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1

VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia or imperforate anus, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal and limb defect) spectrum presenting with portal hypertension: a case report  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction We report for the first time a unique case of VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia or imperforate anus, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal and limb defect) spectrum associated with portal hypertension...

Bhurtel, Dilli RAJ; Losa, Ignatius

2010-05-05

2

Genetics Home Reference: VACTERL association  

MedlinePLUS

... many body systems. VACTERL stands for vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, ... association have narrowing or blockage of the anus (anal atresia). Anal atresia may be accompanied by abnormalities ...

3

A case of VACTERL and non-VACTERL association without the “V and L”  

PubMed Central

VACTERL is a cluster of congenital malformations based on the non-random association of various congenital malformations in a single patient. Here “V” denotes vertebral defects or vascular anomalies (single umbilical artery), “A” anal atresia, “C” cardiac abnormalities, “TE” tracheoesophageal fistula, “R"renal (kidney) abnormalities and “L” for limb anomalies) It is called an association, rather than a syndrome because the complications are not pathogenetically related, tend to occur more frequently than expected and are thought to be linked to embryonic mesodermal defects. Studies have reported the coexistence of various other congenital malformations such as respiratory, cerebral anomalies, which are frequently referred as non-VACTERL-type of associations. Diagnosis of VACTERL association is done only when at least three of the above mentioned congenital malformations are identified in a patient. Although 80% of these cases have vertebral defects, our case is unique as patient does not have one of the commonest occuring association i.e., vertebral anomalies, but has all other associations and an additional non VACTERL brain anomaly, hitherto unreported in the literature. The other highlight of this case is although reports say that VACTERL babies with ipsilateral renal disorder have the same side limb defects, our case has a renal anomaly with no limb anomaly. Finally VACTERL and non VACTERL association was considered in our patient in view of ventricular septal defect, tracheo esophageal fistula, anal atresia, renal anomaly, seizure disorder and global developmental delay due to pontocerebellar hypoplasia. PMID:24591785

Padma, S; Sundaram, P Shanmuga; Sonik, Bhavya

2014-01-01

4

Posterior Vertebral Column Resection for VATER/VACTERL Associated Spinal Deformity: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The VATER/VACTERL association is a syndrome notable for congenital vertebral malformations, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and renal or limb malformations. Vertebral malformations may include the entire spectrum of congenital spinal deformities, including kyphosis, as was seen in this case. A 14-year-old girl presented to our institution with severe rigid sagittal deformity in the thoracolumbar spine that had recurred following three prior spinal fusion surgeries: the first posterior only, the second anterior and posterior, and the third a posterior only proximal extension. These surgeries were performed to control progressive kyphosis from a complex failure of segmentation that resulted in a 66° kyphosis from T11 to L3 by the time she was 9 years old. Our evaluation revealed solid arthrodesis from the most recent procedures with resultant sagittal imbalance, and surgical options to restore balance included anterior and posterior revision spinal fusion with osteotomies, multiple posterior extension osteotomies with circumferential spine fusion, and posterior vertebral column resection with circumferential spine fusion. She was advised that multiple posterior extension osteotomies would likely be insufficient to restore sagittal balance in the setting of solid arthrodesis from anterior and posterior surgery, and that the posterior-only vertebral column resection would provide results equivalent to revision anterior and posterior surgery, without the morbidity of the anterior approach. She successfully underwent posterior vertebrectomy and circumferential spinal fusion with instrumentation and is doing well 2 years postoperatively. Severe rigid sagittal deformity can be effectively managed with a posterior-only surgical approach, vertebrectomy, and circumferential spinal fusion with instrumentation. PMID:18751773

Cunningham, Matthew E.; Charles, Gina

2006-01-01

5

Esophageal atresia in newborns: a wide spectrum from the isolated forms to a full VACTERL phenotype?  

PubMed Central

Background VATER association was first described in 1972 by Quan and Smith as an acronym which identifies a non-random co-occurrence of Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Tracheoesophageal fistula and/or Esophageal atresia, Radial dysplasia. It is even possible to find out Cardiovascular, Renal and Limb anomalies and the acronym VACTERL was adopted, also, embodying Vascular, as single umbilical artery, and external genitalia anomalies. Methods Data on patients with esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between January 2003 and January 2013 were evaluated for the contingent occurrence of typical VACTERL anomalies (VACTERL-type) and non tipical VACTERL anomalies (non-VACTERL-type). The inclusion criterion was the presence of EA with or without TEF plus two or more of the following additional malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiovascular defects, renal anomalies and lower limb deformities, like radial dysplasia. Results Among 52 patients with EA/TEF, 20 (38,4%) had isolated EA and 7 (21,8%) had a recognized etiology such a syndrome and therefore were excluded. Among 32 infants with EA and associated malformations, 15 (46,8%) had VACTERL association. The most common anomalies were congenital heart defects (73,3%), followed by vertebral anomalies (66,6%). Many patients also had additional non-VACTERL-type defects. Single umbilical artery was the most common one followed by nervous system abnormalities and anomalies of toes. Between the groups of infants with VACTERL type and non-VACTERL-type anomalies, there are several overlapping data regarding both the tipically described spectrum and the most frequently reported non-VACTERL-type malformations. Thus, it is possible to differentiate infants with a full phenotype (VACTERL full phenotype) and patients that do not meet all the criteria mentioned above, but with some homologies with the first group (VACTERL partial phenotype). Conclusion The high frequency of non-VACTERL-type anomalies encountered in full and partial phenotype patients would suggest the need for an extension of the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of VACTERL association and also for pre- and post-operative management and follow-up in the short and long term. PMID:23842449

2013-01-01

6

VACTERL/VATER Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL/VATER association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. In addition to these core component features, patients may also have other congenital anomalies. Although diagnostic criteria vary, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 40,000 live-born infants. The condition is ascertained clinically by the presence of the above-mentioned malformations; importantly, there should be no clinical or laboratory-based evidence for the presence of one of the many similar conditions, as the differential diagnosis is relatively large. This differential diagnosis includes (but is not limited to) Baller-Gerold syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Currarino syndrome, deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Feingold syndrome, Fryns syndrome, MURCS association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, and VACTERL with hydrocephalus. Though there are hints regarding causation, the aetiology has been identified only in a small fraction of patients to date, likely due to factors such as a high degree of clinical and causal heterogeneity, the largely sporadic nature of the disorder, and the presence of many similar conditions. New genetic research methods offer promise that the causes of VACTERL association will be better defined in the relatively near future. Antenatal diagnosis can be challenging, as certain component features can be difficult to ascertain prior to birth. The management of patients with VACTERL/VATER association typically centers around surgical correction of the specific congenital anomalies (typically anal atresia, certain types of cardiac malformations, and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula) in the immediate postnatal period, followed by long-term medical management of sequelae of the congenital malformations. If optimal surgical correction is achievable, the prognosis can be relatively positive, though some patients will continue to be affected by their congenital malformations throughout life. Importantly, patients with VACTERL association do not tend to have neurocognitive impairment. PMID:21846383

2011-01-01

7

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is vital for the patterning and organogenesis of almost every system. The specificity of these developmental processes is achieved through a tight spatio-temporal regulation of Hh signaling. Mice with defective Hh signal exhibit a wide spectrum of anomalies, including Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Renal dysplasia, and Limb defects, that resemble strikingly the phenotypes observed in VACTERL association in humans. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of mammalian Hh signaling and highlight the relevance of various mouse models for studying the etiology and pathogenesis of VACTERL association. In addition, recent advances in genetic study for unraveling the complexity of genetic inheritance of VACTERL and the implication of the Sonic hedgehog pathway in disease pathogenesis are also discussed. PMID:23653575

Ngan, E.S.-W.; Kim, K.-H.; Hui, C.-c.

2013-01-01

8

VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects. PMID:23653573

Brosens, E.; Eussen, H.; van Bever, Y.; van der Helm, R.M.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Zaveri, H.P.; Wijnen, R.; Scott, D.A.; Tibboel, D.; de Klein, A.

2013-01-01

9

Chronic kidney disease in the VACTERL association: clinical course and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 60% of VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula with atresia, renal\\u000a defects\\/radial limb dysplasia) patients have renal anomalies that can be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). With\\u000a improved medical care, a large proportion of these patients survive into adulthood. Longitudinal follow-up data regarding\\u000a the management of kidney disease in these children is lacking. Twelve VACTERL

Sun-Young Ahn; Stanley Mendoza; George Kaplan; Vivian Reznik

2009-01-01

10

Mutation Screening and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using a 180K Oligonucleotide Array in VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

In order to identify genetic causes of VACTERL association (V vertebral defects, A anorectal malformations, C cardiac defects, T tracheoesofageal fistula, E esophageal atresia, R renal anomalies, L limb deformities), we have collected DNA samples from 20 patients diagnosed with VACTERL or with a VACTERL-like phenotype as well as samples from 19 aborted fetal cases with VACTERL. To investigate the importance of gene dose alterations in the genetic etiology of VACTERL association we have performed a systematic analysis of this cohort using a 180K array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) platform. In addition, to further clarify the significance of PCSK5, HOXD13 and CHD7 genes in the VACTERL phenotype, mutation screening has been performed. We identified pathogenic gene dose imbalances in two fetal cases; a hemizygous deletion of the FANCB gene and a (9;18)(p24;q12) unbalanced translocation. In addition, one pathogenic mutation in CHD7 was detected, while no apparent disease-causing mutations were found in HOXD13 or PCSK5. Our study shows that although large gene dose alterations do not seem to be a common cause in VACTERL association, array-CGH is still important in clinical diagnostics to identify disease cause in individual cases. PMID:24416387

Winberg, Johanna; Gustavsson, Peter; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Sahlin, Ellika; Bradley, Frideborg; Nordenskjöld, Edvard; Svensson, Pär-Johan; Annerén, Göran; Iwarsson, Erik; Nordgren, Ann; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

2014-01-01

11

Long-term outcomes of adults with features of VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association involves the presence of specific congenital, multi-organ malformations that tend to co-occur. Clinical and research efforts typically center on pediatric patients, and there is a scarcity of information in the literature regarding VACTERL-related issues and outcomes in adulthood. We describe here 11 adults with features of VACTERL association ascertained through our research study on the condition. In our cohort of adult patients, approximately 25% of medically significant malformations that are component features of VACTERL association, including 40% of vertebral, 50% of cardiac, and 50% of renal anomalies, were not identified during childhood. Additionally, medical sequelae of many of the primary malformations identified in infancy or early childhood persist or are first reported in adulthood. These sequelae can involve challenging medical and surgical management in adulthood. As most adults with VACTERL association are not specifically followed for VACTERL-related issues, a more uniform diagnostic work-up and a low threshold for investigation of medical sequelae of the primary disorder may enhance the quality of clinical management in these patients. PMID:20888933

Raam, Manu S.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

12

Is Duane retraction syndrome part of the VACTERL association?  

PubMed Central

We report here a patient with type 1 Duane’s retraction syndrome and multiple congenital abnormalities as a result of the VACTERL association. The presented combination of Duane’s retraction syndrome and the VACTERL association has not been reported in the literature. The present case was instructive for reviewing the continuous spectrum of ocular anomalies that accompany the VACTERL association. PMID:23658476

Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Kavadarli, Isilay; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-01-01

13

Analysis of FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster in patients with VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association, a relatively common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000 – 35,000 births, is a non-random association of birth defects that includes vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-esophageal fistula (TE), renal anomalies (R) and limb malformations (L). Although the etiology is unknown in the majority of patients, there is evidence that it is causally heterogeneous. Several studies have shown evidence for inheritance in VACTERL, implying a role for genetic loci. Recently, patients with component features of VACTERL and a lethal developmental pulmonary disorder, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV), were found to harbor deletions or mutations affecting FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24. We investigated this gene through direct sequencing and high-density SNP microarray in 12 patients with VACTERL association but without ACD/MPV. Our mutational analysis of FOXF1 showed normal sequences and no genomic imbalances affecting the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24 in the studied patients. Possible explanations for these results include the etiologic and clinical heterogeneity of VACTERL association, the possibility that mutations affecting this gene may occur only in more severely affected individuals, and insufficient study sample size. PMID:21315191

Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Keaton, Amelia A.; Warren-Mora, Nicole; Raam, Manu S.; Kamat, Aparna; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

14

Clinical Geneticists’ Views of VACTERL/VATER Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association (sometimes termed “VATER association” depending on which component features are included) is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations, which tend to statistically co-occur in affected individuals: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities. Although the clinical criteria for VACTERL association may appear to be straightforward, there is wide variability in the way clinical geneticists define the disorder and the genetic testing strategy they use when confronted with an affected patient. In order to describe this variability and determine the most commonly used definitions and testing modalities, we present the results of survey responses by 121 clinical geneticists. We discuss the results of the survey responses, provide a literature review and commentary from a group of physicians who are currently involved in clinical and laboratory-based research on VACTERL association, and offer an algorithm for genetic testing in patients with this association. PMID:23165726

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Bear, Kelly A.; Kimonis, Virginia; de Klein, Annelies; Scott, Daryl A.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Tibboel, Dick; Reutter, Heiko; Giampietro, Philip F.

2012-01-01

15

Mutations in PTF1A are not a common cause for human VATER/VACTERL association or neural tube defects mirroring Danforth's short tail mouse.  

PubMed

Danforth's short tail (Sd) mutant mice exhibit defects of the neural tube and other abnormalities, which are similar to the human vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheosophageal fistula and/or esophageal atresia, renal and radial abnormalities, and limb defects (VATER/VACTERL) association, including defects of the hindgut. Sd has been shown to underlie ectopic gene expression of murine Ptf1a, which encodes pancreas?specific transcription factor 1A, due to the insertion of a retrotansposon in its 5' regulatory domain. In order to investigate the possible involvement of this gene in human VATER/VACTERL association and human neural tube defects (NTDs), a sequence analysis was performed. DNA samples from 103 patients with VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL?like association, all presenting with anorectal malformations, and 72 fetuses with NTDs, where termination of pregnancy had been performed, were included in the current study. The complete PTF1A coding region, splice sites and 1.5 kb of the 5' flanking promotor region was sequenced. However, no pathogenic alterations were detected. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that high penetrant mutations in these regions of PTF1A are involved in the development of human VATER/VACTERL association or NTDs, although rare mutations may be detectable in larger patient samples. PMID:25775927

Gurung, Nirmala; Grosse, Greta; Draaken, Markus; Hilger, Alina C; Nauman, Nuzhat; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Merz, Waltraut M; Reutter, Heiko; Ludwig, Michael

2015-07-01

16

Thoracocervical dorsal dermal sinus associated with multiple vertebral body anomalies.  

PubMed

Congenital dermal sinus is a type of closed spinal dysraphism. Cervical and thoracic regions are the rare sites for dorsal dermal sinuses. Dermal sinuses are frequently associated with dermoid or epidermoid tumor and osseous abnormalities such as bifid spinous process. The association of dorsal dermal sinuses with vertebral body anomalies is very rare. We present MR imaging features of a case of thoracocervical dorsal dermal sinus associated with multiple vertebral body anomalies. PMID:11792050

Aydin, K; Sencer, S; Minareci, O

2001-12-01

17

Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); and others

1996-01-02

18

Recessive mutations in CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Understanding the complex genetic makeup underlying congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is of primary importance to improve diagnosis, stratify risk for later-onset complications, and develop therapeutic strategies. Saisawat et al. used homozygosity mapping coupled with next-generation sequencing to identify recessive mutations in TRAP1 in families with isolated CAKUT and with VACTERL association. This study points to a novel player in kidney development, possibly affecting apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. PMID:24875543

Westland, Rik; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone

2014-06-01

19

VATER/VACTERL association: identification of seven new twin pairs, a systematic review of the literature, and a classical twin analysis  

PubMed Central

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. The identification of 14 twin pairs with an initial diagnosis of VATER/VACTERL association at our clinical centers led to the performance of a classical twin study. This involved a thorough evaluation of these 14 twin pairs and a further 55 twin pairs identified from a systematic review of the literature. The zygosity, concordance, and malformation status of all 69 twin pairs were evaluated. Twenty-four twin pairs fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in a comparison of the concordance rates between monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twin pairs. The pairwise concordance rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4–42%] for MZ and 18% (95% CI 5–48%) for DZ twin pairs (P = 0.53). The probandwise concordance rates were 27% (95% CI 11–52%) for MZ and 31% (95% CI 13–58%) for DZ twin pairs (P= 0.40). Although based on a limited number of twin pairs, the findings of the present study are consistent with the low number of familial cases reported to date, and suggest that the role of inherited genetic factors in the majority of VATER/VACTERL cases is limited. PMID:22895008

Bartels, Enrika; Schulz, Anna C.; Mora, Nicole W.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Marcelis, Carlo M.; Stressig, Rüdiger; Ritgen, Jochen; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Mattheisen, Manuel; Draaken, Markus; Hoffmann, Per; Hilger, Alina C.; Dworschak, Gabriel C.; Baudisch, Friederike; Ludwig, Michael; Bagci, Soyhan; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Bartmann, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M.; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Reutter, Heiko M.

2014-01-01

20

Vertebral Artery Anomaly and Injury in Spinal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?The purpose of this review is to further define the published literature with respect to vertebral artery (VA) anomaly and injury in patients with degenerative cervical spinal conditions. Objectives?In adult patients with cervical spine or degenerative cervical spine disorders receiving cervical spine surgery, what is the incidence of VA injury, and among resulting VA injuries, which treatments result in a successful outcome and what percent are successfully repaired? Materials and Methods?A systematic review of pertinent articles published up to April 2013. Studies involving traumatic onset, fracture, infection, deformity or congenital abnormality, instability, inflammatory spinal diseases, or neoplasms were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?From a total of 72 possible citations, the following met our inclusion criteria and formed the basis for this report. Incidence of VA injuries ranged from 0.20 to 1.96%. None of the studies reported using preoperative imaging to identify anomalous or tortuous VA. Primary repair and ligation were the most effective in treating VA injuries. Conclusion?The incidence of VA injuries in degenerative cervical spinal surgery might be as high as 1.96% and is likely underreported. Direct surgical repair is the most effective treatment option. The most important preventative technique for VA injuries is preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography angiographic imaging to detect VA anomalies. The overall strength of evidence for the conclusions is low. PMID:24715869

Molinari, Robert; Bessette, Matthew; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Molinari, Christine

2014-01-01

21

Double cystic duct in a child with VACTERL association: a case report.  

PubMed

Double cystic duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract not described in the pediatric literature. We report the first pediatric case born with VACTERL association found to have double cystic ducts during gallbladder surgery for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Description of the anatomic variability, cholangiography images, and pathologic findings along with review of the literature is included. PMID:19954104

Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Correa, Maria; Brunet, Hector

2009-01-01

22

Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with Full Spectrum of VACTERL in a New Born  

PubMed Central

Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Many associations of PBS with other malformations were previously reported, but only few cases of the association with VACTERL have been described. We report a rare case of a Moroccan new born with PBS and complete VACTERL association. The cause of this association is still unknown, but a common etiology is possible, especially when for the two syndromes, a defect in mesodermal differentiation, in early first trimester, has been suggested. PMID:24027688

Younous, Said; Zarrouki, Youssef; Boutbaoucht, Mustapha; Mouaffak, Youssef; El Idrissi, Kawtar Ennour; Aboussair, Nissrine; Saiad, Mohammed O

2012-01-01

23

Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods?A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results?Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion?We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

2014-10-01

24

Congenital Longitudinal Radial Deficiency in Infants: Spectrum of Isolated Cases to VACTERL Syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital longitudinal radial deficiency is a rare congenital anomaly and encompasses a spectrum ranging from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of radius. Furthermore known as radial club hand or radial dysplasia, there is variable degree of deficiency along the radial side of the limb. The authors report a case series of four cases; two cases of isolated radial club hand and two associated with other anomalies, including VACTERL syndrome. The rarity of the disease and the need to exclude other associated anomalies are emphasized. PMID:24404534

Khalid, Saifullah; Faizan, Mohd; Alam, Md Mahfooz; Hassan, Farogh; Zaheer, Samreen; Khalid, Mohd

2013-10-01

25

Congenital Longitudinal Radial Deficiency in Infants: Spectrum of Isolated Cases to VACTERL Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital longitudinal radial deficiency is a rare congenital anomaly and encompasses a spectrum ranging from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of radius. Furthermore known as radial club hand or radial dysplasia, there is variable degree of deficiency along the radial side of the limb. The authors report a case series of four cases; two cases of isolated radial club hand and two associated with other anomalies, including VACTERL syndrome. The rarity of the disease and the need to exclude other associated anomalies are emphasized. PMID:24404534

Khalid, Saifullah; Faizan, Mohd; Alam, Md Mahfooz; Hassan, Farogh; Zaheer, Samreen; Khalid, Mohd

2013-01-01

26

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.  

