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1

VACTERL association with a rare vertebral anomaly (butterfly vertebra) in a case of monochorionic twin.  

PubMed

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities (13). We report a rare case of a monochorionic twin gestation in which one of the infants had VACTERL association. Antenatal ultrasound showed bilateral renal dysplasia and cardiac anomaly (ASD) in twin A. Twin A was noted to have the following anomalies: a single umbilical artery, limb anomaly (right hand preaxial polydactyly), vertebral anomalies (T9 and T11 butterfly vertebras, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, anal and urethral atresia. A normal-sized stomach and normal amount of amniotic fluid were observed during the prenatal period with no other anomalies. Twin B (male) was healthy and no cardiac, renal, or congenital anomalies were demonstrated on ultrasound and physical examination. Infant A was also diagnosed as having VACTERL association because he had five of the core anomalies (V, A, C, R, L) of VACTERL association. Butterfly vertebra is an uncommon congenital spinal anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second case VACTERL association with butterfly vertebra in the literature. PMID:25059024

Sandal, G; Aslan, N; Duman, L; Ormeci, A R

2014-01-01

2

Posterior Vertebral Column Resection for VATER/VACTERL Associated Spinal Deformity: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The VATER/VACTERL association is a syndrome notable for congenital vertebral malformations, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and renal or limb malformations. Vertebral malformations may include the entire spectrum of congenital spinal deformities, including kyphosis, as was seen in this case. A 14-year-old girl presented to our institution with severe rigid sagittal deformity in the thoracolumbar spine that had recurred following three prior spinal fusion surgeries: the first posterior only, the second anterior and posterior, and the third a posterior only proximal extension. These surgeries were performed to control progressive kyphosis from a complex failure of segmentation that resulted in a 66° kyphosis from T11 to L3 by the time she was 9 years old. Our evaluation revealed solid arthrodesis from the most recent procedures with resultant sagittal imbalance, and surgical options to restore balance included anterior and posterior revision spinal fusion with osteotomies, multiple posterior extension osteotomies with circumferential spine fusion, and posterior vertebral column resection with circumferential spine fusion. She was advised that multiple posterior extension osteotomies would likely be insufficient to restore sagittal balance in the setting of solid arthrodesis from anterior and posterior surgery, and that the posterior-only vertebral column resection would provide results equivalent to revision anterior and posterior surgery, without the morbidity of the anterior approach. She successfully underwent posterior vertebrectomy and circumferential spinal fusion with instrumentation and is doing well 2 years postoperatively. Severe rigid sagittal deformity can be effectively managed with a posterior-only surgical approach, vertebrectomy, and circumferential spinal fusion with instrumentation. PMID:18751773

Cunningham, Matthew E.; Charles, Gina

2006-01-01

3

Oesophageal atresia, VACTERL association: Fanconi's anaemia related spectrum of anomalies  

PubMed Central

Oesophageal atresia usually occurs without any genetic background. Three cases associated with Fanconi's anaemia are reported. One neonate had growth retardation and numerous malformations including oesophageal atresia and four other components of the VACTERL association. In the two others, oesophageal atresia was isolated. In patients with such malformations an early diagnosis of Fanconi's anaemia may have important genetic and therapeutic implications.?? PMID:9623406

Perel, Y; Butenandt, O; Carrere, A; Saura, R; Fayon, M; Lamireau, T; Vergnes, P

1998-01-01

4

First Trimester Diagnosis of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association (OMIM 192350) is a non-random combination of multiple congenital malformations including vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal and limb anomalies. The wide spectrum of defects suggests the occurrence of defective development during early embryogenesis. The authors report a case of a complex polymalformative association detected by ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy. The ensuing fetal study revealed the presence of vertebral, anorectal, renal and limb anomalies and therefore was considered a case of VACTERL association. This complex association generally entails a poor prognosis. Its early detection allows discussion of management options, including medical termination of pregnancy. PMID:24765498

Santos, Joana; Nogueira, Rosete; Pinto, Rita; Cerveira, Isabel; Pereira, Susana

2013-01-01

5

VACTERL/VATER Association.  

PubMed

VACTERL/VATER association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. In addition to these core component features, patients may also have other congenital anomalies. Although diagnostic criteria vary, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 40,000 live-born infants. The condition is ascertained clinically by the presence of the above-mentioned malformations; importantly, there should be no clinical or laboratory-based evidence for the presence of one of the many similar conditions, as the differential diagnosis is relatively large. This differential diagnosis includes (but is not limited to) Baller-Gerold syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Currarino syndrome, deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Feingold syndrome, Fryns syndrome, MURCS association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, and VACTERL with hydrocephalus. Though there are hints regarding causation, the aetiology has been identified only in a small fraction of patients to date, likely due to factors such as a high degree of clinical and causal heterogeneity, the largely sporadic nature of the disorder, and the presence of many similar conditions. New genetic research methods offer promise that the causes of VACTERL association will be better defined in the relatively near future. Antenatal diagnosis can be challenging, as certain component features can be difficult to ascertain prior to birth. The management of patients with VACTERL/VATER association typically centers around surgical correction of the specific congenital anomalies (typically anal atresia, certain types of cardiac malformations, and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula) in the immediate postnatal period, followed by long-term medical management of sequelae of the congenital malformations. If optimal surgical correction is achievable, the prognosis can be relatively positive, though some patients will continue to be affected by their congenital malformations throughout life. Importantly, patients with VACTERL association do not tend to have neurocognitive impairment. PMID:21846383

Solomon, Benjamin D

2011-01-01

6

VACTERL/VATER Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL/VATER association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. In addition to these core component features, patients may also have other congenital anomalies. Although diagnostic criteria vary, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 40,000 live-born infants. The condition is ascertained clinically by the presence of the above-mentioned malformations; importantly, there should be no clinical or laboratory-based evidence for the presence of one of the many similar conditions, as the differential diagnosis is relatively large. This differential diagnosis includes (but is not limited to) Baller-Gerold syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Currarino syndrome, deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Feingold syndrome, Fryns syndrome, MURCS association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, and VACTERL with hydrocephalus. Though there are hints regarding causation, the aetiology has been identified only in a small fraction of patients to date, likely due to factors such as a high degree of clinical and causal heterogeneity, the largely sporadic nature of the disorder, and the presence of many similar conditions. New genetic research methods offer promise that the causes of VACTERL association will be better defined in the relatively near future. Antenatal diagnosis can be challenging, as certain component features can be difficult to ascertain prior to birth. The management of patients with VACTERL/VATER association typically centers around surgical correction of the specific congenital anomalies (typically anal atresia, certain types of cardiac malformations, and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula) in the immediate postnatal period, followed by long-term medical management of sequelae of the congenital malformations. If optimal surgical correction is achievable, the prognosis can be relatively positive, though some patients will continue to be affected by their congenital malformations throughout life. Importantly, patients with VACTERL association do not tend to have neurocognitive impairment. PMID:21846383

2011-01-01

7

VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations.  

PubMed

Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects. PMID:23653573

Brosens, E; Eussen, H; van Bever, Y; van der Helm, R M; Ijsselstijn, H; Zaveri, H P; Wijnen, R; Scott, D A; Tibboel, D; de Klein, A

2013-02-01

8

VACTERL Association Etiology: The Impact of de novo and Rare Copy Number Variations  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs), either DNA gains or losses, have been found at common regions throughout the human genome. Most CNVs neither have a pathogenic significance nor result in disease-related phenotypes but, instead, reflect the normal population variance. However, larger CNVs, which often arise de novo, are frequently associated with human disease. A genetic contribution has long been suspected in VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal and Limb anomalies) association. The anomalies observed in this association overlap with several monogenetic conditions associated with mutations in specific genes, e.g. Townes Brocks (SALL1), Feingold syndrome (MYCN) or Fanconi anemia. So far VACTERL association has typically been considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Identifying recurrent or de novo genomic variations in individuals with VACTERL association could make it easier to distinguish VACTERL association from other syndromes and could provide insight into disease mechanisms. Sporadically, de novo CNVs associated with VACTERL are described in literature. In addition to this literature review of genomic variation in published VACTERL association patients, we describe CNVs present in 68 VACTERL association patients collected in our institution. De novo variations (>30 kb) are absent in our VACTERL association cohort. However, we identified recurrent rare CNVs which, although inherited, could point to mechanisms or biological processes contributing to this constellation of developmental defects. PMID:23653573

Brosens, E.; Eussen, H.; van Bever, Y.; van der Helm, R.M.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Zaveri, H.P.; Wijnen, R.; Scott, D.A.; Tibboel, D.; de Klein, A.

2013-01-01

9

Mutation Screening and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using a 180K Oligonucleotide Array in VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

In order to identify genetic causes of VACTERL association (V vertebral defects, A anorectal malformations, C cardiac defects, T tracheoesofageal fistula, E esophageal atresia, R renal anomalies, L limb deformities), we have collected DNA samples from 20 patients diagnosed with VACTERL or with a VACTERL-like phenotype as well as samples from 19 aborted fetal cases with VACTERL. To investigate the importance of gene dose alterations in the genetic etiology of VACTERL association we have performed a systematic analysis of this cohort using a 180K array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) platform. In addition, to further clarify the significance of PCSK5, HOXD13 and CHD7 genes in the VACTERL phenotype, mutation screening has been performed. We identified pathogenic gene dose imbalances in two fetal cases; a hemizygous deletion of the FANCB gene and a (9;18)(p24;q12) unbalanced translocation. In addition, one pathogenic mutation in CHD7 was detected, while no apparent disease-causing mutations were found in HOXD13 or PCSK5. Our study shows that although large gene dose alterations do not seem to be a common cause in VACTERL association, array-CGH is still important in clinical diagnostics to identify disease cause in individual cases. PMID:24416387

Winberg, Johanna; Gustavsson, Peter; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Sahlin, Ellika; Bradley, Frideborg; Nordenskjöld, Edvard; Svensson, Pär-Johan; Annerén, Göran; Iwarsson, Erik; Nordgren, Ann; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

2014-01-01

10

Long-term outcomes of adults with features of VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association involves the presence of specific congenital, multi-organ malformations that tend to co-occur. Clinical and research efforts typically center on pediatric patients, and there is a scarcity of information in the literature regarding VACTERL-related issues and outcomes in adulthood. We describe here 11 adults with features of VACTERL association ascertained through our research study on the condition. In our cohort of adult patients, approximately 25% of medically significant malformations that are component features of VACTERL association, including 40% of vertebral, 50% of cardiac, and 50% of renal anomalies, were not identified during childhood. Additionally, medical sequelae of many of the primary malformations identified in infancy or early childhood persist or are first reported in adulthood. These sequelae can involve challenging medical and surgical management in adulthood. As most adults with VACTERL association are not specifically followed for VACTERL-related issues, a more uniform diagnostic work-up and a low threshold for investigation of medical sequelae of the primary disorder may enhance the quality of clinical management in these patients. PMID:20888933

Raam, Manu S.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

11

De novo microduplications at 1q41, 2q37.3, and 8q24.3 in patients with VATER/VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

The acronym VATER/VACTERL association describes the combination of at least three of the following congenital anomalies: vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia (TE), renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L). We aimed to identify highly penetrant de novo copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to VATER/VACTERL association. Array-based molecular karyotyping was performed in a cohort of 41 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and 6 patients with VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype including all of the patients' parents. Three de novo CNVs were identified involving chromosomal regions 1q41, 2q37.3, and 8q24.3 comprising one (SPATA17), two (CAPN10, GPR35), and three (EPPK1, PLEC, PARP10) genes, respectively. Pre-existing data from the literature prompted us to choose GPR35 and EPPK1 for mouse expression studies. Based on these studies, we prioritized GPR35 for sequencing analysis in an extended cohort of 192 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype. Although no disease-causing mutation was identified, our mouse expression studies suggest GPR35 to be involved in the development of the VATER/VACTERL phenotype. Follow-up of GPR35 and the other genes comprising the identified duplications is warranted. PMID:23549274

Hilger, Alina; Schramm, Charlotte; Pennimpede, Tracie; Wittler, Lars; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Bartels, Enrika; Engels, Hartmut; Zink, Alexander M; Degenhardt, Franziska; Müller, Annette M; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Hosie, Stuart; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Wijers, Charlotte HW; Marcelis, Carlo LM; van Rooij, Iris ALM; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko; Draaken, Markus

2013-01-01

12

Analysis of FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster in patients with VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association, a relatively common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000 – 35,000 births, is a non-random association of birth defects that includes vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-esophageal fistula (TE), renal anomalies (R) and limb malformations (L). Although the etiology is unknown in the majority of patients, there is evidence that it is causally heterogeneous. Several studies have shown evidence for inheritance in VACTERL, implying a role for genetic loci. Recently, patients with component features of VACTERL and a lethal developmental pulmonary disorder, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV), were found to harbor deletions or mutations affecting FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24. We investigated this gene through direct sequencing and high-density SNP microarray in 12 patients with VACTERL association but without ACD/MPV. Our mutational analysis of FOXF1 showed normal sequences and no genomic imbalances affecting the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24 in the studied patients. Possible explanations for these results include the etiologic and clinical heterogeneity of VACTERL association, the possibility that mutations affecting this gene may occur only in more severely affected individuals, and insufficient study sample size. PMID:21315191

Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Keaton, Amelia A.; Warren-Mora, Nicole; Raam, Manu S.; Kamat, Aparna; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

13

Clinical Geneticists’ Views of VACTERL/VATER Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association (sometimes termed “VATER association” depending on which component features are included) is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations, which tend to statistically co-occur in affected individuals: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities. Although the clinical criteria for VACTERL association may appear to be straightforward, there is wide variability in the way clinical geneticists define the disorder and the genetic testing strategy they use when confronted with an affected patient. In order to describe this variability and determine the most commonly used definitions and testing modalities, we present the results of survey responses by 121 clinical geneticists. We discuss the results of the survey responses, provide a literature review and commentary from a group of physicians who are currently involved in clinical and laboratory-based research on VACTERL association, and offer an algorithm for genetic testing in patients with this association. PMID:23165726

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Bear, Kelly A.; Kimonis, Virginia; de Klein, Annelies; Scott, Daryl A.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Tibboel, Dick; Reutter, Heiko; Giampietro, Philip F.

2012-01-01

14

Considering the Embryopathogenesis of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

The nonrandom co-occurrence of vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, genitourinary, and limb malformations, recognized as the VACTERL association, has not been satisfactorily explained from either a causation or embryopathogenesis standpoint. Few familial cases have been identified and maternal diabetes is the only environmental influence implicated to date. Mutations in single genes have been found in a number of syndromes with one or more of the VACTERL malformations, but these syndromes usually have other features which distinguish them from the VACTERL association. Animal models have provided clues to molecular pathways that may be involved in the embryogenesis of the VACTERL structures. What is lacking is the systematic study of individual genes and pathways in well-composed cohorts of patients, which is now possible with high throughput molecular technologies. PMID:23653571

Stevenson, R.E.; Hunter, A.G.W.

2013-01-01

15

Congenital vertebral anomalies: aetiology and relationship to spina bifida cystica.  

PubMed Central

A family survey of 337 patients with congenital vertebral anomalies has been carried out from the Scoliosis Clinics of Edinburgh and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. From genetic and epidemiological evidence it is clear that multiple vertebral anomalies (without apparent spina bifida) are aetiologically related to anencephaly and spina bifida cystics, carrying a 5-10% risk to subsequent sibs for any one of these defects. The implications for prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Solitary hemivertebrae and localized anterior defects of the vertebral bodies causing kyphoscoliosis are sporadic (non-familial) in nature, carrying no risk to subsequent sibs. Images PMID:1100836

Wynne-Davies, R

1975-01-01

16

Pulmonary agenesis and pulmonary sling anomaly in an infant with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly presenting with normal karyotype in most of the cases. Rarely pulmonary agenesis is associated with chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic disorders such as Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, VACTERL association and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. This report presents a patient with pulmonary agenesis, pulmonary sling anomaly and Down syndrome. PMID:24341150

Takci, S; Yigit, S; Haliloglu, M; Boduroglu, K; Kiper, N

2013-01-01

17

Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); and others

1996-01-02

18

Staged male urethroplasty transferring megalourethra tissue as free graft dorsal inlay to proximal urethral atresia in VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Megalourethra is a rare spectrum of urologic malformations of penile corporal structures frequently associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as prune belly syndrome or vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal, renal, and limb (VACTERL association) defects. A 6-year-old boy with VACTERL association and proximal urethral atresia with distal fusiform megalourethra underwent staged reconstruction, including appendicovesicostomy, perineal urethrostomy, and first-stage urethroplasty with a dorsal inlay free graft of megalourethra tissue to the proximal urethral atretic region, followed by second-stage urethroplasty. At 2.6 years of follow-up, he was continent, voids per urethra without postvoid residual urine volume, and no longer performs clean intermittent catheterization by way of the appendicovesicostomy. PMID:21601242

Bagrodia, Aditya; Yucel, Selcuk; Baker, Linda A

2011-12-01

19

Recessive mutations in CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Understanding the complex genetic makeup underlying congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is of primary importance to improve diagnosis, stratify risk for later-onset complications, and develop therapeutic strategies. Saisawat et al. used homozygosity mapping coupled with next-generation sequencing to identify recessive mutations in TRAP1 in families with isolated CAKUT and with VACTERL association. This study points to a novel player in kidney development, possibly affecting apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. PMID:24875543

Westland, Rik; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone

2014-06-01

20

VATER/VACTERL association: identification of seven new twin pairs, a systematic review of the literature, and a classical twin analysis  

PubMed Central

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. The identification of 14 twin pairs with an initial diagnosis of VATER/VACTERL association at our clinical centers led to the performance of a classical twin study. This involved a thorough evaluation of these 14 twin pairs and a further 55 twin pairs identified from a systematic review of the literature. The zygosity, concordance, and malformation status of all 69 twin pairs were evaluated. Twenty-four twin pairs fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in a comparison of the concordance rates between monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twin pairs. The pairwise concordance rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4–42%] for MZ and 18% (95% CI 5–48%) for DZ twin pairs (P = 0.53). The probandwise concordance rates were 27% (95% CI 11–52%) for MZ and 31% (95% CI 13–58%) for DZ twin pairs (P= 0.40). Although based on a limited number of twin pairs, the findings of the present study are consistent with the low number of familial cases reported to date, and suggest that the role of inherited genetic factors in the majority of VATER/VACTERL cases is limited. PMID:22895008

Bartels, Enrika; Schulz, Anna C.; Mora, Nicole W.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; Marcelis, Carlo M.; Stressig, Rüdiger; Ritgen, Jochen; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Mattheisen, Manuel; Draaken, Markus; Hoffmann, Per; Hilger, Alina C.; Dworschak, Gabriel C.; Baudisch, Friederike; Ludwig, Michael; Bagci, Soyhan; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Bartmann, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M.; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Reutter, Heiko M.

