a mean of 4.3 kMTs at metaphase, the protein copy number per kMT is between seven and nine for members of the MT-binding KNL-1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex network. It was between six and nine for four members of the constitutive centromere-associated network: centromere protein C (CENP-C), CENP-H, CENP-I, and CENP-T. The similarity in copy number per kMT for all of these proteins suggests that each MT end is linked to DNA by six to nine fibrous unit attachment modules in vertebrate cells, a conclusion that indicates architectural conservation between multiple MT-binding vertebrate and single MT-binding budding yeast kinetochores. PMID:20548100

Johnston, Katherine; Joglekar, Ajit; Hori, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Aussie; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Salmon, E D

2010-06-14

328

A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

2012-01-01

329

Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune  

SciTech Connect

The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

Cheng, A.F. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA))

1990-09-01

330

Atmospheric anomalies observed during earthquake occurrences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Appearance of anomalies in the atmosphere before earthquakes (EQs) has been verified, through observation of anomalous transmission of VHF electromagnetic (EM) waves beyond line-of-sight. Anomalous increase of the received intensity for a few minutes - several hours on a day was identified by the previous 15-day running median and its inter-quartile range. The cross-correlation between the EQ occurrences and the anomalies shows that the appearance of anomalies was significantly enhanced within 5 days before M >= 4.8 EQs. The one-day average number of the anomaly appearance within 5 days was found 2.4 times larger than that of other days. Through the polarization measurement of the received EM waves, the anomalies were found to occur in the atmosphere.

Fujiwara, H.; Kamogawa, M.; Ikeda, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Sakata, H.; Chen, Y. I.; Ofuruton, H.; Muramatsu, S.; Chuo, Y. J.; Ohtsuki, Y. H.

2004-09-01

331

Upward continuation of surface gravity anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the upward continuation of gravity anomalies given on the surface of the Earth's visible topography are reported. Results are compared for three upward continuation procedures: first, the direct Poisson integration of the original terrain-uncorrected surface anomalies; second, the direct Poisson integration of terrain-corrected (i.e., Faye) surface anomalies; and third, the so-called indirect method. In the indirect method the original anomaly field is basically split into three frequency ranges that are then modeled separately: the low frequencies are modeled by spherical harmonics; the medium frequencies are modeled by Poisson integration of residual surface anomalies with long-wavelength terrain correction applied; and the high frequencies are modeled by prism integration of the gravitational effects of certain shallow topographic masses of assumed constant density.

Cruz, J. Y.; Laskowski, P.

1984-12-01

332

An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies.  

PubMed

The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin. PMID:22403388

Wieczorek, Mark A; Weiss, Benjamin P; Stewart, Sarah T

2012-03-01

333

Anomalies of water and simple liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis applies statistical physics approaches and computer simulations to investigate quantitatively the relationship between the structure and the dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies observed in water and some other simple liquids. In Chapter 1, we give a general introduction to the properties of water. In Chapter 2 we address the question of whether spherically-symmetric potentials are also able to reproduce the structural anomalies found in systems with local tetrahedral order. We find that water-like structural order anomalies exist for the two-scale "ramp potential". Our findings suggest that the water-like relationship between structural order and anomalies is related to the presence of two different length scales in the potential. In Chapter 3, we use the ratio of characteristic length scales of the two-scale ramp potential as a control parameter to investigate the evolution of dynamic, thermodynamic and structural anomalies. In this manner we show that the family of tunable spherically-symmetric potentials so generated evolves continuously between water-like and hard sphere behavior. These findings suggest that strong orientational interactions in the first shell of water are not necessary for a liquid to show thermodynamic, dynamic and structural anomalies, and highlight the importance of the second shell of water. In Chapter 4, we investigate how much orientation-dependent first-shell interaction and the second-shell environment each contribute to water's anomalies. We show that the changes in the second shell of water are the structural bases for the anomalies. In Chapter 5, we study the quantitative connection between our idealized ramp potential and water's pair potential, as well as the relation between the regions of anomalies in their respective phase diagrams. Finally in Chapter 6 we show that the "two-body excess entropy" is a useful quantity for predicting the regions of thermodynamic, dynamic and structural anomalies of water.

Yan, Zhenyu

334

Isolation of the right subclavian artery with subclavian steal in a child with Klippel-Feil anomaly: an example of the subclavian artery supply disruption sequence.  

PubMed

We studied a patient with Klippel-Feil anomaly and subclavian steal due to isolation of the right subclavian artery. Other anomalies included hypoplasia of the right clavicle and right vertebral artery, low bifurcation of the left common carotid artery and left choanal atresia. The patient was mentally retarded with corticospinal, cerebellar, and brain stem signs. The entire brain and cervical spinal cord were small; there was no central nervous system malformation, hydrocephalus, or bony impingement on neural structures. Embryologic vascular disorders have been found to be responsible for various congenital systemic and neurologic anomalies such as intestinal atresia and hydranencephaly. Subclavian artery supply disruption sequence has been hypothesized to result in Klippel-Feil, Poland, and Möbius anomalies. In this case the vertebral and facial abnormalities may well be related to anomalous subclavian and carotid supply. An embryonic vascular "steal" has been thought to cause the sirenomelia anomaly. We postulate that the subclavian steal, during the embryonic period, may have been responsible for the small size of this patient's cerebral hemispheres, brain stem, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. PMID:3591838

Brill, C B; Peyster, R G; Keller, M S; Galtman, L

1987-04-01

335

Vertebral augmentation in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures: review and new insights from recent studies.  

PubMed

Vertebral compression fractures (VCF) due to osteoporotic degeneration and metastatic disease represent an increasingly significant public health problem. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) began as a simple, low-cost procedure that aimed to provide pain relief for patients with VCF. Balloon kyphoplasty (KP) was introduced later, and was presented not only as a "pain killer," but also as a deformity correction procedure. The preponderance of evidence has shown that vertebral augmentation provides significant and sustained clinical benefit for patients with VCF. The debate raised by studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine comparing VP with a sham procedure highlights the importance of very careful patient selection for vertebral augmentation procedures, since osteoporotic VCF is usually a self-limiting condition. However, vertebral augmentation may be beneficial in patients with comorbidities that make prolonged bed rest dangerous, in patients with fractures that fail to heal, and in patients with painful VCF due to metastatic disease. Patient selection should be based on a combination of clinical and radiological indications. We review recent studies in the extensive literature on vertebral augmentation, with the goal of clarifying some of the controversy surrounding these procedures. PMID:22595547

Itshayek, Eyal; Miller, Peter; Barzilay, Yair; Hasharoni, Amir; Kaplan, Leon; Fraifeld, Shifra; Cohen, José E

2012-06-01

336

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation: StabilitiT a new delivery system for vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for compression fractures with bone cement has become an increasingly popular form of treatment. Various delivery techniques and bone cements have been developed. StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation System (DFINE Inc., San Jose, CA) is a unique radiofrequency (RF) based system which delivers an ultra-high viscosity bone cement. The patented StabiliT ER bone cement has an extended working time prior to RF warming. When delivered through this unique hydraulic system an on-demand ultra-high viscosity cement can be delivered into an osteotome created cavity resulting in a clinical procedure with the best qualities of both vertebroplasty and conventional balloon assisted kyphoplasty. PMID:21107958

Robertson, Scott C

2011-01-01

337

Current status of percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques for vertebral compression fractures.  

PubMed

Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is a common and debilitating problem that occurs in patients with osteoporosis and osteolytic tumors. Standard conservative management with narcotic analgesics, bracing, and immobilization is often ineffective, and major reconstructive surgery is poorly tolerated by this frail patient population. The limitations of conventional treatments stimulated the development of minimally invasive, percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, which have become established as safe and effective treatments for VCF. This report reviews the current status of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in the management of acute VCF. PMID:16967354

Deen, H Gordon

338

Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog. PMID:19946851

Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

2009-12-01

339

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup  

SciTech Connect

Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

1986-01-01

340

The conformal anomaly of M5-branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the conformal anomaly for N M5-branes grows like N 3. The method we employ relates Coulomb branch interactions in six dimensions to interactions in four dimensions using supersymmetry. This leads to a relation between the six-dimensional conformal anomaly and the conformal anomaly of N = 4 Yang-Mills. Along the way, we determine the structure of the four derivative interactions for the toroidally compactified (2, 0) theory, while encountering interesting novelties in the structure of the six derivative interactions.

Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep

2012-06-01

341

Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects  

SciTech Connect

The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

2006-01-01

342

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

343

Evaluation and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures  

PubMed Central

Compression fractures affect many individuals worldwide. An estimated 1.5 million vertebral compression fractures occur every year in the US. They are common in elderly populations, and 25% of postmenopausal women are affected by a compression fracture during their lifetime. Although these fractures rarely require hospital admission, they have the potential to cause significant disability and morbidity, often causing incapacitating back pain for many months. This review provides information on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of compression fractures, as well as clinical manifestations and treatment options. Among the available treatment options, kyphoplasty and percutaneous vertebroplasty are two minimally invasive techniques to alleviate pain and correct the sagittal imbalance of the spine.