PubMed

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly. PMID:24479055

Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

2013-01-01

27

Oculoauriculovertebral Spectrum with Radial Anomaly in Child  

PubMed Central

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial–renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly. PMID:24479055

Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

2013-01-01

28

Sirenomelia: a new type, showing VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome and a review of literature.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia or "mermaid syndrome" is a rare congenital anomaly known since antiquity. This congenital anomaly is defined as a polymalformative syndrome that associates major muscle and skeleton abnormalities (unique lower limbs) with visceral abnormalities (unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis, anomalies of the abdominal vascularisation). This phenotype, typical of sirenomelia syndrome, may be more or less severe. The pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome are still debated and its etiology remains unknown. We report here a new type of sirenomelia that we observed in a fetus belonging to the collection of the Department of Anatomy of Reims, which led us to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject: this type has never been reported and cannot be classified according to the Stocker and Heifetz classification. Moreover, this case also presents a VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome. PMID:23526679

Lhuaire, Martin; Jestin, Agnès; Boulagnon, Camille; Loock, Mélanie; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Gaillard, Dominique; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

2013-03-01

29

A novel murine allele of Intraflagellar Transport Protein 172 causes a syndrome including VACTERL-like features with hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

The primary cilium is emerging as a crucial regulator of signaling pathways central to vertebrate development and human disease. We identified atrioventricular canal 1 (avc1), a mouse mutation that caused VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, or VACTERL-H. We showed that avc1 is a hypomorphic mutation of intraflagellar transport protein 172 (Ift172), required for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Phenotypically, avc1 caused VACTERL-H but not abnormalities in left-right (L-R) axis formation. Avc1 resulted in structural cilia defects, including truncated cilia in vivo and in vitro. We observed a dose-dependent requirement for Ift172 in ciliogenesis using an allelic series generated with Ift172(avc1) and Ift172(wim), an Ift172 null allele: cilia were present on 42% of avc1 mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and 28% of avc1/wim MEFs, in contrast to >90% of wild-type MEFs. Furthermore, quantitative cilium length analysis identified two specific cilium populations in mutant MEFS: a normal population with normal IFT and a truncated population, 50% of normal length, with disrupted IFT. Cells from wild-type embryos had predominantly full-length cilia, avc1 embryos, with Hh signaling abnormalities but not L-R abnormalities, had cilia equally divided between full-length and truncated, and avc1/wim embryos, with both Hh signaling and L-R abnormalities, were primarily truncated. Truncated Ift172 mutant cilia showed defects of the distal ciliary axoneme, including disrupted IFT88 localization and Hh-dependent Gli2 localization. We propose a model in which mutation of Ift172 results in a specific class of abnormal cilia, causing disrupted Hh signaling while maintaining L-R axis determination, and resulting in the VACTERL-H phenotype. PMID:21653639

Friedland-Little, Joshua M; Hoffmann, Andrew D; Ocbina, Polloneal Jymmiel R; Peterson, Mike A; Bosman, Joshua D; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Steven Y; Anderson, Kathryn V; Moskowitz, Ivan P

2011-10-01

30

VACTERL association with double-chambered left ventricle: A rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects of unknown etiology derived from structures of embryonic mesoderm. The common cardiac defects seen with VACTERL association are ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot. We present a 2-year-old child with VACTERL association in whom we detected double-chambered left ventricle on transthoracic echocardiography. PMID:24688248

Al-Farqani, Abdulla; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Maskari, Salim; Thomas, Eapen

2013-01-01

31

Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

32

Unilateral fixation for treatment of occipitocervical instability in children with congenital vertebral anomalies of the craniocervical junction.  

PubMed

OBJECT Patients with occipitocervical (OC) instability from congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) often have bony abnormalities that make instrumentation placement difficult. Within this patient population, some bilateral instrumentation constructs either fail or are not feasible, and a unilateral construct must be used. The authors describe the surgical management and outcomes of this disorder in patients in whom unilateral fixation constructs were used to treat OC instability. METHODS From a database of OC fusion procedures, the authors identified patients who underwent unilateral fixation for the management of OC instability. Patient characteristics, surgical details, and radiographic outcomes were reviewed. In each patient, CT scans were performed at least 4 months after surgery to evaluate for fusion. RESULTS Eight patients with CVAs of the CCJ underwent unilateral fixation for the treatment of OC instability. For 4 patients, the procedure occurred after a bilateral OC construct failed or infection forced hardware removal. For the remainder, it was the primary procedure. Two patients required reoperation for hardware revision and 1 developed nonunion requiring revision of the bone graft. Ultimately, 7 patients demonstrated osseous fusion on CT scans and 1 had a stable fibrous union. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate that a unilateral OC fixation is effective for the treatment of OC instability in children with CVAs of the CCJ in whom bilateral screw placement fails or is not feasible. PMID:25828503

Mazur, Marcus D; Ravindra, Vijay M; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

2015-04-01

33

Tracheal agenesis with broncho-esophageal fistula in VACTERL / TACRD association.  

PubMed

Tracheal agenesis (TA) is an extremely rare malformation. We report here autopsy findings in a case of TA with bronchoesophageal fistula of Floyd type III. The other malformations present included laryngeal atresia, Right lung hypolobulation, ventricular septal defect in membranous portion, bilateral cystic renal dysplasia, spleninculus, Meckel's diverticulum, and imperforate anus. The constellations of malformations present in our case have overlapping features with Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiovascular anomalies, Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies, Limb anomalies and Tracheal atresia or laryngo tracheal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Renal anomalies, Duodenal atresia association described previously in the literature. PMID:23901199

Mandrekar, Suresh R S; Amoncar, Sangeeta; Pinto, R G W

2013-01-01

34

Bilateral Radial Ulnar Synostosis and Vertebral Anomalies in a Child with a De Novo 16p13.3 Interstitial Deletion  

PubMed Central

We describe an 8-year-old boy with developmental delay, clinical bilateral radial ulnar synostosis, Klippel-Feil anomaly, and other vertebral deformities who was found to have a de novo deletion of 114.5kb at 16p13.3. The deletion contains five genes and three miRNAs. The genes are E4F1, DNASE1L2, ECI1, RNPS1, and ABCA3; miRNAs are MIR3677, MIR940, and MIR4717. The specific deletion has never been previously reported. We describe the phenotype of the boy and review the genes in the deleted region. None of the regulatory elements have any known linkage to skeletal formation and/or maintenance. We believe this deletion is causative given that it was de novo and that this patient cannot be easily explained as having any other specific recognizable pattern of human malformation. PMID:23936691

Tam, Allison; Lee, Kit Shan; Lee, Sansan; Burkhalter, William; Pascua, Lucio U.; Slavin, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

35

Analysis of Component Findings in 79 Patients Diagnosed with VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association is a relatively common condition, though the causes remain poorly understood. We present data on 79 patients diagnosed with VACTERL association, and perform statistical analysis on a selected subset of 60 patients with at least three component features, and who, after review, did not meet criteria for a likely alternate diagnosis. Considered individually, no two component features are significantly associated, but several multivariate statistical techniques suggest novel patterns of the co-occurrence of component features, and latent class cluster analysis demonstrates the presence of five major subgroups of patients. These findings have implications for both our understanding of VACTERL association and for the approach to research involving this condition. PMID:20683998

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Raam, Manu S.; Bous, Sophia M.; Keaton, Amelia A.; Vélez, Jorge I.; Cummings, Derek A.T.

2010-01-01

36

From VACTERL-H to heterotaxy: variable expressivity of ZIC3-related disorders.  

PubMed

The ZIC3 gene encodes a zinc finger protein which functions as a transcription factor in early stages of left-right body axis formation. Mutations in this X-linked gene cause a variety of clinical manifestations including heterotaxy, complex or isolated heart defect as well as other midline urogenital and hindgut malformations. We report a four generation family with X-linked heterotaxy associated with a deletion of the ZIC3 gene at Xq26.3. The index fetus of our proband showed classical features of heterotaxy while her maternal uncle and one brother had imperforate anus and her other brother had features suggestive of VACTERL-H without heterotaxy. A 1.4?Mb deletion in Xq26.3 including the ZIC3 gene was found in the fetus. Six females in the family were found to be asymptomatic carriers. Our report indicates that some of the cases with VACTERL-H syndrome may be caused by a mutation or deletion of the ZIC3 gene. PMID:21465648

Chung, Brian; Shaffer, Lisa G; Keating, Sarah; Johnson, Joan; Casey, Bret; Chitayat, David

2011-05-01

37

Whole-exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat-shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle's loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or VACTERL association with CAKUT. PMID:24152966

Saisawat, Pawaree; Kohl, Stefan; Hilger, Alina C; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yung Gee, Heon; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Tasic, Velibor; Pennimpede, Tracie; Natarajan, Sivakumar; Sperry, Ethan; Matassa, Danilo S; Staji?, Nataša; Bogdanovic, Radovan; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Wijers, Charlotte H W; Bartels, Enrika; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Ludwig, Michael; Nöthen, Markus M; Draaken, Markus; Brosens, Erwin; Heij, Hugo; Tibboel, Dick; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Solomon, Benjamin D; de Klein, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Esposito, Franca; Reutter, Heiko M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2014-06-01

38

Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and the Urinary Tract (CAKUT)  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the majority of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) with emphasis in Pediatric Pathology describing and illustrating lesions as varied as ureteral duplications, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, horseshoe kidney, posterior urethral valve and prune belly syndrome, obstructive renal dysplasia, nonmotile ciliopathies and several syndromes associated with renal malformations (Meckel–Joubert, short rib, Bardet–Biedl, asplenia/polysplenia, hereditary renal adysplasia, Zellweger, trisomies, VACTER-L, Potter, caudal dysplasia, and sirenomelia), as well as ADPK, and ARPK. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the congenital renal anomalies, but also to analyze the more recent therapeutic interventions that may modify the natural history of some of these severe conditions. PMID:25313840

2014-01-01

39

Associated noncardiac congenital anomalies among cases with congenital heart defects.  

PubMed

Cases with congenital heart defects (CHD) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CHD in a defined population. The anomalies associated with CHD were collected in all live births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 4005 cases with CHD born during this period (total prevalence of 115.5 per 10,000), 1055 (26.3%) had associated major anomalies. There were 354 (8.8%) cases with chromosomal abnormalities including 218 trisomies 21, and 99 (2.5%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VACTERL association. However, other recognized dysmorphic conditions were registered including Noonan syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and skeletal dysplasias. Six hundred and two (15.0%) of the cases had non syndromic, non chromosomal multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Anomalies in the urinary tract, the musculoskeletal, the digestive, and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 18.7% of the pregnancies. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in four infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of cases with CHD. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CHD. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CHD can be classified into a recognizable anomaly, syndrome or pattern in one out of nine cases with CHD. PMID:25497206

Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

2015-02-01

40

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Greg Shirah

2003-02-03

41

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

David Goodwin

42

Development and Congenital Anomalies of the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Understanding how the pancreas develops is essential to understand the pathogenesis of congenital pancreatic anomalies. Recent studies have shown the advantages of investigating the development of frogs, mice, and chickens for understanding early embryonic development of the pancreas and congenital anomalies, such as choledochal cysts, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, annular pancreas, and pancreas divisum. These anomalies arise from failure of complete rotation and fusion during embryogenesis. There are many theories in the etiology of congenital anomalies of the pancreas. We review pancreas development in humans and other vertebrates. In addition, we attempt to clarify how developmental failure is related to congenital pancreatic anomalies. PMID:22567291

Tadokoro, Hiroyuki; Takase, Masaru; Nobukawa, Bunsei

2011-01-01

43

Learning about Poland Anomaly  

MedlinePLUS

... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? What are the ... Anomaly Additional Resources for Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? Named after Sir Alfred Poland, Poland anomaly ( ...

44

Bangui Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

Taylor, Patrick T.

2004-01-01

45

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

46

Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and clinical features of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a registry-based study in Europe.  

PubMed

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a complex developmental disorder characterised mainly by anomalies of the ear, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aetiology is largely unknown, and the epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date, using data provided by the large network of congenital anomalies registries in Europe. The study population included infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum during the 1990-2009 period from 34 registries active in 16 European countries. Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340/355) live born, 0.8% (3/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly/anomalies associated with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye (24.3%) anomalies. There was a high rate (69.5%) of associated anomalies of other organs/systems. The most common were congenital heart defects present in 27.8% of patients. The prevalence of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, defined as microtia/ear anomalies and at least one major characteristic anomaly, was 3.8 per 100,000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder. PMID:24398798

Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Doray, Berenice; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Scarano, Gioacchino; Tucker, David

2014-08-01

47

Moon Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will investigate and try to explain various lunar anomalies. They will present hypotheses (both written and oral) and then debate the merits of each hypothesis, with no right or wrong answers. This activity is in Unit 2 of the teachers guide, Exploring the Moon, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

48

Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

49

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

50

Rotational vertebral artery syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

2008-01-01

51

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

52

Oesophageal atresia, tracheo?oesophageal fistula, and the VACTERL association: review of genetics and epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Oesophageal atresia and/or tracheo?oesophageal fistula are relatively common malformations occurring in approximately 1 in 3500 births. In around half of the cases (syndromic oesophageal atresia), there are associated anomalies, with cardiac malformations being the most common. In the remainder (non?syndromic cases), oesophageal atresia/tracheo?oesophageal fistula occur in isolation. Data from twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors do not play a major role, and yet there are well?defined instances of this malformation where genetic factors clearly are important. This is highlighted by the recent identification of no fewer than three separate genes with a role in the aetiology of oesophageal atresia: those for Feingold syndrome (N?MYC), anophthalmia?oesophageal?genital (AEG) syndrome (SOX2), and CHARGE syndrome (CHD7). Additional support for genetic factors in this malformation comes from chromosomal studies and mouse models. This paper reviews current knowledge of the genetics and epidemiology of the different oesophageal atresia/tracheo?oesophageal fistula syndromes and associations. PMID:16299066

Shaw?Smith, C

2006-01-01

53

Analysis of Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Congenital Vertebral Malformations  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective chart review of cases with congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) and controls with normal spine morphology. Objective To determine the relative contribution of maternal environmental factors (MEF) during pregnancy including maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, valproic acid, alcohol, smoking, hyperthermia, twin gestation, assisted reproductive technology, in-vitro fertilization and maternal clomiphene usage to CVM development. Summary of Background Data Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) represent defects in formation and segmentation of somites occurring with an estimated incidence of between 0.13–0.50 per 1000 live births. CVM may be associated with congenital scoliosis, Klippel-Feil syndrome, hemifacial microsomia and VACTERL syndromes, and represent significant morbidity due to pain and cosmetic disfigurement. Methods A multicenter retrospective chart review of 229 cases with CVM and 267 controls with normal spine morphology between the ages of 1–50 years was performed in order to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of MEF related to CVM among cases vs. controls. CVM due to an underlying syndrome associated with a known gene mutation or chromosome etiology were excluded. An imputation based analysis was performed in which subjects with no documentation of MEF history were treated as no maternal exposure.” Univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to calculate the OR. Results Of the 229 total cases, 104 cases had single or multiple CVM without additional congenital malformations (CM) (Group 1) and 125 cases had single or multiple CVM and additional CM (Group 2). Nineteen percent of total cases had an identified MEF. The OR (95% CI, P-value) for MEF history for Group 1 was 6.0 (2.4–15.1, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The OR for MEF history in Group 2 was 9.1 (95%CI, P-value) (3.8–21.6, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The results were confirmed in the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, and institution. Discussion These results support a hypothesis for an association between the above MEF during pregnancy and CVM and have implications for development of prevention strategies. Further prospective studies are needed to quantify association between CVM and specific MEF. PMID:23446706

Hesemann, Jennifer; Lauer, Emily; Ziska, Stephen; Noonan, Kenneth; Nemeth, Blaise; Scott-Schwoerer, Jessica; McCarty, Catherine; Rasmussen, Kristen; Goldberg, Jacob M.; Sund, Sarah; Eickhoff, Jens; Raggio, Cathleen L.; Giampietro, Philip F.

2014-01-01

54

Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.  

PubMed

Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. PMID:25124147

Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

2015-03-01

55

[Bites by terrestrial vertebrates].  

PubMed

Bites by terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles or mammals, represent a special risk in tropical regions. Envenomation is possible by a few lizards and many snakes. For mammals, tissular destructions due to the bite can be severe. Whatever is the offending animal, bites can further become infected by transmitted viruses or bacteria. PMID:10992781

Henry, F; Martalo, O; Claessens, N; Piérard, G E

2000-06-01

56

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY Spring 2013  

E-print Network

; ID Quiz 11 FEB Fish III 14 FEB Life on Land I 19 Feb Amphibians 18 FEB Life on Land II 21 FEB Review 26 Feb Amphibians 25 FEB EXAM 1, overview thru life on land 28 FEB Vertebrate Sounds 4 MARCH Amphibians I 5 Mar Amphibians; ID Quiz 7 MARCH Amphibians II 11 MARCH Turtles and Crocodiles 12 March Lizards

Chen, Kuang-Yu

57

Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis  

E-print Network

Mechanisms of Vertebrate Synaptogenesis Clarissa L. Waites,1 Ann Marie Craig,2 and Craig C. Garner1 system is a complex process that occurs over a protracted period of devel- opment. Recent work has begun of these molecules act at a distance, steering axons to their correct receptive fields and promoting neu- ronal

Alford, Simon

58

A Principled Anomalies as  

E-print Network

Events Anomaly Definition Main Theorem Application Conclusion Standard Methods Mahalanobis distance Mahalanobis Distance Mahalanobis distance generalizes the t-test normalizes distances according Anomalies as Rare Events Anomaly Definition Main Theorem Application Conclusion Mahalanobis Distance

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

59

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose

Olivier Pourquié

2008-01-01

60

Non-vertebrate melatonin.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been detected in bacteria, eukaryotic unicells, macroalgae, plants, fungi and various taxa of invertebrates. Although precise determinations are missing in many of these organisms and the roles of melatonin are still unknown, investigations in some species allow more detailed conclusions. Non-vertebrate melatonin is not necessarily circadian, and if so, not always peaking at night, although nocturnal maxima are frequently found. In the cases under study, the major biosynthetic pathway is identical with that of vertebrates. Mimicking of photoperiodic responses and concentration changes upon temperature decreases have been studied in more detail only in dinoflagellates. In plants, an involvement in photoperiodism seems conceivable but requires further support. No stimulation of flowering has been demonstrated to date. A participation in antioxidative protection might be possible in many aerobic non-vertebrates, although evidence for a contribution at physiological levels is mostly missing. Protection from stress by oxidotoxins or/and extensions of lifespan have been shown in very different organisms, such as the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium, the ciliate Paramecium, the rotifer Philodina and Drosophila. Melatonin can be taken up from the food, findings with possible implications in ecophysiology as well as for human nutrition and, with regard to high levels in medicinal plants, also in pharmacology. PMID:12662344

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard

2003-05-01

61

Chiral anomalies and differential geometry  

SciTech Connect

Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

Zumino, B.

1983-10-01

62

Thoracic vertebral hemangioma causing paraplegia in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are the most common tumours of the vertebral column. Generally, these tumours are asymptomatic but some patients complain of back pain and develop neurologic symptoms due to extraosseous extension. Vertebral hemangiomas can extend extradurally causing neurological impairment as a result of compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Vertebral hemangiomas may be multiple and detectable as a component of the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. Although this syndrome consists of deep venous thrombosis, lymphatic anomalies, cutaneous capillary malformations, and hypertrophy of soft tissue and bone on extremities, its clinical presentation may be very variable. We present a unique case of vertebral hemangioma causing spinal cord compression due to the extradural extension that also had deep venous thrombosis, hematuria, hypophyseal cyst and ventricle asymmetry, diagnosed as the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. PMID:24101274

Okutan, Ozerk; Yildirim, Timur; Isik, Serdar; Gokce, Berna; Saygili, Bar?s; Konakli, Ethem Bes

2013-01-01

63

Aging changes in vertebral morphometry.  

PubMed

We analyzed the vertebral morphometry of healthy premenopausal women and their changes with age and menopause in order to better define the reference population for the clinical and epidemiological evaluation of vertebral fractures. Vertebral morphometry has been performed on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films from 50 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal normal women, age range 39-74 years. Vertebral heights and the anterior height/posterior height ratio are significantly lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Vertebral anterior height decreases about 1.5 mm/year, whereas middle and posterior height decreases about 1.3 and 1.2/mm year, respectively. A statistically significant reduction of vertebral heights by around 1 mm/vertebra was observed in postmenopausal (n = 16) compared with premenopausal women (n = 20) of the same age (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that vertebral heights are lower with advancing age and menopause and that the vertebral heights difference in elderly people is not only the consequence of a cohort effect. The results also contribute to better defining the reference population to be chosen for evaluating vertebral deformation. PMID:8581874

Diacinti, D; Acca, M; D'Erasmo, E; Tomei, E; Mazzuoli, G F

1995-12-01

64

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Greg Shirah

2003-02-03

65

Lymphatic Anomalies Registry  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

2015-03-21

66

Preliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011)  

E-print Network

Lundstedt- Enkel and Jonas Malmsten 09.00 ­ 9.30 Anomalies of the reproductive system in the St. LawrencePreliminary program for Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011) 7 ­ 8 in context with other stressors: effects on wildlife reproduction and sustainability Val Beasley, Key note

67

Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with bilateral carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carotid and vertebral artery dissections from blunt cervical trauma are uncommon injuries that in recent years are becoming increasingly recognized as a result of angiographic screening protocols in trauma patients. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas are even less common events, but represent the most common intracranial vascular anomaly after head injury. The present report details the unique case of a

R. L. Yong; N. S. Heran

2005-01-01

68

Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.  

PubMed

Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction. PMID:23625763

Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

2013-07-01

69

Anomalies of nuclear criticality  

SciTech Connect

During the development of nuclear energy, a number of apparent anomalies have become evident in nuclear criticality. Some of these have appeared in the open literature and some have not. Yet, a naive extrapolation or application of existing data, without knowledge of the anomalies, could lead to potentially serious consequences. This report discusses several of these anomalies.

Clayton, E.D.

1979-06-01

70

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

71

Lifshitz scale anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

2015-02-01

72

Primary vertebral osteosarcoma: five cases.  