2014-01-01

21

Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Patient With Congenital Vertebral Body Anomaly: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lumbar disc herniation is characterized with low back and leg pain resulting from the degenerated lumbar disc compressing the spinal nerve root. The etiology of degenerative spine is related to age, smoking, microtrauma, obesity, disorders of familial collagen structure, occupational and sports-related physical activity. However, disc herniations induced by congenital lumbar vertebral anomalies are rarely seen. Vertebral fusion defect is one of the causes of congenital anomalies. The pathogenesis of embryological corpus vertebral fusion anomaly is not fully known. In this paper, a 30-year-old patient who had the complaints of low back and right leg pain after falling from a height is presented. She had right L5-S1 disc herniation that had developed on the basis of S1 vertebra corpus fusion anomaly in Lumbar computed tomography. This case has been discussed in the light of literature based on evaluations of Lumbar Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This case is unique in that it is the first case with development of lumbar disc herniation associated with S1 vertebral corpus fusion anomaly. Congenital malformations with unusual clinical presentation after trauma should be evaluated through advanced radiological imaging techniques. PMID:25620987

Atabey, Cem; Topuz, Ali Kivanc; Velio?lu, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

2014-01-01

22

Lumbar disc herniation in a patient with congenital vertebral body anomaly: a case report.  

PubMed

Lumbar disc herniation is characterized with low back and leg pain resulting from the degenerated lumbar disc compressing the spinal nerve root. The etiology of degenerative spine is related to age, smoking, microtrauma, obesity, disorders of familial collagen structure, occupational and sports-related physical activity. However, disc herniations induced by congenital lumbar vertebral anomalies are rarely seen. Vertebral fusion defect is one of the causes of congenital anomalies. The pathogenesis of embryological corpus vertebral fusion anomaly is not fully known. In this paper, a 30-year-old patient who had the complaints of low back and right leg pain after falling from a height is presented. She had right L5-S1 disc herniation that had developed on the basis of S1 vertebra corpus fusion anomaly in Lumbar computed tomography. This case has been discussed in the light of literature based on evaluations of Lumbar Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This case is unique in that it is the first case with development of lumbar disc herniation associated with S1 vertebral corpus fusion anomaly. Congenital malformations with unusual clinical presentation after trauma should be evaluated through advanced radiological imaging techniques. PMID:25620987

Atabey, Cem; Ero?lu, Ahmet; Topuz, Ali Kivanc; Velio?lu, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

2014-12-01

23

Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods?A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results?Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion?We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

2014-10-01

24

Two girls with short stature, short neck, vertebral anomalies, Sprengel deformity and intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Here, we report two unrelated girls with prenatal onset short stature, short neck, cervical vertebral anomalies, Sprengel deformity, and mild intellectual disability. The association of these features first suggested a syndromic form of Klippel-Feil anomaly. We therefore analyzed the three known disease causing genes and the candidate gene PAX1. However, direct sequencing of GDF6, GDF3, PAX1, and MEOX1 failed to identify any mutation. To our knowledge, the phenotype we report has not been described previously, leading us to speculate that this condition may represent a new syndrome. PMID:25463316

Isidor, Bertrand; David, Albert

2015-01-01

25

Double cystic duct in a child with VACTERL association: a case report.  

PubMed

Double cystic duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract not described in the pediatric literature. We report the first pediatric case born with VACTERL association found to have double cystic ducts during gallbladder surgery for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Description of the anatomic variability, cholangiography images, and pathologic findings along with review of the literature is included. PMID:19954104

Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Correa, Maria; Brunet, Hector

2009-01-01

26

Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with Full Spectrum of VACTERL in a New Born  

PubMed Central

Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Many associations of PBS with other malformations were previously reported, but only few cases of the association with VACTERL have been described. We report a rare case of a Moroccan new born with PBS and complete VACTERL association. The cause of this association is still unknown, but a common etiology is possible, especially when for the two syndromes, a defect in mesodermal differentiation, in early first trimester, has been suggested. PMID:24027688

Younous, Said; Zarrouki, Youssef; Boutbaoucht, Mustapha; Mouaffak, Youssef; El Idrissi, Kawtar Ennour; Aboussair, Nissrine; Saiad, Mohammed O

2012-01-01

27

Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with Full Spectrum of VACTERL in a New Born.  

PubMed

Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Many associations of PBS with other malformations were previously reported, but only few cases of the association with VACTERL have been described. We report a rare case of a Moroccan new born with PBS and complete VACTERL association. The cause of this association is still unknown, but a common etiology is possible, especially when for the two syndromes, a defect in mesodermal differentiation, in early first trimester, has been suggested. PMID:24027688

Younous, Said; Zarrouki, Youssef; Boutbaoucht, Mustapha; Mouaffak, Youssef; El Idrissi, Kawtar Ennour; Aboussair, Nissrine; Saiad, Mohammed O

2012-01-01

28

Scimitar syndrome in a case with VACTERL association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association and Scimitar syndrome are rare congenital diseases. In this study, we report on a neonate with prenatal suspicion of VACTERL association and small left-sided cardiac structures, which, only on postnatal angiography, could be revealed to be part of a Scimitar syndrome. As this is the second reported case of VACTERL association and Scimitar syndrome, the presence of Scimitar syndrome should be considered in the prenatal and postnatal evaluation of VACTERL association. PMID:24905790

Fritz, Christian J; Reutter, Heiko M; Herberg, Ulrike

2015-03-01

29

An aetiological study of the VACTERL-association.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of the first population-based study of the aetiology of VACTERL-association (i.e., the occurrence of three or more closely defined VACTERL-type abnormalities without other major congenital abnormalities). Forty-three VACTERL-associations and 33 VACTERL-like cases (the latter representing combinations of three or more closely or broadly defined VACTERL abnormalities with other congenital abnormalities) were evaluated. The noteworthy features of the VACTERL-association are: a significant male preponderance, a fetal weight retardation in full-term pregnancies, planned conceptions occurring later than in general and a higher incidence of infertility problems. Our data support the thesis that genetic factors are probably not involved in the aetiology of the VACTERL-association. In contrast, the VACTERL-like cases have a female excess, a higher rate of advanced birth order, no disturbance in fertility and some specific familial occurrence. These findings strongly suggest that genetic factors play a role in the aetiology of this heterogeneous group of multiple congenital abnormalities. PMID:4076249

Czeizel, A; Ludányi, I

1985-11-01

30

Sirenomelia: a new type, showing VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome and a review of literature.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia or "mermaid syndrome" is a rare congenital anomaly known since antiquity. This congenital anomaly is defined as a polymalformative syndrome that associates major muscle and skeleton abnormalities (unique lower limbs) with visceral abnormalities (unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis, anomalies of the abdominal vascularisation). This phenotype, typical of sirenomelia syndrome, may be more or less severe. The pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome are still debated and its etiology remains unknown. We report here a new type of sirenomelia that we observed in a fetus belonging to the collection of the Department of Anatomy of Reims, which led us to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject: this type has never been reported and cannot be classified according to the Stocker and Heifetz classification. Moreover, this case also presents a VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome. PMID:23526679

Lhuaire, Martin; Jestin, Agnès; Boulagnon, Camille; Loock, Mélanie; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Gaillard, Dominique; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

2013-03-01

31

Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

32

Morphological Features of Adult Rats of IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo Strains with Lumbar and Caudal Vertebral Anomalies  

PubMed Central

IS-Tlk/Kyo, a mutant derived from IS/Kyo strain, exhibits a kinked and/or short tail, in addition to the congenital lumbar vertebral anomaly. Homozygotes of Tlk dominant gene are known to die during embryonic development. We previously reported the morphological features of the skeleton in IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo fetuses and of the heart in IS/Kyo fetuses [19]. This study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the skeleton in both adult rats and of the heart in adult IS/Kyo rats. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was observed in 3 out of 10 IS/Kyo rats. Neither splitting of lumbar vertebra and supernumerary rib (in both strains) nor fused or absent caudal cartilage (in IS-Tlk/Kyo strain) was detected in adult rats. Fusion of lumbar vertebrae was observed in almost all specimens together with lumbarization of sacral vertebrae in a few specimens in both adult rats as well as fusion of sacral and caudal vertebrae only in adult IS-Tlk/Kyo rats. In addition, a severe reduction in the ossified sacral and caudal vertebrae was noted in adult IS-Tlk/Kyo rats (mean number: 20.6) and IS/Kyo rats (31.8), and the difference was similar to that in the length of sacral and caudal vertebrae. These results suggest that the Tlk gene may be involved in both the congenital and acquired abnormal formation of the lower vertebral centra as well as the persistent occurrence of VSD by the background gene in IS/Kyo strain. PMID:25077756

Takano, Masao; Ogawa, Emi; Saitou, Tsubasa; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Asano, Yuzo; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

2014-01-01

33

Encephalocele-radial, cardiac, gastrointestinal, anal/renal anomalies: novel evidence for a new condition?  

PubMed

The association between encephalocele and radial defects is considered uncommon. These features have been occasionally described separately in certain recurrent conditions such as VACTERL association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18). DK-phocomelia is a rare syndrome characterized by both findings. However, Froster-Iskenius and Meinecke [1992, Clin Dysmorphol 1: 37-41] and Kunze et al. [1992, Eur J Pediatr 151: 467-468] reported patients presenting similar malformations. We proposed, through the description of an additional case, that these last patients present the same condition and thus represent a new syndrome. The fetus presented a cranial vault deformity associated with an exuberant herniation of brain content, compatible with occipital encephalocele. Other uncommon features were also identified: microtia of the left ear with atresia of the external auditory canal; radial defect with aplasia of left radius and thumb; findings suggestive of a congenital heart defect and esophageal atresia; hypoplastic lungs and adrenals; thoracolumbar scoliosis; atrophic right kidney; and single umbilical artery. Thus, based on our review, we believe that these patients represent a new condition characterized by encephalocele and radial defects associated with multiple malformations. We propose, that the name "Encephalocele-radial, cardiac, gastrointestinal, anal/renal anomalies," as suggested by the London Medical Database, or even the name, "Froster-Iskenius and Meinecke syndrome" should be used to indicate these cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24648351

Valdez, Carolina M; Altmayer, Stephan P L; Barrow, McArthur A; Telles, Jorge A B; Betat, Rosilene da S; Zen, Paulo R G; Rosa, Rafael F M

2014-05-01

34

VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5  

PubMed Central

We have identified an ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced recessive mouse mutation (Vcc) with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes cardiac, tracheoesophageal, anorectal, anteroposterior patterning defects, exomphalos, hindlimb hypoplasia, a presacral mass, renal and palatal agenesis, and pulmonary hypoplasia. It results from a C470R mutation in the proprotein convertase PCSK5 (PC5/6). Compound mutants (Pcsk5Vcc/null) completely recapitulate the Pcsk5Vcc/Vcc phenotype, as does an epiblast-specific conditional deletion of Pcsk5. The C470R mutation ablates a disulfide bond in the P domain, and blocks export from the endoplasmic reticulum and proprotein convertase activity. We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to having anteroposterior patterning defects and renal and palatal agenesis, also have a presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and exomphalos. Pcsk5 mutation results in abnormal expression of several paralogous Hox genes (Hoxa, Hoxc, and Hoxd), and of Mnx1 (Hlxb9). These include known Gdf11 targets, and are necessary for caudal embryo development. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCSK5 in patients with VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb malformation OMIM 192350) and caudal regression syndrome, the phenotypic features of which resemble the mouse mutation. We propose that Pcsk5, at least in part via GDF11, coordinately regulates caudal Hox paralogs, to control anteroposterior patterning, nephrogenesis, skeletal, and anorectal development. PMID:18519639

Szumska, Dorota; Pieles, Guido; Essalmani, Rachid; Bilski, Michal; Mesnard, Daniel; Kaur, Kulvinder; Franklyn, Angela; El Omari, Kamel; Jefferis, Joanna; Bentham, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Johnson, Paul; Tymowska-Lalanne, Zuzanna; Stammers, Dave; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Morris, Andrew; Brown, Steve D.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Constam, Daniel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Prat, Annik; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

2008-01-01

35

VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5.  

PubMed

We have identified an ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced recessive mouse mutation (Vcc) with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes cardiac, tracheoesophageal, anorectal, anteroposterior patterning defects, exomphalos, hindlimb hypoplasia, a presacral mass, renal and palatal agenesis, and pulmonary hypoplasia. It results from a C470R mutation in the proprotein convertase PCSK5 (PC5/6). Compound mutants (Pcsk5(Vcc/null)) completely recapitulate the Pcsk5(Vcc/Vcc) phenotype, as does an epiblast-specific conditional deletion of Pcsk5. The C470R mutation ablates a disulfide bond in the P domain, and blocks export from the endoplasmic reticulum and proprotein convertase activity. We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to having anteroposterior patterning defects and renal and palatal agenesis, also have a presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and exomphalos. Pcsk5 mutation results in abnormal expression of several paralogous Hox genes (Hoxa, Hoxc, and Hoxd), and of Mnx1 (Hlxb9). These include known Gdf11 targets, and are necessary for caudal embryo development. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCSK5 in patients with VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb malformation OMIM 192350) and caudal regression syndrome, the phenotypic features of which resemble the mouse mutation. We propose that Pcsk5, at least in part via GDF11, coordinately regulates caudal Hox paralogs, to control anteroposterior patterning, nephrogenesis, skeletal, and anorectal development. PMID:18519639

Szumska, Dorota; Pieles, Guido; Essalmani, Rachid; Bilski, Michal; Mesnard, Daniel; Kaur, Kulvinder; Franklyn, Angela; El Omari, Kamel; Jefferis, Joanna; Bentham, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer M; Schneider, Jurgen E; Arnold, Sebastian J; Johnson, Paul; Tymowska-Lalanne, Zuzanna; Stammers, Dave; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Morris, Andrew; Brown, Steve D; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Constam, Daniel; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

2008-06-01

36

Prenatal diagnosis of VACTERL syndrome and partial caudal regression syndrome: a previously unreported association.  

PubMed

We describe a case of VACTERL syndrome associated with type 1 unilateral caudal regression syndrome. The abnormal sonographic findings at 26 weeks included hemivertebrae, scoliosis, hypoplastic and deformed lumbar spine and sacrum, preaxial polydactyly on the left hand, duplicated hallux on the left foot and hemihypoplasia of the left lower limb, bilateral club foot, and single umbilical artery. Postmortem examination confirmed prenatal sonographic findings with additional findings of supernumerary rib at the lumbar level and anal atresia. PMID:19536863

Gedikbasi, Ali; Yararbas, Kanay; Yildirim, Gokhan; Yildirim, Dogukan; Arslan, Oguz; Gul, Ahmet; Ceylan, Yavuz

2009-10-01

37

Whole exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum-stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle’s loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or CAKUT in VACTERL association. PMID:24152966

Saisawat, Pawaree; Kohl, Stefan; Hilger, Alina C.; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Gee, Heon Yung; Dworschak, Gabriel C.; Tasic, Velibor; Pennimpede, Tracie; Natarajan, Sivakumar; Sperry, Ethan; Matassa, Danilo S.; Staji?, Nataša; Bogdanovic, Radovan; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L.M.; Wijers, Charlotte H.W.; Bartels, Enrika; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Mäzheuser, Stefanie; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Ludwig, Michael; Nöhen, Markus M.; Draaken, Markus; Brosens, Erwin; Heij, Hugo; Tibboel, Dick; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; de Klein, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; Esposito, Franca; Reutter, Heiko M.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2014-01-01

38

[Oto-vertebral syndrome].  

PubMed

The oto-vertebral syndrome is supposed to be caused by an early embryonic exogenous damage which at the same time affects the development of the ear and vertebral column and possibly also causes cardiac anomalies. Animal studies showed that the malformation syndrome originates in the 6th-7th week of embryonic development. The extent of the malformations of the ear and the vertebral column varies. Frequently seen are dysplasia of the external ear and dystopia and atresia of the external ear canal as well as vertebral malformations, mostly involving the thoracic region. Only 4 case reports have been published in the literature. The differential diagnosis includes Goldenhar-syndrome, oculo-vertebral syndrome. Thalidomide-syndrome and chromosomal aberrations. Therapy depends on the extent of the malformations. In case of atresia of the ear canal hearing is first of all improved with a hearing aid, operative procedures are to be planned later on. Child development is promoted with acustic stimulation. PMID:1225802

Böggering, B

1975-10-23

39

Associated nonurinary congenital anomalies among infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).  

PubMed

Infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CAKUT in a defined population from northeastern France. The associated anomalies in CAKUT were collected in all livebirths, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive births of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 1678 infants with CAKUT born during this period (prevalence at birth of 48.4 per 10,000), 563 (34%) had associated anomalies. There were 119 (7%) patients with chromosomal abnormalities including 33 trisomies 18 (2%), and 168 (10%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VA(C)TER(L) association (3%). However, other recognised dysmorphic conditions were registered including Meckel-Gruber syndrome (2%), and prune belly syndrome (1%). Two hundred seventy six (16%) of the patients had multiple congenital anomalies, non syndromic, non chromosomal (MCA). Anomalies in the musculoskeletal, the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 71% of dysmorphic syndromes with CAKUT. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in three infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of infants with CAKUT. The most commonly associated major nonurinary anomalies involved the musculoskeletal system, followed by the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CAKUT. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CAKUT can be classified into a recognizable anomaly syndrome or pattern in one out of six infants with CAKUT. PMID:24821302

Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

2014-07-01

40

Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and the Urinary Tract (CAKUT)  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the majority of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) with emphasis in Pediatric Pathology describing and illustrating lesions as varied as ureteral duplications, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, horseshoe kidney, posterior urethral valve and prune belly syndrome, obstructive renal dysplasia, nonmotile ciliopathies and several syndromes associated with renal malformations (Meckel–Joubert, short rib, Bardet–Biedl, asplenia/polysplenia, hereditary renal adysplasia, Zellweger, trisomies, VACTER-L, Potter, caudal dysplasia, and sirenomelia), as well as ADPK, and ARPK. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the congenital renal anomalies, but also to analyze the more recent therapeutic interventions that may modify the natural history of some of these severe conditions. PMID:25313840

2014-01-01

41

Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and the Urinary Tract (CAKUT).  

PubMed

This article reviews the majority of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) with emphasis in Pediatric Pathology describing and illustrating lesions as varied as ureteral duplications, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, horseshoe kidney, posterior urethral valve and prune belly syndrome, obstructive renal dysplasia, nonmotile ciliopathies and several syndromes associated with renal malformations (Meckel-Joubert, short rib, Bardet-Biedl, asplenia/polysplenia, hereditary renal adysplasia, Zellweger, trisomies, VACTER-L, Potter, caudal dysplasia, and sirenomelia), as well as ADPK, and ARPK. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the congenital renal anomalies, but also to analyze the more recent therapeutic interventions that may modify the natural history of some of these severe conditions. PMID:25313840

Rodriguez, Maria M

2014-01-01

42

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

43

Whole-exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat-shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle's loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or VACTERL association with CAKUT. PMID:24152966

Saisawat, Pawaree; Kohl, Stefan; Hilger, Alina C; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yung Gee, Heon; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Tasic, Velibor; Pennimpede, Tracie; Natarajan, Sivakumar; Sperry, Ethan; Matassa, Danilo S; Staji?, Nataša; Bogdanovic, Radovan; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Wijers, Charlotte H W; Bartels, Enrika; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Ludwig, Michael; Nöthen, Markus M; Draaken, Markus; Brosens, Erwin; Heij, Hugo; Tibboel, Dick; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Solomon, Benjamin D; de Klein, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Esposito, Franca; Reutter, Heiko M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2014-06-01

44

Vertebrate skeletogenesis  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

2011-01-01

45

Vertebrate skeletogenesis.  