Alexandru, Daniela; So, William

2012-01-01

344

Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases.  

PubMed

Nine patients (six men, three women) with extracranial vertebral artery dissection are described. Their mean age was 39.1 years (range 17-66). In four cases dissection was "spontaneous"; in the other five cases there was a history of trivial trauma. Three patients had fibromuscular dysplasia, two were migraineurs, one had elastorrhexis. Treatment varied. Six received heparin, three acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine. Eight had good recovery. Two patients experienced recurrence when stopping acetylsalicylic acid. The pathogenesis of dissections and the distinction between spontaneous dissections and those associated with minor trauma are discussed. PMID:1512608

Josien, E

1992-07-01

345

[Vertebral hydatidosis. Complications, contribution of modern imaging].  

PubMed

Vertebral hydatidosis is the commonest skeletal manifestation of echinococcosis. It is also the most serious: among 6 patients followed-up for a mean period of 10 years, all had neurological complications and only one is free of neurological sequelae at the present time (at the price of multiple spinal operations). While current medical treatment remains essential, it does not always control this skeletal parasite infestation which requires careful monitoring (CT scan, NMR) in order to detect and treat all possible recurrences. PMID:1604224

Hernigou, P; Nabih, A; Goutallier, D

1992-02-01

346

Endopolyploidy in vertebrate liver: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclei in several species of vertebrates were examined, to establish the frequency of polyploidy and related parameters along evolutionary lines. Nuclei were compared in terms of volume, DNA content, ploidy ranges and internal organization. Several trends emerged. When present, heterochromatin occupied 20--25% of nuclear profile areas, irrespective of nuclear volume and poloidy; the volume of heterochromatin, however, increased in direct proportion to ploidy level. Regardless of internal organization, ploidy and species, a direct correlation emerged between the volumes of nuclei and their absolute DNA content. Results are discussed in terms of structural and genic DNA. PMID:7388971

Brasch, K

1980-02-01

347

Chromatic aberration of the vertebrate lens.  

PubMed

A split-laser technique employing red and blue lasers was used for direct measurement of longitudinal chromatic aberration of excised lenses from a spectrum of vertebrates (fish, amphibians, birds and mammals). The chromatic aberration (442-633 nm) of lenses of most species amounts to a relatively constant 4.6% of equivalent focal length. Dog lenses show somewhat larger amounts (5.7%) while duck and rock bass lenses show less wavelength variation in focal length (3.42-2.70%). In general, chromatic aberration varies little with lens eccentricity, although this point requires further study with more attention to paraxial measurements. PMID:3871931

Kreuzer, R O; Sivak, J G

1985-01-01

348

[Percutaneous vertebral augmentation: vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: operative technique].  

PubMed

The intravertebral injection of acrylic resin cement -usually polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- into a fractured vertebral body, constitutes the basis of the so called "vertebral augmentation techniques", "vertebroplasty" and "kyphoplasty", to manage pain and to strengthen and stabilize the compromised vertebra. In some ocassion, prior to the PMMA injection, an inflatable bone tamp was inserted into both pedicles of the fractured vertebra with the aim of restoring vertebral height to correct the kyphosis deformation. This procedure is called kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty). The indications for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are evolving, from stabilization of painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures to vertebral collapse secondary to spinal metastases. In this paper we review the technical basis of both procedures, according to our experience in the treatment of vertebral fractures. Further studies are required to define the role for each technique in the spinal surgery's armamentarium. PMID:16276451

Martinez-Quiñones, J V; Aso-Escario, J; Arregui-Calvo, Y R

2005-10-01

349

Congenital Anomalies in Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA)  

MedlinePLUS

... the abdomen might be required to determine whether abnormalities in the kidneys are present. Do congenital anomalies affect my or ... one in five people with DBA have congenital abnormalities in the kidneys, urinary tract, and genital organs. Examples are: ABSENT ...

350

Poland anomaly with contralateral ulnar ray defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an atypical case of the Poland anomaly. Unreported features are that the hand abnormality is on the contralateral side to the chest wall defect, there is an ulnar ray predominance, and lack of syndactyly.

C V Powell; R C Coombs; T J David

1993-01-01

351

Axial Anomalies in External Tensor Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computation of the axial anomaly for Dirac fermions in external tensor fields is studied. The sequence of the supersymmetric one-dimensional models is presented. Their supercharges are equal, after quantization, to Dirac operators in external tensor field...

O. M. Khudaverdyan R. L. Mkrtchyan L. A. Zurabyan

1985-01-01

352

When anomaly mediation is UV sensitive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its successes — such as solving the supersymmetric flavor problem — anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking is untenable because of its prediction of tachyonic sleptons. An appealing solution to this problem was proposed by Pomarol and Rattazzi where a threshold controlled by a light field deflects the anomaly mediated super-symmetry breaking trajectory, thus evading tachyonic sleptons. In this paper we examine an alternate class of deflection models where the non-supersymmetric threshold is accompanied by a heavy, instead of light, singlet. The low energy form of this model is the so-called extended anomaly mediation proposed by Nelson and Weiner, but with potential for a much higher deflection threshold. The existence of this high deflection threshold implies that the space of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking deflecting models is larger than previously thought.

Setzer, N.; Spinner, S.

2011-06-01

353

Assessing congenital anomalies after preimplantation genetic diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an exciting advance in prenatal diagnosis. However, the safety of embryo biopsy must be determined with respect to both pregnancy rate and cogenital anomalies.

Joe Leigh Simpson; Inge Liebaers

1996-01-01

354

Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)|

Shea, James H.

1988-01-01

355

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

356

Vertebral fractures in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis causes significant morbidity for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Corticosteroid therapy given to prolong mobility may increase the rate of osteoporosis and risk of fracture. This study of 33 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy determined retrospectively the incidence of vertebral fractures particularly after initiation of corticosteroids. A latency period of 40 months after commencement of steroids occurred before the first vertebral fracture appeared. However, by 100 months of treatment approximately 75% had sustained a vertebral fracture. PMID:12800730

Bothwell, J E; Gordon, K E; Dooley, J M; MacSween, J; Cummings, E A; Salisbury, S

2003-05-01

357

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

358

MRI and MR angiography of vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of 4,500 angiograms yielded 11 patients with dissection of the vertebral arteries who had MRI and (in 4 patients)\\u000a MR angiography (MRA) in the acute phase of stroke. One patient with incidental discovery at arteriography of asymptomatic\\u000a vertebral artery dissection and two patients with acute strokes with MRI and MRA findings consistent with vertebral artery\\u000a dissection were included.

M. Mascalchi; M. C. Bianchi; S. Mangiafico; G. Ferrito; M. Puglioli; E. Marin; S. Mugnai; R. Canapicchi; N. Quilici; D. Inzitari

1997-01-01

359

Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery\\u000a are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with\\u000a anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications\\u000a associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral

Kevin J. Daly; E. Raymond S. Ross; Heather Norris; Charles N. McCollum

2006-01-01

360

Vertebrate endothelial lipase: comparative studies of an ancient gene and protein in vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

Endothelial lipase (gene: LIPG; enzyme: EL) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role in HDL metabolism in the body. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for LIPG genes and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. LIPG is located on human chromosome 18 and is distinct from other human 'neutral lipase' genes, hepatic lipase (gene: LIPC; enzyme: HL) and lipoprotein lipase (gene: LPL; enzyme: LPL) examined. Vertebrate LIPG genes usually contained 10 coding exons located on the positive strand for most primates, as well as for horse, bovine, opossum, platypus and frog genomes. The rat LIPG gene however contained only 9 coding exons apparently due to the presence of a 'stop' codon' within exon 9. Vertebrate EL protein subunits shared 58-97% sequence identity as compared with 38-45% sequence identities with human HL and LPL. Four previously reported human EL N-glycosylation sites were predominantly conserved among the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites observed for the vertebrate EL sequences examined. Sequence alignments and identities for key EL amino acid residues were observed as well as conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for horse pancreatic lipase (PL) (Bourne et al. 1994). Several potential sites for regulating LIPG gene expression were observed including CpG islands near the LIPG gene promoter and a predicted microRNA binding site near the 3'-untranslated region. Promoter regions containing functional polymorphisms that regulate HDL cholesterol in baboons were conserved among primates but not retained between primates and rodents. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate LIPG gene subfamily with other neutral triglyceride lipase gene families, LIPC and LPL. It is apparent that the triglyceride lipase ancestral gene for the vertebrate LIPG gene predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution >500 million years ago. PMID:21267636