PubMed

Primary vertebral osteosarcoma is a rare type of osteosarcoma, differing from the appendicular forms by an incidence peak occurring at a higher age and a poorer prognosis, due to the difficulties of the surgical treatment. We present five cases of histologically proven primary vertebral osteosarcomas followed in our institution between 2004 and 2012. They allow to illustrate some essential radiologic features, useful to evoke this rare entity. PMID:23746785

Lefebvre, Guillaume; Renaud, Armelle; Rocourt, Nathalie; Cortet, Bernard; Ceugnart, Luc; Cotten, Anne

2013-10-01

73

Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

2013-08-01

74

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ?450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

2008-01-01

75

Age-related changes in vertebral height ratios and vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because no gold standard for the definition of vertebral fracture exists, there has been controversy about whether mild vertebral deformities are truly fractures or simply normal variation in vertebral size and shape. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of mild variations of vertebral height ratios to definite vertebral fractures. In 479 Japanese women (age 53.9±9.1 years)

T. Sone; T. Tomomitsu; M. Miyake; N. Takeda; M. Fukunaga

1997-01-01

76

Taussig-Bing Anomaly  

PubMed Central

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

Konstantinov, Igor E.

2009-01-01

77

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

78

Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

2013-01-01

79

Carotid and vertebral artery disease.  

PubMed

Extracranial carotid artery disease is commonly seen in patients presenting with stroke symptoms. It is also a frequent incidental finding in patients undergoing evaluation as part of a routine examination in the outpatient setting. Several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently available. Treatment strategies include medical and surgical management. Multiple randomized trials conducted over the past decade have laid a foundation for guidelines on the management of extracranial carotid disease. Evaluation and treatment of patients with vertebral artery stenosis is less understood. We review the evidence for the detection and treatment of patients with extracranial carotid artery and vertebral artery disease. PMID:23402465

Mokin, Maxim; Dumont, Travis M; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Levy, Elad I

2013-03-01

80

Ectodermal Patterning in Vertebrate Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular insights on how the ectodermal layer is patterned in vertebrates are reviewed. Studies on the induction of the central nervous system (CNS) by Spemann's Organizer led to the isolation of noggin and chordin. These secretory proteins function by binding to, and inhibiting, ventral BMPs, in particular BMP-4. Neural induction can be considered as the dorsalization of ectoderm, in

Yoshiki Sasai; Eddy M. De Robertis

1997-01-01

81

Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

2014-01-01

82

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997

Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

2014-05-01

83

Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

2014-12-01

84

Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies  

E-print Network

We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserve current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomalies coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy ion collisions.

Dam T. Son; Piotr Surowka

2009-07-13

85

Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies  

SciTech Connect

We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserved current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomaly coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy-ion collisions.

Son, Dam T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Surowka, Piotr [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2009-11-06

86

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

87

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-07-06

88

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

E-print Network

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts Roberto Brenes1 *, Matthew J. Gray2 ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla

Gray, Matthew

89

Coronary Artery Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... terms: CAA, anomalous coronary artery (ACA), sudden cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death A coronary artery anomaly (CAA) ... exercise Sudden cardiac death (also called sudden cardiac arrest) is the most dangerous symptom of a CAA. ...

90

Congenital vascular anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types\\u000a of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The\\u000a presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia,\\u000a ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of

Edwin C. Gravereaux; Louis L. Nguyen; Leslie D. Cunningham

2004-01-01

91

The Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

de Diego, Jose A

2008-01-01

92

The Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

Jose A. de Diego; Dario Nunez

2008-07-07

93

Clinical features of 149 patients with facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.  

PubMed

Facio-Auriculo-Vertebral (FAV) spectrum, also known as Goldenhar syndrome or first and second branchial arch syndrome, is a complex of mainly craniofacial and vertebral anomalies. Microtia is a principal malformation in this complex; it can be unilateral or bilateral. We performed an observational, retrospective, transverse descriptive clinical study, reviewing 149 records of patients with a diagnosis of microtia treated in the Genetics Department. There was no significant difference in the sex of the individuals involved. The mean age was 6.97 years, with a range of 1 to 52 years. We founded positive inbreeding in 14 patients and consanguinity in 1 case. There was a family history of microtia in 37 cases. The most frequent malformations, besides microtia, were facial, costo-vertebral, limb, cardiac, genital, eye and other defects. Patients had a high percentage of family history, which could suggest an autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance. PMID:23896491

Muñoz-Pedroza, Liliana A; Arenas-Sordo, María L

2013-01-01

94

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-10-01

95

Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.  

PubMed

Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

1999-01-01

96

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail. PMID:22623120

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

97

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

98

Histopathology of vascular anomalies.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies may be appropriately classified into two broad categories, vascular tumors and vascular malformations, which are distinguished by the presence of cellular proliferation in contrast to aberrations in morphogenesis, respectively. This system of classification is based upon histological features that may in large part be differentiating, but nevertheless, may show morphological overlap. Advances in immunophenotyping allow for more precise diagnoses as well as further delineation of cell origins. In the discussion, we present the clinical, histological, and, when applicable, the immunophenotypic presentation of vascular anomalies commonly seen in infancy and early childhood. PMID:23188681

Aboutalebi, Amir; Jessup, Chad J; North, Paula E; Mihm, Martin C

2012-12-01

99

Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3?years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

2012-01-01

100

Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates. PMID:23277534

Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

2012-01-01

101

Antler anomalies in tule elk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to Point Reyes, California (USA). These anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. The elk were judged deficient in copper. Low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.

Gogan, Peter J.P.; Jessup, David A.; Barrett, Reginald H.

1988-01-01

102

Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

103

Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.  

PubMed

The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods. PMID:23334417

Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

2013-02-14

104

VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATE PHYLOGENOMICS: RECONCILED TREES AND GENE DUPLICATIONS R.D.M. PAGE, J.A. COTTON Division-mail: r.page@bio.gla.ac.uk Ancient gene duplication events have left many traces in vertebrate genomes. Rec- onciled trees represent the differences between gene family trees and the species phylogeny those

Page, Roderic

105

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Minor Keith

106

Vertebral hemangioma presenting with intermittent claudication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a patient with vertebral hemangioma and unusual clinical presentation is reported, with an attempt to explain these unusual clinical complaints. Vertebral hemangioma is a common and often asymptomatic tumor. Neurologic symptoms may appear due to pressure on the neural tissue caused by extraosseous extension. The patient reported here presented with intermittent claudication. Conventional radiography CT, and MRI

M. Yazici; O. L. Iyigun; B. Gulman; C. Rakunt; O. Cizmeli

1996-01-01

107

[Complex therapy of patients with vertebral radiculopathies].  

PubMed

The author determined efficiency of application of no-steroid anti-inflammatory medication, Revmoxicam as well as phonophoresis with Khondrasil ointment in the complex therapy of patients with vertebral radiculopaties. The use of the proposed complex treatment enables the regression of neurological symptoms and allows improving considerably results of the treatment of patients with vertebral radiculopaties. PMID:20455450

Zhdanova, V M

2009-01-01

108

Caruncle abnormalities in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.  

PubMed

Goldenhar syndrome (GS) is a congenital disorder believed to be caused by the defective development of the first and second brachial arches and the first brachial clefts during the fourth through eighth weeks of embryologic development. It is characterized by epibulbar dermoids and/or lipodermoids, preauricular tags, pretragal fistulas, hemifacial microsomia, and vertebral anomalies. Other ocular and nonocular symptoms have also been described. To our knowledge there are only three previous reports of abnormal caruncles in GS. We have reviewed our experience with a consecutive series of seven GS patients with caruncular malformations. Caruncular abnormalities included dysplatic and/or bilobed caruncles (two cases), ectopic caruncles (three bilateral cases and one unilateral case), and ectopic plus dysplastic caruncles (one case). Our experience suggests that the incidence of caruncular malformations in GS anomalies is higher than previously reported. This may be clinically important in differentiating GS from other first- and second-arch syndromes. Additionally, linking abnormalities in the first and second months of gestation that cause the typical stigmata of GS with malformation of the caruncles, which normally develop in the third month of gestation, could provide clues to the pathogenesis of GS. PMID:12457402

Nijhawan, Navdeep; Morad, Yair; Seigel-Bartelt, Jacqueline; Levin, Alex V

2002-12-15

109

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

110

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Cindy Starr

2003-10-23

111

The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

Weems, R.E.

1992-01-01

112

Vertebral body innervation: Implications for pain.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures often cause intractable pain. To define the involvement of vertebral body innervation in pain, we collected specimens from male and female patients during percutaneous kyphoplasty, a procedure used for reconstruction of the vertebral body. Specimens were taken from 31 patients (9 men and 22 women) suffering high-intensity pain before surgery. In total, 1,876 histological preparations were obtained and analysed. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to locate the nerves in the specimens. The nerve fibres were labelled by indirect immunofluorescence with the primary antibody directed against Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a pan-neuronal marker; another primary antibody directed against type IV collagen (Col IV) was used to identify vessels and to determine their relationship with vertebral nerve fibres. The mean percentage of samples in which it was possible to identify nerve fibres was 35% in men and 29% in women. The percentages varied depending on the spinal level considered and the sex of the subject, nerve fibres being mostly present around vessels (95%). In conclusion, there is scarce innervation of the vertebral bodies, with a clear prevalence of fibres located around vessels. It seems unlikely that this pattern of vertebral body innervation is involved in vertebral pain or in pain relief following kyphoplasty. PMID:20020509

Buonocore, Michelangelo; Aloisi, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Massimo; Gatti, Anna Maria; Bonezzi, Cesare

2010-03-01

113

Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

2012-07-15

114

Physicochemical isotope anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

Esat, T.M. (Australian National Univ., Canberra)

1988-06-01

115

Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

116

Other non-vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Non-vertebral non-hip (NVNH) fractures account for 90% of all fractures in patients up to 80 years of age and for 59% thereafter. There is a significant relationship between reductions in peripheral bone mineral density and the risk of fractures at various NVNH sites except for the face. Fractures of the clavicle, upper arm, forearm, spine, ribs, hip, pelvis, upper leg and lower leg elevate the risk of future fractures. Among NVNH fractures in women aged 80 years or over, forearm fractures have the highest incidence, and proximal humerus fractures have the second highest incidence. There is a large variation in incidence across geographical regions, with incidence higher in Northern Europe and lower in Asia and Africa. NVNH fractures are associated with higher mortality and significantly higher health-care costs than controls with osteoporosis. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for women with major NVNH fractures are of a similar magnitude as reductions for women with incident hip fractures; however, forearm fractures do not significantly affect HRQOL. Therapeutic options for NVNH fractures differ by fracture location. The recent development of implants for internal fixation made it a more popular choice for treating distal radius and proximal humerus fractures; however, treatment decisions should take into account patient age, activity levels, co-morbidities and injury characteristics. The recent increase in the number of patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures is drastic, although they can generally be treated non-surgically with pain management and mobilisation. PMID:24836332

Hagino, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

117

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

118

Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

2014-01-01

119

Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

120

The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly  

PubMed Central

The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

1966-01-01

121

Lunar Orbit Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

Riofrio, L.

2012-12-01

122

Automated anomaly detection processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

2002-07-01

123

Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

2006-11-01

124

Painless vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis or discitis is a condition characterised by inflammation to the vertebral disc space and is often related to infection. It usually involves the discovertebral junction, and may extend to the epidural space, posterior vertebral elements and paraspinal tissues. This is an unusual case of a 68-year-old gentleman who presented to hospital confused and unwell with a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Clinical examination and routine investigations revealed no obvious source of infection. Despite thorough examination of his spine, no back pain or focal neurology were elicited, but with no obvious source of infection MRI of the spine was carried out which revealed a vertebral osteomyelitis with paravertebral abscess formation. PMID:23505083

Sohatee, Mark Andrew; Shields, David William

2013-01-01

125

RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development.  

PubMed

RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

2014-01-01

126

VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS Contents Amphibians Birds Fish, Characteristics Fish, Populations Fish, Productivity Fish, Systematics and Evolution Mammals Reptiles Amphibians W. Introduction The basic physiology of all amphibians makes these organisms dependent on sources of freshwater

Lowe, Winsor H.

127

[Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with epidural block].  

PubMed

Infectious complications after epidural anesthesia are infrequent and the most common are epidural and subdural abscess. We report one rare case of vertebral osteomyelitus associated with an epidural catheter and review the literature. PMID:11381807

Carrillo Esper, R; Cruz-Bautista, I

2001-01-01

128

Sleep and orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

Although a precise definition of "sleep" has yet to be established, sleep-like behaviors have been observed in all animals studied to date including mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of many physiological functions, including feeding, thermoregulation, cardiovascular control, as well as the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. To date, the knowledge on the functions of orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates is still limited, but the similarity of the structures of orexins and their receptors among vertebrates suggest that they have similar conserved physiological functions. This review describes our current knowledge on sleep in nonmammalian vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and the possible role of orexins in the regulation of their energy homeostasis and arousal states. PMID:22640621

Volkoff, Hélène

2012-01-01

129

Diagnosis and treatment of vertebral compression fractures.  

PubMed

A healthy spine is an integral part of an individual's overall well-being. The spinal column's essential role in physiological and neurological function can be compromised when disease or trauma causes a vertebra to compress under the body's weight, producing a vertebral compression fracture. This is a common ailment among adults older than 65 years of age, especially for those with low bone mass or osteoporosis. This article describes vertebral compression fractures, with a special emphasis on medical imaging. PMID:25739109

Dewar, Cherie

2015-01-01

130

Modular Evolution of PGC1? in Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a central regulator of mitochondrial\\u000a gene expression, acting in concert with nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and the PPARs. Its role as a “master regulator”\\u000a of oxidative capacity is clear in mammals, but its role in other vertebrates is ambiguous. In lower vertebrates, although\\u000a PGC-1? seems to play a role

Christophe M. R. LeMoineStephen; Stephen C. Lougheed; Christopher D. Moyes

2010-01-01

131

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

132

Cilia in vertebrate development and disease  

PubMed Central

Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. This ancient organelle has now emerged as a crucial component of certain signaling and sensory perception pathways in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction. PMID:22223675

Oh, Edwin C.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2012-01-01

133

Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas  

SciTech Connect

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

1985-02-01

134

Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review  

PubMed Central

There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

2014-01-01

135

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck  

PubMed Central

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

136

Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera. PMID:9621058

Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

1998-01-01

137

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.  

PubMed

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

138

Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction  

PubMed Central

Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

2012-01-01

139

System for closure of a physical anomaly  

DOEpatents

Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

2014-11-11

140

Genetics of lymphatic anomalies  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

2014-01-01

141

Modern test of chiral anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Chiral anomalies are calculated using an effective Lagrangian technique introduced for anomalies by Wess and Zumino and recently reformulated by Witten. Anomalous amplitudes for vector currents decaying into three pseudoscalars are tested by comparison with K/sub l4/ decay and eta ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma... 12 references.

Kramer, G.; Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.

1984-01-01

142

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to

Scott A Vander Wiel; Curtis B Storlie; Gary Sandine; Aric A Hagberg; Michael Fisk

2011-01-01

143

Magnetic Anomalies from Satellite Magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton magnetometer measurements were made from the USSR satellite Cosmos 49 during the period October 24 to November 3, 1964. A selected number of the 18,000 observations were fitted to a special field model; residual anomalies were less than 100 gammas and appear to be consistent with belts of broad anomalies that are known from surface and nearsurface magnetic measurements.

Isidore Zietz; Gordon E. Andreasen; Joseph C. Cain

1970-01-01

144

Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

Cohn, M J

2001-01-01

145

Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflexia, but motor and sensory examinations were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed basilar invagination and spinal cord compression at his craniovertebral junction. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an anomalous course of his bilateral vertebral arteries, both of which showed a persistent first intersegmental artery that entered the spinal canal at the caudal portion of the C1 posterior arch. In this case, the arteries were nearly pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of the C2. C1 laminectomy and occiput-cervical fusion (O-C2) was performed using an instrumentation system. After surgery, the syncope was not observed. Conclusions Syncope can be related to compression of extracranial arteries within the neck. In this case, transient brain ischemia caused by the anomalous course of vertebral arteries that were pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of C2 in cervical motion was the suspected cause of the syncope. PMID:25296768

2014-01-01

146

Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

Li, Yi

2006-03-01

147

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

148

Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi and is an important structural molecule [1, 2]. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin; however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

Tang, W Joyce; Fernandez, Javier G; Sohn, Joel J; Amemiya, Chris T

2015-03-30

149

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

150

Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.  

PubMed

Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

2013-01-01

151

Wnt Signaling in Vertebrate Axis Specification  

PubMed Central

The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development. PMID:22914799

Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y.

2013-01-01

152

Benign vertebral hemangioma: MR-histological correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.?\\u000a Objective:   To explain the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of benign vertebral hemangioma by correlating MR and histological findings\\u000a from autopsy specimens. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design:   Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in 83 spine specimens. Focal lesions consistent with vertebral\\u000a hemangioma at macroscopic examination of sagittal anatomical sections were sampled for histological and quantitative analysis.\\u000a At histology, the proportion of

Vincent Baudrez; Christine Galant; Bruno C. Vande Berg

2001-01-01

153

Kohn anomalies in graphene nanoribbons  

E-print Network

The quantum corrections to the energies of the ? point optical phonon modes (Kohn anomalies) in graphene nanoribbons (NRs) are investigated. We show theoretically that the longitudinal optical (LO) modes undergo a Kohn ...

Dresselhaus, Mildred

154

Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-03-31

155

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

1994-02-01

156

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Greg Shirah

2003-08-30

157

Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation. Methods We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure) and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses. Results The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36), advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08), diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88), cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76), dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33), blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95), hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47), and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22). Patients taking calcium/vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93), bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61), or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77) were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08), acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83), or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (AOR=6.14; 95% CI: 5.08–7.41) were more likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation. Conclusion We conclude that the incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation is rather high. An understanding of risk factors predicting repeat vertebral augmentation provides valuable basis to improve health care for geriatric populations.

Liang, Cheng-Loong; Wang, Hao-Kwan; Syu, Fei-Kai; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou

2015-01-01

158

Percutaneous ethanol embolization and cement augmentation of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas at two adjacent vertebral levels.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of successful percutaneous direct-puncture ethanol embolization, followed by vertebroplasty, of an aggressive vertebral hemangioma (VH) involving two adjacent thoracic vertebral levels. In this case, the 78-year-old male patient presented with a 6-month history of progressive paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a T8-T9 VH with an extensive epidural component. Follow-up demonstrated epidural component shrinkage with complete regression of symptoms at 3 months. This case suggests that exclusive percutaneous treatment may be considered for symptomatic VH even when two adjacent vertebral levels are affected. PMID:23419714

Cianfoni, Alessandro; Massari, Francesco; Dani, Genta; Lena, Jonathan R; Rumboldt, Zoran; Vandergrift, William A; Bonaldi, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

159

Triangle Anomalies, Thermodynamics, and Hydrodynamics  

E-print Network

We consider 3+1-dimensional fluids with U(1)^3 anomalies. We use Ward identities to constrain low-momentum Euclidean correlation functions and obtain differential equations that relate two and three-point functions. The solution to those equations yields, among other things, the chiral magnetic conductivity. We then compute zero-frequency functions in hydrodynamics and show that the consistency of the hydrodynamic theory also fixes the anomaly-induced conductivities.

Kristan Jensen

2012-04-11

160

Anomaly detection on cup anemometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of two rotor-damaged commercial anemometers (Vector Instruments A100 LK) were studied. The calibration results (i.e. the transfer function) were very linear, the aerodynamic behavior being more efficient than the one shown by both anemometers equipped with undamaged rotors. No detection of the anomaly (the rotors’ damage) was possible based on the calibration results. However, the Fourier analysis clearly revealed this anomaly.

Vega, Enrique; Pindado, Santiago; Martínez, Alejandro; Meseguer, Encarnación; García, Luis

2014-12-01

161

Holographic description of gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic duality can be extended to include quantum theories with the broken coordinate invariance leading to the appearance of the gravitational anomalies. On the gravity side one adds the gravitational Chern-Simons term to the bulk action which is gauge invariant only up to the boundary terms. We analyze in detail how the gravitational anomalies originate from the modified Einstein equations in the bulk. As a side observation, we find that the gravitational Chern-Simons functional has the interesting conformal properties. It is invariant under the conformal transformations. Moreover, its metric variation produces a conformal tensor which is a generalization of the Cotton tensor to dimension d+1 = 4k-1, kinZ. We calculate the modification of the holographic stress-energy tensor that is due to the Chern-Simons term and use the bulk Einstein equations to find its divergence and thus reproduce the gravitational anomaly. The explicit calculation of the anomaly is carried out in dimensions d = 2 and d = 6. The result of the holographic calculation is compared with that of the descent method and an agreement is found. The gravitational Chern-Simons term originates by the Kaluza-Klein mechanism from a one-loop modification of M-theory action. This modification is discussed in the context of the gravitational anomaly in the six-dimensional (2,0) theory. The agreement with the earlier conjectured anomaly is found.

Solodukhin, Sergey N.