PubMed

Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as nonexperts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone, and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made toward uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

2010-01-01

46

Bangui Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

Taylor, Patrick T.

2004-01-01

47

Vertebral deformities and scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scoliosis, especially idiopathic scoliosis, is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine in which the vertebral deformities are known, cuneal deformation being the most commonly known deformity but not the only one. We report here data concerning these specific vertebral deformities in chickens. A pinealectomy was performed in a controlled series of animal experiments. This technique induces progressive scoliosis in

C. Coillard; C. H. Rivard

1996-01-01

48

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

49

Fossil Halls: Vertebrate Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a larger virtual tour of the Museum's famed Fossil Halls, this Web site has an interactive cladogram with 20 clickable evolutionary branching points. It shows vertebrate evolution for the following three AMNH halls: Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Dinosaurs and Hall of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives.

50

Anomaly Holography  

E-print Network

We consider, in the effective field theory context, anomalies of gauge field theories on a slice of a five-dimensional, Anti-de Sitter geometry and their four-dimensional, holographic duals. A consistent effective field theory description can always be found, notwithstanding the presence of the anomalies and without modifying the degrees of freedom of the theory. If anomalies do not vanish, the d=4 theory contains additional pseudoscalar states, which are either present in the low-energy theory as physical, light states, or are eaten by (would-be massless) gauge bosons. We show that the pseudoscalars ensure that global anomalies of the four-dimensional dual satisfy the 't Hooft matching condition and comment on the relevance for warped models of electroweak symmetry breaking.

Ben Gripaios; Stephen M. West

2007-04-30

51

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

52

Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), one of most reputable American paleontological societies, sponsors this online edition of its Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates. The database, which currently covers the years 1509-1958 and 1981-1993 with approximately 112,000 references, is searchable by author, subject, taxon, language, editor, and journal book or volume title. A help page with query instructions for the somewhat finicky search engine is provided.

1997-01-01

53

Vertebral osteitis adjacent to kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebroplasty and vertebral kyphoplasty are increasingly performed to treat vertebral fractures, most notably those related to osteoporosis. Adverse effects are uncommon and consist chiefly of cement leakage out of the vertebral body and of vertebral fractures adjacent to the treatment site. We report two cases of vertebral osteitis adjacent to vertebroplasty sites, in a 60-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man.

Daniel Wendling; Michel Runge; Eric Toussirot; Ewa Bertolini; Clément Prati

2010-01-01

54

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

55

Vertebral sclerosis in adults.  

PubMed Central

Narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with sclerosis of the adjacent vertebral bodies may occur as a consequence of infection, neoplasia, trauma, or rheumatic disease. Some patients have been described with backache and these radiological appearances without any primary cause being apparent. The lesions were almost always of 1 or, at most, 2 vertebrae and most frequently involved the inferior margin of L4. We describe 3 patients with far more extensive vertebral involvement and present the clinical, radiological, scintiscan, and histological findings. The only patient we have seen with the better known, isolated L4/5 lesion was shown on biopsy to have staphylococcal osteomyelitis. For this reason we would still recommend a biopsy of all such sclerotic vertebral lesions if they occur in the absence of other rheumatic disease. Images PMID:434941

Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Lentle, B C

1979-01-01

56

Duration tuning across vertebrates.  

PubMed

Signal duration is important for identifying sound sources and determining signal meaning. Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) respond preferentially to a range of stimulus durations and maximally to a best duration (BD). Duration-tuned neurons are found in the auditory midbrain of many vertebrates, although studied most extensively in bats. Studies of DTNs across vertebrates have identified cells with BDs and temporal response bandwidths that mirror the range of species-specific vocalizations. Neural tuning to stimulus duration appears to be universal among hearing vertebrates. Herein, we test the hypothesis that neural mechanisms underlying duration selectivity may be similar across vertebrates. We instantiated theoretical mechanisms of duration tuning in computational models to systematically explore the roles of excitatory and inhibitory receptor strengths, input latencies, and membrane time constant on duration tuning response profiles. We demonstrate that models of duration tuning with similar neural circuitry can be tuned with species-specific parameters to reproduce the responses of in vivo DTNs from the auditory midbrain. To relate and validate model output to in vivo responses, we collected electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus of the awake big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and present similar in vivo data from the published literature on DTNs in rats, mice, and frogs. Our results support the hypothesis that neural mechanisms of duration tuning may be shared across vertebrates despite species-specific differences in duration selectivity. Finally, we discuss how the underlying mechanisms of duration selectivity relate to other auditory feature detectors arising from the interaction of neural excitation and inhibition. PMID:22553042

Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Faure, Paul A

2012-05-01

57

Oesophageal atresia, tracheo?oesophageal fistula, and the VACTERL association: review of genetics and epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Oesophageal atresia and/or tracheo?oesophageal fistula are relatively common malformations occurring in approximately 1 in 3500 births. In around half of the cases (syndromic oesophageal atresia), there are associated anomalies, with cardiac malformations being the most common. In the remainder (non?syndromic cases), oesophageal atresia/tracheo?oesophageal fistula occur in isolation. Data from twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors do not play a major role, and yet there are well?defined instances of this malformation where genetic factors clearly are important. This is highlighted by the recent identification of no fewer than three separate genes with a role in the aetiology of oesophageal atresia: those for Feingold syndrome (N?MYC), anophthalmia?oesophageal?genital (AEG) syndrome (SOX2), and CHARGE syndrome (CHD7). Additional support for genetic factors in this malformation comes from chromosomal studies and mouse models. This paper reviews current knowledge of the genetics and epidemiology of the different oesophageal atresia/tracheo?oesophageal fistula syndromes and associations. PMID:16299066

Shaw?Smith, C

2006-01-01

58

Egg envelopes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

As the material presented in this chapter was being collated, our existing perceptions about the basic similarities of vertebrate (and indeed most, if not all, invertebrate) egg envelopes became increasingly strengthened. Perhaps without exception, all vertebrate and invertebrate eggs acquire a "vitelline" envelope. Interestingly, its filamentous ultrastructure and chemical composition--basically protein and carbohydrate--is similar in all species as is its permeability to large molecules. Furthermore, many (if not all) of its functions are shared among the animal phyla as is its potential to become altered at the time of fertilization and, in its altered state, to provide a new set of modi operandi. It provides sperm receptors that are generally species specific and helps prevent polyspermy; it protects the developing embryo yet yields at the time of hatching. In most vertebrate eggs (including some mammals), a jelly or albumen coat is added to the vitelline envelope. These components may vary immensely in thickness, but again their basic chemical composition is common to all. The functions of these envelopes, while perhaps somewhat less clear than those of the vitelline envelope, are related to species-specific fertilization and to embryonic protection. Albumen serves a nutritional role--most clearly shown in the birds. Finally, the shell membrane and shell present in diverse groups contribute additional adaptations for embryo protection. Vertebrate egg envelopes, then, are basically similar; the modifications, including the addition of shell membranes and shells in some groups, reflect adaptations to differing reproductive strategies and to the environmental exigencies with which the egg must cope. With the growth of our understanding about the structure, chemistry, function, and evolution of egg envelopes new questions will continually be formulated. Many will be the same as those asked years ago but they will be answered with newer techniques and with greater insight. PMID:3917202

Dumont, J N; Brummett, A R

1985-01-01

59

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

Pourquié, Olivier

2008-03-01

60

Anomalies of vertebrae and ribs: Jarcho Levin syndrome. Description of a case and literature review.  

PubMed

Jarcho Levin syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by the presence of rib and vertebral defects at birth. This syndrome is usually diagnosed in newborns with short neck and trunk and short stature. They present multiple vertebral anomalies at different levels of the spine, including "butterfly vertebrae", hemivertebrae and fused hypoplastic vertebrae. The small size of the thorax in newborns frequently leads to respiratory compromise and death in infancy. We report a new case with short trunk and neck and vertebral and costal anomalies without respiratory problems. A literature review was conducted. PMID:15851003

Vázquez-López, María E; López-Conde, María I; Somoza-Rubio, Carlos; Pérez-Pacín, Roberto; Morales-Redondo, Ramón; González-Gay, Miguel A

2005-05-01

61

Spinal dermoid sinus in a Dachshund with vertebral and thoracic limb malformations  

PubMed Central

Background Dermoid sinus is an uncommon epithelial-lined fistula that may be associated with vertebral malformations. In humans, Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare condition characterized by congenital cervical vertebral fusion and may be associated with other developmental defects, including dermoid sinus. The present case report describes an adult Dachshund with cervical and cranial thoracic vertebral malformations as well as thoracic limb malformations resembling KFS with a concurrent type IV dermoid sinus. Case presentation A 1.5 year-old Dachshund with congenital thoracic limbs deformities and cervical-thoracic vertebral malformations presented with cervical hyperesthesia, rigidity of the cervical musculature and tetraparesis. Neurologic, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) (2D, 3D, CT fistulography) examinations revealed skeletal anomalies, a dermoid sinus in the cranial thoracic region and epidural gas within the vertebral canal. Surgical resection and histopathological evaluation of the sinus tract were performed and confirmed a type IV dermoid sinus. The clinical signs progressively recovered postoperatively, and no recurrent signs were observed after 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Cervical vertebral malformations associated with limbs anomalies have not been reported in dogs and may represent a condition similar to KFS in humans. KFS can occur concurrently with other congenital conditions including dermoid sinus and should be included among the complex congenital anomalies described in dogs. PMID:24593884

2014-01-01

62

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

63

Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.  

PubMed

Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

2007-01-01

64

Chiral anomalies and differential geometry  

SciTech Connect

Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

Zumino, B.

1983-10-01

65

EVOLUTION OF THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 6: EVOLUTION OF THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR #12;Process: adaptive response of the CNS #12;Salmo (a nonspecialized species) Gnathonemus (a mormyrid fish) Process and pattern in brain structure Pattern: the same divisions of the CNS are found in all vertebrates. Process: specializations have

Cooper, Brenton G.

66

Mechanisms of vertebrate synaptogenesis.  

PubMed

The formation of synapses in the vertebrate central nervous system is a complex process that occurs over a protracted period of development. Recent work has begun to unravel the mysteries of synaptogenesis, demonstrating the existence of multiple molecules that influence not only when and where synapses form but also synaptic specificity and stability. Some of these molecules act at a distance, steering axons to their correct receptive fields and promoting neuronal differentiation and maturation, whereas others act at the time of contact, providing positional information about the appropriateness of targets and/or inductive signals that trigger the cascade of events leading to synapse formation. In addition, correlated synaptic activity provides critical information about the appropriateness of synaptic connections, thereby influencing synapse stability and elimination. Although synapse formation and elimination are hallmarks of early development, these processes are also fundamental to learning, memory, and cognition in the mature brain. PMID:16022596

Waites, Clarissa L; Craig, Ann Marie; Garner, Craig C

2005-01-01

67

Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

2014-04-01

68

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics  

E-print Network

Finite Element Analysis in Vertebrate Biomechanics CALLUM F. ROSS* Department of Organismal Biology in vertebrate biomechanics. These papers are salient examples of the use of FEA to test hypotheses regarding in the methodological arsenal of vertebrate biomechanics. One of the central aims of vertebrate biomechanics

69

Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ?450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

2008-01-01

70

DMRT genes in vertebrate gametogenesis.  

PubMed

Genes containing the DM domain DNA-binding motif regulate sex determination and sexual differentiation in a broad variety of metazoans, including nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. They can function in primary sex determination or downstream in sexual differentiation, and they can act either throughout the body or in highly restricted cell types. In vertebrates, several DM domain genes--DMRT genes--play critical roles in gonadal differentiation or gametogenesis. DMRT1 has the most prominent role and likely regulates testicular differentiation in all vertebrates. In the mammalian gonad, DMRT1 exerts both intrinsic and extrinsic control of gametogenesis; it is required for germ cell differentiation in males and regulates meiosis in both sexes, and it is required in supporting cells for the establishment and maintenance of male fate in the testis. These varied functions of DMRT1 serve to coordinate gonadal development and function. In other vertebrates, DMRT1 regulates gonadal differentiation, and it also appears to have played a central role in the evolution of new sex-determining mechanisms in at least three vertebrate clades. This chapter focuses on the regulation of vertebrate gametogenesis by DMRT1. PMID:23287039

Zarkower, David

2013-01-01

71

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

72

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

73

Calcium transport in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

The title of this paper commemorating the contributions made by Professor Urist has an interesting bearing upon basic skeletal tissue biology. This is because the calcium-binding proteins (vitellogenins), upon which Professor Urist and Schjeide have focused much of their attention in non-mammalian vertebrates, although produced by the liver and present in the blood plasmas of non-mammalian vertebrates during vitellogenesis, are, in effect, substitutes for the protein casein present in the milk of mammalian vertebrates. Vitellogenins (180,000-250,000 daltons) appear to be produced solely for deposition in the yolk of the egg so that the calcium they carry (considerably more than is associated with casein of milk) and the amino acids of which they are comprised can be utilized during embryonic development. In many instances the progeny of non-mammalian vertebrates emerge from the shell as miniatures of the adult, capable of rapid movement and thus requiring a well developed skeletal as well as muscular system. Vitellogenins are not found in any other cells (phagocytes excepted) other than hepatocytes wherein they are made, nor are they present in the intercellular matrix of developing or remodeling bone. In non-vitellogenic females and in males of non-mammalian vertebrates, they are absent from the blood plasma altogether, so that nonionized calcium therein is solely bound to such proteins as albumin and the lipoproteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3905108

Schjeide, O A

1985-11-01

74

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial task for paleontologists and paleobiologists is the reconstruction of the appearance, movements, and behavior of extinct vertebrates from studies of their bones or other, more rarely preserved parts. A related issue is the boundary between the scientific evidence for reconstruction and the need to resort to imagination. In this book, sixteen paleontologists and biologists discuss these questions, review the current status of functional studies of extinct vertebrates in the context of similar work on living animals, and present a broad philosophical view of the subject's development within the framework of phylogenetic analysis. The authors describe and debate methods for making realistic inferences of function in fossil vertebrates, and present examples where we may be confident that our reconstructions are both detailed and accurate.

Thomason, Jeffrey J.

1997-10-01

75

Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations\\u000a in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly\\u000a unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal

Nicholas K. Cheung; Xenia Doorenbosch; John G. Christie

2011-01-01

76

Rib defects in patterns of multiple malformations: a retrospective review and phenotypic analysis of 47 cases.  

PubMed

Rib anomalies may occur in isolation, as well as in association with abnormalities of vertebral segmentation and multi-system malformations. Specific entities include the VACTERL and MURCS associations, spondylocostal dysostosis, and spondylothoracic dysostosis. The relative significance of rib anomalies in other lesser known syndromes and associations remains unclear. To document the diagnoses and related defects in patients with rib anomalies as part of broader pattern of anomalies, we retrospectively identified 47 cases from a hospital population, and evaluated specific costal findings and associated birth defects. In our study, fusion was the most common pattern of rib anomaly (72%), followed by bifid (28%) and hypoplastic ribs (26%). Unrecognized patterns of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) and VACTERL association were the commonest specific diagnoses with a frequency of 30 and 28%, respectively. An associated vertebral defect was found in 72% of the patients. Of those with no vertebral anomaly, the combinations of "rib and cardiac defects alone" and "rib and renal defects alone" were seen in one-third of the patients (4/13). Both the occurrence and type of rib anomaly were helpful in defining certain syndromes and enhanced the likelihood of identifying related malformations. PMID:12949975

Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Prasad, Chitra; Schneider, Gretchen; Evans, Jane A; Korf, Bruce R

2003-09-15

77

A Search for Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1965 I have been culling systematically from the literature of science those observations that challenge reigning paradigms. The tangible result of the thousands of hours spent in libraries has been a series of Sourcebooks, Handbooks, and Catalogs that, at present, describe and evaluate roughly 2,000 anomalies— about one-half of my total collection. Some of these anomalies are truly profound

WILLIAM R. CORLISS

78

Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

2014-01-01

79

Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the ?-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of newly available genome assemblies from phylogenetically informative taxa. Our assessment further highlights the diversity of the vertebrate endothelin system and calls for detailed functional and pharmacological analyses of the endothelin system beyond tetrapods. PMID:25010382

Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

2014-12-01

80

Fugu: a compact vertebrate reference genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 400 Mb, the Japanese pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, has the smallest vertebrate genome but has a similar gene repertoire to other vertebrates. Its genes are densely packed with short intergenic and intronic sequences devoid of repetitive elements. It likely has a mutational bias towards DNA elimination and is probably close to a ‘minimal’ vertebrate genome. As such it is a

Byrappa Venkatesh; Patrick Gilligan; Sydney Brenner

2000-01-01

81

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-03-25

82

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

83

Vascular anomalies in children.  

PubMed

The process of understanding and treating children with vascular anomalies has been hampered by confusing and occasionally incorrect terminology. The most important step when evaluating a maxillofacial vascular anomaly is to determine whether it is a tumor or a malformation. In most cases, this diagnosis can be made by history and physical examination. Selective radiographic imaging is helpful in differentiating vascular malformations or the extent of bony involvement and/or destruction. Children with vascular anomalies should be managed by an interdisciplinary team of trained providers who are committed to following, treating, and studying patients with these complex problems. PMID:22771277

Abramowicz, Shelly; Padwa, Bonnie L

2012-08-01

84

Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

2013-10-01

85

Vertebral Fractures Predict Subsequent Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  This population-based study documents an increase in most types of fractures following the occurrence of a clinically recognized\\u000a vertebral fracture among 820 Rochester, Minnesota, residents. During 4349 person-years of follow-up, 896 new fractures were\\u000a observed. Relative to incidence rates in the community, there was a 2.8-fold increase in the risk of any fracture, which was\\u000a greater in men (standardized incidence

L. J. Melton III; E. J. Atkinson; C. Cooper; W. M. O’Fallon; B. L. Riggs

1999-01-01

86

Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.  

PubMed

Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

1999-01-01

87

Development of the vertebrate tailbud.  

PubMed

The anatomical tailbud is a defining feature of all embryonic chordates, including vertebrates that do not end up with a morphological tail. Due to its seamless continuity with trunk tissues, the tailbud is often overlooked as a mere extension of the body axis; however, the formation of the tail from the tailbud undoubtedly involves unique and distinct mechanisms for forming axial tissues, such as the secondary neurulation process that generates the tailbud-derived spinal cord. Tailbud formation in the frog Xenopus laevis has been demonstrated to involve interaction of three posterior regions of the embryo that first come into alignment at the end of gastrulation, and molecular models for tailbud outgrowth and patterning have been proposed. While classical studies of other vertebrate models, such as the chicken, initially appeared to draw incompatible conclusions, molecular studies have subsequently shown the involvement of at least some similar genetic pathways. Finally, there is an emerging consensus that at least some vertebrate tailbud cells are multipotent progenitors with the ability to form tissues normally derived from different germ layers- a trait normally associated with regeneration of complex appendages, or stem-like cells. WIREs Dev Biol 2015, 4:33-44. doi: 10.1002/wdev.163 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25382697

Beck, Caroline W

2015-01-01

88

Complex lymphatic anomalies.  