Holmes, Roger S; Vandeberg, John L; Cox, Laura A

2011-01-26

361

Cerebral Anomalies and Chiari Type 1 Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the association of diverse cerebral anomalies in a series of pediatric patients with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 60 children diagnosed with Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1), of these, 20 patients (11 boys and 9 girls; mean age 7.2 years, range 2–16 years) had an associated cerebral anomaly. Symptoms of tonsillar ectopia

Marcelo Galarza; Juan F. Martínez-Lage; Steven Ham; Sandeep Sood

2010-01-01

362

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

363

Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic\\u000a research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from the perspectives of network monitoring and network security.\\u000a In network monitoring, a service provider is often interested in capturing such network characteristics as heavy flows, flow\\u000a size distributions, and the number of distinct

Marina Thottan; Guanglei Liu; Chuanyi Ji

2010-01-01

364

[Corrective growth after vertebral body fracture in the adolescence].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 13-year-old female patient who sustained an incomplete burst fracture of the 1st lumbar vertebral body and an impression fracture of the 3rd vertebral body. Using a dorsal instrumentation the kyphosis of the thoracolumbar junction was treated. The radiographical follow-up indicated a correction of the involved vertebral bodies. However, complete restoration of the height of the vertebral bodies was not achieved. In view of this long-term follow-up the potential for correction of the adolescent thoracolumbar junction spine is discussed. PMID:19938356

Schmidt-Rohlfing, B; Nossek, M; Hofman, M; Delbrück, H; Hohl, C

365

Chest pain? An unusual presentation of vertebral osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

We present a case of vertebral osteomyelitis presenting as chest pain. The patient initially underwent a CT chest angiogram to rule out a pulmonary embolism, which incidentally showed a soft tissue vertebral mass at T3-T4 disk space. Subsequent thoracic vertebral MRI was consistent with osteomyelitis with cord compression. Tissue culture from a CT-guided biopsy grew MRSA. The patient was successfully treated with Vancomycin. This is a rare presentation of vertebral osteomyelitis which poses an interesting diagnostic challenge. PMID:23476664

Landa, Cristian; Giddings, Stanley; Reddy, Pramod

2013-02-11

366

Evolutionary aspects of positioning and identification of vertebrate limbs  

PubMed Central

Emerging developmental studies contribute to our understanding of vertebrate evolution because changes in the developmental process and the genes responsible for such changes provide a unique way for evaluating the evolution of morphology. Endoskeletal limbs, the locomotor organs that are unique to vertebrates, are a popular model system in the fields of palaeontology and phylogeny because their structure is highly visible and their bony pattern is easily preserved in the fossil records. Similarly, limb development has long served as an excellent model system for studying vertebrate pattern formation. In this review, the evolution of vertebrate limb development is examined in the light of the latest knowledge, viewpoints and hypotheses.

TAMURA, KOJI; KURAISHI, RITSU; SAITO, DAISUKE; MASAKI, HIDEKI; IDE, HIROYUKI; YONEI-TAMURA, SAYURI

2001-01-01

367

Vertebral fracture assessment: impact of instrument and reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Many osteoporotic vertebral fractures are not clinically recognized but increase fracture risk. We hypothesized that a newer\\u000a generation densitometer increases the number of evaluable vertebrae and vertebral fractures detected. We also explored the\\u000a impact of reader experience on vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) interpretation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  VFA images obtained using Prodigy and iDXA densitometers in 103 older adults were evaluated for vertebral visualization

B. Buehring; D. Krueger; M. Checovich; D. Gemar; N. Vallarta-Ast; H. K. Genant; N. Binkley

2010-01-01

368

Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development.

2011-01-01

369

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth.  

PubMed

The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise as an ectodermal invagination. Consistent with this, oral teeth are proposed to arise exclusively from ectoderm, contributing to tooth enamel epithelium, and from neural crest derived mesenchyme, contributing to dentin and pulp. Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity, but extend posteriorly as pharyngeal teeth that could be derived either directly from the endodermal epithelium, or from the ectodermal epithelium that reached this location through the mouth or through the pharyngeal slits. However, when the oropharyngeal membrane, which forms a sharp ecto/endodermal border, is broken, the fate of these cells is poorly known. Here, using transgenic axolotls with a combination of fate-mapping approaches, we present reliable evidence of oral teeth derived from both the ectoderm and endoderm and, moreover, demonstrate teeth with a mixed ecto/endodermal origin. Despite the enamel epithelia having a different embryonic source, oral teeth in the axolotl display striking developmental uniformities and are otherwise identical. This suggests a dominant role for the neural crest mesenchyme over epithelia in tooth initiation and, from an evolutionary point of view, that an essential factor in teeth evolution was the odontogenic capacity of neural crest cells, regardless of possible 'outside-in' or 'inside-out' influx of the epithelium. PMID:18794902

Soukup, Vladimír; Epperlein, Hans-Henning; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

2008-09-14

370

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution.

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

371

Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies.

Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

2012-01-01

372

Causal hypothesis for some congenital anomalies.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies are a major cause of fetal and neonatal death and of childhood morbidity. Chromosomal and other genetic abnormalities, environmental teratogens and some nutritional deficiencies account for some congenital anomalies but the majority are of unknown etiology. The hypothesis is here proposed that a significant proportion of congenital anomalies and cerebral palsy of unknown etiology are attributable to a monozygotic multiple conception with monochorionic placentation and that these anomalies, even in singletons, may be explained by early, unrecognized or unrecorded loss of one conceptus in a monochorionic monozygotic conception. The pathological mechanism is hemodynamic instability with episodes of acute feto-fetal transfusion that produce ischemic organ impairment in either or both twins. The resultant clinical abnormality will depend on range of severity (fetal death, infant death, congenital anomaly, normal infant), site or combination of sites (which organ[s] present[s] with the congenital anomaly) and timing (early, middle or late in gestation as shown by variation in brain pathology that is observed). PMID:16354495

Pharoah, Peter O D

2005-12-01

373

Space Weather Applications and Spacecraft Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first priority for the use of space weather information for improving spacecraft performance is in the diagnosis of anomalies so that designs and procedures may be optimised to limit their occurrence. The association of certain spacecraft anomalies with the space environment is well established on the basis of statistical correlations with space weather indicators. However, the global indicators commonly used are frequently only an indirect measure of the aspects of the environment that causes the anomaly. Better diagnosis of anomalies should be possible by processing raw data to extract physically relevant parameters. Spacecraft operators can rapidly diagnose anomalies and even anticipate or avoid them if provided with now-casts and short-term forecasts of relevant hazard indicators. This is the goal of space weather applications like GEOSHAFT, part of ESA's network of space weather prototype services. The space weather indices currently available need to be supplemented by data that is more directly related to the way the space environment interacts with electronic equipment, e.g. for the outer belt, charging current is preferred to electron flux; and for solar particle events LET is preferred to energy. Instruments such as Merlin are focussed on collecting data which will aid anomaly diagnosis.

Rodgers, D.; Dyer, C.; Clucas, S.; Hunter, K.; Ryden, K.

374

Poland anomaly with unusual associated anomalies: case report of an apparent disorganized defect.  

PubMed

We report on a 2 1/2-year-old boy with absence of clavicular head of pectoralis major on the left side, ipsilateral upper limb anomalies, and anomalies of the lower limbs such as popliteal webbing, median cleft of right foot, bifid left hallux, syndactyly of toes, and toenail hypoplasia. Other anomalies included undescended testis, hairy nevus in the lumbosacral region, and a pedunculated finger-like tag on the right thigh. The pathogenesis of these associated anomalies cannot be explained on the basis of compromised local blood supply alone. A possible link with the disorganization mutation is discussed. PMID:7747752

Kabra, M; Suri, M; Jain, U; Verma, I C

1994-10-01

375

Empirical Analysis of Safety-Critical Anomalies During Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of anomalies that occur during operations is an important means of improving the quality of current and future software. Although the benefits of anomaly analysis of operational software are widely recognized, there has been relatively little research on anomaly analysis of safety-critical systems. In particular, patterns of software anomaly data for operational, safety-critical systems are not well understood. This

Robyn R. Lutz; Ines Carmen Mikulski

2004-01-01

376

Methods to remove anomalies from human body model pulse generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small anomalies found in pulses from HBM testers have been the subject of much recent research. Reported anomalies have been shown to adversely effect HBM testing. This paper reviews the cause of many anomalies and describes an HBM pulse generation system that eliminates or reduces these anomalies to negligible levels.

Evan Grund; Marcos Hernandez

2006-01-01

377

Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.  

PubMed

Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies. PMID:12592127

Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

2003-03-01

378

Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?  

PubMed Central

Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology.

Chatziioannou, Sofia N.; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S.