2006-07-01

162

The development of the vertebrate inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

1998-01-01

163

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

164

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

E-print Network

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 considered fundamental, and it pervades all discussions of animal biology. With the recognition of incomplete taxonomic sampling. Evolutionary jumps, fossils and extinction A fundamental problem

Brierley, Andrew

165

Hematogenous candida vertebral osteomyelitis treated with ketoconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Candida vertebral osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a patient with systemic lupus erythematodes following X-ray evidence of osteomyelitis and the repeated culturing ofCandida albicans from material obtained by needle biopsies from the third lumbar vertebra. The patient had been on glucocorticosteroids and parenteral nutrition six months previously. At that time, a yeast was cultured from the blood and the tip

B. A. C. Dijkmans; P. J. van den Broek; J. W. M. van der Meer; M. I. Koolen; R. P. Mouton; T. H. M. Falke

1982-01-01

166

Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

2014-01-01

167

Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

168

REVIEW Ectodermal Patterning in Vertebrate Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular insights on how the ectodermal layer is patterned in vertebrates are reviewed. Studies on the induction of the central nervous system (CNS) by Spemann's Organizer led to the isolation of noggin and chordin. These secretory proteins function by binding to, and inhibiting, ventral BMPs, in particular BMP-4. Neural induction can be considered as the dorsalization of ectoderm, in

Yoshiki Sasai; Eddy M. De Robertis

169

Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins

Seongcheol Kim; Maira Carrillo; Vrinda Kulkarni; Pudur Jagadeeswaran; Bruce Riley

2009-01-01

170

Why can't vertebrates synthesize trehalose?  

PubMed

The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is a singular molecule, which has been strictly conserved throughout evolution in prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), lower eukaryotes, plants, and invertebrates, but is absent in vertebrates and-more specifically-in mammals. There are notable differences regarding the pivotal roles played by trehalose among distantly related organisms as well as in the specific metabolic pathways of trehalose biosynthesis and/or hydrolysis, and the regulatory mechanisms that control trehalose expression genes and enzymatic activities. The success of trehalose compared with that of other structurally related molecules is attributed to its exclusive set of physical properties, which account for its physiological roles and have also promoted important biotechnological applications. However, an intriguing question still remains: why are vertebrates in general, and mammals in particular, unable (or have lost the capacity) to synthesize trehalose? The search for annotated genomes of vertebrates reveals the absence of any functional trehalose synthase gene. Indeed, this is also true for the human genome, which contains, however, two genes encoding for isoforms of the hydrolytic activity (trehalase). Although we still lack a convincing answer, this striking difference might reflect the divergent evolutionary lineages followed by invertebrates and vertebrates. Alternatively, some clinical data point to trehalose as a toxic molecule when stored inside the human body. PMID:25230776

Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

2014-10-01

171

Reproductive modes and strategies in vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate reproductive modes, which are characterized by egg and development type, have been compared and, in some cases, re-defined. Reproductive strategies regulate reproductive effort. Reproductive modes and strategies have been selected in species history: more anciently and with more conservative characters the former; more recently and with some flexibility in response to environmental changes the latter.Semelparity is the expression of

Francesco Angelini; Gianfranco Ghiara

1984-01-01

172

Ancestral vertebrate complexity of the opioid system.  

PubMed

The evolution of the opioid peptides and nociceptin/orphanin as well as their receptors has been difficult to resolve due to variable evolutionary rates. By combining sequence comparisons with information on the chromosomal locations of the genes, we have deduced the following evolutionary scenario: The vertebrate predecessor had one opioid precursor gene and one receptor gene. The two genome doublings before the vertebrate radiation resulted in three peptide precursor genes whereupon a fourth copy arose by a local gene duplication. These four precursors diverged to become the prepropeptides for endorphin (POMC), enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin, respectively. The ancestral receptor gene was quadrupled in the genome doublings leading to delta, kappa, and mu and the nociceptin/orphanin receptor. This scenario is corroborated by new data presented here for coelacanth and spotted gar, representing two basal branches in the vertebrate tree. A third genome doubling in the ancestor of teleost fishes generated additional gene copies. These results show that the opioid system was quite complex already in the first vertebrates and that it has more components in teleost fishes than in mammals. From an evolutionary point of view, nociceptin and its receptor can be considered full-fledged members of the opioid system. PMID:25677769

Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina; Sundström, Görel

2015-01-01

173

MIOCENE AND PLIOCENE VERTEBRATES FROM ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the Miocene and Pliocene vertebrates of Arizona, spanning the time period from about 2 to 20 Ma. The best known Miocene faunas are Wellton and Anderson Mine from the late Arikareean or Hemingfordian North American land-mammal \\

GARY S. MORGAN; RICHARD S. WHITE

2005-01-01

174

HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

175

Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates.  

PubMed

Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs. PMID:22443133

Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L

2012-04-01

176

MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

Lemouel, J. L. (principal investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

1981-01-01

177

Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis  

E-print Network

Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis Gibert et al. Gibert et) #12;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate Background: The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), used for manufacturing polycarbonate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Stenosis of the cervical vertebral canal in a yearling ram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenosis of the cervical vertebral canal in a 10 1\\/2-month-old Suffolk ram is described. The vertebral canal was narrowed in a dorsoventral direction at the anterior and posterior ends of the cervical vertebral C3 and C4, at the posterior end of C2 and the anterior end of C5. The body of C3 was wedge-shaped in a longitudinal plane. The vertebral

AC Palmer; WR Kelly; PS Ryde

1981-01-01

179

Risk factors for vertebral fractures in renal osteodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the prevalence of vertebral fractures in hemodialysis (HD) patients, investigated whether low bone mineral density (BMD) is predictive of vertebral fracture, and evaluated the effect of serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on vertebral fracture. One hundred eighty-seven male HD patients were assessed for vertebral fractures, and lumbar-spine and total-body BMD were measured by

Kosei Atsumi; Kazuhiro Kushida; Kaoru Yamazaki; Satoshi Shimizu; Akihiro Ohmura; Tetsuo Inoue

1999-01-01

180

The variety of vertebrate mechanisms of sex determination.  

PubMed

The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

Trukhina, Antonina V; Lukina, Natalia A; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D; Smirnov, Alexander F

2013-01-01

181

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

182

The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

2013-01-01

183

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*  

E-print Network

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

Danchin, Etienne

184

Hemoglobin function in the vertebrates: An evolutionary model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Comparative data on quaternary structure, cooperativity, Bohr effect and regulation by organic phosphates are reviewed for vertebrate hemoglobins. A phylogeny of hemoglobin function in the vertebrates is deduced. It is proposed that from the monomeric hemoglobin of the common ancestor of vertebrates, a deoxy dimer, as seen in the lamprey, could have originated with a single amino acid substitution.

Michael L. Coates

1975-01-01

185

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

186

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

187

Review on possible gravitational anomalies  

E-print Network

This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

Xavier Amador

2008-09-03

188

Review on possible gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

Amador, Xavier E.

2005-01-01

189

Radiographic evaluation of vertebral fractures in osteoporotic patients.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures, are a serious clinical problem for elderly osteoporotic patients, have been increasingly recognized and are now common. On the assumption that it is difficult to diagnose osteoporotic vertebral fractures on plain radiographs, we studied 78 consecutive patients aged over 50 years with severe back pain with or without minor trauma. All patients had been admitted to our department and had undergone radiographic examinations including plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy. Surprisingly, 74 of the patients (94.9%) with severe back pain had vertebral fractures. Low intensity on T1-weighted MRI indicated that the severe back pain was a symptom of vertebral fracture. The patients were divided into two groups: those with total, and those with partial T1-weighted hypointensity of the vertebral body on MRI. Thirty-five of the vertebral fractures (47.3%) were not detectable on plain radiographs, and patients without trauma showed vertebral deformity more frequently than those with trauma. The patients were treated conservatively with bed rest until the severe back pain had subsided, after which they were evaluated clinically. The average period of bed rest was 22.3 days, which did not differ significantly in relation to the occurrence of trauma, the extent of the signal change in the vertebral body on MRI or the presence of vertebral deformity. Even without vertebral deformity or trauma, vertebral fractures required long periods of bed rest for pain relief and entailed serious clinical problems. PMID:17161286

Takahara, Kenji; Kamimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Shigeharu

2007-02-01

190

Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

Carroll, Robert Lynn

1997-04-01

191

Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons  

PubMed Central

The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks. PMID:14699587

Chandrasekhar, Anand

2007-01-01

192

Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

2014-01-01

193

The vertebrate genome annotation (Vega) database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was first made public in 2004 and has been designed to view manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences produced at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human annotated loci has more than doubled to close to 33000 and now contains comprehensive annotation on 20

L. G. Wilming; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Howe; S. Trevanion; Tim J. P. Hubbard; J. L. Harrow

2008-01-01

194

Vertebrate use of muskrat lodges and burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is reviewed and analysis made of references to more than 60 vertebrates that use lodges or bank burrows built\\u000a by the muskrat,Ondatra zibethicus L. Muskrat homes are important to turtles, waterfowl, terns, carnivores, rodents, and other species for shelter, nesting,\\u000a getting above the water, or seeking food. No use is obligate but the availability of muskrat homes may

Erik Kiviat

1978-01-01

195

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

196

The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2?paralogs, the 2? isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

2014-01-01

197

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 182n - 6 to produce 183n - 6 that is elongated to 203n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 183n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 225n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 225n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R

2010-09-28

198

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

199

Classroom Cladogram of Vertebrate/Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students prepare the components for building a Colossal Classroom Cladogram of vertebrate evolution, then put it together, showing the gradual, mosaic accumulation of the traits which humans possess. A major purpose of this is to dramatize the evidence that we (and in fact all living things) did not suddenly pop into existence, but clearly evolved as an accumulation of traits over vast periods of time. A follow-up discussion helps focus on these concepts.

Larry Flammer

200

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

PubMed Central

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

2014-01-01

201

Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma related to pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report a case of vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy in a 21-year-old woman presenting with paraparesis\\u000a of rapid onset. An emergency MRI scan of the dorsal spine showed a lesion of the ninth thoracic vertebra with extradural extension\\u000a and marked spinal cord compression. A cesarean section was done, and this was followed by emergent laminectomy. Her symptoms

Murvet Yuksel; K. Zafer Yuksel; Deniz Tuncel; Beyazit Zencirci; Sevgi Bakaris

2007-01-01

202

The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

2014-01-01

203

The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.  

PubMed

Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

2014-01-01

204

Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

Kim, Chul Han

2013-11-01

205

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

206

Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture  

PubMed Central

Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity >?4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ??21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age

Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2013-01-01

207

Monitoring smartphones for anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian OS in order to extract features that de- scribe the state of the device and can be used for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server, be- cause running a complex intrusion detection system (IDS) on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible,

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Sahin Albayrak

2008-01-01

208

Coral can have growth anomalies  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

209

Lunar rocks and thermal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent microwave and infrared spectral observations of several of the large bright-rayed craters on the moon suggest that the thermal anomalies in these craters are produced by large rocks, boulders, and exposed rock strata. The data for the crater Tycho can be simulated by a surface consisting of 16% loose rocks of I-meter size and 4% exposed rock strata. A

David Buhl

1971-01-01

210

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Up till the early 1970s, prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was primarily aimed at detecting chromosomal abnormalities by amniocentesis.1. Over the last two decades, prenatal diagnosis has greatly benefited from advances in ultrasound technology and in our ability to detect microscopic and submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities as well as single gene disorders, leading to substantive improvements in detection of such congenital anomalies.2 At present, invasive prenatal diagnosis continues to be the gold standard for pregnancies at increased risk for chromosomal anomaly or other genetic disease, with chorionic villus sampling being the procedure of choice for the first trimester,3 whereas mid-trimester amniocentesis continues to be the most common form of invasive procedure for prenatal diagnosis.4 Still, invasive techniques are restricted to subgroups at risk for anomalies, for whom such time-consuming procedures are believed to be cost-effective, also accounting for procedure-related abortive risks. In the low-risk population prenatal diagnosis generally consists of screening procedures by means of ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry. PMID:22368596

Todros, T; Capuzzo, E; Gaglioti, P

2001-01-01

211

Development anomalies of the occiput  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients with classical features of bathrocephalism are described. Three further patients with developmental anomalies of the occiput are described and these are contrasted with those having classical bathrocephalism. The distinction between the two groups is emphasised. Reference is made to cases described in the pediatric literature which appears at times to depart from the traditional norms and classical notation.

J. Wickenhauser; O. Hochberg

1974-01-01

212

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megías; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-01-01

213

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

214

Cervical and thoracic vertebral malformation ("weak neck") in Colombia lambs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe a developmental defect of the caudal cervical and cranial thoracic vertebrae in 11 purebred Colombia lambs. The lambs were either affected at birth, or developed the condition within the first 18 days of age. Cervicothoracic kyphosis, with a compensatory cervical lordosis and ataxia were common; 8 lambs had abnormal head posture, characterized by inability to lift the head from the ground. One lamb had rigid head and neck, and had to move the entire body to look to the left or right. Neurological signs included ataxia, tetraparesis, diminished conscious proprioception, and increased patellar and triceps reflexes. One lamb had inspiratory stridor because of compression of the trachea in the area overlying the abnormal vertebrae (cervical vertebrae 6 [C6] and 7 [C7]). Radiographic and pathological abnormalities included malalignment and malarticulation of the caudal cervical and cranial thoracic spine, rounded cranioventral margins in the bodies of vertebrae C7 and T1, wedging of the intervertebral disc spaces between C6 and T1 vertebrae, and hypoplasia of the dens. Pathological changes in the soft tissues included hypoplasia of the cervical epaxial and hypaxial musculature, with associated focal areas of myodegeneration. Mild Wallerian axonal degeneration, compatible with a mild cord compression syndrome, was found in 3 lambs in the cervicothoracic spinal cord adjacent to the vertebral anomalies. The concentrations of copper and selenium in blood, plasma, or tissues were normal in 10 of 11 lambs. All but one of the lambs in which pedigree information was provided were genetically related. Siblings born as twins to 5 of the affected lambs were normal, but both lambs from one twin pregnancy were affected. Owners reported that breeding stock had been shared among the ranches. Because of the close familial relationships of the affected lambs, the condition is suspected to have a hereditary basis. PMID:8558486

Lakritz, J; Barr, B C; George, L W; Wisner, E R; Glenn, J S; East, N E; Pool, R R

1995-01-01

215

Congenital anomalies of the male urethra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of congenital anomalies of the male urethra is presented. The embryologic basis of each anomaly, when known,\\u000a is discussed. Clinical and imaging features of each entity are presented.

Terry L. Levin; Bokyung Han; Brent P. Little

2007-01-01

216

Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?  

PubMed

Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications. PMID:24801264

Muto, M; Marcia, S; Guarnieri, G; Pereira, V

2014-04-13

217

Anomaly constraints on monopoles and dyons  

SciTech Connect

Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancellation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a by-product, we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the {theta} parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

Csaki, Csaba [Institute for High Energy Phenomenology Newman Laboratory of Elementary Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Shirman, Yuri [Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Terning, John [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

2010-06-15

218

Minor Physical Anomalies, Intelligence, and Cognitive Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Study Context: Minor physical anomalies are thought to be markers of development and increased frequency of such anomalies has been linked to lower levels of intelligence. Here the authors examine a finger curvature anomaly, and evaluate its potential as a marker of the causes of cognitive aging.Methods: Participants were members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC 1921). Intelligence was

David Hope; Timothy Bates; Alan J. Gow; John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary

2012-01-01

219

Anomaly Resolution in the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include post flight 2A status, groundrules, anomaly resolution, Early Communications Subsystem anomaly and resolution, Logistics and Maintenance plan, case for obscuration, case for electrical short, and manual fault isolation, and post mission analysis. Photographs from flight 2A.1 are used to illustrate anomalies.

Evans, William A.

2000-01-01

220

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC. PMID:24014975

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

221

Diagnosing network-wide traffic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies are unusual and significant changes in a network's traffic levels, which can often span multiple links. Diagnosing anomalies is critical for both network operators and end users. It is a difficult problem because one must extract and interpret anomalous patterns from large amounts of high-dimensional, noisy data.In this paper we propose a general method to diagnose anomalies. This method

Anukool Lakhina; Mark Crovella; Christophe Diot

2004-01-01

222

Safeguarding SCADA Systems with Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will show how the accuracy and security of SCADA systems can be improved by using anomaly detection to identify bad values caused by attacks and faults. The performance of invariant induction and n- gram anomaly-detectors will be compared and this paper will also outline plans for taking this work further by integrating the output from several anomaly- detecting

John Bigham; David Gamez; Ning Lu

2003-01-01

223

Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.  

PubMed

We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted. PMID:25381046

Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

2015-04-01

224

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

225

A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos  

PubMed Central

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

226

Vertebrate Endoderm Development and Organ Formation  

PubMed Central

The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms; including frog, fish, chick, and mouse; have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models. PMID:19575677

Zorn, Aaron M.; Wells, James M.

2010-01-01

227

The vertebral fracture cascade in osteoporosis: a review of aetiopathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once an initial vertebral fracture is sustained, the risk of subsequent vertebral fracture increases significantly. This phenomenon\\u000a has been termed the “vertebral fracture cascade”. Mechanisms underlying this fracture cascade are inadequately understood,\\u000a creating uncertainty in the clinical environment regarding prevention of further fractures. The cascade cannot be explained\\u000a by low bone mass alone, suggesting that factors independent of this parameter

A. M. Briggs; A. M. Greig; J. D. Wark

2007-01-01

228

The prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in Korea. In a community-based prospective epidemiology\\u000a study, 1,155 men and 1,529 women (mean age 59 years, range 43–74) were recruited from Ansung, a rural Korean community. Prevalent\\u000a vertebral fractures were identified on the lateral spinal radiographs at T11 to L4 using vertebral morphometry. Bone mineral\\u000a density (BMD) was measured at

Chan Soo Shin; Min Joo Kim; Sang Mi Shim; Jin Taek Kim; Sung Hoon Yu; Bo Kyung Koo; Hwa Young Cho; Hyung Jin Choi; Sun Wook Cho; Sang Wan Kim; Seong Yeon Kim; Seung-O Yang; Nam H. Cho

229

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

230

[Hemodynamic studies on the vertebral artery system during the vertebral arterial surgery].  

PubMed

Few hemodynamic studies on the vertebral artery system in the human can be seen. The authors measured the vertebral arterial blood flow (VAF) with an electromagnetic flow meter in 45 patients who obtained vertebral arterial surgeries. The patients showing vertebrobasilar insufficiency such as vertigo and drop attack had serious kinking and stenosis at the first portion of the vertebral artery. The effects of induced hypotension by trimethaphan camsilate, induced hypertension by phenylephrine, cervical epidural anesthesia and induced hypertension under epidural anesthesia on the VAF were investigated. During the control state, mean systemic arterial blood pressure (SABP), mean VAF were 97 mmHg and 54 ml/min, respectively. The effects of varied SPBP were analyzed by (delta mean VAF/mean VAF)/(delta mean SABP/mean SABP), (delta V/delta S). The delta mean VAF and delta mean SABP indicated varied mean values of VAF and SABP, respectively. Mean SABP was varied significantly by about 25% in each method. The delta V/delta S in induced hypotension, induced hypertension, epidural anesthesia and induced hypertension under epidural anesthesia were -0.05, 0.07, 0.90 and 0.61, respectively, on the average. Induced hypotension by epidural anesthesia and induced hypertension under epidural anesthesia presented significant changes in mean VAF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2206644

Okada, Y; Shima, T; Nishida, M; Yamada, T; Yamane, K; Fukui, T; Yoshida, A

1990-06-01

231

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

232

Monitoring Smartphones for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian operating system and Windows Mobile in order to extract\\u000a features for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server because running a complex intrusion detection system\\u000a on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible due to capability and hardware limitations. We give examples on

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Christian Scheel; Seyit Ahmet Çamtepe; Sahin Albayrak

2009-01-01

233

Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems  

E-print Network

The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

Choma, Michael A.

234

Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled.  

PubMed Central

Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so complicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms containing those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families containing both orthologous and paralogous copies. Vertebrate phylogeny is well understood from morphological and palaeontological data, but studies using mitochondrial sequence data have failed to reproduce this classical view. Reconciled tree analysis of a database of 118 vertebrate gene families supports a largely classical vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:12184825

Cotton, James A; Page, Roderic D M

2002-01-01

235

Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects  

SciTech Connect

The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

2006-01-01

236

Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

2011-01-01

237

Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

2003-01-01

238

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

2014-01-01

239

The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems.

Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

2014-01-01

240

What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?  

PubMed Central

Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

2014-01-01

241

Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

Olson, E. C.

1988-01-01

242

Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution. PMID:22537233

2012-01-01

243

Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade) of the spine (primary), which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement. PMID:24125988

Dar, Showkat Hussain; Wazir, Hardeep Singh; Dar, Ishrat Hussain; Singh, Jang Bahadur

2013-01-01

244

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

245

Incremental markings of enamel in ectothermal vertebrates.  

PubMed

The deposition of enamel is marked by the formation of growth lines, which reflect incremental growth. Although periodic markings have been observed in enamel of non-mammalian vertebrates, the cross-striation interval and the pattern of enamel deposition have not been formally investigated. Here a structural study was made of the enamel in four non-mammalian vertebrates, with emphasis on periodic markings. Teeth from Rana catesbeiana, Tropidurus torquatus, Caiman crocodilus and a Canadian carnosaur were analysed. Enamel of T. torquatus and R. castebeiana was aprismatic; that of C. crocodilus and the carnosaur was formed by large, prism-like structures. Conspicuous incremental lines were observed in the enamel of the three living species, which presented a cross-striation repeat smaller than the prism cross-striations of mammalian enamel. Incremental lines of carnosaur enamel had a mean repeat interval similar to that of mammalian prism cross-striations. As metabolic activity in ectotherms is influenced by environmental conditions, the analysis of incremental markings of enamel is a potentially valuable source of information in the study of living and fossil reptiles and amphibians. PMID:10739857

Line, S R

2000-05-01

246

Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?  

PubMed

Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology. PMID:20372942

Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

2010-11-01

247

Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

Lev, Dorman

248

Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of epithalamic laterality within the population. Between species, the laterality of asymmetry is variable and a clear evolutionary picture is missing. We propose that epithalamic structural asymmetries per se and not the laterality of these asymmetries are important for the behaviour of individuals within a species. A consistency of the laterality within a population may play a role in social behaviours between individuals of the species. PMID:11523830

L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

2001-01-01

249

Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

2009-01-01

250

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

251

Biomechanics of vertebral compression fractures and clinical application.  