PubMed

Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz

2014-08-01

89

Segmentation anomalies of the vertebras and ribs: a developmental field defect: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed

Opitz has defined developmental field defects (DFD) as "any dysmorphogenetically reactive unit of the developing organism that leads to final structure." We have incorporated in our coding system specific codes to identify individual DFDs in each child, irrespective of the cause or type of the MCA pattern (i.e., chromosomal, mendelian, environmental, or unknown). Using this approach, we can analyze the group of defects included in the expression of each DFD as a discrete unit. To confirm our hypothesis that vertebral and rib anomalies constitute a DFD, we have studied all of our cases with segmentation anomalies of the spine and ribs, including hemivertebrae, fused or absent vertebrae, and "crab-like" thorax, all of which fall into the loosely defined groups of spondylothoracic dysplasia, costovertebral dysplasia, Jarcho-Levin syndrome, and others. The study was performed using the 18,743 malformed children from the ECEMC data files, 110 of them having vertebral/rib anomalies. PMID:8172249

Martínez-Frías, M L; Urioste, M

1994-01-01

90

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

91

Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3?years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

2012-01-01

92

Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates. PMID:19443856

Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

93

Dealing with Ebstein's anomaly.  

PubMed

Ebstein's anomaly is a complex congenital disorder of the tricuspid valve. Presentation in neonatal life and (early) childhood is common. Disease severity and clinical features vary widely and require a patient-tailored treatment. In this review, we describe the natural history of children and adolescents with Ebstein's anomaly, including symptoms and signs presenting at diagnosis. Current classification strategies of Ebstein's anomaly are discussed. We report on diagnostic methods for establishing the severity of disease that might enhance decision on the timing of surgical intervention. Furthermore, we describe different surgical options for severely ill neonates and multiple surgical interventions after infancy. Only with ample knowledge and understanding of the above, this complex and diverse group of patients can be correctly treated in order to improve not only duration, but also quality of life. PMID:24169373

Geerdink, Lianne M; Kapusta, Livia

2014-04-01

94

Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates. PMID:23277534

Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

2012-01-01

95

Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

1984-01-01

96

Fetal cardiac anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal cardiac anomalies are increasingly identified during regular obstetric scanning. About 21000 pregnancies will have an abnormality of the four chamber view and a further 11000 will have an abnormality of the great arteries. These cases can then be referred to the specialist in fetal cardiology for further evaluation and counselling. There is a higher rate of chromosomal and other

Lindsey D. Allan

1996-01-01

97

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

98

Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the vertebrate fossil diversity in Brazil is presented. The best known faunas are the fish and rep- tiles from the Santana Formation (both, Crato and Romualdo Members). Also comparatively well known are the mammalian faunas from Pleistocene deposits, which is the result of extensive research done in the last decades. Poorly known are the Paleozoic vertebrates, which

Alexander W. A. Kellner; Diogenes de Almeida Campos

99

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively. These three events coincide with bursts of character acquisition and increases in phenotypic complexity, and many researchers have suggested a causal relationship between the two. However, this pattern is derived from data for

Philip C. J. Donoghue; Mark A. Purnell

2005-01-01

100

Biodiversity loss caused by invasive alien vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The introduction of invasive alien vertebrates is a major cause of the loss of native biodiversity in many regions of the world. The threats posed by them are especially severe on oceanic islands and other isolated ecosystems, in which there are many examples of extinctions or declines of native species caused by alien vertebrates. Predatory mammals are the worst

M. N. Clout

2002-01-01

101

Report on the Assessment of Vertebrate Paleontological  

E-print Network

Report on the Assessment of Vertebrate Paleontological Collections, Burke Museum of Natural History of vertebrate paleontologists examined the collections stored at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture hand-written on index cards and stored in steel drawers. Beginning in the middle 1960's, Dr. Rensberger

Sidor, Christian

102

Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly  

MedlinePLUS

... the individuals affected with Peters anomaly have low vision early in life and about a quarter are legally blind. Due to a lack of visual stimulation, some individuals develop "lazy eye" (amblyopia). Peters anomaly ...

103

[Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis and pulmonary function].  

PubMed

Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis (HVA) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disease often seen in the middle-aged and elderly, frequently in patients older than 70 years (10.1% in men, 6.8% in women). Enthesal ossifications can occur at any site of tendinous or ligamentous insertion. The spine is commonly involved. The characteristic appearance is the presence of thick bony bridges between vertebral bodies of the right side of thoracic spine. Many authors, especially Fischer and Stecher, have described hyperostosis of the rib at the costo-vertebral articulation. In our study, 52 patients were examined. The physical examination consisted essentially in pulmonary function and measurement of thoracic and spinal mobility. In spite of severe ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis, which evokes important ossification of the costo-vertebral articulation, we couldn't demonstrate any change in pulmonary function. PMID:2500693

Pardon-Zryd, F; Gobelet, C; Saudan, Y

1989-05-23

104

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

105

Compositional gene landscapes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The existence of a well conserved linear relationship between GC levels of genes' second and third codon positions (GC2, GC3) prompted us to focus on the landscape, or joint distribution, spanned by these two variables. In human, well curated coding sequences now cover at least 15%-30% of the estimated total gene set. Our analysis of the landscape defined by this gene set revealed not only the well documented linear crest, but also the presence of several peaks and valleys along that crest, a property that was also indicated in two other warm-blooded vertebrates represented by large gene databases, that is, mouse and chicken. GC2 is the sum of eight amino acid frequencies, whereas GC3 is linearly related to the GC level of the chromosomal region containing the gene. The landscapes therefore portray relations between proteins and the DNA environments of the genes that encode them. PMID:15123586

Cruveiller, Stéphane; Jabbari, Kamel; Clay, Oliver; Bernardi, Giorgio

2004-05-01

106

Compositional Gene Landscapes in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The existence of a well conserved linear relationship between GC levels of genes' second and third codon positions (GC2, GC3) prompted us to focus on the landscape, or joint distribution, spanned by these two variables. In human, well curated coding sequences now cover at least 15%–30% of the estimated total gene set. Our analysis of the landscape defined by this gene set revealed not only the well documented linear crest, but also the presence of several peaks and valleys along that crest, a property that was also indicated in two other warm-blooded vertebrates represented by large gene databases, that is, mouse and chicken. GC2 is the sum of eight amino acid frequencies, whereas GC3 is linearly related to the GC level of the chromosomal region containing the gene. The landscapes therefore portray relations between proteins and the DNA environments of the genes that encode them. PMID:15123586

Cruveiller, Stéphane; Jabbari, Kamel; Clay, Oliver; Bernardi, Giorgio

2004-01-01

107

The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

Weems, R.E.

1992-01-01

108

Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,  

E-print Network

3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes, lizards crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take-off presents a unique problem

Socha, Jake

109

A Lebanese family with autosomal recessive oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum and review of the literature: is OAV a genetically heterogeneous disorder?  

PubMed Central

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum summarizes a continuum of ocular, auricular, and vertebral anomalies. Goldenhar syndrome is a variant of this spectrum and is characterized by pre-auricular skin tags, microtia, facial asymmetry, ocular abnormalities, and vertebral anomalies of different sizes and shapes. Most cases are thought to be sporadic. However, a few families were reported to have an autosomal recessive inheritance and other families’ presentation of the syndrome strongly supported an autosomal dominant inheritance. We report OAV in a female infant presenting with tracheomalacia, diaphragmatic hernia, encephalomeningocele, sacral neural tube defect, and cardiac defect and her brother having no more than dysmorphic features. The mode of inheritance in this family supports an autosomal recessive inheritance where the transmission was from normal first-degree consanguineous parents to one of the sons and to the daughter. This report further broadens the clinical presentation and symptoms of OAV and supports the hypothesis advancing OAV as a genetically heterogeneous disorder. PMID:23776370

Farra, Chantal; Yunis, Khaled; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Charafeddine, Lama; Wakim, Rima; Awwad, Johnny

2011-01-01

110

Mass Anomalies on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

2004-01-01

111

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

112

Anomaly, impulsivity, and addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two behavioral approaches to addiction: rational and irrational. The rational approach assumes that addicts have higher time preference rates and lower risk-aversion coefficients—parameters that are interpreted as impulsive preferences. On the other hand, the irrational approach argues that addiction is a consequence of anomalies such as non-expected utility and hyperbolically discounted utility. This paper integrates these two approaches

Takanori Ida

2010-01-01

113

Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

2010-01-01

114

The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.  

PubMed

The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty. PMID:24046041

Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

2013-10-01

115

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6367920

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

116

Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

McCollum, Gin

2003-05-01

117

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences. PMID:22384143

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

118

A rare variation of the vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Variations of the vertebrobasilar arterial complex are important with regard to their potential clinical impact. We present an unusual case of the vertebral artery, in which the left vertebral artery in its ascent in the neck through the transverse foramina passed posteriorly between the transverse processes of C3 and C4 and supplied the posterior muscles of the neck without continuing intracranially. Albeit speculatively, we hypothesise that the variation of the vertebral artery reported here was caused by degeneration of the proximal portion of the left postcostal longitudinal anastomosis (i.e. C1 and C2 intersegmental arteries) in the context of a persistent third cervical intersegmental artery. Our case is unique in that the left vertebral artery terminated extracranially. Knowledge of the variations of the vertebrobasilar arterial complex is important for surgeons operating at the skull base, craniocervical junction, and cervical region, and for clinicians interpreting the imaging of this region. PMID:16773609

Shoja, M M; Tubbs, R S; Khaki, A A; Shokouhi, G; Farahani, R M; Moein, A

2006-05-01

119

VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES: FISH, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS Contents Amphibians Birds Fish, Characteristics Fish, Populations Fish, Productivity Fish, Systematics and Evolution Mammals Reptiles Amphibians W. Introduction The basic physiology of all amphibians makes these organisms dependent on sources of freshwater

Lowe, Winsor H.

120

RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development  

PubMed Central

RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play.

Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

2014-01-01

121

Biology 3326 Vertebrate Design: Evolution and Function  

E-print Network

natural selection for function acting on existing structures. Vertebrate morphology thus depends, and sharks, (you'll meet them in the first part of the class) - so that they all look alike even though

Adl, Sina

122

Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review  

PubMed Central

There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

2014-01-01

123

Comparative study of Moroto vertebral specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypodigm of Morotopithecus bishopi includes several vertebral specimens from Moroto II in addition to a scapular fragment, and femoral and craniodental specimens. The Moroto vertebral specimens include UMP 67.28, which is a well-preserved lumbar vertebra. Based on the derived morphological traits in UMP 67.28, together with evidence from other postcranial elements, it has been claimed that certain aspects of

Masato Nakatsukasa

2008-01-01

124

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck  

PubMed Central

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

125

Physicochemical isotope anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

Esat, T.M. (Australian National Univ., Canberra)

1988-06-01

126

Numerical Shockwave Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable simulation of shockwaves is critical in the prediction and study of many phenomena, where abrupt changes in material properties due to shockwaves can greatly affect regions of interest and activate physical mechanisms. When a physical shockwave is formed, it moves through the flow with a certain speed, having some finite width determined by physical dissipation until it encounters some event in its path. For numerical shockwaves, however, a numerical width is enforced, often much greater than the physical width. With this numerical width comes the formation of intermediate states having no direct physical interpretation. Even as the mesh is refined, these intermediate states do not go away; they simply occupy less space. The existence of intermediate states does raise some doubt, however, about how closely a captured shockwave may emulate an ideal discontinuous shockwave, or a real physical one. There are in fact several types of error associated with intermediate shock states such as errors in shock position, spurious waves, or unstable shock behavior. These errors can be classified as numerical shockwave anomalies; they are numerical artifacts formed due to the presence of captured shockwaves within the flow solution. Each numerical shockwave anomaly is directly related to the nonlinearity of the jump conditions and to a resulting ambiguity in sub-cell shock position in a stationary shock. Two new flux functions are developed that do not have this ambiguity. On all of the shock anomalies in one-dimension, both flux functions show improvement on existing methods without smearing or diffusing the shock. They are also shown to perform adequately within a second-order framework and on two-dimensional problems, important for the practicality of the method. While they are still susceptible to many of the problems that occur in Roe's Riemann solver and several other known issues, these methods serve to validate the philosophy and approach taken in this thesis: by enforcing a linear shock structure and unambiguous sub-cell shock position, numerical shockwave anomalies are dramatically reduced.

Zaide, Daniel Wei-Ming

127

Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction  

PubMed Central

Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

2012-01-01

128

Cladogram Construction and Vertebrate Phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first page of the presentation includes photos of 12 animals. I print this page, cut up the photos, and give a set of photos to each group of students. Working in groups of 2 or 3, the students spend ~10 minutes arranging the photos to depict the evolutionary relationships among the animals. This exercise is followed by 4 clicker questions about relationships that students commonly misconstrue due to convergence or shared primitive features. I use the clicker questions to initiate class discussion of group results. Then we discuss the evidence (anatomy, biochemistry) for current thinking about these relationships. Once we have established a consensus, students are asked to place pictures of a subset of the animals at the tips of the branches on a pre-designed cladogram. The activity gives me insight into students' preconceptions regarding vertebrate phylogeny, encourages students to identify their own misconceptions, promotes peer instruction and highlights problems associated with determining relationships based on shared primitive features. Placing the animals on a pre-designed cladogram allows students to translate their hypothesis about relationships into a visual diagram, an exercise that I hope will help students to extract the phylogenetic hypotheses depicted on cladograms in papers and textbooks. Once we have established a consensus cladogram, students must go one step further and add evidence (synapomorphies) to their cladograms. Students spend ~ 10 minutes brainstorming with their group to place synapormorphies at each node of the diagram. An example is provided for whales and hippos, groups for which the evidence of shared ancestry is difficult to recognize based on the anatomy of living specimens. After adding synapomorphies to their diagrams, students will work together as a class, contributing shared derived features to a group cladogram. If time permits, it would also be possible to complete the exercise with a gallery walk, where each group posts a copy of their cladogram + synapomorphies on the wall for other groups to examine and edit.

Fowell, Sarah

129

System for closure of a physical anomaly  

DOEpatents

Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

2014-11-11

130

WF4 Anomaly Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serious anomaly has been found in images from the WF4 CCD in WFPC2. The WF4 CCD bias level appears to have become unstable, resulting in sporadic images with either low or zero bias level. The severity and frequency of the problem is rapidly increasing, and it is possible that WF4 will soon become unusable if no work-around is found. The other three CCDs {PC1, WF2, and WF3} appear to be unaffected and continue to operate properly. The impacts from "low" and "zero" bias are somewhat different, but in both cases the effects are immediately obvious. Images with low bias will tend to have horizontal {x-direction} streaks and stripes with an amplitude of ? about 0.5 DN in WF4. We believe these data should be mostly recoverable with some effort, though at a loss in the detectability of faint targets. "Zero bias" is a much more serious problem and is evidenced by images which are blank in WF4, except for showing occasional cosmic rays, bright targets, and negative pixels from dark subtraction. These images with zero bias are probably unusable for most purposes. Both the CCD gain settings of 7 and 14 are affected. The frequency of the anomaly is rapidly increasing. The first significant instances of low bias appear to have been in late 2004 when a few images were impacted. However, within the last few weeks over half the images are beginning to show the low bias problem. The more serious "zero bias" problem appears to have first occurred in Feb. 2005, but it is also increasing and now impacts 10% to 20% of WFPC2 images. At present there are still many images which appear fine and unaffected, but the situation is quickly evolving. We believe the science impact for most observers will be minimal. Targets are by default placed on either PC1 or WF3 which continue to operate properly. However, observers requiring the full field of view {survey projects, large targets, etc.} will potentially lose one-third of their imaging area. Our understanding of this anomaly is still evolving, and most of the information is tentative. Additional details will be posted on the WFPC2 website as they become available.

Biretta, John

2005-07-01

131

Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

Cohn, M J

2001-01-01

132

Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a U (1 ) gauge transformation and under the T -duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three Kähler moduli Ti obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars (PV) regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cutoff has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D -term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2015-01-01

133

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

134

The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.  

PubMed

Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

2013-04-12

135

Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflexia, but motor and sensory examinations were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed basilar invagination and spinal cord compression at his craniovertebral junction. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an anomalous course of his bilateral vertebral arteries, both of which showed a persistent first intersegmental artery that entered the spinal canal at the caudal portion of the C1 posterior arch. In this case, the arteries were nearly pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of the C2. C1 laminectomy and occiput-cervical fusion (O-C2) was performed using an instrumentation system. After surgery, the syncope was not observed. Conclusions Syncope can be related to compression of extracranial arteries within the neck. In this case, transient brain ischemia caused by the anomalous course of vertebral arteries that were pinched between the C1 posterior arch and the pars interarticularis of C2 in cervical motion was the suspected cause of the syncope. PMID:25296768

2014-01-01

136

Comparative study of Moroto vertebral specimens.  

PubMed

The hypodigm of Morotopithecus bishopi includes several vertebral specimens from Moroto II in addition to a scapular fragment, and femoral and craniodental specimens. The Moroto vertebral specimens include UMP 67.28, which is a well-preserved lumbar vertebra. Based on the derived morphological traits in UMP 67.28, together with evidence from other postcranial elements, it has been claimed that certain aspects of the modern hominoid body plan appeared in the hominoid lineage by as early as 20Ma. Other vertebral specimens from the site are not well-preserved and have not been described in detail. This article provides the first detailed description of these specimen with an emphasis on a lumbar vertebral body UMP 68.06. Results confirm the existing interpretations that M. bishopi had a more dorsostable lumbar column compared to other African Miocene hominoids, such as Proconsul nyanzae/heseloni or Nacholapithecus kerioi. The vertebral body is craniocaudally short and the median ventral keel is absent through the lumbar column. However, M. bishopi might have had a similar number segments as inferred for P. nyanzae (6-7) if UMP 68.06 and UMP 67.28 are associated. Likewise, the ventral wedging of UMP 68.06 may suggest that M. bishopi had more lumbar vertebrae than extant great apes. The origin of the transverse process relative to the vertebral body is variable by level among the Moroto specimens. Thus, if these specimens derive from a single taxon, this may suggest considerable variability in this feature that would advise caution when using this feature to draw taxonomic or functional conclusions. PMID:18672267

Nakatsukasa, Masato

2008-10-01

137

Vertebrate and Invertebrate Carotenoid-Binding Proteins  

PubMed Central

In invertebrates and vertebrates, carotenoids are ubiquitous colorants, antioxidants, and provitamin A compounds that must be absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues where they are taken up and stabilized to perform their physiological functions. These processes occur in a specific and regulated manner mediated by high-affinity carotenoid-binding proteins. In this mini-review, we examine the published literature on carotenoid-binding proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate systems, and we report our initial purification and characterization of a novel lutein-binding protein isolated from liver of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). PMID:17188641

Bhosale, Prakash

2007-01-01

138

Wnt Signaling in Vertebrate Axis Specification  

PubMed Central

The Wnt pathway is a major embryonic signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, cell fate, and body-axis determination in vertebrate embryos. Soon after egg fertilization, Wnt pathway components play a role in microtubule-dependent dorsoventral axis specification. Later in embryogenesis, another conserved function of the pathway is to specify the anteroposterior axis. The dual role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos is regulated at different developmental stages by distinct sets of Wnt target genes. This review highlights recent progress in the discrimination of different signaling branches and the identification of specific pathway targets during vertebrate axial development. PMID:22914799

Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y.