2010-01-01

379

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

PubMed Central

Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar’s colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island’s biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island’s paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island’s extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar’s tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island’s isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar’s extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar’s unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more recently arriving clades. Thus, the composition of Madagascar’s endemic vertebrate assemblage itself provides evidence of the island's paleogeographic history.

Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

2013-01-01

380

The epigenome in early vertebrate development.  

PubMed

Epigenetic regulation defines the commitment and potential of cells, including the limitations in their competence to respond to inducing signals. This review discusses the developmental origins of chromatin state in Xenopus and other vertebrate species and provides an overview of its use in genome annotation. In most metazoans the embryonic genome is transcriptionally quiescent after fertilization. This involves nucleosome-dense chromatin, repressors and a temporal deficiency in the transcription machinery. Active histone modifications such as H3K4me3 appear in pluripotent blastula embryos, whereas repressive marks such as H3K27me3 show a major increase in enrichment during late blastula and gastrula stages. The H3K27me3 modification set by Polycomb restricts ectopic lineage-specific gene expression. Pluripotent chromatin in Xenopus embryos is relatively unconstrained, whereas the pluripotent cell lineage in mammalian embryos harbors a more enforced type of pluripotent chromatin. PMID:22139962

Bogdanovi?, Ozren; van Heeringen, Simon J; Veenstra, Gert Jan C

2011-12-27

381

Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management.

Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

2012-01-01

382

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

383

[Eight cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissection].  

PubMed

We present eight cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissection. One of these had traumatic antecedents at the neck level while undergoing massage treatment. Of the rest, in four cases there was only a history of commonplace traumatism at neck level, consisting of twisting or stretching. Most presented pain at this level both before and during symptoms. Five had symptoms compatible with lateral bulbar infarct, two with cerebral infarct and one at the protuberance level. Angiography showed irregular stenosis of the spine on the affected side in five cases, occlusion in three cases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed on five, with findings compatible with dissection. Six received anticoagulant treatment and two received platelet antiagregants with good recovery except in one patient who died twelve months later without any indication of the existence of dissection. We also carried out a review of the literature with special emphasis on the etiology of spontaneous cases, on clinical and neuroimaging findings and on treatment. PMID:8714482

Pego, R; Marey, J; López-Facal, M S; Marín-Sánchez, M

1996-02-01

384

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.  

PubMed

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

2013-01-01

385

[Vertebral osteoblastoma and scoliosis. Two cases report].  

PubMed

We report two cases of spinal osteoblastoma in two boys aged 16 and 19 years. The lesion was disclosed by scoliosis with signs of thoracic and lumbar neurological compression. The diagnosis was provided by the CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging and was confirmed by the histology study of the surgical specimen. Involvement of the vertebral column has been estimated to range from 30 to 40% for these rare tumors that account for less than 1% of all bone tumors. Localization on the convex aspect of scoliosis is rare. CT-scan provides an analysis of the tumor components and clearly demonstrates intraspinal extension. MRI is superior in visualizing neurological compression. In our experience, function outcome has been favorable after surgical decompression. PMID:11283455

Akhaddar, A; Gazaz, M; Rifi, L; Amarti, A; Bouyaakoub, F; Derraz, S; El Ouhabi, A; El Khamlichi, A

2001-02-01

386

The stratified syncytium of the vertebrate lens  

PubMed Central

Summary The fusion of cells to generate syncytial tissues is a crucial event in the development of many organisms. In the lens of the vertebrate eye, proteins and other macromolecules diffuse from cell to cell via the large molecule diffusion pathway (LMDP). We used the tamoxifen-induced expression of GFP to investigate the nature and role of the LMDP in living, intact lenses. Our data indicate that the LMPD preferentially connects cells lying within a stratum of the lens cortex and that formation of the LMPD depends on the expression of Lim2, a claudin-like molecule. The conduits for intercellular protein exchange are most likely regions of partial cellular fusion, which are commonly observed in wild-type lenses but rare or absent in Lim2-deficient lenses. The observation that lens tissue constitutes a stratified syncytium has implications for the transparency, refractive function and pathophysiology of the tissue.

Shi, Yanrong; Barton, Kelly; De Maria, Alicia; Petrash, J. Mark; Shiels, Alan; Bassnett, Steven

2009-01-01

387

The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Vertebrate,Genome,Annotation,(Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was,first made,public in 2004 and,has,been,designed,to view,manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences,produced,at the Wellcome,Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human,annotated,loci has,more,than,doubled,to close,to 33000 and,now,contains,comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole,mouse,chromosomes,and,around,40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we,offer manual,annotation,of a number,of haplo- type,regions,in mouse,and,human,and,regions,of

J. L. Ashurst; C.-K. Chen; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Jekosch; S. Keenan; Patrick Meidl; Stephen M. J. Searle; Jim Stalker; R. Storey; S. Trevanion; L. G. Wilming; Tim J. P. Hubbard

2005-01-01

388

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes  

PubMed Central

Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD.

Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

2005-01-01

389

Giant cell tumor of dorsal vertebral body  

PubMed Central

A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10) vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT). Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.

Redhu, Rakesh; Poonia, Rajpal

2012-01-01

390

Checklist and Centres of Vertebrate Diversity in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A checklist of vertebrates of Mozambique was elaborated by means of revision of monographic and web-based resources. During interviews of native speakers m ade in various parts of Mozambique, vernacular names of vertebrates in the 20 most important languages were assessed and included in the checklist as well as their common names in Portuguese and English. Additional information such

Michael F. Schneider; Victorino A. Buramuge; Luís Aliasse; Filipa Serfontein

391

Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2007-01-01

392

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example

Stephen J. Godfrey; Joshua B. Smith

2010-01-01

393

Vertebrate evolution: doubling and shuffling with a full deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number and role of whole-genome duplications in vertebrate evolution has intrigued evolutionary biologists since Ohno first proposed genome duplication as the force driving the ‘big leap’ in vertebrate morphological innovation. Attempts to resolve these issues have been thwarted by small and noisy datasets, and by lack of computational accuracy and statistical rigor. Recently, Ken Wolfe and colleagues presented a

Dannie Durand

2003-01-01

394

Solitary thoracic vertebral body cysticercosis presenting with progressive compressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

Common bony spinal pathologies that could present with progressive spasticity include vertebral body tumors or chronic infections of the spine. Cysticercosis of the spine commonly has an intramedullary occurrence. The authors discuss the presentation and management of a rare case of solitary vertebral cysticercosis that presented with lower-limb spasticity and sphincter involvement. PMID:23414003

Furtado, Sunil V; Dadlani, Ravi; Ghosal, Nandita; Rao, Arun S

2013-02-15

395

Health care costs of women with symptomatic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. An important aspect of the economics of fracture prevention is averted fracture costs. However, while vertebral fractures represent a significant burden to society, quantifying their cost is difficult for several reasons. In this paper, we examine the health care costs of symptomatic vertebral fractures occurring in women aged 50 years and above in the UK. Methods. We used a

Suezann Puffer; David J Torgerson; David Sykes; Pam Brown; Cyrus Cooper

2004-01-01

396

Are dendrites in Drosophila homologous to vertebrate dendrites?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrites represent arborising neurites in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, in vertebrates, dendrites develop on neuronal cell bodies, whereas in higher invertebrates, they arise from very different neuronal structures, the primary neurites, which also form the axons. Is this anatomical difference paralleled by principal developmental and\\/or physiological differences? We address this question by focussing on one cellular model, motorneurons of

Natalia Sánchez-Soriano; Wolfgang Bottenberg; André Fiala; Ulrike Haessler; Afroditi Kerassoviti; Elisabeth Knust; Robert Löhr; Andreas Prokop

2005-01-01

397

Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

1999-01-01

398

Corynebacterium xerosis as a cause of vertebral osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

We report a patient who developed Corynebacterium xerosis vertebral osteomyelitis 6 months following a decompressive laminectomy. Prolonged parenteral and subsequent oral therapy for 11 months resulted in apparent cure. This is the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by C. xerosis. PMID:2592549

Krish, G; Beaver, W; Sarubbi, F; Verghese, A

1989-12-01

399

Functions of fibroblast growth factors in vertebrate development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a class of secreted polypeptide ligands which mediate diverse cellular responses during embryonic, fetal, and postnatal vertebrate development. The purposes of this review are to provide a condensed overview of FGFs and their receptors, to catalog and categorize the functions of FGFs in vertebrate development, to present recent discoveries relating to the interplay of FGFs

Mitchell Goldfarb

1996-01-01

400

Iroquois genes: genomic organization and function in vertebrate neural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent work that shows that the iroquois (Iro\\/Irx) homeobox genes have conserved genomic organization in Drosophila and vertebrates. In addition, these genes play pivotal functions in the initial specification of the vertebrate neuroectoderm, and, in collaboration with other transcription factors, later subdivision of the anterior–posterior and dorso-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm.