PubMed

Local biomechanical factors in the etiology of vertebral compression fractures are reviewed. The vertebral body is particularly vulnerable to compression fracture when its bone mineral density (BMD) falls with age. However, the risk of fracture, and the type of fracture produced, does not depend simply on BMD. Equally important is the state of degeneration of the adjacent intervertebral discs, which largely determines how compressive forces are distributed over the vertebral body. Disc height also influences load-sharing between the vertebral body and neural arch, and hence by Wolff's Law can influence regional variations in trabecular density within the vertebral body. Vertebral deformity is not entirely attributable to trauma: it can result from the gradual accumulation of fatigue damage, and can progress by a quasi-continuous process of "creep". Cement injection techniques such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are valuable in the treatment of these fractures. Both techniques can stiffen a fractured vertebral body, and kyphoplasty may contribute towards restoring its height. The presence of cement can limit endplate deformation, and thereby partially reverse the adverse changes in load-sharing which follow vertebral fracture. Cement also reduces time-dependent "creep" deformation of damaged vertebrae. PMID:21805360

Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

2011-12-01

252

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms  

E-print Network

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms Bradley Cooke, Carol D the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role

Breedlove, Marc

253

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

254

DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN  

E-print Network

APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger Candidates for Focal Species Status Only species presumed to have established populations in the basin

Standiford, Richard B.

255

Evolution and differential expression of a vertebrate vitellogenin gene cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The multiplicity or loss of the vitellogenin (vtg) gene family in vertebrates has been argued to have broad implications for the mode of reproduction (placental or non-placental), cleavage pattern (meroblastic or holoblastic) and character of the egg (pelagic or benthic). Earlier proposals for the existence of three forms of vertebrate vtgs present conflicting models for their origin and subsequent

Roderick Nigel Finn; Jelena Kolarevic; Heidi Kongshaug; Frank Nilsen

2009-01-01

256

The risk and burden of vertebral fractures in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the risk and burden of vertebral fractures judged as those coming to clinical attention and as morphometric fractures. Incidence and utility loss were computed from data from Malmo, Sweden. Clinical fractures accounted for 23% of all vertebral deformities in women and for 42% in men. The average 10-year fracture probability for morphometric

J. A. Kanis; O. Johnell; A. Oden; F. Borgstrom; N. Zethraeus; C. De Laet; B. Jonsson

2004-01-01

257

Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2007-01-01

258

Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with

Adam Siepel; Gill Bejerano; Jakob S. Pedersen; Angie S. Hinrichs; Minmei Hou; Kate Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; John Spieth; LaDeana W. Hillier; Stephen Richards; George M. Weinstock; Richard K. Wilson; Richard A. Gibbs; W. James Kent; Webb Miller; David Haussler

2006-01-01

259

Extraretinal Photoreception and Circadian Systems in Nonmammalian Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmammalian vertebrates have been known to have photoreceptors in their pineal complex and deep brain as well as the retina. The extraretinal photoreceptors are believed to be essential for seasonal reproduction and regulation of circadian physiology. In this review, we discuss the relation between extraretinal photoreceptors and circadian systems in some species of nonmammalian vertebrates in terms of the pineal

Tomoko Yoshikawa; Tadashi Oishi

1998-01-01

260

Checklist and Centres of Vertebrate Diversity in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A checklist of vertebrates of Mozambique was elaborated by means of revision of monographic and web-based resources. During interviews of native speakers m ade in various parts of Mozambique, vernacular names of vertebrates in the 20 most important languages were assessed and included in the checklist as well as their common names in Portuguese and English. Additional information such

Michael F. Schneider; Victorino A. Buramuge; Luís Aliasse; Filipa Serfontein

261

Evaluation of adverse health outcomes associated with vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the frequency or degree to which vertebral fractures cause pain and physical disability. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the advantages of risk analysis over other statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis) for quantifying relationships between vertebral fractures and outcomes such as pain and disability. Subjects who volunteered to participate in studies of osteoporosis were

P. D. Ross; B. Ettinger; J. W. Davis; L. J. Melton III; R. D. Wasnich

1991-01-01

262

Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

1999-01-01

263

[A digital radiology method for assessing vertebral osteoporosis].  

PubMed

The radiologic identification of vertebral fractures is usually subjective and reproducibility is poor. This paper describes a new digital radiologic method to perform vertebral morphometry, i.e. osteoradiometry (ORM). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained in 50 premenopausal women and digitalized by means of a video camera. A special computer software enables to calculate the anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), and posterior (Hp) heights of vertebral bodies (T4-L5) and the morphometric indices of vertebral fractures. ORM reproducibility was assessed by comparing repeated measurements made by two radiologists: the intra- and interobserver variation coefficients (CV) were respectively 1.5% and 2.3% for Hp; 1.3% and 2% for Hm; 1.4% and 2.1% for Ha. The normal range for vertebral dimensions was therefore established. The anterior and posterior heights increased from T4 to L2, but for L3-L5 the posterior height was lower than the anterior height (Ha/Hp > 1). Vertebral heights positively correlated with the standing heights of the subjects (r = 0.2, p < 0.05). Weight and the body mass index (BMI) were not correlated with vertebral heights. These normal values, compared with those found in osteoporosis patients, will allow to assess ORM diagnostic efficacy in identifying vertebral fractures. PMID:8614716

Diacinti, D; Acca, M; Tomei, E

1996-01-01

264

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research

Sebastian Ocklenburg; Felix Ströckens; Onur Güntürkün

2011-01-01

265

L1 burst fracture with associated vertebral angioma.  

PubMed

Vertebral angioma is a common bone tumor. We report a case of L1 vertebral angioma revealed by type A3.2 traumatic pathological fracture of the same vertebra. Management comprised emergency percutaneous osteosynthesis and, after stabilization of the multiple trauma, arterial embolization and percutaneous kyphoplasty. PMID:23453277

Armaganian, G; Adetchessi, T; Pech-Gourg, G; Blondel, B; Dufour, H; Fuentes, S

2013-04-01

266

Acute spinal cord compression caused by vertebral hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextThe reported incidence of vertebral hemangioma within the spinal column is common. Most often these benign vascular tumors are incidental radiographic findings and do not cause neurological sequelae. Rarely, vertebral hemangiomas will cause compressive neurological symptoms, such as radiculopathy, myelopathy and paralysis. In these cases the clinical presentation is usually the subacute or delayed onset of progressive neurological symptoms.

Cary R. Templin; Jeffrey B. Stambough; Jeffery L. Stambough

2004-01-01

267

Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology  

SciTech Connect

With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references.

Patel, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Kinkhabwala, M.; Wengrover, S.I.

1988-01-01

268

The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (Vega) database  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Vertebrate,Genome,Annotation,(Vega) database (http:\\/\\/vega.sanger.ac.uk) was,first made,public in 2004 and,has,been,designed,to view,manual annotation of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences,produced,at the Wellcome,Trust Sanger Institute. Since its initial release, the number of human,annotated,loci has,more,than,doubled,to close,to 33000 and,now,contains,comprehensive annotation on 20 of the 24 human chromosomes, four whole,mouse,chromosomes,and,around,40% of the zebrafish Danio rerio genome. In addition, we,offer manual,annotation,of a number,of haplo- type,regions,in mouse,and,human,and,regions,of

J. L. Ashurst; C.-K. Chen; J. G. R. Gilbert; K. Jekosch; S. Keenan; Patrick Meidl; Stephen M. J. Searle; Jim Stalker; R. Storey; S. Trevanion; L. G. Wilming; Tim J. P. Hubbard

2005-01-01

269

The epigenome in early vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

Summary Epigenetic regulation defines the commitment and potential of cells, including the limitations in their competence to respond to inducing signals. This review discusses the developmental origins of chromatin state in Xenopus and other vertebrate species and provides an overview of its use in genome annotation. In most metazoans the embryonic genome is transcriptionally quiescent after fertilization. This involves nucleosome-dense chromatin, repressors and a temporal deficiency in the transcription machinery. Active histone modifications such as H3K4me3 appear in pluripotent blastula embryos, whereas repressive marks such as H3K27me3 show a major increase in enrichment during late blastula and gastrula stages. The H3K27me3 modification set by Polycomb restricts ectopic lineage-specific gene expression. Pluripotent chromatin in Xenopus embryos is relatively unconstrained, whereas the pluripotent cell lineage in mammalian embryos harbors a more enforced type of pluripotent chromatin. PMID:22139962

Bogdanovi?, Ozren; van Heeringen, Simon J.; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

2012-01-01

270

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wählby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

271

Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

Schweitzer, Mary Higby

2011-05-01

272

Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease.  

PubMed

Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. PMID:15657789

Vilela, P; Goulão, A

2005-03-01

273

Vertebrate thymus and the neurotrophin system.  

PubMed

An immunomodulary role has been proposed for growth factors included in the family of neurotrophins. This is supported by the presence of both neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in the immune organs and some immunocompetent cells, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the neurotrophins on the immune cells, and the structural changes of lymphoid organs in mice deficient in neurotrophins and their receptors. The current data strongly indicate that neurotrophins regulate the biology of thymic stromal cells and T cells, including survival, and are involved in the thymic organogenesis. This review compiles the available data about the occurrence and distribution of neurotrophins and their signaling receptors (Trk proteins and p75(NTR)) in the vertebrate thymus and the possible contribution of these molecules to the thymic microenvironment and, therefore, to the T cells differentiation. PMID:15380668

Vega, José A; García-Suárez, Olivia; Germanà, Antonino

2004-01-01

274

Anomaly detection for internet surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

2012-06-01

275

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

276

Congenital anomalies of the breast.  

PubMed

Poland syndrome is a combination of chest wall deformity and absent or hypoplastic pectoralis muscle and breast associated with shortening and brachysyndactyly of the upper limb. Clinical presentation varies widely; therefore, reconstructive procedures have to be adapted to the deformity, ranging from chest wall stabilization or augmentation, dynamic muscle transfer, nipple and areola repositioning, and breast augmentation using prosthesis or autologous tissue transfer. Other congenital breast anomalies include supernumerary nipple and areola (polythelia) and breast (polymastia), which can generally be found on the embryonic mammary ridge. Absence of the nipple, areola (athelia), or the breast tissue (amastia) is less frequent. PMID:24872738

Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Borsuk, Daniel

2013-02-01

277

Congenital Anomalies of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Poland syndrome is a combination of chest wall deformity and absent or hypoplastic pectoralis muscle and breast associated with shortening and brachysyndactyly of the upper limb. Clinical presentation varies widely; therefore, reconstructive procedures have to be adapted to the deformity, ranging from chest wall stabilization or augmentation, dynamic muscle transfer, nipple and areola repositioning, and breast augmentation using prosthesis or autologous tissue transfer. Other congenital breast anomalies include supernumerary nipple and areola (polythelia) and breast (polymastia), which can generally be found on the embryonic mammary ridge. Absence of the nipple, areola (athelia), or the breast tissue (amastia) is less frequent. PMID:24872738

Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Borsuk, Daniel

2013-01-01

278

Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

Weldon, Paul J.

2010-05-01

279

Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.  

PubMed

Abstract Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes. PMID:24533544

Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

2015-03-01

280

Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2009-09-15

281

Evolution of Primary Hemostasis in Early Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins are forerunners for coagulation proteases and are expressed by many extrapancreatic cells such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that trypsin or trypsin-like proteases from gill epithelial cells may protect these animals from gill bleeding following injuries. In this paper we identified the release of three different trypsins from fish gills into water under stress or injury, which have tenfold greater serine protease activity compared to bovine trypsin. We found that these trypsins activate the thrombocytes and protect the fish from gill bleeding. We found 27 protease-activated receptors (PARs) by analyzing zebrafish genome and classified them into five groups, based on tethering peptides, and two families, PAR1 and PAR2, based on homologies. We also found a canonical member of PAR2 family, PAR2-21A which is activated more readily by trypsin, and PAR2-21A tethering peptide stops gill bleeding just as trypsin. This finding provides evidence that trypsin cleaves a PAR2 member on thrombocyte surface. In conclusion, we believe that the gills are evolutionarily selected to produce trypsin to activate PAR2 on thrombocyte surface and protect the gills from bleeding. We also speculate that trypsin may also protect the fish from bleeding from other body injuries due to quick contact with the thrombocytes. Thus, this finding provides evidence for the role of trypsins in primary hemostasis in early vertebrates. PMID:20037653

Kim, Seongcheol; Carrillo, Maira; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

2009-01-01

282

Kinesin-2 family in vertebrate ciliogenesis.  

PubMed

The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors--heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin--in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation. PMID:22308397

Zhao, Chengtian; Omori, Yoshihiro; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kovach, Peter; Malicki, Jarema

2012-02-14

283

A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is "typical" (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an "atypical" appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots ("aggressive" VHs). These "atypical" and "aggressive" VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. PMID:25348558

Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare

2015-01-01

284

The gain and loss of genes during 600 million years of vertebrate  

E-print Network

-scale duplication events (whole genome duplications): > 1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates and fishes > 3R): >> 1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates and fishes1R/2R: common ancestor of land vertebrates

Gent, Universiteit

285

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

286

Congenital hand anomalies: etiology, classification, and treatment.  

PubMed

Congenital hand anomalies have a wide range of presentations and functional consequences. Understanding and treatment of these deformities require an understanding of embryology of upper-extremity development. In this report, common anomalies of the hand and upper extremity have been reviewed according to the International Federation for Societies for Surgery of the Hand classification system. We examine the epidemiology, etiology, functional consequences, and current treatments available for each anomaly. PMID:24406593

Gishen, Kriya; Askari, Morad

2014-01-01

287

The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

2005-01-01

288

Chiral and gravitational anomalies in any dimension  

SciTech Connect

Gravitational contributions to the chiral anomaly in 4N space-time dimensions as well as the purely gravitational anomaly in 4N-2 dimensions are expressed in terms of the Riemann--Christoffel tensor. Using this formula, we give a simple proof that if N > or = 4 there is no way to cancel the gravitational anomalies using fields of spin- 1/2 , - (3)/(2) , and -1.

Delbourgo, R.; Matsuki, T.

1985-06-01

289

Magnetic anomalies northeast of Shatsky Plateau  

E-print Network

MAGNETIC ANOMALIES NORTHEAST OF SHATSKY PLATEAU A Thesis by DAVID LAWRENCE RISCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject...: Oceanography MAGNETIC ANOMALIES NORTHEAST OF SHATSKY PLATEAU A Thesis by DAVID LAWRENCE RISCH Approved as to style and content by: C rman Committee Member Member Head of Department May 198Z ABSTRACT Magnetic Anomalies Northeast of Shatsky Plateau...

Risch, David Lawrence

1982-01-01

290

Anomaly Intrusion Detection Based on System Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract)Monitoring program behavior is one of the highlighted research topics of host-based anomaly detection recently. The key is to construct a program behavior-based anomaly detection model. Some existing anomaly detection techniques based on system call sequences are analyzed and discussed in this paper. They are compared from three dimensions: the information extracted from system call, the system call level used

LI Hongjiao; LI Jianhua; ZHU Hongwen

2007-01-01

291

The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits  

PubMed Central

Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

2014-01-01

292

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(2):220-228, June 1991 1991 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(2):220-228, June 1991 © 1991 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology CT SCANNING AND COMPUTERIZED RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THE INNER EAR OF MULTITUBERCULATE MAMMALS ZHEXI-lawo- rowska et aI., 1986; Hahn, 1988; Miao, 1988; LUD, 1989) all lacked quantitative measurements ofthe ves

293

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

458 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):458­461, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE BONE PROFILER: A TOOL TO QUANTIFY, MODEL, AND STATISTICALLY COMPARE BONE-SECTION COMPACTNESS microstructure is very complex, and few ob- jective, quantitative methods (other than very simple ones

Girondot, Marc

294

The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

Albert, G.

1979-01-01

295

Anomaly-free sets of fermions  

SciTech Connect

We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.

2005-10-01

296

Anomaly polynomial of general 6D SCFTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method to determine the anomaly polynomials of general 6D mathcal {N}={(2,0)} and mathcal {N}={(1,0)} superconformal field theories (SCFTs), in terms of the anomaly matching on their tensor branches. This method is almost purely field theoretical, and can be applied to all known 6D SCFTs. We demonstrate our method in many concrete examples, including mathcal {N}={(2,0)} theories of arbitrary type and the theories on M5 branes on asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) singularities, reproducing the N^3 behavior. We check the results against the anomaly polynomials computed M-theoretically via the anomaly inflow.

Ohmori, Kantaro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yonekura, Kazuya

2014-10-01

297

Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

Van Veen, John Edward

2012-01-01

298

A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution. PMID:23746908

Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

2013-08-01

299

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

300

USE OF CERVICAL VERTEBRAL DIMENSIONS FOR ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN GROWTH  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal maturation using cephalometric radiographs could be used in a Brazilian population. Material and Methods: The study population was selected from the files of the Oral Radiological Clinic of the Dental School of Piracicaba, Brazil and consisted of 128 girls and 110 boys (7.0 to 15.9 years old) who had cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs taken on the same day. Cervical vertebral bone age was evaluated using the method described by Mito and colleagues in 2002. Bone age was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW3) method and was used as a gold standard to determine the reliability of cervical vertebral bone age. An analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, bone age and chronological age at 5% significance level. Results: The analysis of the Brazilian female children data showed that there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age and between bone age and chronological age. However no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age. Differently, the analysis of the male children data revealed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age and between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (p<0.05). Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that the method for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs by determination of vertebral bone age can be applied to Brazilian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical vertebral bone age in males is needed. PMID:19089119

Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter, Francisco

2007-01-01

301

Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

Lychakov, Dmitri

302

The spinal curvature irregularity index independently identifies vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The spinal curvature irregularity index (SCII) is a quantitative measure of the irregularity of the spinal curvature. We evaluated\\u000a the predictive ability of SCII to identify subjects with vertebral fractures (VF).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Vertebral heights were measured by quantitative vertebral morphometry in 461 Lebanese women 20–89 years of age and VFs were\\u000a ascertained by the grade 1 Eastell method. SCII scores

G. Maalouf; N. M. Maalouf; N. Schaaf; R. M. Zebaze; A. Nehme; Z. Tannous; J. Wehbe; G. Adib; M.-H. Gannagé-Yared; E. Seeman

2007-01-01

303

Evolution of vertebrates as viewed from the crest.  

PubMed

The origin of vertebrates was accompanied by the advent of a novel cell type: the neural crest. Emerging from the central nervous system, these cells migrate to diverse locations and differentiate into numerous derivatives. By coupling morphological and gene regulatory information from vertebrates and other chordates, we describe how addition of the neural-crest-specification program may have enabled cells at the neural plate border to acquire multipotency and migratory ability. Analysis of the topology of the neural crest gene regulatory network can serve as a useful template for understanding vertebrate evolution, including elaboration of neural crest derivatives. PMID:25903629

Green, Stephen A; Simoes-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E

2015-04-23

304

Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds  

E-print Network

The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the gravity result is in perfect agreement with the corresponding quiver gauge theory. Our analysis reveals an interesting connection with the condensation of giant gravitons or dibaryon operators which effectively induces a rolling among Sasaki-Einstein vacua.

Sergio Benvenuti; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas; Yuji Tachikawa

2006-07-20

305

Calculation of lunar orbit anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the Moon, with thanks to NASA and Johnson Space Center, have quantified an anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution. This finding may have significance for cosmology and the speed of light. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from Apollo reports the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at a rate of 3.82 +/- .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. Findings Sedimentary data indicates a rate of only 2.9 +/- 0.6 cm/yr. From historical eclipse records we can accurately calculate a rate of 2.82 +/- .08 cm/yr. A detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE's laser light differs from independent experiments by up to 12sigma.

Riofrio, Louise

2012-04-01

306

Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

2010-02-19

307

Sensitivity of PCA for traffic anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting anomalous traffic is a crucial part of managing IP networks. In recent years, network-wide anomaly de- tection based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has emerged as a powerful method for detecting a wide vari- ety of anomalies. We show that tuning PCA to operate effectively in practice is difficult and requires more robust techniques than have been presented thus

Haakon Ringberg; Augustin Soule; Jennifer Rexford; Christophe Diot

2007-01-01

308

Endometriosis in association with müllerian anomalies.  