2013-01-01

139

Bilateral vertebral artery stenosis present with vertigo  

PubMed Central

Of ischaemic stroke patients, about 25% rise from the posterior or vertebrobasilar system. The ischaemia of vertebral arteries may emerge for different vascular pathological reasons, at different localisations and with different clinical findings. Despite its low morbidity and mortality risk, early diagnosis and treatment is of importance. Vertebrobasilar ischaemia symptoms can be observed clinically such as vertigo, tinnitus, double vision, headache, hypokinesis and hearing disorders, etc. In this article, a 42-year-old stroke patient case is presented, who applied to the emergency service with vertigo and then, was diagnosed with bilateral vertebral artery stenosis by means of cranial MR angiography. PMID:23376658

Kotan, Dilcan; Sayan, Saadet; Acar, Bilgehan Atilgan; Polat, Pinar

2013-01-01

140

Complex osteotomies vertebral column resection and decancellation.  

PubMed

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is nowadays widely used to treat sagittal imbalance. Some complex malalignment cases cannot be treated by a PSO, whereas the imbalance is coronal or mixed or the sagittal imbalance is major and cannot be treated by a single PSO. The aim of this article was to review these complex situations--coronal imbalance, mixed imbalance, two-level PSO, vertebral column resection, and vertebral column decancellation, and to focus on their specificities. It wills also to evoke the utility of navigation in these complex cases. PMID:24831304

Obeid, Ibrahim; Bourghli, Anouar; Boissière, Louis; Vital, Jean-Marc; Barrey, Cédric

2014-07-01

141

Folate rescues lithium-, homocysteine- and Wnt3A-induced vertebrate cardiac anomalies.  

PubMed

Elevated plasma homocysteine (HCy), which results from folate (folic acid, FA) deficiency, and the mood-stabilizing drug lithium (Li) are both linked to the induction of human congenital heart and neural tube defects. We demonstrated previously that acute administration of Li to pregnant mice on embryonic day (E)6.75 induced cardiac valve defects by potentiating Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. We hypothesized that HCy may similarly induce cardiac defects during gastrulation by targeting the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway. Because dietary FA supplementation protects from neural tube defects, we sought to determine whether FA also protects the embryonic heart from Li- or HCy-induced birth defects and whether the protection occurs by impacting Wnt signaling. Maternal elevation of HCy or Li on E6.75 induced defective heart and placental function on E15.5, as identified non-invasively using echocardiography. This functional analysis of HCy-exposed mouse hearts revealed defects in tricuspid and semilunar valves, together with altered myocardial thickness. A smaller embryo and placental size was observed in the treated groups. FA supplementation ameliorates the observed developmental errors in the Li- or HCy-exposed mouse embryos and normalized heart function. Molecular analysis of gene expression within the avian cardiogenic crescent determined that Li, HCy or Wnt3A suppress Wnt-modulated Hex (also known as Hhex) and Islet-1 (also known as Isl1) expression, and that FA protects from the gene misexpression that is induced by all three factors. Furthermore, myoinositol with FA synergistically enhances the protective effect. Although the specific molecular epigenetic control mechanisms remain to be defined, it appears that Li or HCy induction and FA protection of cardiac defects involve intimate control of the canonical Wnt pathway at a crucial time preceding, and during, early heart organogenesis. PMID:19638421

Han, Mingda; Serrano, Maria C; Lastra-Vicente, Rosana; Brinez, Pilar; Acharya, Ganesh; Huhta, James C; Chen, Ren; Linask, Kersti K

2009-01-01

142

Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

2003-01-01

143

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

144

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna  

E-print Network

Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar's Extant Vertebrate Fauna Karen E, Illinois, United States of America, 5 Association Vahatra, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 6 Department a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does

Vences, Miguel

145

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using EST counts for 26 stages of development. We show that, in both species, genes expressed early in development (1) have a more dramatic effect of knock-out or mutation and (2) are more likely to revert to single copy after whole genome duplication, relative to genes expressed late. This supports high constraints on early stages of vertebrate development, making them less open to innovations (gene gain or gene loss). Results are robust to different sources of data—gene expression from microarrays, ESTs, or in situ hybridizations; and mutants from directed KO, transgenic insertions, point mutations, or morpholinos. We determine the pattern of these constraints, which differs from the model used to describe vertebrate morphological conservation (“hourglass” model). While morphological constraints reach a maximum at mid-development (the “phylotypic” stage), genomic constraints appear to decrease in a monotonous manner over developmental time. PMID:19096706

Roux, Julien; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

2008-01-01

146

Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

Botha, Rudolf P.

2002-01-01

147

Modelling Oscillator Synchronisation During Vertebrate Axis Segmentation  

E-print Network

influence the synchronisation of neighbouring cells. Random cell movement has also been quantifiedModelling Oscillator Synchronisation During Vertebrate Axis Segmentation Philip J. Murray Philip K form in the posterior pre-somitic mesoderm. Whilst cell heterogeneity results in noisy oscillation

Maini, Philip K.

148

Measurement of vertebral rotation: Perdriolle versus Raimondi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of vertebral rotation according to Perdriolle is widely used in the French-speaking and Anglo-American countries. Even in this measurement technique there may be a relatively high estimation error because of the not very accurate grading in steps of 5°. The measurement according to Raimondi seems to be easier to use and is more accurate, with 2° steps. The

H.-R. Weiss

1995-01-01

149

Did language evolve like the vertebrate eye?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On various modern accounts, human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection. The present article offers a critical appraisal of the way in which this idea is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution—the most sophisticated account of its kind. It is argued that this account is less than

Rudolf P. Botha

2002-01-01

150

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

151

EVOLUTIONARY ATTEMPTS AT 4 EYES IN VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To understand and compare the optical, histological, and ecological differences among 4 vertebrate species that have had evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes. Methods: An evolutionary attempt at 4 eyes is defined as the duplication of one or more structures integral to the refrac- tion or interpretation of the visible spectrum for that animal. We reviewed and compared the known

Ivan R. Schwab; Viet Ho; Alan Roth; Thomas N. Blankenship; Paul G. Fitzgerald

2001-01-01

152

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

153

Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

2014-01-01

154

Origin and evolution of the vertebrate vomeronasal  

E-print Network

's organ or the vomeronasal organ (VNO), because of its proximity to the vomer bone in the nasal cavity. The location of this organ suggests that it is involved in detecting smells (Fig. 1). Indeed, the vomeronasalOrigin and evolution of the vertebrate vomeronasal system viewed through system-specific genes

Zhang, Jianzhi

155

Managing acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures with calcitonin.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To inform family physicians of current issues in the management of acute vertebral fractures and to examine the evidence specifically supporting a role for calcitonin in ameliorating pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations for use of calcitonin were based primarily on a MEDLINE review of the literature for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the present using key words calcitonin, osteoporosis, pain, and vertebral fracture. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of review articles. Eight trials were identified, and the conclusions drawn were based on data reported in all eight trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Several randomized, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that calcitonin had a rapid onset and a strong analgesic effect on patients with acute vertebral fractures. Nasal and subcutaneous administration were both beneficial. Pain relief occurred within the first 2 weeks, could continue for at least 4 months, and might occur if treatment were instituted any time within the first year after fracture. Side effects were generally inconvenient rather than serious. CONCLUSIONS: Calcitonin in a dose of 50 to 100 IU daily, given subcutaneously or intranasally, should be offered to all patients with serious pain related to acute vertebral fractures for symptom relief and to facilitate mobilization. PMID:9805171

Maksymowych, W. P.

1998-01-01

156

Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research in robotics, neuroscience, evolutionary neurobiology, and ethology with the aim of highlighting some points of agreement and convergence. Specifically, we compare Brooks' (1986) subsumption architecture for robot control with research in neuroscience demonstrating layered control systems in vertebrate brains, and with research in ethology that emphasizes the decomposition of control into multiple, intertwined behavior systems. From

Tony J. Prescott; Peter Redgrave; Kevin Gurney

1998-01-01

157

RARE AND ENDANGERED VERTEBRATES OF OHIO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, an annotated list of Ohio's rare and endangered vertebrate species, was compiled to supplement a similar national list and includes 10 mammals, 62 birds, 10 reptiles, 4 amphibians, and 33 fishes. Where possible, suggestions are made both as to causes of the rare or endangered status of these species and as to means of halting the trend. Ratings

H. G. SMITH; R. K. BURNARD; E. E. GOOD; J. M. KEENER

158

MIOCENE AND PLIOCENE VERTEBRATES FROM ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the Miocene and Pliocene vertebrates of Arizona, spanning the time period from about 2 to 20 Ma. The best known Miocene faunas are Wellton and Anderson Mine from the late Arikareean or Hemingfordian North American land-mammal \\

GARY S. MORGAN; RICHARD S. WHITE

2005-01-01

159

HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

160

STATUS OF APHIS VERTEBRATE PESTICIDES AND DRUGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Services (WS) Program manages wildlife\\/human conflicts by using an integrated approach employing some vertebrate pesticides. These are used in such small quantities that private industry cannot afford to register and produce them profitably. On behalf of WS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) maintains about 30 federal and state pesticide registrations, containing seven active ingredients, with

Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Schafer Edward W. Jr

1998-01-01

161

Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-03-31

162

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*  

E-print Network

Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain* , J. U. M. Jarvis , R. Alexander§ , R of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example

Danchin, Etienne

163

The impact of global change on terrestrial Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the impact of human activities on Vertebrate populations abound, with famous cases of extinction. This article reviews how and why Vertebrates are affected by the various components of global change. The effect of direct exploitation, while strong, is currently superseded by changes in use of all sorts, while climate change has started having significant effects on some Vertebrate

Jean-Dominique Lebreton

2011-01-01

164

Comparative Aspects of GH and Metabolic Regulation in Lower Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these

Karine Rousseau; Sylvie Dufour

2007-01-01

165

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):502506, June 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

individual. * Present address: Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Department of Zoology, Kyoto University502 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):502­506, June 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate

Holroyd, Patricia A.

166

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

77 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):77­108, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ANATOMY AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE PROSAUROPOD DINOSAUR THECODONTOSAURUS ANTIQUUS FROM THE UPPER

Benton, Michael

167

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

89 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1):89­106, March 2004 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION LEON P. A. M. CLAESSENS Museum of Comparative

Claessens, Leon

168

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

190 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):190­194, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A NEW FOSSIL FROG FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS JUDITH RIVER FORMATION OF MONTANA RICHARD W. BLOB

Blob, Richard W.

169

MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

Lemouel, J. L. (principal investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

1981-01-01

170

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

683 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):683­704, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW SPECIMEN OF HESPEROSUCHUS AGILIS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NEW MEXICO of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada; 3 Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum

Clark, James M.

171

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

329 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):329­343, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology A NEW CROCODYLOMORPH ARCHOSAUR FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC OF NORTH CAROLINA HANS-DIETER SUES1 *, PAUL closely in size and shape * Present address: Section of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Mu- seum

Olsen, Paul E.

172

The Effect of Intra-Vertebral Heterogeneity in Microstructure on Vertebral Strength and Failure Patterns  

PubMed Central

Purpose The overall goal of this study was to determine the influence of intra-vertebral heterogeneity in microstructure on vertebral failure. Methods Trabecular density and microarchitecture were quantified for 32 thoracic vertebrae using micro-computed tomography (?CT)-based analyses of 4.81mm, contiguous cubes throughout the centrum. Intra-vertebral heterogeneity in density was defined as the inter-quartile range and quartile coefficient of variation of the cube densities. The vertebrae were compressed to failure to measure stiffness, strength, and toughness. Pre- and post-compression ?CT images were analyzed using digital volume correlation to quantify failure patterns in the vertebrae, as defined by the distributions of residual strain. Results Failure patterns consisted of large deformations in the mid-transverse plane with concomitant endplate biconcavity and were linked to the intra-vertebral distribution of bone tissue. Low values of connectivity density and trabecular number, and high values of trabecular separation, were associated with high strains. However, local microstructural properties were not the sole determinants of failure. For instance, the mid-transverse plane experienced the highest strain (p<0.008) yet had the highest density, lowest structure model index, and lowest anisotropy (p<0.013). Accounting for the intra-vertebral heterogeneity in density improved predictions of strength and stiffness as compared to predictions based only on mean density (strength: R2 = 0.75 vs. 0.61, p<0.001; stiffness: R2 = 0.44 vs. 0.26, p=0.001). Conclusions Local variations in microstructure are associated with failure patterns in the vertebra. Non-invasive assessments of the intra-vertebral heterogeneity in density—which are feasible in clinical settings—can improve predictions of vertebral strength and stiffness. PMID:22707063

Hussein, Amira I.; Morgan, Elise F.

2013-01-01

173

Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons  

PubMed Central

The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks. PMID:14699587

Chandrasekhar, Anand

2007-01-01

174

Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

Carroll, Robert Lynn

1997-04-01

175

[A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].  

PubMed

Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. PMID:24598790

Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

2015-01-01

176

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

2006-01-01

177

Vitellogenin motifs conserved in nematodes and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Caenorhabditis elegans vitellogenins are encoded by a family of six genes, one of which,vit-5, has been previously sequenced and shown to be surprisingly closely related to the vertebrate vitellogenin genes. Here we report an alignment of the amino acid sequences of vitellogenins from frog and chicken with those from threeC. elegans genes:vit-5 and two newly sequenced genes,vit-2 andvit-6. The

John Spieth; Mignon Nettleton; Erin Zucker-Aprison; Kristi Lea; Thomas Blumenthal

1991-01-01

178

Classroom Cladogram of Vertebrate/Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students prepare the components for building a Colossal Classroom Cladogram of vertebrate evolution, then put it together, showing the gradual, mosaic accumulation of the traits which humans possess. A major purpose of this is to dramatize the evidence that we (and in fact all living things) did not suddenly pop into existence, but clearly evolved as an accumulation of traits over vast periods of time. A follow-up discussion helps focus on these concepts.

Larry Flammer

179

Neuromodulation of Vertebrate Locomotor Control Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrate locomotion must be adaptable in light of changing environmental, organismal, and developmental demands. Much of the underlying flexibility in the output of central pattern generating (CPG) networks of the spinal cord and brain stem is endowed by neuromodulation. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the way that various neuromodulators modify the properties of and connections between CPG neurons to sculpt CPG network output during locomotion.

Mr. Gareth B. Miles (St. Andrews University School of Biology)

2011-12-01

180

The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2?paralogs, the 2? isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

2014-01-01

181

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

PubMed Central

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

2014-01-01

182

Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 18?2n - 6 to produce 18?3n - 6 that is elongated to 20?3n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 18?3n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 22?5n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 22?5n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R.; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

183

Effects of hypoxia on vertebrate blood vessels.  

PubMed

Hypoxia contracts mammalian respiratory vessels and increases vascular resistance in respiratory tissues of many vertebrates. In systemic vessels these responses vary, hypoxia relaxes mammalian vessels and contracts systemic arteries from cyclostomes. It has been proposed that hypoxic vasoconstriction in cyclostome systemic arteries is the antecedent to mammalian hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, however, phylogenetic characterization of hypoxic responses is lacking. In this study, we characterized the hypoxic response of isolated systemic and respiratory vessels from a variety of vertebrates using standard myography. Pre-gill/respiratory (ventral aorta, afferent branchial artery, pulmonary artery) and post-gill/systemic (dorsal and thoracic aortas, efferent branchial artery) from lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), chicken (Gallus domesticus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to hypoxia at rest or during pre-stimulation (elevated extracellular potassium, epinephrine or norepinephrine). Hypoxia produced a relaxation or transient contraction followed by relaxation in all pre-gill vessels, except for contraction in lamprey, and vasoconstriction or tri-phasic constriction-dilation-constriction in all pulmonary vessels. Hypoxia contracted systemic vessels from all animals except shark and rat and in pre-contracted rat aortas it produced a transient contraction followed by relaxation. These results show that while the classic "systemic hypoxic vasodilation and pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction" may occur in the microcirculation, the hypoxic response of the vertebrate macrocirculation is quite variable. These findings also suggest that hypoxic vasoconstriction is a phylogenetically ancient response. PMID:18214862

Russell, Michael J; Dombkowski, Ryan A; Olson, Kenneth R

2008-03-01

184

The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

2014-01-01

185

Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

Kim, Chul Han

2013-11-01

186

Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks  

PubMed Central

Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

187

The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates.  

PubMed

Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

2014-01-01

188

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

189

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

Solano, Wanda M.

190

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

191

Ebstein's anomaly: the Broussais approach.  

PubMed

Ebstein's anomaly is rare, but it is the most frequent cause of congenital tricuspid valve anomaly. For many years valve replacement was performed. Conservative techniques are now preferred due to improvement of the results. The goals of surgery are to restore a normal tricuspid valve function, to preserve the right ventricular contractility and to decrease the risk of rhythm disturbances. Basically, the technique is based on mobilization of the anterior leaflet and longitudinal plication of the right ventricle. A bidirectional cavo pulmonary shunt is used in severe cases. Results are correlated with the severity of the disease, the expertise of the surgical team and also with the perioperative management. PMID:24415583

Chauvaud, Sylvain; Carpentier, Alain

2008-01-01

192

Analysis of DSN software anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.

Galorath, D. D.; Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Reifer, D. J.

1981-01-01

193

Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the ``excess wall heating`` in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

Menikoff, R.

1995-09-01

194

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megías; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-01-01

195

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

196

Development anomalies of the occiput  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients with classical features of bathrocephalism are described. Three further patients with developmental anomalies of the occiput are described and these are contrasted with those having classical bathrocephalism. The distinction between the two groups is emphasised. Reference is made to cases described in the pediatric literature which appears at times to depart from the traditional norms and classical notation.

J. Wickenhauser; O. Hochberg

1974-01-01

197

Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors. VLRs generate diversity comparable to that of gnathostome antigen receptors by assembling variable leucine-rich repeat modules. The discovery of VLR has revolutionized our understanding of how adaptive immunity emerged and highlighted the differences between the adaptive immune systems (AISs) of jawed and jawless vertebrates. However, emerging evidence also indicates that their AISs have much in common. Particularly striking is the conservation of lymphocyte lineages. The basic architecture of the AIS including the dichotomy of lymphocytes appears to have been established in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. We review here the current knowledge on the AIS of jawless vertebrates, emphasizing both the similarities to and differences from the AIS of jawed vertebrates. PMID:24507155

Kasahara, Masanori; Sutoh, Yoichi

2014-01-01

198

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

199

Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.  

PubMed

We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted. PMID:25381046

Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Akesson, K

2014-11-01

200

Measurement of vertebral rotation: Perdriolle versus Raimondi.  