José Luis Gómez-Skarmeta; Juan Modolell

2002-01-01

401

4:31 The dynamic mobility of vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: Vertebral height restoration is hoped to mitigate some morbidities and adverse biomechanical consequences of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) but this is unproven. Height restoration has been reported as the result of kyphoplasty [1] but is not generally thought to occur in vertebroplasty. The objective of this study is to describe the surprising frequency and substantial mobility

Tom Faciszewski; Fergus Mckiernan; Ron Jensen; Kathy Kraus

2002-01-01

402

Vertebral artery dissection: Issues in diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection is an uncommon cause of stroke in children. Accuracy of diagnosis by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) instead of invasive transfemoral angiography (TFA) has been controversial. The need for anticoagulation and duration of such therapy is also arguable. We report 2 boys with vertebral artery dissection: one, aged 7 years, presented with hemiparesis and seizures and the other,

Divya S. Khurana; Carsten G. Bonnemann; Elizabeth C. Dooling; Eileen M. Ouellette; Ferdinando Buonanno

1996-01-01

403

Spontaneous carotid and vertebral artery dissection in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection is a rarely reported cause of stroke in childhood and adolescence, especially if there is not a direct trauma to the neck. Four patients, under 15 years of age, presented with an internal carotid artery dissection, and one patient presented with a vertebral artery dissection. They were all making a physical effort when the event

Ana Camacho; Alberto Villarejo; Ana Mart??nez de Aragón; Rogelio Simón; Fernando Mateos

2001-01-01

404

Effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of vertebral bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: To compare the effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of unfractured vertebral bodies.Methods used: Four cadaveric thoracic spines were used for this experiment, for a total of 40 vertebral bodies. Before testing, each thoracic spine was submitted to bone density testing and a radiographic evaluation to rule out any obvious fractures. Under image intensification, 6 ml

Siros Pheumaticos; Nguyen Lyndon; John Hipp; Jason Stein; Michael Heggeness

2002-01-01

405

Chapter 9 Hox Genes and Vertebrate Axial Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial skeleton in all vertebrates is comprised of similar structures that extend from anterior to posterior along the body axis: the occipital skull bones, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. Despite significant changes in the number and size of these elements during vertebrate evolution, the basic character of these anatomical elements, as well as the order in which

Deneen M. Wellik

2009-01-01

406

Vertebrate genomics: More fishy tales about Hox genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebrafish Hox genes are arranged in at least seven clusters, rather than the four clusters typical of vertebrates. This suggests that an additional genome duplication occurred on the fish lineage and explains why many gene families are typically about half the size in land vertebrates than they are in fish.

Axel Meyer; Edward Mélaga-Trillo

1999-01-01

407

Chapter 8 Hox Genes and Segmentation of the Vertebrate Hindbrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the vertebrate central nervous system, the hindbrain is an important center for coordinating motor activity, posture, equilibrium, sleep patterns, and essential unconscious functions, such as breathing rhythms and blood circulation. During development, the vertebrate hindbrain depends upon the process of segmentation or compartmentalization to create and organize regional properties essential for orchestrating its highly conserved functional roles. The process

Stefan Tümpel; Leanne M. Wiedemann; Robb Krumlauf

2009-01-01

408

Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

2008-04-01

409

Treatment options for vertebral fractures an overview of different philosophies and techniques for vertebral augmentation.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: For more than 30 years, minimally invasive surgical procedures have been available to stabilize the fractured vertebrae by cement augmentation leading to significant pain relief, a distinct improvement in quality of life and decreased mortality for patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This overview article is designed to provide information on the wide range of augmentation methods previously tested and clinically applied in surgery in an attempt to compile the clinically relevant information on safety and efficacy in the published literature. METHOD: Based on an extensive literature review on the topic of "vertebral fractures-surgical augmentation techniques" we summarized the results of published clinical trials and experimental testing which address clinically relevant questions. The selection of the publications in reference books and scientific journals covers the time period from the end of the 1970s until the present. RESULTS: The final selection of more than 50 publications with, in the opinion of the authors, clinically relevant data led to the following results, which can be of significance for clinical application. The prerequisites for the success of all augmentation methods include the earliest possible surgical intervention, optimal technical equipment and an experienced, interdisciplinary team, as well as thorough consideration of the situation of the individual patient. The selection of the material for vertebral augmentation depends on the surgical method. The material of choice remains polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and the best record of efficacy and safety is displayed by radiofrequency kyphoplasty with ultrahigh-viscosity cement. Regarding clinical efficacy and safety, there are many convincing documentations showing superiority of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in comparison with conservative therapeutic regimens. Initial results of clinical studies with additional implants indicate a trend toward further improvement in clinical success and suggest possible broader clinical possibilities of application. CONCLUSION: Modern, minimally invasive augmentation techniques represent a real alternative to conservative treatment of patients with vertebral fractures. Further technical and clinical development in this area should aim at optimizing procedural safety while continuing to achieve comparably good results to current methods. Minimizing damage to the remaining trabecular structures as well as to adjacent vertebral disks and vertebrae should be paramount of importance. Options for the treatment of vertebral fractures: Reductions in bone density and pathological changes in bone structure are associated with an elevated risk of fractures, which can lead to decisive functional impairment, pain, and a host of further comorbidities. Vertebral augmentation can be considered as an alternative conservative treatment, in order to achieve immediate and lasting pain relief as well as improvement in functional impairment. To achieve greater safety, instrumentation for transpedicular access and incorporation of radiopacifiers in PMMA for vertebroplasty were developed in mid-eighties. Balloon kyphoplasty was introduced in the end nineties, and results of prospective, randomized clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy; the destruction of the remaining native spongiosa structures during balloon expansion is viewed as a disadvantage of this method. The two step method of cavity creation followed by cement delivery known as kyphoplasty has been further refined and developed by and varied by technology/procedural developments. This includes most the radiofrequency kyphoplasty (DFINE Inc., San Jose, CA, USA), in which ultrahigh-viscosity cement is delivered at a controlled delivery rate, following producing a bone sparing size and side specific cavity which minimizes loss of spongiosa, allowing for mechanical stability upon interdigitation of cement into that remaining trabecular bone. This combination has been shown to preserve vertebral structures and

Bornemann, R; Koch, E M W; Wollny, M; Pflugmacher, R

2013-06-16

410

Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U{sub A}(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory.

Sadooghi, N. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari Salim, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-10-15

411

Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2009-09-15

412

Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites. PMID:20376425

Weldon, Paul J

2010-04-08

413

Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sahin, Gurdal [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey); Turkbey, Baris [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Elibol, Bulent [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

414

Recompression of vertebral body after balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the factors that affect recompression of operated vertebrae\\u000a after percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty (PKP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and assess their clinical\\u000a importance. PKP has been used for VCFs with satisfactory results. Several studies about subsequent VCFs adjacent to cemented\\u000a vertebrae have been reported after PKP. However, the presence

Young-Yul Kim; Kee-Won Rhyu

2010-01-01

415

Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.  

PubMed

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

2012-11-27

416

Posterior decompression and stabilization, and surgical vertebroplasty with the vertebral body stenting for metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression.  

PubMed

We present the technique of combined posterior decompression and spinal instrumentation, and surgical (open) vertebroplasty using a novel system called vertebral body stenting (VBS) during a single session in a patient with metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression. PMID:20082355

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Starantzis, Konstantinos; Korres, Demetrios S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2010-03-01

417

An 8-year-old boy with vertebral artery dissection with cerebellar ataxia featuring suspected vertebral artery hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an 8-year-old boy with left vertebral artery dissection featuring cerebellar ataxia in which congenital vertebral artery hypoplasia was suspected as a predisposing factor in the dissection. The patient suddenly suffered from vertigo and vomiting while swimming, and he was brought to our department. The initial brain Computed Tomography (CT) demonstrated no abnormalities, and his symptoms disappeared the next

Yasuhiko Kawakami; Shin-ya Koizumi; Kentaro Kuwabara; Juri Fujimura; Junji Shirai; Makoto Watanabe; Satoru Murata; Takehide Imai; Sachiyo Takeda; Ryuji Fukazawa; Masato Takase; Takehisa Fujita; Masatoshi Hida; Osamu Fujino

2009-01-01

418

Satellite anomalies caused by disturbed space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven types of satellite anomalies are discussed and examples are given from historical reports. Types of anomalies and their causes are: o Single Event Upsets (SEU) caused by penetrating energetic ions; o Deep dielectric ("bulk") charging (DDC) by high-energy electrons; o Surface charging by thermal electrons causing electrostatic discharge (ESD) and Phantom Commands (PC); o Magnetopause crossing events (MPE) that reverse ambient fields at geostationary satellite altitudes; o dB/dT of field-aligned currents causing satellite tumbling at lower altitudes; o Optical effects of high-energy ions on star-trackers and limb sensors; and o Power panel degradation from high-energy ions. Recent and older events are considered, in part because the problems recur even though technology has changed to take them into account and awareness of the conditions causing them seems widespread. Systematic anomaly reporting is requested to increase the significance of records collected for particular events.