PubMed

There have been many theories proposed regarding etiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis. The theories of retrograde menstruation, celomic metaplasia, and müllerian remnants are among these. In order to find out whether a higher prevalence exists in patients with müllerian anomalies and to test these theories, we reviewed the case records of our reproductive endocrinology clinic set up between 1989 and 1994. The study group included patients with müllerian anomalies (n =186) whereas the control group consisted of patients without müllerian anomalies (n = 3,240). The frequency of endometriosis was 37 of 186 (19.8%) in the study group as compared with 619 of 3,240 (19.1%) in the controls (p > 0.05). In 1 patient without functioning endometrium endometriosis was demonstrated. Obstructive anomalies were associated more with endometriosis as compared with nonobstructive anomalies (p < 0.001). The nonobstructive anomalies did not present a higher prevalence as compared with controls (p > 0.05). These results show that endometriosis is not more frequent in patients with müllerian anomalies as a whole, but outflow obstruction is an important contributing factor. Evaluating patients with müllerian anomalies contributes proof in favor of the theories of retrograde menstruation and celomic metaplasia, but against a possible relation of a developmental defect of differentiation or migration of the müllerian duct system during embryogenesis. PMID:8586309

U?ur, M; Turan, C; Mungan, T; Ku?çu, E; Senöz, S; A?i?, H T; Gökmen, O

1995-01-01

309

Graph-Based Network Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network anomaly detection is a vital aspect of modern computer security. To this end, engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have installed sensors on the network to collect an enormous amount of data on usage. A key aspect of this type of data is that it can be described using graphs. To accomplish anomaly detection, first we use stochastic processes

Joshua Neil; Curtis Storlie; Alexander Brugh

2010-01-01

310

Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

2011-01-01

311

Mining anomalies using traffic feature distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing practicality of large-scale flow capture makes it possible to conceive of traffic analysis methods that detect and identify a large and diverse set of anomalies. However the challenge of effectively analyzing this massive data source for anomaly diagnosis is as yet unmet. We argue that the distributions of packet features (IP addresses and ports) observed in flow traces

Anukool Lakhina; Mark Crovella; Christophe Diot

2005-01-01

312

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

313

Trends in hemispheric warm and cold anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a spatial percentile approach, we explore the magnitude of temperature anomalies across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Linear trends in spatial percentile series are estimated for 1881-2013, the most recent 30 year period (1984-2013), and 1998-2013. All spatial percentiles in both hemispheres show increases from 1881 to 2013, but warming occurred unevenly via modification of cold anomalies, producing a reduction in spatial dispersion. In the most recent 30 year period, trends also were consistently positive, with warm anomalies having much larger warming rates than those of cold anomalies in both hemispheres. This recent trend has largely reversed the decrease in spatial dispersion that occurred during the twentieth century. While the period associated with the recent slowdown of global warming, 1998-2013, is too brief to estimate trends reliably, cooling was evident in NH warm and cold anomalies during January and February while other months in the NH continued to warm.

Robeson, Scott M.; Willmott, Cort J.; Jones, Phil D.

2014-12-01

314

An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies.  

PubMed

The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin. PMID:22403388

Wieczorek, Mark A; Weiss, Benjamin P; Stewart, Sarah T

2012-03-01

315

Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

2001-01-01

316

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

317

Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

Mclean, Dewey M.

1988-01-01

318

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.  

PubMed

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

2012-12-23

319

New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

2014-01-01

320

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

321

Paradoxical reaction of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: a case series.  

PubMed

Paradoxical reactions of tuberculosis (TB) in vertebral osteomyelitis are very rarely reported. We experienced four cases of severe paradoxical reactions in tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. Four cases of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis were confirmed by an acid-fast bacilli smear or culture. The patients were human immunodeficiency virus negative, and were all initially treated with isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Their symptoms improved with anti-TB drugs. However, after 2-12 weeks, their symptoms had recurred, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at the time of readmission revealed an aggravation of vertebral osteomyelitis. Operations were carried out to relieve severe pain or spinal cord decompression. Through continued anti-TB drug therapy, all patients recovered without sequelae. PMID:25692354

Im, Jae Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Lee, Jin Soo

2015-04-01

322

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

323

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

324

The impact of global change on terrestrial Vertebrates.  

PubMed

Examples of the impact of human activities on Vertebrate populations abound, with famous cases of extinction. This article reviews how and why Vertebrates are affected by the various components of global change. The effect of direct exploitation, while strong, is currently superseded by changes in use of all sorts, while climate change has started having significant effects on some Vertebrate populations. The low maximum growth rate of Vertebrate populations makes them particularly sensitive to global change, while they contribute relatively modestly to major ecosystem services. One may conclude that unless they are considered as sentinels of the biological consequences of global changes, their situation will go on strongly deteriorating, in particular under the influence of interactions of different components of global change such as changes in use and climate change. PMID:21640944

Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

2011-05-01

325

international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife  

E-print Network

The 1 st international workshop on Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP) What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife? December 7- 8

326

GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

327

A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate  

E-print Network

instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove: outcrossing; selfing; heterozygosity; mangrove killifish; Kryptolebias marmoratus 1. INTRODUCTION Three). The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus lives in and around red mangrove forests along the eastern

Avise, John

328

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

E-print Network

prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic

Vences, Miguel

329

VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

330

Recognition of Vertebral Fracture in a Clinical Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have important health consequences for older individuals, including disability and\\u000a increased mortality. Because these fractures can be prevented with appropriate medications, recognition and treatment of high-risk\\u000a patients is warranted. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a large, regional hospital in New England to examine the\\u000a frequency with which vertebral fractures are identified and treated by

S. H. Gehlbach; C. Bigelow; M. Heimisdottir; S. May; M. Walker; J. R. Kirkwood

2000-01-01

331

Silicon compatible with the height of human vertebral column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study on human vertebral composites, silicon was found to be related to the height of the vertebral column. The element\\u000a ratio of silicon to calcium in the lumbar vertebra was twice that of the lowest one in the cervical vertebra. The element\\u000a ratio gradually increased from approx 0.5 at the cervical vertebra to approx 1.0 at the lumbar

Masa-Oki Yamada; Yoshiyuki Tohno; Setsuko Tohno; Masako Utsumi; Yumi Moriwake; Gen Yamada

2003-01-01

332

Vertebral and carotid artery dissection following chiropractic cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-year-old woman presented a sudden left occipital headache and a posterior circulation stroke after cervical manipulation\\u000a for neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a left intracranial vertebral artery occlusive dissection associated\\u000a with an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection with vessel stenosis in its prepetrous tract. This is the first reported\\u000a case showing an associate vertebral and carotid artery dissection

Giuliano Parenti; Giovanni Orlandi; Mariacristina Bianchi; Maria Renna; Antonio Martini; Luigi Murri

1999-01-01

333

Brain Comparison of Animals from the Five Vertebrate Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students observe and record similarities and differences among brains of animals from different vertebrate classes. Students gain an understanding of the basic five-part structure of the vertebrate brain by noting the modifications that take place in the basic brain structure as animals become more complex, as well as changes that reflect structural adaptation. Students also learn to organize observational data into comprehensive summary charts.

1998-08-01

334

Human vertebral body apparent and hard tissue stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancellous bone apparent stiffness and strength are dependent upon material properties at the tissue level and trabecular architecture. Microstructurally accurate, large-scale finite element (LS-FE) models were used to predict the experimental apparent stiffness of human vertebral cancellous bone and to estimate the trabecular hard tissue stiffness. Twenty-eight LS-FE models of cylindrical human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (8mm in diameter, 9.5mm

Fu J. Hou; Susan M. Lang; Susan J. Hoshaw; David A. Reimann; David P. Fyhrie

1998-01-01

335

Aberrant right vertebral artery from descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

We present a case of an abnormal origin of right subclavian artery and right vertebral artery distal to the origin of left subclavian artery in a 2-year-old patient who presented with cyanotic congenital heart disease with single ventricle physiology. The anomalous origin of a right vertebral artery from the proximal descending thoracic aorta is very rare. We have described the cine-angiographic identification of its origin and course, its embryologic development, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23992705

Mukkannavar, Shivaprasad Babu; Kuthe, Sachin Anant; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-01

336

Thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extradural extension and spinal cord compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-year-old man presented with progressive numbness of lower extremities and unsteady gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of the dorsal spine demonstrated multiple hyperintense inactive vertebral hemangiomas on T-1 weighted images. There was an active hemangioma involving D7 vertebral body and neural arch with epidural extension and spinal cord compression. He underwent embolization of the main feeders of the lesion and

1998-01-01

337

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

338

A review of anatomical and mechanical factors affecting vertebral body integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

st tr ra ac ct t Background: The aetiology of osteoporotic vertebral fracture is multifactorial and may be conceptualised using a systems framework. Previous studies have established several correlates of vertebral fracture including reduced vertebral cross-sectional area, weakness in back extensor muscles, reduced bone mineral density, increasing age, worsening kyphosis and recent vertebral fracture. Alterations in these physical characteristics may

Alison M Greig; John D Wark; Nicola L Fazzalari; Kim L Bennell

339

Comparative structure analysis of vertebrate ribonuclease P RNA.  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease P cleaves 5'-precursor sequences from pre-tRNAs. All cellular RNase P holoenzymes contain homologous RNA elements; the eucaryal RNase P RNA, in contrast to the bacterial RNA, is catalytically inactive in the absence of the protein component(s). To understand the function of eucaryal RNase P RNA, knowledge of its structure is needed. Considerable effort has been devoted to comparative studies of the structure of this RNA from diverse organisms, including eucaryotes, primarily fungi, but also a limited set of vertebrates. The substantial differences in the sequences and structures of the vertebrate RNAs from those of other organisms have made it difficult to align the vertebrate sequences, thus limiting comparative studies. To expand our understanding of the structure of diverse RNase P RNAs, we have isolated by PCR and sequenced 13 partial RNase P RNA genes from 11 additional vertebrate taxa representing most extant major vertebrate lineages. Based on a recently proposed structure of the core elements of RNase P RNA, we aligned the sequences and propose a minimum consensus secondary structure for the vertebrate RNase P RNA. PMID:9649615

Pitulle, C; Garcia-Paris, M; Zamudio, K R; Pace, N R

1998-01-01

340

The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

2013-01-01

341

The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.  

PubMed

Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws. PMID:24132236

Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

2013-10-24

342

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

343

The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology  

PubMed Central

Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates. PMID:18562680

Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallböök, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

2008-01-01

344

Profiling ascidian promoters as the primordial type of vertebrate promoter  

PubMed Central

Background CpG islands are observed in mammals and other vertebrates, generally escape DNA methylation, and tend to occur in the promoters of widely expressed genes. Another class of promoter has lower G+C and CpG contents, and is thought to be involved in the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Non-vertebrate deuterostomes are reported to have a single class of promoter with high-frequency CpG dinucleotides, suggesting that this is the original type of promoter. However, the limited annotation of these genes has impeded the large-scale analysis of their promoters. Results To determine the origins of the two classes of vertebrate promoters, we chose Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate that is evolutionarily close to the vertebrates, and identified its transcription start sites genome-wide using a next-generation sequencer. We indeed observed a high CpG content around the transcription start sites, but their levels in the promoters and background sequences differed much less than in mammals. The CpG-rich stretches were also fairly restricted, so they appeared more similar to mammalian CpG-poor promoters. Conclusions From these data, we infer that CpG islands are not sufficiently ancient to be found in invertebrates. They probably appeared early in vertebrate evolution via some active mechanism and have since been maintained as part of vertebrate promoters. PMID:22369359

2011-01-01

345

Anorectal Malformations Associated with Esophageal Atresia in Neonates  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anorectal malformations are often associated with other anomalies, reporting frequency with 40-70%. Gastrointestinal anomalies have been known to be relatively less common than associated anomalies of other organ system. This study was performed to assess a distinctive feature of cases associated with esophageal atresia. Methods Clinical data (from January 2000 through December 2011) on the 196 subjects with anorectal malformations, managed in our Hospital, were reviewed. Total 14 neonates were identified with accompanying esophageal atresia and retrospective analysis was conducted. Results The incidence was 7.1% and there were 8 male and 6 female subjects. Only 2 cases were associated with esophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula. Although variable cases of anorectal malformation in female subjects, almost cases were anorectal malformations with rectourethral fistula in male. Other associated anomalies were identified in all cases, with more than 3 anomalies in 10 cases. There were 4 VACTERL (Vertebral abnormalities, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal and Limb anomalies) associations accounting for 28.6%, but could not identify chromosomal anomaly. Most cases were managed with staged procedure, usually primary repair of esophageal atresia and diverting colostomy. Overall mortality rate was 21.4%, mainly caused by heart problems. Conclusion This study shows that early diagnosis and rational surgical approach with multidisciplinary plan are mandatory in managing anorectal malformations with esophageal atresia, when considering a high frequency of associated anomaly and a relative high mortality. PMID:24010103

Byun, Shin Yun; Lim, Ryoung Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hae Young

2013-01-01

346

Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of neurological signs, including incoordination in his hindlimbs, of about 7 months' duration. On initial examination, the horse exhibited ataxia and paresis in all limbs with more severe deficits in the hindlimbs. Cervical radiographs displayed severe osteoarthritis of the articular processes between C5 and C6. On subsequent cervical myelography the dorsal contrast column was reduced by 90% at the level of the intervertebral space between C5 and C6. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy, including epidural (epiduroscopy) and subarachnoid endoscopy (myeloscopy), was performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial narrowing of the subarachnoid space at the level between C6 and C7 was seen during myeloscopy, while no compression was apparent between C5 and C6. Epiduroscopy showed no abnormalities. After completion of the procedure, the horse was subjected to euthanasia and the cervical spinal cord submitted for histopathological examination. Severe myelin and axon degeneration of the white matter was diagnosed at the level of the intervertebral space between C6 and C7, with Wallerian degeneration cranially and caudally, indicating chronic spinal cord compression at this site. Myeloscopy was successfully used to identify the site of spinal cord compression in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, while myelography results were misleading. PMID:21696435

Prange, T; Carr, E A; Stick, J A; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Patterson, J S; Derksen, F J

2012-01-01

347

Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

2013-01-01

348

Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.  

PubMed

In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

2013-01-01

349

Transradial approach for vertebral artery stenting  

PubMed Central

Introductuion Symptomatic severe vertebral artery (VA) stenosis may be treated safely with stent supported angioplasty via femoral access. There is limited clinical data on transradial approach for VA angioplasty in case of peripheral artery disease. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transradial angioplasty of symptomatic VA stenosis. Material and methods Fifteen patients (age 66 ±7.4 years, 73% men, with VA > 80% stenosis, 11 right-side, all symptomatic from posterior circulation (history of stroke, TIA, or chronic ischaemia symptoms)) with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or unsuccessful attempt via femoral approach were scheduled for VA angioplasty by radial access. Clinical and duplex ultrasound (DUS) follow-up were performed before discharge and 1, 12, and 24 months after VA angioplasty. Results The technical success rate was 100%. In all cases VA angioplasty was performed with the use of single balloon-mounted stent (9 bare metal stents, 6 drug-eluting stents). The mean NASCET VA stenosis was reduced from 85.3% to 5.3% (p < 0.001). No periprocedural death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or transient ischaemic attack occurred. During 24-months follow-up, in 12 of 15 patients chronic ischaemia symptoms release was observed, and no new acute ischaemic neurological symptoms were diagnosed in all patients. One patient died 20 months after intervention from unknown causes. There was one symptomatic borderline VA in-stent stenosis 12 months after angioplasty. Conclusions Transradial VA stenting may be a very effective and safe procedure, and it may constitute an alternative to the femoral approach in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis.

Tekieli, ?ukasz; Kab?ak-Ziembicka, Anna; Paluszek, Piotr; Trystu?a, Mariusz; Wójcik-P?dziwiatr, Magdalena; Machnik, Roman; Pieni??ek, Piotr

2015-01-01

350

Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.  

PubMed

Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

2015-03-16

351

Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.  

PubMed

Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. PMID:20963851

Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

2011-01-01

352

Vertebrate head development: segmentation, novelties, and homology.  

PubMed

Vertebrate head development is a classical topic lately invigorated by methodological as well as conceptual advances. In contrast to the classical segmentalist views going back to idealistic morphology, the head is now seen not as simply an extension of the trunk, but as a structure patterned by different mechanisms and tissues. Whereas the trunk paraxial mesoderm imposes its segmental pattern on adjacent tissues such as the neural crest derivatives, in the head the neural crest cells carry pattern information needed for proper morphogenesis of mesodermal derivatives, such as the cranial muscles. Neural crest cells make connective tissue components which attach the muscle fiber to the skeletal elements. These crest cells take their origin from the same visceral arch as the muscle cells, even when the skeletal elements to which the muscle attaches are from another arch. The neural crest itself receives important patterning influences from the pharyngeal endoderm. The origin of jaws can be seen as an exaptation in which a heterotopic shift of the expression domains of regulatory genes was a necessary step that enabled this key innovation. The jaws are patterned by Dlx genes expressed in a nested pattern along the proximo-distal axis, analogous to the anterior-posterior specification governed by Hox genes. Knocking out Dlx 5 and 6 transforms the lower jaw homeotically into an upper jaw. New data indicate that both upper and lower jaw cartilages are derived from one, common anlage traditionally labelled the "mandibular" condensation, and that the "maxillary" condensation gives rise to other structures such as the trabecula. We propose that the main contribution from evolutionary developmental biology to solving homology questions lies in deepening our biological understanding of characters and character states. PMID:17046353

Olsson, Lennart; Ericsson, Rolf; Cerny, Robert

2005-11-01

353

Vertebrate brains at the pilot light.  

PubMed

While the brains of most vertebrates are unable to tolerate more than a few minutes of anoxia, some freshwater turtles (Trachemys and Chrysemys), crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and frogs (Rana pipens and Rana temporaria) can survive anoxia for hours to months. Obviously, anoxia tolerance has evolved separately several times and this is also reflected in the divergent strategies these animals utilize to survive without oxygen. The turtles and crucian carp defend their brain ATP levels and avoid a loss of ion homeostasis by reducing ATP use. In the turtles, the early release of adenosine and the activation of K(ATP) channels, a progressive release of GABA and a drastic reduction in electric activity and ion fluxes send the brain into a comatose like state. The crucian carp displays a more modest depression of ATP use, probably achieved through a moderated release of GABA and adenosine, allowing the animal to maintain physical activity in anoxia. The anoxic frog, on the other hand, seems to rely on mechanisms that greatly retard the anoxia induced fall in ATP levels and loss of ion homeostasis, so that the brain can be saved as long as the anoxia is limited to a few hours. The sequence of events characterizing the anoxic frog brain is similar to that of failing anoxic mammalian brain, although over a greatly extended time frame, allowing the frog to die slowly in anoxia, rather than survive. By contrast the only factor that limits anoxic survival in turtles and crucian carp may be the final depletion of their glycogen reserves. PMID:15288600

Lutz, Peter L; Nilsson, Göran E

2004-08-12

354

On SU(2) anomaly and Majorana fermions  

E-print Network

In this paper a loophole in the SU(2) gauge anomaly is presented. It is shown that using several topological tools a theory can be designed that implements the quantization of a single Weyl doublet anomaly free while keeping the non-abelian character of the particle in the theory. This opens the perspective for non-Abelian statistics of deconfined particle like objects in 3+1 dimensions and for applications in Quantum Computing. Moreover, if this loophole cannot be closed, old arguments related to anomaly cancelations must be reviewed.

Patrascu, Andrei

2015-01-01

355

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup  

SciTech Connect

Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

1986-01-01

356

Triangle anomaly in Weyl semi-metals  

E-print Network

Weyl semimetals possess massless chiral quasi-particles, and are thus affected by the triangle anomalies. We discuss the features of the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects specific to Weyl semimetals, and then propose three novel phenomena caused by the triangle anomalies in this material: 1) anomaly cooling; 2) charge transport by soliton waves as described by the Burgers' equation, and 3) the shift of the BKT phase transition of superfluid vortices coupled to Weyl fermions. In addition, we establish the conditions under which the chiral magnetic current exists in real materials.

Gokce Basar; Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Ho-Ung Yee

2014-01-08

357

Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

Papanastassiou, D. A.

1986-01-01

358

Spectrum of anomalies in Fanconi anaemia.  

PubMed Central

The frequency of various anomalies was compared in probands with Fanconi anaemia and their affected sibs. As probands are usually ascertained because of a 'characteristic' array of physical anomalies, the frequencies of these specific anomalies may be overestimated in probands, whereas their affected sibs may provide a more accurate estimate. The frequencies of growth retardation, skin hyperpigmentation, radial ray deformities, radial ray reduction deformities, hypogenitalia, and supernumerary thumbs were significantly lower in the affected sibs of probands than in probands. Since 25% of the affected sibs had no dysmorphic features, absence of dysmorphism is not sufficient to rule out the diagnosis. PMID:7154038

Glanz, A; Fraser, F C

1982-01-01

359

Data Mining for Anomaly Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

2013-01-01

360

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

361

Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

Shea, James H.

1988-01-01

362

Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

1984-01-01

363

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Color Key  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A color bar is displayed below the data. This animation is a minor revision of animation ID 790.

Greg Shirah

2004-02-09

364

Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

2014-01-01

365

Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

366

Tunguska genetic anomaly and electrophonic meteors  

E-print Network

One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

Silagadze, Z K

2003-01-01

367

Tunguska genetic anomaly and electrophonic meteors  

E-print Network

One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

Z. K. Silagadze

2003-11-16

368

Tunguska Genetic Anomaly and Electrophonic Meteors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

Silagadze, Z. K.

2005-03-01

369

Modular anomaly from holomorphic anomaly in mass deformed N=2 superconformal field theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the instanton partition functions of two well-known superconformal field theories with mass deformations. Two types of anomaly equations, namely, the modular anomaly and holomorphic anomaly, have been discovered in the literature. We provide a clean solution to the long standing puzzle about their precise relation, and obtain some universal formulas. We show that the partition function is invariant under the SL(2,Z) duality which exchanges theories at strong coupling with those of weak coupling.

Huang, Min-xin

2013-05-01

370

The genetic basis of modularity in the development and evolution of the vertebrate dentition.  