PubMed

The measurement of vertebral rotation according to Perdriolle is widely used in the French-speaking and Anglo-American countries. Even in this measurement technique there may be a relatively high estimation error because of the not very accurate grading in steps of 5 degrees. The measurement according to Raimondi seems to be easier to use and is more accurate, with 2 degrees steps. The purpose of our study was to determine the technical error of both measuring methods. The apex vertebra of 40 curves on 20 anteroposterior (AP) radiographs were measured by using the Perdriolle torsion meter and the Regolo Raimondi. Interrater and intrarater reliability were computed. The thoracic Cobb angle was 43 degrees, the lumbar Cobb angle 36 degrees. The average rotation according to Perdriolle was 19.1 degrees thoracic (SD 11.14), 12.7 degrees lumbar (11.21). Measurement of vertebral rotation according to Raimondi showed an average rotation of 20.25 degrees in the thoracic region (11.40) and 13.4 degrees lumbar (10.92). The intrarater reliability was r = 0.991 (Perdriolle) and r = 0.997 (Raimondi). The average intrarater error was 1.025 degrees in the Perdriolle measurement and 0.4 degrees in the Raimondi measurement. Interrater error was on average 3.112 degrees for the Perdriolle measurement and 3.630 degrees for the Raimondi measurement. This shows that both methods are useful tools for the follow-up of vertebral rotation as projected on standard X-rays for the experienced clinical. The Raimondi ruler is easier to use and is slightly more reliable. PMID:7749905

Weiss, H R

1995-01-01

201

Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agnathan fish hold a key position in vertebrate evolution, especially regarding the origin of the head and neural-crest-derived tissue. In contrast to amphioxus, lampreys and other vertebrates possess a complex brain and placodes that contribute to well-developed eyes, as well as auditory and olfactory systems. These sensory sytems were arguably a trigger to subsequent vertebrate diversifications. However, although they are

D.-G. Shu; S. Conway Morris; J. Han; Z.-F. Zhang; K. Yasui; P. Janvier; L. Chen; X.-L. Zhang; J.-N. Liu; Y. Li; H.-Q. Liu

2003-01-01

202

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

203

Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

Bennike, Ole

204

Growing models of vertebrate limb development.  

PubMed

The developing limb has been a very influential system for studying pattern formation in vertebrates. In the past, classical embryological models have explained how patterned structures are generated along the two principal axes of the limb: the proximodistal (shoulder to finger) and anteroposterior (thumb to little finger) axes. Over time, the genetic and molecular attributes of these patterning models have been discovered, while the role of growth in the patterning process has been only recently highlighted. In this review, we discuss these recent findings and propose how the various models of limb patterning can be reconciled. PMID:19103802

Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll

2009-01-01

205

A standard system to study vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using 'staging tables' of 'model organisms'. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set. PMID:19521537

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

206

Vertebrate Endoderm Development and Organ Formation  

PubMed Central

The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms; including frog, fish, chick, and mouse; have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models. PMID:19575677

Zorn, Aaron M.; Wells, James M.

2010-01-01

207

Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissections: Evolving Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted. PMID:23217643

Ali, M.S.; Amenta, P.S.; Starke, R.M.; Jabbour, P.M.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Tjoumakaris, S.I.; Flanders, A.E.; Rosenwasser, R.H.; Dumont, A.S.

2012-01-01

208

Neurofibromas with imaging characteristics resembling vascular anomalies.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Although neurofibromas are rare, their initial clinical and imaging presentation can mimic those of vascular anomalies, particularly if the characteristic clinical features of neurofibromatosis are not present. The diagnostic challenges encountered in five cases of histologically proven neurofibromas, initially diagnosed as vascular anomalies, are reviewed and discussed. CONCLUSION. The clinical and imaging differences between neurofibromas and vascular anomalies are detailed with the histopathologic features to better understand why some neurofibromas are diagnosed as vascular anomalies. PMID:25415736

Yilmaz, Sabri; Ozolek, John A; Zammerilla, Lauren L; Fitz, Charles R; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J; Crowley, John J

2014-12-01

209

Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems  

E-print Network

The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

Choma, Michael A.

210

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before. PMID:22031481

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

211

Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects.  

PubMed

The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-beta1 (PKC-beta1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell1(6R), a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell1(6R) has a T-->A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell1(6R) mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell1(6R) mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures. PMID:16537572

Desai, Jayashree; Shannon, Mark E; Johnson, Mahlon D; Ruff, David W; Hughes, Lori A; Kerley, Marilyn K; Carpenter, Donald A; Johnson, Dabney K; Rinchik, Eugene M; Culiat, Cymbeline T

2006-04-15

212

Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects  

SciTech Connect

The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

2006-01-01

213

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC. PMID:24014975

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

214

Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.  

E-print Network

of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

Olsen, Paul E.

215

TRPM7 regulates gastrulation during vertebrate embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

During gastrulation, cells in the dorsal marginal zone polarize, elongate, align and intercalate to establish the physical body axis of the developing embryo. Here we demonstrate that the bifunctional channel-kinase TRPM7 is specifically required for vertebrate gastrulation. TRPM7 is temporally expressed maternally and throughout development, and is spatially enriched in tissues undergoing convergent extension during gastrulation. Functional studies reveal that TRPM7’s ion channel, but not its kinase, specifically affects cell polarity and convergent extension movements during gastrulation, independent of mesodermal specification. During gastrulation, the non-canonical Wnt pathway via Dishevelled (Dvl) orchestrates the activities of the GTPases Rho and Rac to control convergent extension movements. We find that TRPM7 functions synergistically with non-canonical Wnt signaling to regulate Rac activity. The phenotype caused by depletion of the Ca2+- and Mg2+-permeant TRPM7 is suppressed by expression of a dominant negative form of Rac, as well as by Mg2+ supplementation or by expression of the Mg2+ transporter SLC41A2. Together, these studies demonstrate an essential role for the ion channel TRPM7 and Mg2+ in Rac-dependent polarized cell movements during vertebrate gastrulation. PMID:21145885

Liu, Wei; Su, Li-Ting; Khadka, Deepak K.; Mezzacappa, Courtney; Komiya, Yuko; Sato, Akira; Habas, Raymond; Runnels, Loren W.

2010-01-01

216

Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development. PMID:21356103

2011-01-01

217

Neural induction and early patterning in vertebrates.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the development of the nervous system is triggered by signals from a powerful 'organizing' region of the early embryo during gastrulation. This phenomenon--neural induction--was originally discovered and given conceptual definition by experimental embryologists working with amphibian embryos. Work on the molecular circuitry underlying neural induction, also in the same model system, demonstrated that elimination of ongoing transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling in the ectoderm is the hallmark of anterior neural-fate acquisition. This observation is the basis of the 'default' model of neural induction. Endogenous neural inducers are secreted proteins that act to inhibit TGF? ligands in the dorsal ectoderm. In the ventral ectoderm, where the signaling ligands escape the inhibitors, a non-neural fate is induced. Inhibition of the TGF? pathway has now been demonstrated to be sufficient to directly induce neural fate in mammalian embryos as well as pluripotent mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Hence the molecular process that delineates neural from non-neural ectoderm is conserved across a broad range of organisms in the evolutionary tree. The availability of embryonic stem cells from mouse, primates, and humans will facilitate further understanding of the role of signaling pathways and their downstream mediators in neural induction in vertebrate embryos. PMID:24014419

Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Kintner, Chris; Brivanlou, Ali H

2013-07-01

218

The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

Stevens, Craig W.

2011-01-01

219

Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

2005-02-07

220

Trial by fire in the vertebrate graveyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an introduction to vertebrate skeletal material, students work individually through a series of stations displaying isolated bones and teeth. Associated with each station are two to six short-answer questions that ask the students to identify, orient, and taxonomically classify the specimens, and to describe the rationale for their answers. Students must respond to every question. Even if they have no prior course experience with vertebrate anatomy, they are required to propose and defend an answer, based on careful observation, "common sense," and relevant personal experience. After the students have worked through the stations and answered all the questions, instructor and class discuss the samples and student interpretations. This activity is deliberately designed to force students to work outside of their comfort zone. In the exercise and discussion, students are required to employ careful and reasoned observation in developing hypotheses concerning the identities of the samples, and to defend those hypotheses based on physical characteristics of the bones. The point of the exercise is not to identify the specimens correctly (although students often do better than they expect), but to demonstrate that skeletal anatomy makes "sense", and that thoughtful reasoning based on solid evidence is key to interpreting skeletal remains.

Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

221

What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?  

PubMed Central

Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

2014-01-01

222

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

McCoy, Michael W.

2014-01-01

223

The road to the vertebral formula.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

2009-01-01

224

A Membrane-Bound Vertebrate Globin  

PubMed Central

The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O2 binding with a variable affinity (P50?1.3–12.5 torr), depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein. PMID:21949889

Blank, Miriam; Wollberg, Jessica; Gerlach, Frank; Reimann, Katja; Roesner, Anja; Hankeln, Thomas; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E.; Burmester, Thorsten

2011-01-01

225

Magsat scalar anomaly distribution - The global perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is established that geographic coincidences exist between high-altitude Magsat scalar anomalies and major geologic and tectonic structures, with oceanic abyssal plains overlain by negative anomalies agreeing well in spatial extent and position and submarine platforms lying beneath positive scalar anomalies. In addition, geographic coincidence is found in the continents between many high-latitude positive anomalies and shields and cratons in North America, Eurasia and Australia. While these correlations are qualitative, they serve to identify regions for detailed study. The global distribution of anomalies provides a basis for comparative study which will be enhanced when reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat data become available.

Frey, H.

1982-01-01

226

Monoamniotic twins discordant for body stalk anomaly.  

PubMed

Abstract Body stalk anomaly is a rare malformation. This anomaly in monozygotic twins is extremely unusual. We describe a case of monoamniotic pregnancy discordant for body stalk anomaly diagnosed at 11 weeks. Ultrasound showed a fetus with a large anterior abdominal wall defect, anomaly of the spine and no evidence of lower extremities and other with a normal morphology. As far as our concern, only three monoamniotic pregnancies discordant for this malformation were reported. Our case represents the fourth reported monoamniotic pregnancy discordant for body stalk anomaly with diagnosis made by ultrasound and the second diagnosed in the first trimester. PMID:24588260

Tavares, Mariana Vide; Domingues, Ana Patrícia; Tavares, Margarida; Fonseca, Etelvina; Moura, Paulo

2015-01-01

227

Echocardiographic Assessment of Ebstein's Anomaly.  

PubMed

Ebstein's anomaly is a complex congenital lesion which primarily involves the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid leaflets are tethered to varying degrees to the right ventricular free wall and the ventricular septum often resulting in significant tricuspid regurgitation and a small functioning right ventricular chamber. Although the septal leaflet originates normally at the right atrioventricular junction, the proximal portion is often completely tethered to the ventricular septum resulting in a misconception and erroneous statements in many publications that its attachment is apically displaced. Although two-dimensional echocardiography represents the primary modality for the diagnosis of this anomaly, three-dimensional echocardiography provides incremental value in characterizing the extent and severity of tethering of individual tricuspid valve leaflets. This information is useful in surgical decision making whether to repair or replace the tricuspid valve. PMID:24888693

Booker, Oscar J; Nanda, Navin C

2015-01-01

228

Anomaly Mediation and Dimensional Transmutation  

E-print Network

We show how a sparticle spectrum characteristic of anomaly mediation can arise from a theory whose Lagrangian contains no explicit mass scale. The scale of supersymmetry breaking is governed by the gravitino mass, which is the vacuum expectation value of the F-term of the conformal compensator field, and the tachyonic slepton problem is resolved by the breaking of a U(1) gauge symmetry at a scale determined by dimensional transmutation.

D. R. T. Jones; G. G. Ross

2006-09-20

229

Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.  

PubMed

Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID:11541324

Ireland, T R

1996-03-01

230

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

231

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

232

6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then ? I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

Intriligator, Kenneth

2014-10-01

233

Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

2003-01-01

234

Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

2011-01-01

235

Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with

Adam Siepel; Gill Bejerano; Jakob S. Pedersen; Angie S. Hinrichs; Minmei Hou; Kate Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; John Spieth; LaDeana W. Hillier; Stephen Richards; George M. Weinstock; Richard K. Wilson; Richard A. Gibbs; W. James Kent; Webb Miller; David Haussler

2006-01-01

236

Corynebacterium xerosis as a cause of vertebral osteomyelitis.  

PubMed Central

We report a patient who developed Corynebacterium xerosis vertebral osteomyelitis 6 months following a decompressive laminectomy. Prolonged parenteral and subsequent oral therapy for 11 months resulted in apparent cure. This is the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by C. xerosis. Images PMID:2592549

Krish, G; Beaver, W; Sarubbi, F; Verghese, A

1989-01-01

237

Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH

Gregg Duester; Jaume Farrés; Michael R Felder; Roger S Holmes; Jan-Olov Höög; Xavier Parés; Bryce V Plapp; Shih-Jiun Yin; Hans Jörnvall

1999-01-01

238

Mechanisms Limiting a Vertebrate Invasion: Brook Trout in Mountain Streams  

E-print Network

Mechanisms Limiting a Vertebrate Invasion: Brook Trout in Mountain Streams of the Northwestern USA Biological Sciences Mechanisms Limiting a Vertebrate Invasion: Brook Trout in Mountain Streams to study brook trout invasions in mountainous streams of Idaho and Montana, USA. After studying marked fish

239

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

240

Decay and Disarticulation of Small Vertebrates in Controlled Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the timing and nature of decay and disarticulation in small vertebrates, using an experimental regime that allowed comparison among different environments, and different size classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Decay and disarticulation of freshly killed small vertebrates was documented in freshwater and seawater aquaria as well as outdoor terrestrial settings protected from

Leonard R. Brand; Michael Hussey; John Taylor

241

Shaping the Vertebrate Body Plan by Polarized Embryonic Cell Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized cell movements shape the major features of the vertebrate body plan during development. The head-to-tail body axis of vertebrates is elongated in embryonic stages by ``convergent extension'' tissue movements. During these movements cells intercalate between one another transverse to the elongating body axis to form a narrower, longer array. Recent discoveries show that these polarized cell movements are controlled

Ray Keller

2002-01-01

242

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

243

Effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of vertebral bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: To compare the effect of vertebroplasty on the compressive strength of unfractured vertebral bodies.Methods used: Four cadaveric thoracic spines were used for this experiment, for a total of 40 vertebral bodies. Before testing, each thoracic spine was submitted to bone density testing and a radiographic evaluation to rule out any obvious fractures. Under image intensification, 6 ml

Siros Pheumaticos; Nguyen Lyndon; John Hipp; Jason Stein; Michael Heggeness

2002-01-01

244

Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2007-01-01

245

Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3?)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43?) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43? concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43? and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

2009-01-01

246

The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

2012-01-01

247

Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sahin, Gurdal [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey); Turkbey, Baris [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Elibol, Bulent [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

248

Limb anomalies in chromosomal aberrations.  

PubMed

This survey shows that there are at least 6 autosomal and 2 gonosomal aberrations which may produce specific types of limb anomaly in 30%-80% of cases. The "expressivity" of these anomalies covers a wide range within the morphogenetic pattern. No entirely specific malformation type is seen. The most unusual malformation, aplasia of the thumbs with proximal synostosis of the 4th aand 5th metacarpals, is seen in 13q- (13r) but the precise cytogenetic basis is not clear. Aplasia of the thumb associated with synostosis of the 4th and 5th metacarpals was occasionally described before (unilateral [105], bilateral [106] while synostosis only (V or Y shaped) may be due to a dominant [107] or an X-linked recessive gene [108]. Reduction malformations limited to radial heminelia have been noted in 4q- (4r) and in trisomy 18. Although the number of cases is still small the pattern is similar to that of thalidomide embryopathy, radial hemimelia (AD, 17910), cardiodigital syndromes (AD, 14290), and even Fanconi panmyelopathy (AR, 22790). It ranges from hypoplasia of the thenar muscles and thumb to pseudophocomelia which should be clearly distinguished from phocomelia because of the absence of the thumb and frequently of the 2nd and 3rd fingers. Nothing has to be added to the teratologic series published by Müller [58] and, more recently, Willert and Henkel [109], but the distribution of the various manifestations may diverge. Asymmetry in 4q- (4r) is noteworthy. Postaxial polydactyly which is noted in trisomy 13 and trisomy of the terminal portions of the long arm of No. 13 is as variable in distribution and morphology as is observed in families in which the gene (AD, 17420) is transmitted. The question cannot yet be answered whether infrequent anomalies of the limbs which do not fit into the morphologic pattern of these types, eg postaxial polydactyly in + 18 or absence of the radius in + 13 are random. Syndactyly of the 3rd and 4th but also of other digits is a frequent but variable anomaly in triploidy. It is very similar to hereditary zygodactyly (AD, 18590). Peripheral hypoplasia of several digits accompanied by onychodysplasia seems to be a frequent anomaly in 9p+ syndrome. It is similar to that seen in a syndrome with mental deficiency, peculiar facies, and stunted growth [110] in which no chromosomal aberration has been found up to the present. Dysostoses have been frequently noted in gonosomal aberations. Brachymetopodia in XO females maybe confused with pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (XR, 30080) or brachydactyly type E (AD, 11330) when only the lateral metacarpals and/or metatarsals are shortened. However, further studies are needed in order to delineate these syndromes on the basis of different frequencies and radiologic patterns. The radioulnar synostosis noted in cases with supernumerary X chromosomes cannot be distinguished from the inherited anomaly (AD, 17930), but associated anomalies of the hand are uncommon. PMID:322750

Pfeiffer, R A; Santelmann, R

1977-01-01

249

Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

Pilepich, M.V. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO); Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

1981-01-01

250

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.  

PubMed

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

2013-01-01

251

Molecular aspects of vertebrate retinal development.  