Allen, J. H.

2003-04-01

419

Supergravity Dual of the Superconformal Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supergravity dual of the superconformal anomaly multiplet in a four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory is investigated. We consider a well-established dual correspondence between an { N} = 1 SU(N+M) × SU(N) supersymmetric gauge theory and type IIB superstring in a space-time background described by the Klebanov-Strassler solution. Based on the fact that fractional D3-branes lead to superconformal anomaly on the field theory side and in the meantime deform AdS5 × T1, 1 space-time background on the gravity side, we observe the five-dimensional gauged supergravity yielded from the spontaneous compactification on the deformed T1, 1, and find that the spontaneous breaking of local symmetries and the consequent super-Higgs effect in the gauged AdS5 supergravity should be the dual of the superconformal anomaly of the four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory.

Chen, Wenfeng

420

Type II First Branchial Cleft Anomaly.  

PubMed

First branchial cleft anomaly is a rare disease of the head and neck. It accounts for less than 8% of all branchial abnormalities. It is classified into type I, which is thought to arise from the duplication of the membranous external ear canal and are composed of ectoderm only, and type II that have ectoderm and mesoderm. Because of its rarity, first branchial cleft anomaly is often misdiagnosed and results in inappropriate management. A 9-year-old girl presented to us with fistula in the submandibular region and discharge in the external ear. Under general anesthesia, complete surgical excision of the fistula tract was done through step-ladder approach, and the histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type II first branchial cleft anomaly. PMID:24036791

Al-Mahdi, Akmam H; Al-Khurri, Luay E; Atto, Ghada Z; Dhaher, Ameer

2013-09-01

421

Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey  

SciTech Connect

This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Banerjee, Arindam [University of Minnesota; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota

2012-01-01

422

Gravity Anomaly of the Mariana Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have compiled extensive bathymetry and gravity data of the Mariana Trough, which were collected during several Japanese cruises over the last few years. Free-air gravity anomaly was calculated with subtracting the normal gravity field and with corrections of the drift and of the Eotvos effect using the DGPS data. Then, we adjusted the trend of this free-air gravity anomaly to that of the free-air gravity anomaly from satellite altimetry (Sandwell and Smith, 1997) and we merged them to get better free-air gravity anomaly. Finally, Mantle Bouguer gravity Anomaly (MBA) was calculated by the method of Parker (1972), using the free air gravity anomaly and multi-narrow-beam bathymetry. We assumed that the crust is constant thickness of 6 km and that the seawater, crust, and mantle densities are 1030, 2700, and 3300 kg/\\(m^{-3}\\), respectively. The MBA reveals distinct differences between regions: 1) The north of 22N shows extremely low MBA, indicating an incipient rifting. 2) The spreading axis between 22N and 21N shows relatively low MBA, suggesting abundant magma supply. 3) The central region between 21N and 14N shows "Bull's eyes" features along the axes, which are characteristic slow-spreading features. The center of the "Bull's eye" are always located to the west of the spreading axis, suggesting asymmetry either in crustal thickness or in melt delivery from the mantle. 4) The south of 14N shows lower MBA than that in the central. Furthermore, we will examine the MBA in the following three points with relation to the spreading process of the back-arc basin: 1) variation of crustal thickness that reflects the amount of the melt supply at the spreading axes, 2) contribution from plate cooling, and 3) contribution from subcrustal density variation that probably reflects the pattern of mantle upwelling, temperature variations, and/or distribution of partial melt.

Kitada, K.; Seama, N.; Fujiwara, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Wakabayashi, N.; Nakase, K.; Okino, K.; Nogi, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

2002-12-01

423

Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

424

Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the ?-b problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.

de Blas, J.; Delgado, A.

2012-02-01

425

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

426

Preferential filtering for gravity anomaly separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preferential filtering method for gravity anomaly separation based on Green equivalent-layer concept and Wiener filter. Compared to the conventional upward continuation and the preferential continuation, the preferential filtering method has the advantage of no requirement of continuation height. The method was tested both on the synthetic gravity data of a model of multiple rectangular prisms and on the real gravity data from a magnetite area in Jilin Province, China. The results show that the preferential filtering method produced better separation of gravity anomaly than both the conventional low-pass filtering and the upward continuation.

Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhaoxi; Li, Shuling; Zheng, Yuanman

2013-02-01

427

Talon cusp: a morphological dental anomaly.  

PubMed

Talon cusp is a rare developmental anomaly that occurs most commonly on the lingual side of the incisors. It may cause various clinical problems, such as occlusal interference, irritation of the tongue, pulpal necrosis, caries and periodontal problems. Genetics is thought to be a major cause for the occurrence of this anomaly. This article reports three cases of talon cusp in three members of the same family. Clinical and radiographic findings of talon cusp in two siblings and the mother are presented. Early diagnosis of talon cusp helps in selecting the correct treatment procedure and avoiding complications. PMID:21424052

Balcio?lu, H A; Kekliko?lu, N; Kökten, Gülseren

2011-01-01

428

Association of rib anomalies and childhood cancers  

PubMed Central

Background: Congenital anomalies have been found more often in children with cancer than in those without. Rib abnormalities (RAs) have been associated with childhood cancer; however, studies have differed in the type of RAs and cancers implicated. Methods: Rib abnormalities were assessed predominantly by X-ray in a hospital-based case–control study. Results: There was a significant difference in the number of cases vs controls with RAs after controlling for age and sex, specifically for acute myelogenous leukaemia, renal tumours, and hepatoblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study support previous reports that there is an association of rib anomalies with childhood cancer.

Zierhut, H; Murati, M; Holm, T; Hoggard, E; Spector, L G

2011-01-01

429

Vertebral fracture after aircraft ejection during Operation Desert Storm.  

PubMed

During Operation Desert Storm, 21 United States and 2 Italian military personnel were held in Iraq as prisoners of war. Of these, 18 had ejected from fixed-wing, ejection seat-equipped, combat aircraft prior to their capture. Of the 18, 6 (33%) had sustained vertebral fractures; 4 of these were compression fractures. This fracture rate is comparable to that of previously studied groups. Fractures were noted to be at several different vertebral sites and after ejecting from a variety of aircraft. Apart from contusions and abrasions, vertebral fractures were the most common injuries discovered in this repatriated population. None of the vertebral fractures produced recognizable neurological disability. The development of vertebral fractures was neither associated with the use of any particular ejection system or aircraft nor did the development of vertebral fractures appear dependent on the age, height or length of service of the affected personnel. Ejected aircrew with low altitude mission profiles seemed more predisposed to vertebral fracture than those at high altitudes, but with a small sample population, this relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.25). Reliable data were unavailable on aircrew positioning and preparation time for ejection. PMID:9096832

Osborne, R G; Cook, A A

1997-04-01

430

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

431

A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.  

PubMed

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

2012-12-10

432

Congenital Pelger-Huët anomaly in a Danish/Swedish Farmdog: case report.  

PubMed

A 13 year old Danish/Swedish Farmdog from Denmark was evaluated in a veterinary clinic in Warsaw, Poland for evaluation of an orthopedic problem. Radiographs revealed spondylosis and degenerative vertebral disease, which responded to treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. A predominance of hyposegmented neutrophils and eosinophils containing condensed chromatin and normal cytoplasm were identified on a routine CBC. Follow-up blood film evaluations over the course of 12 months confirmed that the hyposegmented granulocytes persisted. The majority of neutrophils contained Grade 2 nuclei (slightly indented), and the mean nuclear score varied from 1.9 to 2.3. Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA), presumably congenital, was diagnosed based on persistent hyposegmented granulocytes in the absence of an underlying cause for acquired PHA; genetically related dogs were unavailable for testing to confirm vertical transmission. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of PHA in a Danish/Swedish Farmdog. PMID:21362186

Lukaszewska, Janina; Allison, Robin W; Stepkowska, Julita

2011-03-01

433

[Dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery: a case report].  