PubMed Central

The construction of organisms from units that develop under semi-autonomous genetic control (modules) has been proposed to be an important component of their ability to undergo adaptive phenotypic evolution. The organization of the vertebrate dentition as a system of repeated parts provides an opportunity to study the extent to which phenotypic modules, identified by their evolutionary independence from other such units, are related to modularity in the genetic control of development. The evolutionary history of vertebrates provides numerous examples of both correlated and independent evolution of groups of teeth. The dentition itself appears to be a module of the dermal exoskeleton, from which it has long been under independent genetic control. Region-specific tooth loss has been a common trend in vertebrate evolution. Novel deployment of teeth and reacquisition of lost teeth have also occurred, although less frequently. Tooth shape differences within the dentition may be discontinuous (referred to as heterodonty) or graded. The occurrence of homeotic changes in tooth shape provides evidence for the decoupling of tooth shape and location in the course of evolution. Potential mechanisms for region-specific evolutionary tooth loss are suggested by a number of mouse gene knockouts and human genetic dental anomalies, as well as a comparison between fully-developed and rudimentary teeth in the dentition of rodents. These mechanisms include loss of a tooth-type-specific initiation signal, alterations of the relative strength of inductive and inhibitory signals acting at the time of tooth initiation and the overall reduction in levels of proteins required for the development of all teeth. Ectopic expression of tooth initiation signals provides a potential mechanism for the novel deployment or reacquisition of teeth; a single instance is known of a gene whose ectopic expression in transgenic mice can lead to ectopic teeth. Differences in shape between incisor and molar teeth in the mouse have been proposed to be controlled by the region-specific expression of signalling molecules in the oral epithelium. These molecules induce the expression of transcription factors in the underlying jaw mesenchyme that may act as selectors of tooth type. It is speculated that shifts in the expression domains of the epithelial signalling molecules might be responsible for homeotic changes in tooth shape. The observation that these molecules are regionally restricted in the chicken, whose ancestors were not heterodont, suggests that mammalian heterodonty may have evolved through the use of patterning mechanisms already acting on skeletal elements of the jaws. In general, genetic and morphological approaches identify similar types of modules in the dentition, but the data are not yet sufficient to identify exact correspondences. It is speculated that modularity may be achieved by gene expression differences between teeth or by differences in the time of their development, causing mutations to have cumulative effects on later-developing teeth. The mammalian dentition, for which virtually all of the available developmental genetic data have been collected, represents a small subset of the dental diversity present in vertebrates as a whole. In particular, teleost fishes may have a much more extensive dentition. Extension of research on the genetic control of tooth development to this and other vertebrate groups has great potential to further the understanding of modularity in the dentition. PMID:11604128

Stock, D W

2001-01-01

371

Anorthosites as Sources of Magnetic Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Magnetic anomalies provide information about location, size and composition of earth structures, ore bodies and tectonic features\\u000a even in bodies containing only a few percent magnetic minerals. Here we investigate the magnetic properties and oxide mineralogy\\u000a of anorthosites, rocks rich in plagioclase (>90%), and compare their magnetic signatures to aeromagnetic anomaly maps of the\\u000a regions. Two of the anorthosite complexes

Laurie L. Brown; Suzanne A. McEnroe; William H. Peck; Lars Petter Nilsson

372

CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly  

E-print Network

It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

Yu Nakayama

2012-01-26

373

Viscosity anomaly in core-softened liquids  

E-print Network

The present article presents a molecular dynamics study of several anomalies of core-softened systems. It is well known that many core-softened liquids demonstrate diffusion anomaly. Usual intuition relates the diffusion coefficient to shear viscosity via Stockes-Einstein relation. However, it can break down at low temperature. In this respect it is important to see if viscosity also demonstrates anomalous behavior.

Yu. D. Fomin; V. N. Ryzhov

2013-03-18

374

Hyperfine structure and hyperfine anomaly in Pb  

E-print Network

The hyperfine structure in the 6p2-configuration in lead has been analysed and the results is compared with calculations. The hyperfine anomaly and improved values of the nuclear magnetic moment for four lead isotopes is obtained, using the results from the analysis. The results open up for new measurements of the hyperfine structure in unstable lead isotopes, in order to extract information of the hyperfine anomaly and distribution of magnetisation in the nucleus.

J. R. Persson

2014-07-11

375

Inversion of marine magnetic anomalies by deconvolution  

E-print Network

INVERSION OF MARINE MAGNETIC ANOMALIES BY DECONVOLUTION A Thesis by DENNIS LEE HARRY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Maj... or Subject: Geophysics INVERSION OF MARINE MAGNETIC ANOMALIES BY DECONVOLUTION A Thesis by DENNIS LEE HARRY Approved as to style and content by: Phi p ~yrnowxtz (Co-Chairman of Committee) Richard L. Garison (Co-Chairman of Committee) Davis A...

Harry, Dennis Lee

1983-01-01

376

Chiral anomalies, higher dimensions, and differential geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the abelian and non-abelian chiral anomalies in 2n-dimensional spacetime by a differential geometric method which enables us to obtain the anomalies without having to calculate Feynman diagrams, as has been done by Frampton and Kephart. The advantage of this method is that the construction automatically satisfies the Wess-Zumino consistency condition, a condition which has direct physical interpretation. We

Bruno Zumino; Wu Yong-Shi; A. Zee

1984-01-01

377

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

378

Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

McIntosh, Dawn

2006-01-01

379

Satellite-altitude horizontal magnetic gradient anomalies used to define the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA), Russia, is one of the world's largest magnetic anomalies. We used satellite altitude horizontal gradient magnetic anomaly data to study this feature. There are two main objectives of our research; the first, to determine if the technique of the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradient analysis can be applied to CHAMP satellite altitude data to define the outline of the source of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). Another objective is to use the ten years of CHAMP data to reproduce the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradient data that will be measured by the two lower orbiting ESA/Swarm mission. We will be able to evaluate the application of these newer satellite altitude data for studying large areas with significant crustal magnetization. While we have acquired sufficient CHAMP orbital data to compute a horizontal gradient anomaly map from these ten years of data; the future ESA/Swarm mission will, however, allow us to compute directly the horizontal magnetic anomaly without orbital altitude and/or magnetic secular variations; however the east-west gradient that the Swarm is measuring will minimize, but not eliminate, the difference in external fields between the two lower satellites. One will still need to use relatively quiet data (e.g., Kp < 1) for crustal field mapping. Our results, developed from interpreting the satellite horizontal magnetic anomaly data, indicate that the source of the KMA is bowl shaped body open to the northwest covering an area of approximately 190,000 km2.

Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; Wittmann, G.

2014-10-01

380

GRAFTED VERTEBRAL FRACTURE AFTER IMPLANT REMOVAL IN A PATIENT WITH SPINE-SHORTENING VERTEBRAL OSTEOTOMY  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We experienced the rare complication of a vertebral fracture that was caused by implant removal after bony fusion had been achieved in a patient who underwent spine-shortening osteotomy (SSO) for tethered cord syndrome (TCS). We propose that the removal of the implant used for SSO should be contraindicated. The patient (a 27-year-old female) presented to our institution with a history of progressive severe lower back pain, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. As an infant, she had undergone surgery for spina bifida with lipoma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed tethering of the spinal cord to a lipoma. We performed SSO at the level of the L1 vertebra level. After spine shortening and fixation using a posterior approach, the L1 vertebral body was completely removed anteriorly and replaced with a left iliac bone graft. The patient’s symptoms improved after surgery. After bony fusion was achieved after surgery, we decided to remove the spinal implant after we explained the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure to the patient. We performed implant removal surgery safely 2 years later; however, the patient complained of severe lower back pain 10 days after the surgery without any history of trauma. Reconstruction computed tomography showed fracture of the grafted vertebra. We performed a repeat posterior fixation, which relieved the lower back pain; she has experienced no complications in the subsequent 5 years. In summary, we report a case of a rare complication of the fracture of a grafted vertebra after removal of an implant used in SSO for TCS. Spinal stability could not be maintained without the spinal posterior implant after SSO. Postoperative fracture after spinal implant removal is rare but possible, and patients must be informed of this potential risk. PMID:25797997

NAKASHIMA, HIROAKI; YUKAWA, YASUTSUGU; ITO, KEIGO; MACHINO, MASAAKI; KANBARA, SHUNSUKE; MORITA, DAIGO; IMAGAMA, SHIRO; ISHIGURO, NAOKI; KATO, FUMIHIKO

2015-01-01

381

Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

2014-01-01

382

Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

2014-01-01

383

Micromechanics of the Human Vertebral Body for Forward Flexion  

PubMed Central

To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E = 8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E = 2,500 MPa. As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean ± SD for n = 22: 41.3% ± 7.4% compression; 44.1% ± 8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J.; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

384

Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (; )

2005-02-01

385

Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.  

PubMed

To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

2012-08-01

386

Prezygapophyseal articular facet shape in the catarrhine thoracolumbar vertebral column.  

PubMed

Two contrasting patterns of lumbar vertebral morphology generally characterize anthropoids. "Long-backed" monkeys are distinguished from "short-backed" apes [Benton: The baboon in medical research, Vol. 2 (1967:201)] with respect to several vertebral features thought to afford greater spinal flexibility in the former and spinal rigidity in the latter. Yet, discussions of spinal mobility are lacking important functional insight that can be gained by analysis of the zygapophyses, the spine's synovial joints responsible for allowing and resisting intervertebral movements. Here, prezygapophyseal articular facet (PAF) shape in the thoracolumbar spine of Papio, Hylobates, Pongo, Gorilla, and Pan is evaluated in the context of the "long-backed" versus "short-backed" model. A three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach is used to examine how PAF shape changes along the thoracolumbar vertebral column of each taxon and how PAF shape varies across taxa at corresponding vertebral levels. The thoracolumbar transition in PAF shape differs between Papio and the hominoids, between Hylobates and the great apes, and to a lesser extent, among great apes. At the level of the first lumbar vertebra, the PAF shape of Papio is distinguished from that of hominoids. At the level of the second lumbar vertebra, there is variation to some extent among all taxa. These findings suggest that morphological and functional distinctions in primate vertebral anatomy may be more complex than suggested by a "long-backed" versus "short-backed" dichotomy. PMID:20310062

Russo, Gabrielle A

2010-08-01

387

A de novo proximal 3q29 chromosome microduplication in a patient with oculo auriculo vertebral spectrum.  

PubMed

Oculo auriculo vertebral spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder originating from an abnormal development of the first and second branchial arches. Main clinical characteristics include defects of the aural, oral, mandibular, and vertebral development. Anomalies of the cardiac, pulmonary, renal, skeletal, and central nervous systems have also been described. We report on a 25-year-old male showing a spectrum of clinical manifestations fitting the OAVS diagnosis: hemifacial microsomia, asymmetric mandibular hypoplasia, preauricular pits and tags, unilateral absence of the auditory meatus, dysgenesis of the inner ear and unilateral microphthalmia. A SNP-array analysis identified a de novo previously unreported microduplication spanning 723?Kb on chromosome 3q29. This rearrangement was proximal to the 3q29 microdeletion/microduplication syndrome region, and encompassed nine genes including ATP13A3 and XXYLT1, which are involved in the organogenesis and regulation of the Notch pathway, respectively. The present observation further expands the spectrum of genomic rearrangements associated to OAVS, underlying the value of array-based studies in patients manifesting OAVS features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25735547

Guida, Valentina; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Pagnoni, Mario; Bernardini, Laura; Loddo, Sara; Margiotti, Katia; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Fadda, Maria Teresa; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Iannetti, Giorgio; Alessandro, De Luca

2015-04-01

388

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

389

Conserved and Divergent Patterns of DNA Methylation in Higher Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a “global” methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called “CpG islands.” Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

2014-01-01

390

Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

Niimura, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

391

Conserved and divergent patterns of DNA methylation in higher vertebrates.  

PubMed

DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a "global" methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called "CpG islands." Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

2014-01-01

392

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

393

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

2011-01-01

394

Ghrelin: a multifunctional hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

In mammals, ghrelin is a non-amidated peptide hormone, existing in both acylated and non-acylated forms, produced mainly from the X/A or ghrelin cells present in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), and functions primarily as a GH-releasing hormone and an orexigen, as well as having several other biological actions. Among non-mammalian vertebrates, amino acid sequence of ghrelin has been reported in two species of cartilaginous fish, seven species of teleosts, two species of amphibians, one species of reptile and six species of birds. The structure and functions of ghrelin are highly conserved among vertebrates. This review presents a concise overview of ghrelin biology in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:18222718

Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Peter, Richard E; Unniappan, Suraj

2008-02-01

395

RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left–right patterning. PMID:22227339

Chung, Mei-I; Peyrot, Sara M.; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Park, Tae Joo; McGary, Kriston L.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Wallingford, John B.

2012-01-01

396

Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players  

PubMed Central

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

397

Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?  

PubMed

Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F Andrew; Orme, C David L; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G; Chase, Mark W; Govaerts, Rafaël; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent

2013-01-01

398

Do Global Diversity Patterns of Vertebrates Reflect Those of Monocots?  

PubMed Central

Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F. Andrew; Orme, C. David L.; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Chase, Mark W.; Govaerts, Rafaël; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Savolainen, Vincent

2013-01-01

399

Relation of Vertebral Deformities to Bone Density, Structure, and Strength  

PubMed Central

Because they are not reliably discriminated by areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements, it is unclear whether minimal vertebral deformities represent early osteoporotic fractures. To address this, we compared 90 postmenopausal women with no deformity (controls) with 142 women with one or more semiquantitative grade 1 (mild) deformities and 51 women with any grade 2–3 (moderate/severe) deformities. aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and geometry by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), bone microstructure by high-resolution peripheral QCT at the radius (HRpQCT), and vertebral compressive strength and load-to-strength ratio by finite-element analysis (FEA) of lumbar spine QCT images. Compared with controls, women with grade 1 deformities had significantly worse values for many bone density, structure, and strength parameters, although deficits all were much worse for the women with grade 2–3 deformities. Likewise, these skeletal parameters were more strongly associated with moderate to severe than with mild deformities by age-adjusted logistic regression. Nonetheless, grade 1 vertebral deformities were significantly associated with four of the five main variable categories assessed: bone density (lumbar spine vBMD), bone geometry (vertebral apparent cortical thickness), bone strength (overall vertebral compressive strength by FEA), and load-to-strength ratio (45-degree forward bending ÷ vertebral compressive strength). Thus significantly impaired bone density, structure, and strength compared with controls indicate that many grade 1 deformities do represent early osteoporotic fractures, with corresponding implications for clinical decision making. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20533526

Melton, L Joseph; Riggs, B Lawrence; Keaveny, Tony M; Achenbach, Sara J; Kopperdahl, David; Camp, Jon J; Rouleau, Peggy A; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Robb, Richard A; Therneau, Terry M; Khosla, Sundeep

2010-01-01

400

Statistical Sketch based Anomaly Detection and Validation using an Anomaly Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anomaly detection procedure based on statistical pro- files of sketches of internet trac is proposed. To validate its statistical performance, measurement campaigns were conducted to collect regu- lar trac as well as trac time-scales and modeled using non-Gaussian statistics. Anomalies are detected by quantifying the de- partures of the modeling parameters from those estimated under normal situations. Such deviations

Guillaume Dewaele; Pierre Borgnat; Patrice Abry; Julien Aussibal; Laurent Gallon; P. Owezarski; D. Veitch

401

The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates.  

PubMed

Fossils of early gnathostomes (or jawed vertebrates) have been the focus of study for nearly two centuries. They yield key clues about the evolutionary assembly of the group's common body plan, as well the divergence of the two living gnathostome lineages: the cartilaginous and bony vertebrates. A series of remarkable new palaeontological discoveries, analytical advances and innovative reinterpretations of existing fossil archives have fundamentally altered a decades-old consensus on the relationships of extinct gnathostomes, delivering a new evolutionary framework for exploring major questions that remain unanswered, including the origin of jaws. PMID:25903631

Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

2015-04-23

402

Multiple hereditary exostoses and stroke due to vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed Central

Vascular complications related to multiple hereditary exostoses are uncommon. We present a 39-year-old male patient with multiple exostoses in the upper and lower limbs with an associated positive familial history of such lesions. He experienced a sudden onset of left-side ataxia and hypoesthesia secondary to a left lateral medullary infarction, which was due to a stenotic-pattern vertebral artery dissection (V1-V4). This complication is very rare as a differential diagnosis in the vertebro-basilar dissection spectrum, and a nonspecific relation has been found. Abbreviations MHE Multiple hereditary exostoses AT angiotomography VAD vertebral artery dissection CAD cervical artery dissection OI osteogenesis imperfecta PMID:25825632

Arauz, Antonio; Hernández-Curiel, Bernardo; Colin-Luna, Jonathan; Dávila-Ortiz de Montellano, David J.; Barboza, Miguel A.

2015-01-01

403

Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

WITSCHI, E

1959-08-14

404

Transient Cortical Blindness Following Vertebral Angiography: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but well-known complication of cerebral angiography. Its pathophysiology remains uncertain. We would like to report a case of TCB in a patient during a follow up vertebral angiogram for post-coil embolization of left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient's vision was resumed spontaneously within 24 hours after angiography, with no residual neurological deficit in subsequent clinical follow up. Multi-modality imaging evaluation including vertebral angiography, brain CT and MRI performed on same day are presented.

Chan, Ho Fung; Ma, Ka Fai; Cheng, Lik Fai; Chan, Tony KT

2015-01-01

405

Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma  

PubMed Central

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

406

Extracranial Vertebral Artery Involvement in Neurofibromatosis Type I  

PubMed Central

Summary Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is one of the most common inherited diseases and as an autosomal dominant genetic disorder results from NF-1 gene mutation with 100% penetration and wide phenotypic variability. The disease can involve a wide variety of tissues derived from all three embryonic layers. NF-1 vasculopathy has been described primarily in peripheral arteries, but arteries supplying the CNS may also be involved. Of those, extracranial vertebral involvement is the commonest and most important. A series of four patients with NF-1 and vascular disease of the vertebral artery is described with a review of the pathophysiology, vascular phenotypes, their management and the pertinent literature. PMID:20566100

Pereira, V.M.; Geiprasert, S.; Krings, T.; Caldas, J.G.M.P.; Toulgoat, F.; Ozanne, A.; Mercier, P.; Lasjaunias, P. L.

2007-01-01

407

Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

1985-06-01

408

[Congenital brachyury and vertebral malformations in a White Polled Heath].  

PubMed

In a female White Polled Heath a congenital shortening and abnormal bending of the tail was observed. The trunk appeared to be shortened and almost quadratic. However, further findings could not be ascertained in the general clinical, neurological and orthopaedic examination. Maceration of the trunk skeleton showed vertebral fusion in several segments of the vertebral column and a wedge-shaped vertebra of the cervical spine, causing slight scoliosis. In addition, several ribs were fused. Exogenic causes such as drugs or viral infections during pregnancy were unlikely, whereas hereditary could not be ruled out. PMID:20496834

Kerkmann, Andrea; Ganter, Martin; Seibel, Henrike; Wohlsein, Peter; Distl, Ottmar

2010-01-01

409

iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology; )

2008-01-01

410

Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U{sub A}(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory.

Sadooghi, N. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari Salim, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-10-15

411

New Type of Anomaly in Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ? ¯, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du2/dt?=-4? ¯ at t =0, where u ? is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du2/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times.

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-01

412

New type of anomaly in turbulence.  

PubMed

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ??, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du(2)/dt?=-4?? at t=0, where u[over ?] is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du(2)/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times. PMID:25062187

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-11

413

Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

2009-01-01

414

Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

1995-01-01

415

The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23–13.4) prevalence\\u000a of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries.\\u000a These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those\\u000a found in the

P. Clark; F. Cons-Molina; M. Deleze; S. Ragi; L. Haddock; J. R. Zanchetta; J. J. Jaller; L. Palermo; J. O. Talavera; D. O. Messina; J. Morales-Torres; J. Salmeron; A. Navarrete; E. Suarez; C. M. Pérez; S. R. Cummings

2009-01-01

416

Novel mutations in DLL3, a somitogenesis gene encoding a ligand for the Notch signalling pathway, cause a consistent pattern of abnormal vertebral segmentation in spondylocostal dysostosis  

PubMed Central

The spondylocostal dysostoses (SCD) are a group of disorders characterised by multiple vertebral segmentation defects and rib anomalies. SCD can either be sporadic or familial, and can be inherited in either autosomal dominant or recessive modes. We have previously shown that recessive forms of SCD can be caused by mutations in the delta-like 3 gene, DLL3. Here, we have sequenced DLL3 in a series of SCD cases and identified 12 mutations in a further 10 families. These include 10 novel mutations in exons 4–8, comprising nonsense, missense, frameshift, splicing, and in frame insertion mutations that are predicted to result in either the truncation of the mature protein in the extracellular domain, or affect highly conserved amino acid residues in the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of the protein. The affected cases represent diverse ethnic backgrounds and six come from traditionally consanguineous communities. In all affected subjects, the radiological phenotype is abnormal segmentation throughout the entire vertebral column with smooth outlines to the vertebral bodies in childhood, for which we suggest the term "pebble beach sign". This is a very consistent phenotype-genotype correlation and we suggest the designation SCD type 1 for the AR form caused by mutations in the DLL3 gene. PMID:12746394

Turnpenny, P; Whittock, N; Duncan, J; Dunwoodie, S; Kusumi, K; Ellard, S

2003-01-01

417

Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

418

Vascular Anomalies in Children Misdiagnosed with Asthma  

PubMed Central

In most asthmatic children, inhaled steroids can relieve and control the symptoms of asthma. Persistent wheezing and respiratory symptoms in young children despite appropriate treatment may indicate other diagnostic considerations. Delays in this diagnosis can result in unnecessary investigations, inappropriate treatment and further complications. We report three patients who presented to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in the period between September 2010 and May 2012 with persistent wheezing due to compression of the trachea caused by vascular anomalies. All patients had double aortic arches putting pressure on the trachea, leading to respiratory manifestations and feeding problems. Following surgery, all cases showed improvement and no longer required medication. Without clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, congenital vascular anomalies may remain undetected for years. Infants and children with chronic wheezing should be evaluated for vascular anomalies as soon as possible. General practitioners should refer all such patients to a tertiary-level hospital for further investigations and management. PMID:25685375

Javad, Hashim; Al-Sineidi, Khalfan; Abdelmogheth, Anas A.; Sankhla, Dilip; Al-Dhuhli, Humoud; Azzawi, Sinan I.; El-Naggari, Mohamed A.