PubMed

The formation of retina from neural plate has been mapped extensively by anatomical and molecular methods. The major cascades of transcription factor expression have been identified, and deficits resulting from transcription factor knockouts are well characterized. There is extensive cross-regulation, both positive and negative, at the transcriptional level between transcription factors and this is vital in the formation of neural compartments. Many transcription factors are important at both early stages of optic cup formation and later stages of terminal differentiation of retinal cell types. The transcription factor cascades can be regulated by extrinsic factors, and some of the intracellular signaling pathways whereby this is achieved have been identified. Defining the quantitative interactions between regulatory molecules will be the next step in understanding this excellent model of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development. PMID:12428752

Zhang, Samuel Shao-min; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Barnstable, Colin J

2002-01-01

252

Evolutionary attempts at 4 eyes in vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To understand and compare the optical, histological, and ecological differences among 4 vertebrate species that have had evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes. METHODS: An evolutionary attempt at 4 eyes in defined as the duplication or one or more structures integral to the refraction or interpretation of the visible spectrum for that animal. We reviewed and compared the known optics, histology, and ecology of each of these vertebrate species with attempts at 4 eyes including Anableps anableps, Dialomnus fuscus, Mnierpes macrocephalus, and Bathylychnops exilis. These animals have developed portions of ancillary eyes that have diverged from the primary globe in 3 different patterns. At least 1 specimen of each of those vertebrate species known to have 4 eyes was examined histologically and compared to the animal's ecology and current cladistic relationship. RESULTS: A anabteps has 2 distinct optical systems in each eye: an upper one for aerial vision and a lower system for aquatic vision. These systems feature separate retinae and an asymmetric lens to achieve focus in the aerial and aquatic vision, but only 1 optic nerve per eye. The visual system is split horizontally to function optimally in a "prone" position in the water. D fuscus is a terrestrial feeder and has a vertically (almost perpendicular to the long axis of the fish) divided cornea using pigment and a condensation of collagen as the divider, a single pupil, and a divided retina. The split cornea allows for the fish to remain vertical with 1 cornea in air and 1 cornea in water. M macrocephalus is probably closely related to D fuscus with a similar split cornea. B exilis is a mesopelagic inhabitant living at approximately 200 to 1,000 m and has an ancillary globe that "buds" off the primary globe. This secondary globe is directed inferiorly toward the ocean floor as compared to the primary globe, which is directed 35 degrees superiorly from the horizontal. Adult species of B exilis have 2 additional scleral bodies suspected to be lenses. If so, these structures would be capable of focusing light from the inferior field onto the superior retina, presumably adding to the panoramic inferior visual field. There are other mesopelagic species, including Styleophorus chordatus, Opisthoproctus grimaldii, Scopelarchus gantheri (or guentheri), Dolichopteryx binocularis, Benthalbella infans, and Evermannella indica, that have other unusual ocular mechanisms, such as retinal diverticulae and lens pads capable of reflection, but do not meet the definition of multiple eyes, as defined for purposes of this work. CONCLUSIONS: D fuscus and M macrocephalus are terrestrial feeders requiring aquatic and aerial vision, and hence have a split cornea for this purpose, and they probably use their anterior corneae for terrestrial vision. A anableps swims at the surface with combined aerial and aquatic vision for feeding and protection from predators. B exilis is a mesopelagic feeder requiring a binocular visual field in the horizontal meridian and above, and simultaneously is a bottom scavenger using an ancillary globe and perhaps scleral lenses for recognition of bioluminescent detritus. Although 2 of these models are related (D fuscus and M macrocephalus), these 4 fish represent 3 separate, distinct, and unrelated convergent evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes in vertebrates satisfying the ecological needs of each. The 3 different models are unrelated evolutionarily and are found in 3 separate orders. PMID:11797302

Schwab, I R; Ho, V; Roth, A; Blankenship, T N; Fitzgerald, P G

2001-01-01

253

Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

2004-02-01

254

Cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Iron plays an essential role in cellular metabolism and biological processes. However, due to its intrinsic redox activity, free iron is a potentially toxic molecule in cellular biochemistry. Thus, organisms have developed sophisticated ways to import, sequester, and utilize iron. The transferrin cycle is a well-studied iron uptake pathway that is important for most vertebrate cells. Circulating iron can also be imported into cells by mechanisms that are independent of transferrin. Once imported into erythroid cells, iron is predominantly consumed by the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of heme and iron sulfur clusters. This review focuses on canonical transferrin-mediated and the newly discovered, non-transferrin mediated iron uptake pathways, as well as, mitochondrial iron homeostasis in higher eukaryotes. PMID:22285816

Chen, Caiyong; Paw, Barry H.

2012-01-01

255

Histaminergic mechanisms in the vertebrate visual system.  

PubMed

This paper presents and summarizes our recent results on histamine (HI) in vertebrate visual system. The data include: 1. HI distribution, localization, synthesis, uptake and metabolism in retina, optic nerve, choroid and brain of carp, hen, rabbit, cow, 2. distribution of HI in human eyes, 3. 3H-mepyramine binding in the bovine retina, and HI dependent cAMP generating system in the rabbit eye, 4. effect of light stimulation on HI content in the rabbit retina, optic nerve and brain, 5. diurnal variations of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-methyltransferase activity in the rabbit ocular and brain structures. These results are discussed in terms of possible function(s) of HI in the visual system. PMID:2870485

Nowak, J Z

1985-01-01

256

Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.  

PubMed

When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

2003-03-18

257

Kinesin-2 family in vertebrate ciliogenesis.  

PubMed

The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors--heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin--in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation. PMID:22308397

Zhao, Chengtian; Omori, Yoshihiro; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kovach, Peter; Malicki, Jarema

2012-02-14

258

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

284 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(2):284­296, June 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology EVALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL-COMPONENT AND EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION METHODS FOR ESTIMATING MISSING and experimental studies in the paleontological and biological sciences. Morphological data sets, whether of fossil

Strauss, Richard E.

259

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

172 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(1):172­185, March 2001 2001 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology DISTINGUISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE RED QUEEN AND COURT JESTER ON MIOCENE MAMMAL EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Museum of Paleontology and Department of Integrative Biology

California at Berkeley, University of

260

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):14781485, September 2010 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(5):1478­1485, September 2010 © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology ARTICLE NAMING DINOSAUR SPECIES: THE PERFORMANCE OF PROLIFIC AUTHORS MICHAEL J studies of evolution- ary biology, ecology, paleontology, and biodiversity conserva- tion (Gaston

Benton, Michael

261

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):711, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

7 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):7­11, March 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION A NEW TROODONTID THEROPOD FROM UKHAA TOLGOD, MONGOLIA MARK A. NORELL1 , PETER J. MAKOVICKY1 , and JAMES M. CLARK2 1 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

Clark, James M.

262

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

633 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(4):633­636, December 2000 2000 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology RAPID COMMUNICATION FIRST RECORD OF ERPETOSUCHUS (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) FROM of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5; 3 Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History

Olsen, Paul E.

263

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  

E-print Network

695 Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3):695­698, September 2003 2003 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology NOTE A LARGE ORNITHOMIMID PES FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF THE MAZONGSHAN AREA Paleontology and Paleoanthropol- ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; 4Department

Shapiro, Mike

264

Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

2012-01-01

265

Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

Lev, Dorman

266

Repulsive axonal pathfinding requires the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Vertebrate nervous system development requires the careful interpretation of many attractive and repulsive guidance molecules. For the incredibly complicated wiring diagram comprising the vertebrate nervous system to ...

Van Veen, John Edward

2012-01-01

267

Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.  

PubMed

This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

Smith, M M; Hall, B K

1990-08-01

268

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

269

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

270

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

271

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

272

Evolution of Adaptive Immune Recognition in Jawless Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the “jawless” vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is becoming possible to infer some general aspects of the early evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity. All jawed vertebrates assemble their antigen-receptor genes through combinatorial recombination of different “diversity” segments into immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. However, the jawless vertebrates employ an analogous, but independently-derived set of immune receptors in order to recognize and bind antigens: the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The means by which this locus generates receptor diversity and achieves antigen specificity is of considerable interest because these mechanisms represent a completely independent strategy for building a large immune repertoire. Therefore, studies of the VLR system are providing insight into the fundamental principles and evolutionary potential of adaptive immune recognition systems. Here we review and synthesize the wealth of data that have been generated towards understanding the evolution of the adaptive immune system in the jawless vertebrates. PMID:20056434

Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T.

2009-01-01

273

A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.  

PubMed

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

2012-01-01

274

Pancake kidney: A rare developmental anomaly  

PubMed Central

There are many developmental anomalies of the kidney. Pancake kidney is one of the rarest types of renal ectopia. We report a case of pancake kidney which was detected incidentally while treating a female patient for a urinary tract infection. Although urinary system anomalies often coexist with malformations of other organs and systems, no associated anomalies could be detected in this case. Pancake kidney is usually managed by surgery, but this case was managed conservatively without any complication. PMID:25024805

Tiwari, Alok Kumar; Choudhary, Anil Kumar; Khowal, Hemant; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder. P.

2014-01-01

275

Anomaly polynomial of general 6D SCFTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method to determine the anomaly polynomials of general 6D mathcal {N}={(2,0)} and mathcal {N}={(1,0)} superconformal field theories (SCFTs), in terms of the anomaly matching on their tensor branches. This method is almost purely field theoretical, and can be applied to all known 6D SCFTs. We demonstrate our method in many concrete examples, including mathcal {N}={(2,0)} theories of arbitrary type and the theories on M5 branes on asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) singularities, reproducing the N^3 behavior. We check the results against the anomaly polynomials computed M-theoretically via the anomaly inflow.

Ohmori, Kantaro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yonekura, Kazuya

2014-10-01

276

The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

Albert, G.

1979-01-01

277

Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, there is absent the hypothetical center of subjective «nauseating» sensations; therefore, they are immune to the motion sickness. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

Lychakov, Dmitri

278

Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.  

PubMed

This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

Greig, Alison M; Briggs, Andrew M; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W

2014-01-01

279

Trunk Muscle Activity Is Modified in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Thoracic Kyphosis with Potential Consequences for Vertebral Health  

PubMed Central

This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

Greig, Alison M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.

2014-01-01

280

Blurring the Edges in Vertebrate Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Sex in vertebrates is determined by genetic- or environmentally-based signals. These signals initiate molecular cascades and cell-cell interactions within the gonad that lead to the adoption of the male or female fate. Previously, genetic- and environmentally-based mechanisms were thought to be distinct, but this idea is fading as a result of the unexpected discovery of coincident genetic and thermal influences within single species. Together with accumulating phylogenetic evidence of frequent transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, these findings suggest that genetic and environmental sex determination actually represent points on a continuum rather than discrete categories, and that populations may shift in one direction or the other in response to mutations or changing ecological conditions. Elucidation of the underlying molecular basis of sex determination in mice has yielded a bistable model of mutually antagonistic signaling pathways and feedback regulatory loops. This system would be highly responsive to changes in the upstream primary signal and may provide a basis for the rapid evolution of and transitions between different methods of sex determination. PMID:19152784

Barske, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

281

MIM regulates vertebrate neural tube closure  

PubMed Central

Neural tube closure is a critical morphogenetic event that is regulated by dynamic changes in cell shape and behavior. Although previous studies have uncovered a central role for the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway in neural tube closure, the underlying mechanism remains poorly resolved. Here, we show that the missing in metastasis (MIM; Mtss1) protein, previously identified as a Hedgehog response gene and actin and membrane remodeling protein, specifically binds to Daam1 and couples non-canonical Wnt signaling to neural tube closure. MIM binds to a conserved domain within Daam1, and this interaction is positively regulated by Wnt stimulation. Spatial expression of MIM is enriched in the anterior neural plate and neural folds, and depletion of MIM specifically inhibits anterior neural fold closure without affecting convergent extension movements or mesoderm cell fate specification. Particularly, we find that MIM is required for neural fold elevation and apical constriction along with cell polarization and elongation in both the superficial and deep layers of the anterior neural plate. The function of MIM during neural tube closure requires both its membrane-remodeling domain and its actin-binding domain. Finally, we show that the effect of MIM on neural tube closure is not due to modulation of Hedgehog signaling in the Xenopus embryo. Together, our studies define a morphogenetic pathway involving Daam1 and MIM that transduces non-canonical Wnt signaling for the cytoskeletal changes and membrane dynamics required for vertebrate neural tube closure. PMID:21471152

Liu, Wei; Komiya, Yuko; Mezzacappa, Courtney; Khadka, Deepak K.; Runnels, Loren; Habas, Raymond

2011-01-01

282

New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

2014-01-01

283

Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

Mclean, Dewey M.

1988-01-01

284

Vertebral Artery Dissection as a Cause of Cervical Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

The acute onset of neck pain and arm weakness is most commonly due to cervical radiculopathy or inflammatory brachial plexopathy. Rarely, extracranial vertebral artery dissection may cause radiculopathy in the absence of brainstem ischemia. We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection presenting as cervical radiculopathy in a previously healthy 43-year-old woman who presented with proximal left arm weakness and neck pain aggravated by movement. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed dissection of the left vertebral artery with an intramural hematoma compressing the left C5 and C6 nerve roots. Antiplatelet treatment was commenced, and full power returned after 2 months. Recognition of vertebral artery dissection on cervical MRI as a possible cause of cervical radiculopathy is important to avoid interventions within the intervertebral foramen such as surgery or nerve root sleeve injection. Treatment with antithrombotic agents is important to prevent secondary ischemic events. PMID:24353851

Khangure, Mark; Silbert, Peter Linton

2013-01-01

285

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

286

Spontaneus resolution of a traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm.  

PubMed

Injuries of the vertebral artery are rare and are usually seen after penetrating or blunt cervical trauma. Vertebral artery injuries (VAI) have been reported in 0.5% of blunt trauma cases. These injuries can lead to hemorrhage, thrombosis, arteriovenous fistula or traumatic pseudoaneurysm in the early or late period. They must be treated carefully due to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In this case report, we present a case of asymptomatic traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm(TVAP) seen after cervical spinal trauma with C5-C6 listhesis developing afterwards, treated with anterior-posterior stabilization and fusion. Spontaneous resolution of the pseudoaneurysm is demonstrated by vertebral arter angiogrphy. PMID:21294098

Tekiner, Ayhan; Gokcek, Cevdet; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Erdem, Yavuz; Kilic, Celal

2011-01-01

287

VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

288

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

289

[Postoperative dissection of the vertebral artery in two steps].  

PubMed

The diagnosis of perioperative vertebral artery dissection can be difficult because of non-specific clinical signs. We report a case revealed by a tegmento-thalamic stroke after an abdominal second surgical look. The interest of this observation is related to a particular evolution in two steps separated by a 2-month-interval and an intercurrent cervical manipulation. After the second anesthesia, neck pain associated with a third cranial nerve palsy and a supranuclear ophtalmoplegia revealed a tegmento-thalamic ischemic stroke due to vertebral artery dissection. We discuss here the different factors possibly involved in the pathophysiology of postoperative vertebral artery dissection: positioning, cervical manipulation, subclavian central venous access and cisplatin toxicity. Vertebral artery dissection should be discussed in case of postoperative neck pain, especially with non-typical symptomatology. PMID:25447780

Bien, J-Y; Morel, J; Demasles, S; Abboud, K; Molliex, S

2014-12-01

290

A mixed-mating strategy in a hermaphroditic vertebrate  

E-print Network

instance of evolutionary convergence to an analogous mixed mating system by a vertebrate, the mangrove: outcrossing; selfing; heterozygosity; mangrove killifish; Kryptolebias marmoratus 1. INTRODUCTION Three). The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus lives in and around red mangrove forests along the eastern

Avise, John

291

[Phylogenetic tree and synteny of DMRT genes family of vertebrates].  

PubMed

Vertebrates contain a family of genes related to the Drosophila doublesex and C. elegans mab-3 genes, which encode transcription factors including a DNA-binding motif, DM domain. Evolution and function of different DMRT genes of vertebrates have not been understood yet,although some DM proteins are involved in sex determination, sexual differentiation and early embryonic development among different phyla. By genomic analysis of zebrafish and rat DMRT genes, all protein sequences of the vertebrate DMRTs were searched from gene databases and aligned. Phylogenetic tree of all these DMRT genes was reconstructed and evaluated by Bootstrap method. These DMRT genes were clustered into seven subfamilies. Results from analysis of gene structure and cluster organization of DMRT genes showed that synteny of DMRT genes of vertebrates were highly conserved among human, mouse, rat, fugu, medaka and zebrafish, with two syntenic groups, DMRT 1 approximately 3 and DMRT 5 approximately 6. PMID:15552045

Guo, Yi-Qing; Cheng, Han-Hua; Gao, Shang; Zhou, Rong-Jia

2004-10-01

292

GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

293

Successful Treatment of Iatrogenic Vertebral Pseudoaneurysm Using Pipeline Embolization Device  

PubMed Central

Traumatic pseudoaneurysms are uncommon and one of the most difficult lesions to treat. Traditional treatment methods have focused on parent vessel sacrifice with or without revascularization. We report the case of a patient who underwent successful treatment of an iatrogenic extracranial vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm using the Pipeline Embolization Device. A 47-year-old man sustained an inadvertent injury to the left vertebral artery during C1-C2 fixation. Subsequent imaging revealed an iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm. Immediate angiogram was normal. A repeat angiogram done after 3 days of the surgery revealed a vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm. He underwent aneurysm exclusion and vascular reconstruction using the Pipeline Embolization Device. Although flow-diverting stents are currently not being used for treating traumatic pseudoaneurysms, their use may be considered in such cases if active bleeding has ceased. In our case, the patient did well and the aneurysm was excluded from circulation while reconstructing the vessel wall. PMID:25276469

Sharma, Mayur; Smith, Donald

2014-01-01

294

The evolution and elaboration of vertebrate neural crest cells.  

PubMed

Vertebrate neural crest cells are embryonic neuroepithelial cells that undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migrate throughout the embryo and form a wide variety of derivatives, including peripheral neurons and glia, pigment cells, and craniofacial cartilage, bone and teeth. Neural crest cell evolution and elaboration is intimately bound up with vertebrate evolution: the most primitive living vertebrates, lampreys and hagfishes, have most but not all neural crest derivatives. A torrent of recent molecular information has changed our understanding of vertebrate phylogenetic relationships, expanded our understanding of the gene circuitry underlying neural crest development, and given interesting information on the deployment of homologues of these genes in invertebrate relatives such as ascidians and amphioxus. New molecular insights into the evolutionary origin of cartilage, as well as into the nature and evolution of the cells and genes involved in tooth and bone formation, enable tentative hypotheses to be framed for the evolution of skeletal neural crest derivatives. PMID:19121930

Baker, Clare V H

2008-12-01

295

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

296

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

297

A review of anatomical and mechanical factors affecting vertebral body integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

st tr ra ac ct t Background: The aetiology of osteoporotic vertebral fracture is multifactorial and may be conceptualised using a systems framework. Previous studies have established several correlates of vertebral fracture including reduced vertebral cross-sectional area, weakness in back extensor muscles, reduced bone mineral density, increasing age, worsening kyphosis and recent vertebral fracture. Alterations in these physical characteristics may

Alison M Greig; John D Wark; Nicola L Fazzalari; Kim L Bennell

298

Paraspinal muscle control in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high risk of sustaining subsequent vertebral fractures after an initial fracture cannot be explained solely by low bone\\u000a mass. Extra-osseous factors, such as neuromuscular characteristics may help to explain this clinical dilemma. Elderly women\\u000a with (n = 11) and without (n = 14) osteoporotic vertebral fractures performed rapid shoulder flexion to perturb the trunk while standing on a flat and\\u000a short base. Neuromuscular

Andrew M. Briggs; Alison M. Greig; Kim L. Bennell; Paul W. Hodges

2007-01-01

299

Brain Comparison of Animals from the Five Vertebrate Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students observe and record similarities and differences among brains of animals from different vertebrate classes. Students gain an understanding of the basic five-part structure of the vertebrate brain by noting the modifications that take place in the basic brain structure as animals become more complex, as well as changes that reflect structural adaptation. Students also learn to organize observational data into comprehensive summary charts.