PubMed

Spontaneous dissection of the vertebral artery is not a frequent occurrence in the vertebrobasilar system. The authors show a case with spontaneous dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery, which produced recurrent artery-to-artery embolism. The angiography revealed characteristic intimal flap. The antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy was able to control ischemic attacks and the patient made a good clinical recovery. The angiogram performed two months later showed spontaneous resolution of the artery involved. This case shows the effectiveness of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of artery-to-artery embolism caused by the extracranial vertebral artery dissection. PMID:7816181

Ishikawa, A; Kanazawa, Y; Hikasa, T; Fujita, K; Tamaki, N

1994-11-01

434

An evaluation of densitometric vertebral fracture assessment in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The utility of, and potential indications for, densitometric vertebral fracture assessment were evaluated in 1,168 men. A\\u000a bimodal fracture distribution was observed, identifying fractures in 17% of men with no fracture history. Osteopenia or height\\u000a loss of ? 2.5? may be indications for VFA in men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is an excellent means to detect unappreciated vertebral fractures

N. Vallarta-Ast; D. Krueger; C. Wrase; S. Agrawal; N. Binkley

2007-01-01

435

Rapid prevention of vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis affects postmenopausal women and patients on glucocorticoid therapy. Fractures are the most devastating outcome. Patients who experience an osteoporotic vertebral fracture are at substantial risk of experiencing another within 1 year. Risk can be reduced rapidly with antiresorptives. Risedronate reduced the risk of vertebral fracture in patients with post-menopausal or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis after 1 year by up to 71% in prospective studies. In post hoc analyses, significant reductions in clinical vertebral fractures were demonstrated after 6 months with risedronate and 1 year with alendronate and raloxifene. Rapid reduction in fracture risk is achievable with the potent therapeutic agents available. PMID:15790088

Wallace, Daniel J

2005-03-01

436

Treatment of severe vertebral body compression fractures with percutaneous vertebroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty for severe vertebral body compression fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Over a period of 6 years and 8 months, 661 vertebroplasties were performed in 292 patients at our institution. Of these, 69\\u000a patients met our criteria for a severe vertebral body compression fracture defined as vertebral body collapse to less than\\u000a one-third of the original height. Of the 69, 25

Casey Young; Peter L. Munk; Manraj K. Heran; Huy B. Q. Le; Steven Lee; M. Badii; Paul W. Clarkson; Ouellette C. Hugue

437

ECG Anomaly Detection via Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, wireless sensor networks have been proposed for assisted living and residential monitoring. In such networks, physiological sensors are used to monitor vital signs e.g. heartbeats, pulse rates, oxygen saturation of senior citizens. Sensor data is sent periodically via wireless links to a personal computer that analyzes the data. In this paper, we propose an anomaly detection scheme based on

Mooi Choo Chuah; Fen Fu

2007-01-01

438

The Voyager Anomaly and the GEM Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a decade, the Pioneer Anomaly (PA) was an object of study and remains unresolved. Basically it is a sunward constant acceleration of the spacecraft that appeared unambiguously after the satellites passage beyond Saturn. It now appears possible the PA acceleration is the appearance of second, string-like, solution to the Einstein Equations first discussed in the context of charged

J. E. Brandenburg

2011-01-01

439

Uterine anomaly and recurrent pregnancy loss.  

PubMed

Women with recurrent pregnancy loss have a 3.2 to 6.9% likelihood of having a major uterine anomaly and a 1.0 to 16.9% chance of having an arcuate uterus. Bicornuate and septate uterine have a negative impact on reproductive outcomes and are associated with subsequent euploid miscarriage. The impact of an arcuate uterus on pregnancy outcome remains unclear. There are no definitive criteria to distinguish among the arcuate, septate, and bicornuate uteri. The American Fertility Society classification of Müllerian anomalies is the most common standardized classification of uterine anomalies. According to estimates, 65 to 85% of patients with bicornuate or septate uteri have a successful pregnancy outcome after metroplasty. However, 59.5% of the patients with such anomalies have a successful subsequent pregnancy without surgery, with a cumulative live birthrate of 78.0%. There is no case-control study to compare live birthrates in women who had surgery compared with those who did not. Strict criteria to distinguish between the bicornuate and septate uterus should be established. Further study is needed to confirm the benefits of metroplasty. PMID:22161464

Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Katano, Kinue; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Eita

2011-12-08

440

Magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive Müllerian anomalies.  

PubMed

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract involving Müllerian ducts and Wolffian structures. It is characterized by the triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic modality for demonstrating anatomic variation and associated complications. PMID:24082660

Sen, Kamal Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Dhivya; Kanagaraj, Vikrant

2013-04-01

441

Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

2008-01-01

442

Hyperspectral imagery: Clutter adaptation in anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral sensors are passive sensors that simultaneously record images for hundreds of contiguous and narrowly spaced regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each image corresponds to the same ground scene, thus creating a cube of images that contain both spatial and spectral information about the objects and backgrounds in the scene. In this paper, we present an adaptive anomaly detector designed

Susan M. Schweizer; José M. F. Moura

2000-01-01

443

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

Persson, J. R.

2013-01-01

444

Collie eye anomaly in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 2500 rough collies, smooth collies and Shetland sheepdogs were examined during a three year period in an attempt to establish the incidence of collie eye anomaly in the United Kingdom and to produce data on the hereditability of the disease. The overall incidence in the two collie breeds was approximately 64 per cent, but the disease was seen with

PG Bedford

1982-01-01

445

Lorentz Accelerations in the Earth Flyby Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission engineers have detected an unexpected anomaly on six spacecraft during low-altitude gravity-assist maneuvers around Earth. This Earth flyby anomaly involves an acceleration that, to date, researchers cannot account for based on known forces or errors in measurement or modeling. This paper evaluates Lorentz accelerations associated with spacecraft electrostatic charging as a possible explanation for the Earth flyby anomaly. This analysis does not explicitly address plasma physics but, instead, bases its conclusions on fundamental six-state flight dynamics. The analysis focuses on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft, because it exhibited the largest anomalous error with the smallest estimated residuals. The analysis takes the form of a boundary-value problem in which vector-disturbance time histories are found numerically through nonlinear optimization methods. The analysis identifies the unknown, but required, acceleration based on a model of the Lorentz-force interaction. The algorithm cannot converge on a solution that fully reproduces the anomalous error in all six orbital states. It is unlikely, based on this analysis, that Lorentz forces cause the flyby anomaly.

Atchison, Justin A.; Peck, Mason A.

2010-07-01

446

Modular forms and generalized anomaly cancellation formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we generalize the anomaly cancellation formulas given by Alvarez-Gaumé and Witten (1983), Liu (1995) and Han and Zhang (2004) [1,2,7] to the cases where an auxiliary bundle W and a complex line bundle ? are involved with no conditions on the first Pontryagin forms being assumed.

Han, Fei; Liu, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiping

2012-05-01

447

Congenital cardiac anomalies in an English bulldog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old male castrated English bulldog was referred to the Atlantic Veterinary College for evaluation of exercise intolerance, multiple syncopal episodes, and a grade IV/VI heart murmur. The dog was shown to have 3 congenital cardiac anomalies: atrial septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia, and subaortic stenosis. Medical management consisted of exercise restriction, atenolol, pimobendan, and taurine. PMID:22547849

McConkey, Marina J

2011-11-01

448

Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

Cai, Chaoli

2009-01-01

449

Gravity Anomalies in the Galapagos Islands Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a recent report Case et al, (1973) presented a free-air gravity map of the Galapagos Islands based on 32 gravity stations on the islands. They state that the Galapagos Islands are associated with an east-west trending 'residual negative anomaly' superi...

A. B. Watts J. R. Cochran

1973-01-01

450

A Hypothesis for Urban Rainfall Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

METROMEX was the first major field program aimed at studying the reality and causes of urban rainfall anomalies suggested in several climatological studies. The results from the 1971-74 METROMEX data portray statistically significant increases in summer rainfall, heavy (>2.5 cm) rainstorms, thunderstorms and hail in and just east (downstorm) of St. Louis. Examination of the rainfall yield of individual showers

S. A. Changnon Jr.; R. G. Semonin; F. A. Huff

1976-01-01

451

Theory of Hyperfine Anomalies in Muonic Atoms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negative muon spin precession experiments by Yamazaki, et al. have found giant hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms ranging from a few percent up to 36%. In order to understand their results, we present Breit interaction calculations based on atomic self-c...

A. J. Freeman J. V. Mallow J. P. Desclaux M. Weinert

1983-01-01

452

Management of Infants with Roboin Anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital micrognathia and secondary glossoptosis, with or without cleft palate, constitute the Robin anomaly. Neonates with this condition are usually at great risk for life-threatening respiratory and feeding problems. The approach to the management of infants with this condition has included, in order of increasing complexity, positioning of the patient, surgical tongue- lip adhesion and tracheostomy. Because of dissatisfaction with

Michael B. Lewis; Hermine M. Pashayan

1980-01-01

453

Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

2008-01-01

454

Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy  

SciTech Connect

Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions.