2015-01-01

419

Moebius syndrome with Taussig-Bing anomaly.  

PubMed

We report a 6 years old male child, presented with difficulty in swallowing, crying and smiling from early infancy and recurrent episodes of cyanosis on exertion for about 2 years. He had facial dysmorphism, clubbing and polydactyly and right sided lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy. On examination and relevant investigations findings were consistent with Moebius syndrome and Taussig-Bing anomaly. Moebius syndrome comprises of congenital facial nerve palsy with or without palsy of the other cranial nerves and the associated organ system malformations. Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation consisting of a transposed aorta, a large pulmonary artery which arises primarily from the right ventricle and ventricular septal defect. Simultaneous occurrence of Moebius syndrome and Taussig-Bing anomaly has not yet been reported in the past. PMID:24584392

Islam, M I; Chowdhury, A S; Hasan, M T

2014-01-01

420

The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

Haggerty, S. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

421

Testing chiral anomalies with hadronic currents  

SciTech Connect

Chiral anomalies are calculated using an effective-Lagrangian technique introduced for anomalies by Wess and Zumino and recently reformulated by Witten. Anomalous amplitudes for vector currents decaying into three pseudoscalars are tested by comparison with K/sub l/4 decay, eta and eta'..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., and strong decays of vector mesons. The agreement with experiment for K/sub l/4 is an impressive verification of the anomaly in the vector current. For eta and eta' decay, the results are excellent, and for the strong decays, good. Since the electromagnetic and strong amplitudes have been extrapolated to higher momenta with a final-state-interaction approximation, it is not surprising that the agreement is less good here, where, indeed, further dynamical assumptions are needed. A number of new predictions are made for hadronic decays of rho', ..omega..', and phi'.

Kramer, G.; Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.

1984-07-01

422

How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy.

Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Klumov, B. A.; Tsiok, E. N.

2014-07-01

423

Anomaly mediation in local effective theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon known as "anomaly mediation" can be understood in a variety of ways. Rather than an anomaly, certain gaugino bilinear terms are required by local supersymmetry and gauge invariance (the derivation of these terms is in some cases related to anomalies in scale invariance or R symmetries). We explain why the gaugino bilinear is required in supersymmetric gauge theories with varying number of colors and flavors. By working in the Higgs phase, gauging a flavor group, or working below the scale of gaugino condensation, each of these theories has a local effective description in which we can identify the bilinear term, establishing its necessity in the microscopic theory. For example, in theories that exhibit gaugino condensation, the potential in the very low energy theory is supersymmetric precisely due to the relation between the nonperturbative superpotential and the gaugino bilinear terms. Similarly, the gravitino mass appears from its coupling to the gaugino bilinear.

Dine, Michael; Draper, Patrick

2014-02-01

424

Coronary Artery Anomalies—Current Clinical Issues  

PubMed Central

The study of coronary artery anomalies would benefit from the clarification of various fundamental issues, including the definitions, classification, incidence, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and clinical relevance of each anomaly. The greatest challenge is to identify the abnormality and determine its clinical relevance so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. Currently, the coronary anatomy is essentially defined by the features of the (conductive) epicardial coronary tree and its dependent territory. Therefore, one must consider all the possible and observed variations in anatomic features that are used to describe the coronary arteries. We propose that the left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries be considered the essential, elementary units of coronary anatomy. We also suggest that the coronary arteries be defined not by their origin or proximal course, but by their intermediate and distal segments or dependent microvascular bed. A strict classification system is necessary before meaningful data can be gathered about the incidence of coronary anomalies. With respect to clinical relevance, the greatest challenge is presented by anomalies that only occasionally cause critically severe clinical events and are otherwise compatible with a normal life. In such cases, it is not known whether the specific features of a given anomaly cause adverse clinical consequences, or whether additional episodic factors are required. To correlate subclassifiable anatomic and functional features with clinical events and prognoses, a large, multicenter database, relying on prospective, coordinated protocols, is urgently needed. In the absence of established official guidelines, we present practical protocols for diagnosing and treating coronary anomalies. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:271–8) PMID:12484611

Angelini, Paolo

2002-01-01

425

Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully  

E-print Network

Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

Long Jr., John H.

426

Antiquity of the vertebrate pattern of activity metabolism and its  

E-print Network

, the anaerobic process by which glucose is degraded to lactic acid. Most invertebrate species resortdisrupts maintenance of blood and tissue pH which may well affect enzymatic activity, protein configuration and so on8. This exercise-related pH depression may persist in lower vertebrates for several hours

Bennett, Albert F.

427

Resting and maximal heart rates in ectothermic vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting and maximal heart rates (HR) in ectothermic vertebrates are generally lower than those in endotherms and vary by more than an order of magnitude interspecifically. Variation of HR transcends phylogeny and is influenced by numerous factors including temperature, activity, gas exchange, intracardiac shunts, pH, posture, and reflexogenic regulation of blood pressure. The characteristic resting HR is rarely the intrinsic

Harvey B Lillywhite; Kevin C Zippel; Anthony P Farrell

1999-01-01

428

Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrafish, ectothermic vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is of demonstrated importance in mammalian thermogenesis, and early hypotheses regarding the functions of the newly discovered UCP homologues, UCP2, UCP3 and others, have focused largely on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and

J. A. Stuart; J. A. Harper; K. M. Brindle; M. D. Brand

1999-01-01

429

The vertebrate cell kinetochore and its roles during mitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A replicated chromosome possesses two discrete, complex, dynamic, macromolecular assemblies, known as kinetochores, that are positioned on opposite sides of the primary constriction of the chromosome. Here, the authors review how kinetochores control chromosome segregation during mitosis in vertebrates. They attach the chromosome to the opposing spindle poles by trapping the dynamic plus-ends of microtubules growing from the poles. They

Conly L Rieder; E. D. Salmon

1998-01-01

430

The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption  

E-print Network

The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates is how birds and bats satisfy relatively high energy needs with less absorptive surface area. Here, we further show that an enhanced paracellular pathway for intestinal absorption of water-soluble nutrients

Mladenoff, David

431

Modeling vertebrate diversity in Oregon using satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebrate diversity was modeled for the state of Oregon using a parametric approach to regression tree analysis. This exploratory data analysis effectively modeled the non-linear relationships between vertebrate richness and phenology, terrain, and climate. Phenology was derived from time-series NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery for the year 1992 using two methods: principal component analysis and derivation of EROS data center greenness metrics. These two measures of spatial and temporal vegetation condition incorporated the critical temporal element in this analysis. The first three principal components were shown to contain spatial and temporal information about the landscape and discriminated phenologically distinct regions in Oregon. Principal components 2 and 3, 6 greenness metrics, elevation, slope, aspect, annual precipitation, and annual seasonal temperature difference were investigated as correlates to amphibians, birds, all vertebrates, reptiles, and mammals. Variation explained for each regression tree by taxa were: amphibians (91%), birds (67%), all vertebrates (66%), reptiles (57%), and mammals (55%). Spatial statistics were used to quantify the pattern of each taxa and assess validity of resulting predictions from regression tree models. Regression tree analysis was relatively robust against spatial autocorrelation in the response data and graphical results indicated models were well fit to the data.

Cablk, Mary Elizabeth

432

Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

Gingerich, Philip D.

1983-01-01

433

Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls  

E-print Network

Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls Callum F. Ross1 and Keith A. Metzger2 1. It is often stated that the skull is optimally designed for resisting feeding forces, where optimality gradi- ents ­ variation in bone strain magnitudes across the skull ­ which in the primate skull have

434

Marine vertebrate zoonoses: an overview of the DAO special issue.  

PubMed

The role of marine birds, mammals, turtles and fish as vectors of infectious agents of potential risk to humans can be examined from a variety of perspectives. The studies in this DAO Special include a broad survey of multiple agents and species, a sequencing study of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes known to be pathogenic to humans, an assessment of risks to humans working with marine mammals, a source tracking study using E. coli ribotypes, studies of regional Salmonella and Brucella epizootiology, a serology survey and a case report of a herpes simplex infection in a dolphin. Additionally, a recently published study (Venn-Watson et al. 2008; Dis Aquat Org 79:87-93) classifying pure cultures of bacteria from a captive dolphin colony also pertains to this theme. These studies raise the following questions: whether the presence of zoonotic agents in marine vertebrates represents a risk to other marine vertebrates, humans, or both; what are the routes by which these marine vertebrate zoonotic infections are acquired and circulated in the marine ecosystem; to what degree are such agents subclinical versus causes of overt disease in marine vertebrates; what are the subsets of the human population most likely to be affected by such infections; and which human health preventive measures would seem reasonable? PMID:18828558

Moore, M J; Gast, R J; Bogomolni, A L

2008-08-19

435

Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

Corey, David P.

436

Vertebrate heart development: Lessons learnt from live imaging  

E-print Network

Vertebrate heart development: Lessons learnt from live imaging California Institute of Technology employing different imaging techniques. Sub resolution imaging of beating zebrafish heart has however remained a challenge owing Embryonic heart is a 100 moving quasi-periodically at few Hertz frequency, over

Shyamasundar, R.K.

437

Neural Crest and the Origin of Vertebrates: A New Head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the morphological and functional differences between vertebrates and other chordates occur in the head and are derived embryologically from muscularized hypomere, neural crest, and epidermal (neurogenic) placodes. In the head, the neural crest functions as mesoderm and forms connective, skeletal, and muscular tissue. Both the neural crest and the epidermal placodes form special sense organs and other neural

Carl Gans; R. Glenn Northcutt

1983-01-01

438

DNA methylation, epigenetics, and evolution in vertebrates: facts and challenges.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution. PMID:24551476

Varriale, Annalisa

2014-01-01

439

Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three-  

E-print Network

2057 Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three- dimensional structure, the development of which is not well understood. Brain morphogenesis begins during, and continues subsequent to, neural tube closure. One aspect of brain structure that is highly conserved throughout

Lowery, Laura Anne

440

Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum  

PubMed Central

Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings. PMID:23171835

Hersh, Michelle H.; Tibbetts, Michael; McHenry, Diana J.; Duerr, Shannon; Brunner, Jesse; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

2012-01-01

441

CYNTENATOR: Progressive Gene Order Alignment of 17 Vertebrate Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole genome gene order evolution in higher eukaryotes was initially considered as a random process. Gene order conservation or conserved synteny was seen as a feature of common descent and did not imply the existence of functional constraints. This view had to be revised in the light of results from sequencing dozens of vertebrate genomes.It became apparent that other factors

Christian Rödelsperger; Christoph Dieterich; Sridhar Hannenhalli

2010-01-01

442

Thoracic Vertebral Actinomycosis: Actinomyces israelii and Fusobacterium nucleatum?  

PubMed Central

Actinomyces spp. are considered rare pathogens in today's medicine, especially with thoracic vertebral involvement. Classic actinomycosis (50%) presents as an oral-cervicofacial (“lumpy jaw”) infection. This report describes a case of spinal cord compression caused by Actinomyces israelii with the coisolation of Fusobacterium nucleatum. There are limited numbers of similar cases. PMID:18337385

Honda, Hitoshi; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Kajioka, Eric H. N.; Chokrungvaranon, Nalurporn; Kim, Wesley; Gallacher, Scott T.

2008-01-01

443

Characteristics of vertebrate-dispersed fruits in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hong Kong has a native angiosperm flora of approximately 1800 species, of which 27% (482 spp.) bear fleshy, presumably vertebrate-dispersed fruits, including 76% of the 337 tree and shrub species and 70% of the 103 climber species. Morphological characteristics were determined for 255 species and nutritional characteristics of the fruit pulp for 153 species. Most fruit species were black (45.1%)

Richard T. Corlett

1996-01-01

444

Vertebral and metacarpal morphometry as indicators of nutritional improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Because of the importance of nutrition in the development of bone mass, we studied the nutritional state, and bone state by means of metacarpal radiogrammetric measurements and vertebral morphometry in a group of 40 premenopausal women born between 1960 and 1970, mean age 29 ± 5 years, and in another group of 40 postmenopausal women born between 1934 and 1944,

M. Revilla; E. Fraile; F. Aguado; E. R. Hermandez; L. F. Villa; H. Rico

1997-01-01

445

VERTEBRATES FROM THE CUTLER GROUP OF MONUMENT VALLEY AND VICINITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ology of Baars will be followed here. Based on comparisons of vertebrate fossils from the Cutler of Monument Valley with those from the Lower Permian of north-central Texas, it would seem that the Halgaito Shale and Cedar Mesa Sandstone are of Wolfcampian age and that the Organ Rock Shale is probably the equivalent of beds near the boundary of the

PETER PAUL VAUGHN

446

NATURE OF CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF WETLAND VERTEBRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no longer any doubt that cumulative impacts have important effects on wetland vertebrates. he interactions of species diversity and community structure produce a complex pattern in which environmental impacts can play a highly significant role. ariety of examples shows h...

447

The Importance of Collagen Fibers in Vertebrate Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen fibers form the basic structural components of extracellular matrix (ECM) of vertebrates that serve to: (1) store elastic energy during muscular deformation, (2) transmit stored energy into joint movement, and (3) transfer excess energy from the joint back to the attached muscles for dissipation. They also act as mechanotransducers by transferring stress borne by the musculoskeleton to the attached

Frederick H. Silver

2009-01-01

448

Compressive fatigue behavior of human vertebral trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage accumulation under compressive fatigue loading is believed to contribute significantly to non-traumatic, age-related vertebral fractures in the human spine. Only few studies have explored trabecular bone fatigue behavior under compressive loading and none examined the influence of trabecular architecture on fatigue life. In this study, trabecular bone samples of human lumbar and thoracic vertebrae (4 donors from age 29

Laurent Rapillard; Mathieu Charlebois; Philippe K. Zysset

2006-01-01

449

HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN  

E-print Network

HISTORY OF EARLY CENOZOIC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE BIGHORN BASIN Philip D. Gingerich Abstract.- The first fossil mammals from the Bighorn Basin were found by Wortman and described by Cope in 1880. These are early Wasatchian in age, and probably came from the southern part of the basin. During Wortman's 1881

Gingerich, Philip D.

450

A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary lipids (bile salts, phospholipids, choles- terol, plant sterols) were determined in 89 vertebrate species (cartilaginous and bony fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals), and individual phospholipid classes were measured in 35 species. All samples contained conjugated bile salts (C 27 bile alcohol sulfates and\\/or N -acyl amidates of C 27 and\\/or C 24 bile acids). Phospholipids were generally absent in

Antonio Moschetta; Fang Xu; Lee R. Hagey; Gerard P. van Berge-Henegouwen; Karel J. van Erpecum; Jos F. Brouwers; Jonathan C. Cohen; Molly Bierman; Helen H. Hobbs; Joseph H. Steinbach; Alan F. Hofmann

2005-01-01

451

Structural aspects of the calcification process of lower vertebrate collagen.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the structural relationship between inorganic phase and collagen fibrils in the calcified tissues of lower vertebrates we have carried out a wide and small angle X-ray diffraction investigation on carp scales and bone samples. The small angle patterns from decalcified bone and scales, as well as uncalcified tendon samples from carp are very similar to that of type I collagen from higher vertebrates. The D-axial period, 67 nm, is the same as that of higher vertebrate type I collagen, while the most significant difference is the relatively low intensity of the first order reflection, which is, however, the most intense. The relative intensity distributions of the meridional reflections recorded from fish bone and scales are in agreement with an electron density distribution according to a step function. The calculated step length is very close to the values previously reported for calcified tissues from higher vertebrates. The small angle reflections from calcified, as well as decalcified, scales display different directions of orientation, which could be in agreement with a plywood arrangement of collagen fibrils in successive sheets parallel to the plane of the scale. PMID:10826707

Bigi, A; Koch, M H; Panzavolta, S; Roveri, N; Rubini, K

2000-01-01

452

The Mosaic Genome of Warm-Blooded Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the nuclear genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is a mosaic of very long (>>200 kilobases) DNA segments, the isochores; these isochores are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content. The families of DNA molecules derived from such classes can be separated and used to study

Giorgio Bernardi; Birgitta Olofsson; Jan Filipski; Marino Zerial; Julio Salinas; Gerard Cuny; Michele Meunier-Rotival; Francis Rodier

1985-01-01

453

Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding  

E-print Network

Resource Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding Sites in the Human Genome Tae by preventing the spread of heterochromatin and restricting transcriptional enhancers from acti- vation of these sequences are located far from the transcriptional start sites, with their dis- tribution strongly

454

Evolutionary transitions in parental care and live bearing in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide the é rst review of phylogenetic transitions in parental care and live bearing for a wide variety of vertebrates. This includes new analyses of both numbers of transitions and transition probabilities. These reveal numerous transitions by shorebirds and anurans toward uniparental care by either sex. Whereas most or all of the shorebird transitions were from biparental care, nearly

John D. Reynolds; Nicholas B. Goodwin; Robert P. Freckleton

2002-01-01

455

Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin ?I Domains  

PubMed Central

Half of the 18 human integrins ? subunits have an inserted ?I domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin ?I domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human ?I domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with ?I domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin ?I domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin ?I domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the ?1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin ?I domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with ?I domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Käpylä, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.

2014-01-01

456

Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid

Satomi Kohno; Yoshinao Katsu; Taisen Iguchi; Louis J. Guillette Jr

2008-01-01

457

Vertebrate Cranial Placodes as Evolutionary Innovations-The Ancestor's Tale.  

PubMed

Evolutionary innovations often arise by tinkering with preexisting components building new regulatory networks by the rewiring of old parts. The cranial placodes of vertebrates, ectodermal thickenings that give rise to many of the cranial sense organs (ear, nose, lateral line) and ganglia, originated as such novel structures, when vertebrate ancestors elaborated their head in support of a more active and exploratory life style. This review addresses the question of how cranial placodes evolved by tinkering with ectodermal patterning mechanisms and sensory and neurosecretory cell types that have their own evolutionary history. With phylogenetic relationships among the major branches of metazoans now relatively well established, a comparative approach is used to infer, which structures evolved in which lineages and allows us to trace the origin of placodes and their components back from ancestor to ancestor. Some of the core networks of ectodermal patterning and sensory and neurosecretory differentiation were already established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians and were greatly elaborated in the bilaterian ancestor (with BMP- and Wnt-dependent patterning of dorsoventral and anteroposterior ectoderm and multiple neurosecretory and sensory cell types). Rostral and caudal protoplacodal domains, giving rise to some neurosecretory and sensory cells, were then established in the ectoderm of the chordate and tunicate-vertebrate ancestor, respectively. However, proper cranial placodes as clusters of proliferating progenitors producing high-density arrays of neurosecretory and sensory cells only evolved and diversified in the ancestors of vertebrates. PMID:25662263

Schlosser, Gerhard

2015-01-01

458

Making a vertebrate limb: New players enter from the wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary What initiates vertebrate limb development and induces limbs to form where they do? For several years the answer to this intriguing question has been framed in terms of a working model that limb induction depends on a dialogue between two members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family of intercellular signaling molecules, FGF8 and FGF10. Now, a recent paper

Gail Martin

2001-01-01

459

The making of the somite: molecular events in vertebrate segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reiterated structures of the vertebrate axial skeleton, spinal nervous system and body muscle are based on the metameric structure of somites, which are formed in a dynamic morphogenetic process. Somite segmentation requires the activity of a biochemical oscillator known as the somite-segmentation clock. Although the molecular identity of the clock remains unknown, genetic and experimental evidence has accumulated that

Hiroyuki Takeda; Yumiko Saga

2001-01-01

460

Morphological variation of "complex vertebral malformation" in Holstein calves.  

PubMed

A study was performed to investigate the morphological expression of the inherited syndrome "complex vertebral malformation" (CVM) in Holstein calves. A total of 107 late-term aborted, premature, or neonatal calves suspected of having CVM were necropsied and retrospectively analyzed for the causal mutation in the gene SLC35A3. Sixty-two calves were homozygous affected, 16 were heterozygous, and 29 were homozygous normal. Calves affected by CVM were growth retarded. Vertebral lesions identified by radiography were present in 61 cases, of which 58 also had costal malformation. Malformation of the head, primarily in the form of dysplasia or palatoschisis, was present in 15 cases. Bilateral symmetric flexion of the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints was present in all cases, whereas posterior arthrogryposis was found in 54 cases. Interventricular septal defects occurred in 33 calves, often in combination with other cardiac malformations. A wide spectrum of additional malformations was found. Other congenital syndromes were in most cases distinguishable from CVM on a morphological basis. However, a calf with a prenatal infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus constituted a phenocopy. The study demonstrated that the morphological expression of CVM is wide, but certain aspects, i.e., growth retardation, vertebral malformation, and symmetric arthrogryposis, are almost constant findings. However, cases without vertebral defects and phenocopies constitute a diagnostic problem. A presumptive diagnosis of CVM can in most cases be based on necropsy findings combined with information on descent and paternal CVM genotype, whereas a definitive diagnosis requires genotyping. PMID:15586570

Agerholm, Jorgen S; Bendixen, Christian; Arnbjerg, Jens; Andersen, Ole

2004-11-01

461

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role in engendering these differences by masculinizing the nervous system of males. Usually, the androgen must act early in life, often during

Bradley Cooke; Carol D. Hegstrom; Loic S. Villeneuve; S. Marc Breedlove

1998-01-01

462

[Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].  

PubMed

Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

1997-09-01