Murad, P.A

2004-02-04

455

Vascular anomalies compressing the oesophagus and trachea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular rings formed by anomalies of major arteries can compress the trachea and oesophagus so much as to cause respiratory distress and dysphagia. Twenty-nine patients with this condition are reviewed and discussed in five groups. The symptoms and signs are noted. Radiological examination by barium swallow is the most useful diagnostic aid. Symptoms can only be relieved by operation. The

J. C. R. Lincoln; P. B. Deverall; J. Stark; E. Aberdeen; D. J. Waterston

1969-01-01

456

Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies in communication satellite operation have been caused by the unexpected triggering of digital circuits. Interactions with galactic cosmic rays were investigated as a mechanism for a number of these events. The mechanism assumed was the charging of the base-emitter capacitance of sensitive transistors to the turn-on voltage. The calculation of the cosmic ray event rate required the determination of

D. Binder; E. C. Smith; A. B. Holman

1975-01-01

457

Anomaly Detection Using Call Stack Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call stack of a program execution can be a very good information source for intrusion detection. There is no pri or work on dynamically extracting information from call stack and effectively using it to detect exploits. In this paper, w e propose a new method to do anomaly detection using call stack information. The basic idea is to extract

Henry Hanping Feng; Oleg M. Kolesnikov; Prahlad Fogla; Wenke Lee; Weibo Gong

2003-01-01

458

Leishmania immune adherence reaction in vertebrates.  

PubMed

In normal human blood, C3-opsonized Leishmania promastigotes immune adhere to erythrocytes, a mechanism believed to enhance their clearance from blood and phagocytosis. Given the potential importance of this reaction in host defence against infection, the promastigote-erythrocyte interaction was studied in blood of individuals from one avian and 12 mammalian genera; [111In]-labelled promastigotes were found to bind only to primate erythrocytes. Nevertheless, previous experiments coincubating platelets isolated from nonprimate mammals with C3-opsonized promastigotes led to promastigote-platelet adherence. To ascertain whether this is a natural mechanism in nonprimate Leishmania infection, normal blood from members of Leishmania animal models of interest, dog, guinea-pig, hamster, mouse and rabbit, was infected ex vivo with promastigotes. Within 1 min of blood contact, the promastigote surface was loaded with platelets, rapidly evolving into large aggregates. These results confirm the physiological nature of the reaction and demonstrate that promastigote-erythrocyte and promastigote-platelet binding are the first parasite-host cell encounters after Leishmania invasion of primates and nonprimate mammals, respectively. Leishmania immune adherence shares the characteristics of the nonanticipatory immune systems, and we consider it should be viewed as an innate vertebrate host effector mechanism. PMID:11309136

Domínguez, M; Toraño, A

2001-05-01

459

Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation  

PubMed Central

Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock’s collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock’s collective period depends on delayed coupling. We derive an expression for pattern wavelength across the PSM and show how this can be used to fit dynamic wildtype gene-expression patterns, revealing the quantitative values of parameters controlling spatial and temporal organization of the oscillators in the system. Our theory can be used to analyze experimental perturbations, thereby identifying roles of genes involved in segmentation.

Morelli, Luis G.; Ares, Saul; Herrgen, Leah; Schroter, Christian; Julicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

460

Blurring the Edges in Vertebrate Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Sex in vertebrates is determined by genetic- or environmentally-based signals. These signals initiate molecular cascades and cell-cell interactions within the gonad that lead to the adoption of the male or female fate. Previously, genetic- and environmentally-based mechanisms were thought to be distinct, but this idea is fading as a result of the unexpected discovery of coincident genetic and thermal influences within single species. Together with accumulating phylogenetic evidence of frequent transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, these findings suggest that genetic and environmental sex determination actually represent points on a continuum rather than discrete categories, and that populations may shift in one direction or the other in response to mutations or changing ecological conditions. Elucidation of the underlying molecular basis of sex determination in mice has yielded a bistable model of mutually antagonistic signaling pathways and feedback regulatory loops. This system would be highly responsive to changes in the upstream primary signal and may provide a basis for the rapid evolution of and transitions between different methods of sex determination.

Barske, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

461

Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate galectin family.  

PubMed

Galectins form a family of structurally related carbohydrate binding proteins (lectins) that have been identified in a large variety of metazoan phyla. They are involved in many biological processes such as morphogenesis, control of cell death, immunological response, and cancer. To elucidate the evolutionary history of galectins and galectin-like proteins in chordates, we have exploited three independent lines of evidence: (i) location of galectin encoding genes (LGALS) in the human genome; (ii) exon-intron organization of galectin encoding genes; and (iii) sequence comparison of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of chordate galectins. Our results suggest that a duplication of a mono-CRD galectin gene gave rise to an original bi-CRD galectin gene, before or early in chordate evolution. The N-terminal and C-terminal CRDs of this original galectin subsequently diverged into two different subtypes, defined by exon-intron structure (F4-CRD and F3-CRD). We show that all vertebrate mono-CRD galectins known to date belong to either the F3- or F4- subtype. A sequence of duplication and divergence events of the different galectins in chordates is proposed. PMID:14963092

Houzelstein, Denis; Gonçalves, Isabelle R; Fadden, Andrew J; Sidhu, Sukhvinder S; Cooper, Douglas N W; Drickamer, Kurt; Leffler, Hakon; Poirier, Françoise

2004-02-12

462

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.  

PubMed

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

2012-09-12

463

Hartshill spinal fixation in vertebral metastasis.  

PubMed

Spinal fusion by Hartshill rectangle frame was used in 10 patients with spinal cord compression secondary to vertebral metastasis in the thoracic and lumbar spine, occupying mainly the posterior elements. All patients presented with pain, bone collapse, and neurologic deficit. The procedure is built on a system of sublaminar wires passed under two to three lamina above and below the decompressed area and tightened to a prebent metal frame. This procedure was relatively simple, and the immediate stabilization achieved in our patients was good. All patients experienced immediate pain relief. While only two patients were able to walk before surgery, seven were able to do so at follow-up. During a follow-up period of at least 2 years in two patients, or until death in the other eight patients, one patient had a broken wire that did not affect the correction achieved at surgery. Partial loss of correction in the sagittal plane was found in two patients who had metastasis in the lumbar spine and in another patient who had metastasis in the ninth thoracic vertebra. PMID:10401900

Mirovsky, Y; Tamir, L; Pollak, L; Gur, R; Halperin, N; Schiffer, J

1999-06-01

464

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

465

NAVARES (NAVSTAR Anomaly Resolution Expert System): A Prototype Expert System for NAVSTAR Anomaly Resolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operational NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation must meet the challenge posed by on-orbit anomalies without the extensive contractor support. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the ability of expert systems t...

M. A. Rampino

1987-01-01

466

Dissecting aortic aneurysm involving an anomalous right subclavian artery and isolated left vertebral artery: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old hypertensive woman was admitted with severe interscapular back pain. A chest radiograph showed marked widening of the mediastinum. Aortography demonstrated a DeBakey type III, a thoracic aortic dissection and an anomalous right subclavian artery which was associated with an isolated left vertebral artery. The patient underwent aortic arch replacement with 5 branches and made an uneventful recovery. As far as we can determine, this is the first reported occurrence of these anomalies together with acquired disease of the aorta. PMID:9972891

Nonami, Y; Tomosawa, N; Nishida, K; Nawata, S

1998-12-01

467

Lower Urinary Tract Anomalies of Urogenital Sinus and Female Genital Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital anomalies of the female genital tract result from müllerian duct anomalies and\\/or abnormalities of the urogenital\\u000a sinus or cloaca. Failure of fusion of the müllerian ducts results in a wide variety of fusion abnormalities of the uterus,\\u000a cervix, and vagina (Gruenwald 1941). Müllerian duct abnormalities may occur alone or in association with urogenital sinus or cloacal malformations. Persistence\\u000a of

Theresa E. Geley; Ingmar Gassner

468

An Anomaly-Free Version of Weinbergs Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The difficulties of carrying the renormalization program in a theory containing Adler anomalies are discussed. Some models of weak and electromagnetic interactions, involving both lepton and quark fields, in which the troublesome anomalies cancel are pres...

C. Bouchiat J. Tliopoulos P. Meyer

1972-01-01

469

Comparative Evaluation of Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Maritime Video Surveillance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of anomaly detection algorithms have been applied to surveillance tasks for detecting threats with some success. However, it is not clear which anomaly detection algorithms should be used for domains such as ground-based maritime video surveilla...

B. Auslander D. W. Aha K. M. Gupta

2011-01-01

470

Terrestrial Vertebrate Monitoring, Channel Islands National Park, 1993 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrestrial vertebrate monitoring was begun at Channel Islands National Park during the spring of 1993. Previously developed monitoring protocols for island fox, island deer mice, pacific slender salamanders, and several species of lizard were implemented...

C. A. Schwemm

1995-01-01

471

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from