1998-08-01

300

Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted in 179 consecutive patients (48 males, 131 females; mean age: 72.0 ± 8.59 years; range:\\u000a 51–93) with single symptomatic acute amyelic osteoporotic vertebral fracture presenting between September 2004 and September\\u000a 2005 to the Santa Lucia Foundation in Rome, Italy. Vertebral fractures usually become manifest due to pain which can be debilitating.\\u000a Treatment depends on the presence or absence

Salvatore Masala; Anna Micaela Ciarrapico; Daniel Konda; Vincenzo Vinicola; Matteo Mammucari; Giovanni Simonetti

2008-01-01

301

Vertebral and carotid artery dissection following chiropractic cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-year-old woman presented a sudden left occipital headache and a posterior circulation stroke after cervical manipulation\\u000a for neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a left intracranial vertebral artery occlusive dissection associated\\u000a with an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection with vessel stenosis in its prepetrous tract. This is the first reported\\u000a case showing an associate vertebral and carotid artery dissection

Giuliano Parenti; Giovanni Orlandi; Mariacristina Bianchi; Maria Renna; Antonio Martini; Luigi Murri

1999-01-01

302

Sex-role reversal in vertebrates: behavioural and endocrinological accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-role reversal occurs when females compete more intensely than males for access to mates. In this paper, we survey the occurrence of sex-role reversal in vertebrates: we focus on behavioural aspects of sex-role reversal and we examine possible endocrinological correlates of this phenomenon. The best documented cases among vertebrates of sex-role reversal occur in fish and birds. In nearly all

Marcel Eens; Rianne Pinxten

2000-01-01

303

Evolutionary History of the Vertebrate Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases Family  

PubMed Central

Background The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) family pathway is implicated in diverse cellular processes and pathways essential to most organisms. Its evolution is conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdoms. However, the detailed evolutionary history of the vertebrate MAPK family is largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The MAPK family members were collected from literatures or by searching the genomes of several vertebrates and invertebrates with the known MAPK sequences as queries. We found that vertebrates had significantly more MAPK family members than invertebrates, and the vertebrate MAPK family originated from 3 progenitors, suggesting that a burst of gene duplication events had occurred after the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. Conservation of evolutionary synteny was observed in the vertebrate MAPK subfamilies 4, 6, 7, and 11 to 14. Based on synteny and phylogenetic relationships, MAPK12 appeared to have arisen from a tandem duplication of MAPK11 and the MAPK13-MAPK14 gene unit was from a segmental duplication of the MAPK11-MAPK12 gene unit. Adaptive evolution analyses reveal that purifying selection drove the evolution of MAPK family, implying strong functional constraints of MAPK genes. Intriguingly, however, intron losses were specifically observed in the MAPK4 and MAPK7 genes, but not in their flanking genes, during the evolution from teleosts to amphibians and mammals. The specific occurrence of intron losses in the MAPK4 and MAPK7 subfamilies might be associated with adaptive evolution of the vertebrates by enhancing the gene expression level of both MAPK genes. Conclusions/Significance These results provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate MAPK family. PMID:22046431

Li, Meng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chiyu

2011-01-01

304

Modeling Multiple Time Series for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to generate comprehensible and accurate models from multiple time series for anomaly detection. The models need to produce anomaly scores in an online man- ner for real-life monitoring tasks. We introduce three algo- rithms that work in a constructed feature space and evaluate them with a real data set from the NASA shuttle program. Our offline and

Philip K. Chan; Matthew V. Mahoney

2005-01-01

305

Disparity : scalable anomaly detection for clusters.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe disparity, a tool that does parallel, scalable anomaly detection for clusters. Disparity uses basic statistical methods and scalable reduction operations to perform data reduction on client nodes and uses these results to locate node anomalies. We discuss the implementation of disparity and present results of its use on a SiCortex SC5832 system.

Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lusk, E.

2008-01-01

306

Uhl's anomaly: a difficult prenatal diagnosis.  

PubMed

Uhl's anomaly is an evolutive disease leading to terminal right ventricular failure. The most difficult differential diagnosis at presentation is the Ebstein disease. We describe the evolution of a foetus with Uhl's anomaly from 21 to 30 weeks of gestation, with progressive reduction in the right ventricular anterior myocardium suggestive of apoptosis, leading to foetal demise. PMID:24784726

Vaujois, Laurence; van Doesburg, Nicolaas; Raboisson, Marie-Josée

2015-03-01

307

Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

2011-01-01

308

American depository receipts and calendar anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to examine the presence of calendar anomalies in American Depository Receipts (ADR) returns. Existing literature has documented several calendar anomalies in US and foreign markets. ADRs, however, represent a unique class of securities because they represent the ownership of stock of a foreign firm, but they are traded on US markets. We use the Standard

Janie Casello Bouges; Ravi Jain; Yash R. Puri

2009-01-01

309

Magnetic resonance images of neuronal migration anomalies.  

PubMed

Neuronal migration anomalies are a spectrum of brain malformations caused by insults to migrating neuroblasts during the sixth week to fifth month of gestation. To study the characteristics of MRI findings in migration anomalies, MR images of 36 patients (28 children and 8 adults) with migration anomalies were evaluated. Five patients had lissencephaly, eight had pachygyria, twelve had schizencephaly, six had heterotopias of gray matter, three had hemimegalencephaly, and two had polymicrogyria. The frequency of migration anomalies was 0.51% of all cranial MRI studies and 1.21% of pediatric cranial MRI studies at our hospital. The major clinical presentations of these patients were seizure (64%), development delay (42%), motor deficits (42%) and mental retardation (25%). Twenty-five patients (69%) associated with other brain anomalies, including: other migration anomalies in 12 cases (33%), absence of the septum pellucidum in 10 cases (28%), Dandy-Walker malformation/variant in 5 cases, arachnoid cyst in 4 cases, agenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 cases, holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, mega cisterna magna in 1 case and cephalocele in 1 case. Some of them presented with multiple complicated anomalies. As MR imaging provides superb gray-white matter distinction, details of cortical anatomy and multiplanar capability, it can clearly delineate the detail morphologic changes of the brain caused by neuronal migration disorders as well as the associated anomalies. PMID:9780601

Jaw, T S; Sheu, R S; Liu, G C; Chou, M S

1998-08-01

310

Sources of Near Side Lunar Magnetic Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar Prospector magnetometer data has been used to identify a number of nearside magnetic anomalies. Some of the features identified appear to correlate with impact ejecta, supporting a basin ejecta origin to the nearside anomalies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Richmond, Nicola C.; Hood, Lon L.; Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A.B.

2002-01-01

311

Classical anomalies for spinning particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortés-Plyushchay-Velázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s = - {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.

Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

1998-02-01

312

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

313

Bow hunter's syndrome secondary to bilateral dynamic vertebral artery compression.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome is a condition in which vertebrobasilar insufficiency is resultant from head rotation, clinically manifested by presyncopal sensation, syncope, dizziness, and nausea. It is usually diagnosed clinically, with supporting vascular imaging demonstrating an occluded or at the very least compromised unilateral vertebral artery, while the dominant vertebral artery remains patent in the neutral position. Dynamic imaging is utilized to confirm the rotational compression of the dominant vertebral artery. We present the rare case of a patient with typical Bow hunter's symptoms, bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging, and bilateral compromise with head rotation. Our patient underwent posterior decompression of the culprit atlanto-axial transverse foramen and subaxial cervical fusion, with resolution of his symptoms. Our patient exemplifies the possibility of bilateral dynamic vertebral artery occlusion. We show that Bow hunter's syndrome cannot be ruled out in the setting of bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging and that severe cervical spondylosis should impart further clinical suspicion of this unusual phenomenon. PMID:25070633

Healy, Andrew T; Lee, Bryan S; Walsh, Kevin; Bain, Mark D; Krishnaney, Ajit A

2015-01-01

314

The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology  

PubMed Central

Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates. PMID:18562680

Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallböök, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

2008-01-01

315

The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.  

PubMed

Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws. PMID:24132236

Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

2013-10-24

316

A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

2012-01-01

317

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

318

Trends in hemispheric warm and cold anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

a spatial percentile approach, we explore the magnitude of temperature anomalies across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Linear trends in spatial percentile series are estimated for 1881-2013, the most recent 30 year period (1984-2013), and 1998-2013. All spatial percentiles in both hemispheres show increases from 1881 to 2013, but warming occurred unevenly via modification of cold anomalies, producing a reduction in spatial dispersion. In the most recent 30 year period, trends also were consistently positive, with warm anomalies having much larger warming rates than those of cold anomalies in both hemispheres. This recent trend has largely reversed the decrease in spatial dispersion that occurred during the twentieth century. While the period associated with the recent slowdown of global warming, 1998-2013, is too brief to estimate trends reliably, cooling was evident in NH warm and cold anomalies during January and February while other months in the NH continued to warm.

Robeson, Scott M.; Willmott, Cort J.; Jones, Phil D.

2014-12-01

319

An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies.  

PubMed

The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin. PMID:22403388

Wieczorek, Mark A; Weiss, Benjamin P; Stewart, Sarah T

2012-03-01

320

An Impactor Origin for Lunar Magnetic Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin.

Wieczorek, Mark A.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Stewart, Sarah T.

2012-03-01

321

Vertebral cortical bone mass measurement by a new quantitative computer tomography method: Correlations with vertebral trabecular bone measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous studies comparing axial and appendicular skeleton have shown that trabecular bone loss is greater than cortical bone\\u000a loss. However, whether the same difference exists between the trabecular and the cortical compartments of the vertebral body\\u000a remains to be determined. In this study, we used quantitative computer tomography (QCT) to simultaneously measure the cortical\\u000a rim of the vertebral body as

Roberto Pacifici; Reta C. Rupich; Louis V. Avioli

1990-01-01

322

Comparative structure of vertebrate sperm chromatin.  

PubMed

A consistent feature of sperm nuclei is its exceptionally compact state in comparison with somatic nuclei. Here, we have examined the structural organization of sperm chromatin from representatives of three vertebrate lineages, bony fish (Danio rerio), birds (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mammals (Mus musculus) using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although the three sperm nuclei are all highly compact, they differ in morphology and in the complement of compaction-inducing proteins. Whereas zebrafish sperm retain somatic histones and a nucleosomal organization, in the rooster and mouse, histones are largely replaced by small, arginine-rich protamines. In contrast to the mouse, the rooster protamine contains no cysteine residues and lacks the potential stabilizing effects of S-S bonds. Protamine driven chromatin compaction results in a stable, highly condensed chromatin, markedly different from the somatic nucleosome-based beads-on-a-string architecture, but its structure remains poorly understood. When prepared gently for whole mount TEM, the rooster and mouse sperm chromatin reveal striking rod-like units 40-50 nm in width. Also present in the mouse, which has very flattened sperm nuclei, but not rooster, where nuclei take the form of elongated cylinders, are toroidal shaped structures, with an external diameter of about 90 nm. In contrast, similarly prepared zebrafish sperm exhibit nucleosomal chromatin. We also examined the early stages in the binding of salmine (the salmon protamine) to defined sequence DNA. These images suggest an initial side-by-side binding of linear DNA-protamine complexes leading to the nucleation of thin, flexible rods with the potential to bend, allowing the ends to come into contact and fuse to form toroidal structures. We discuss the relationship between these in vitro observations and the rods and toroids seen in nuclei, and suggest an explanation for the apparent absence of these structures in TEM images of fully condensed sperm nuclei. PMID:25264147

Ausió, Juan; González-Romero, Rodrigo; Woodcock, Christopher L

2014-11-01

323

A brief history of vertebrate functional morphology.  

PubMed

The discipline of functional morphology grew out of a comparative anatomical tradition, its transformation into a modern experimental science facilitated largely by technological advances. Early morphologists, such as Cuvier, felt that function was predictable from organismal form, to the extent that animals and plants represented perfect adaptations to their habits. However, anatomy alone could not reveal how organisms actually performed their activities. Recording techniques capable of capturing fast motion were first required to begin to understand animal movement. Muybridge is most famous for his pioneering work in fast photography in the late 19th century, enabling him to "freeze" images of even the fastest horse at a full gallop. In fact, contemporary kinematic analysis grew directly out of the techniques Muybridge developed. Marey made perhaps an even greater contribution to experimental science through his invention of automatic apparati for recording events of animal motion. Over the first half of the 20th century, scientists developed practical methods to record activity patterns from muscles of a living, behaving human or animal. The technique of electromyography, initially used in clinical applications, was co-opted as a tool of organismal biologists in the late 1960s. Comparative anatomy, kinematic analysis and electromyography have for many years been the mainstay of vertebrate functional morphology; however, those interested in animal form and function have recently begun branching out to incorporate approaches from experimental biomechanics and other disciplines (see accompanying symposium papers), and functional morphology now stands at the threshold of becoming a truly integrative, central field in organismal biology. PMID:21708709

Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Gillis, Gary B

2002-04-01

324

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

325

Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

2013-01-01

326

The genetic basis of modularity in the development and evolution of the vertebrate dentition.  

PubMed Central

The construction of organisms from units that develop under semi-autonomous genetic control (modules) has been proposed to be an important component of their ability to undergo adaptive phenotypic evolution. The organization of the vertebrate dentition as a system of repeated parts provides an opportunity to study the extent to which phenotypic modules, identified by their evolutionary independence from other such units, are related to modularity in the genetic control of development. The evolutionary history of vertebrates provides numerous examples of both correlated and independent evolution of groups of teeth. The dentition itself appears to be a module of the dermal exoskeleton, from which it has long been under independent genetic control. Region-specific tooth loss has been a common trend in vertebrate evolution. Novel deployment of teeth and reacquisition of lost teeth have also occurred, although less frequently. Tooth shape differences within the dentition may be discontinuous (referred to as heterodonty) or graded. The occurrence of homeotic changes in tooth shape provides evidence for the decoupling of tooth shape and location in the course of evolution. Potential mechanisms for region-specific evolutionary tooth loss are suggested by a number of mouse gene knockouts and human genetic dental anomalies, as well as a comparison between fully-developed and rudimentary teeth in the dentition of rodents. These mechanisms include loss of a tooth-type-specific initiation signal, alterations of the relative strength of inductive and inhibitory signals acting at the time of tooth initiation and the overall reduction in levels of proteins required for the development of all teeth. Ectopic expression of tooth initiation signals provides a potential mechanism for the novel deployment or reacquisition of teeth; a single instance is known of a gene whose ectopic expression in transgenic mice can lead to ectopic teeth. Differences in shape between incisor and molar teeth in the mouse have been proposed to be controlled by the region-specific expression of signalling molecules in the oral epithelium. These molecules induce the expression of transcription factors in the underlying jaw mesenchyme that may act as selectors of tooth type. It is speculated that shifts in the expression domains of the epithelial signalling molecules might be responsible for homeotic changes in tooth shape. The observation that these molecules are regionally restricted in the chicken, whose ancestors were not heterodont, suggests that mammalian heterodonty may have evolved through the use of patterning mechanisms already acting on skeletal elements of the jaws. In general, genetic and morphological approaches identify similar types of modules in the dentition, but the data are not yet sufficient to identify exact correspondences. It is speculated that modularity may be achieved by gene expression differences between teeth or by differences in the time of their development, causing mutations to have cumulative effects on later-developing teeth. The mammalian dentition, for which virtually all of the available developmental genetic data have been collected, represents a small subset of the dental diversity present in vertebrates as a whole. In particular, teleost fishes may have a much more extensive dentition. Extension of research on the genetic control of tooth development to this and other vertebrate groups has great potential to further the understanding of modularity in the dentition. PMID:11604128

Stock, D W

2001-01-01

327

Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. Results: 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). Conclusion: The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography. PMID:24455078

Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

2013-01-01

328

Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

Papanastassiou, D. A.

1986-01-01

329

Anorectal Malformations Associated with Esophageal Atresia in Neonates  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anorectal malformations are often associated with other anomalies, reporting frequency with 40-70%. Gastrointestinal anomalies have been known to be relatively less common than associated anomalies of other organ system. This study was performed to assess a distinctive feature of cases associated with esophageal atresia. Methods Clinical data (from January 2000 through December 2011) on the 196 subjects with anorectal malformations, managed in our Hospital, were reviewed. Total 14 neonates were identified with accompanying esophageal atresia and retrospective analysis was conducted. Results The incidence was 7.1% and there were 8 male and 6 female subjects. Only 2 cases were associated with esophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula. Although variable cases of anorectal malformation in female subjects, almost cases were anorectal malformations with rectourethral fistula in male. Other associated anomalies were identified in all cases, with more than 3 anomalies in 10 cases. There were 4 VACTERL (Vertebral abnormalities, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal and Limb anomalies) associations accounting for 28.6%, but could not identify chromosomal anomaly. Most cases were managed with staged procedure, usually primary repair of esophageal atresia and diverting colostomy. Overall mortality rate was 21.4%, mainly caused by heart problems. Conclusion This study shows that early diagnosis and rational surgical approach with multidisciplinary plan are mandatory in managing anorectal malformations with esophageal atresia, when considering a high frequency of associated anomaly and a relative high mortality. PMID:24010103

Byun, Shin Yun; Lim, Ryoung Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hae Young

2013-01-01

330

Data Mining for Anomaly Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

2013-01-01

331

The free-convective anomaly.  

PubMed

Persons exposed to high temperature, or to equivalent environmental factors, have quantifiable reactions, such as reducing the resistance to both heat and moisture flow in skin tissues and clothing needed to maintain thermal equilibrium. The one-to-one relationship between this resistance in the walking person and temperature, with the other factors neutral, is the basis for the apparent temperature scale and the derived heat index. When this approach is taken to assess the thermal environment for a still person exposed to heat in still air, there is a zone of ambient conditions in which there are three solutions to the heat-balance equation. Extraordinary thermal stress occurs, depending slightly on other conditions, at ambient temperatures near 41 degrees C, especially at high humidity, because of the difficulty in carrying sweat vapor from the person when free convection is minimal. This anomaly is examined for a range of ambient vapor pressures and extra radiation. The rapid rise in heat stress when ambient temperature just exceeds body temperature in still conditions may explain the severity of some observed distress. PMID:10409558

Steadman, R G

1999-07-01

332

Development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates.  

PubMed

Compared with birds and mammals, very little is known about the development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates. The development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) should provide insight into the evolution of these mechanisms. One useful model for examining the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates has emerged from studies with the North American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). A major advantage of bullfrogs as a comparative model for respiratory rhythm generation is that respiratory output may be measured at all stages of development, both in vivo and in vitro. An emerging view of recent studies in developing bullfrogs is that many of the mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation are very similar to those seen in birds and mammals. The overall conclusion from these studies is that respiratory rhythm generation during development may be highly conserved during evolution. The development of respiratory rhythm generation in mammals may, therefore, reflect the antecedent mechanisms seen in ectothermic vertebrates. The main focus of this brief review is to discuss recent data on the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates, with particular emphasis on the North American bullfrog (R. catesbeiana) as a model. PMID:15914099

Hedrick, Michael S

2005-11-15

333

Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.  

PubMed

To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. PMID:22704826

Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

2012-08-01

334

Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal investigates threats to vertebrates in China and the US. Li Yiming and David S.Wilcove analyzed the threats to imperiled vertebrate species in China and compared our results with those from a similar study conducted in the United States. Overexploitation is the most pervasive threat to Chinese vertebrates, contributing to the endangerment of 78% of imperiled species, followed by habitat destruction (70%), pollution (20%), alien species (3%), and disease (< 1%). Harvest for food and use in traditional Chinese medicines are the two main forms of overexploitation, while logging is the most pervasive form of habitat destruction. Threats to vertebrate species are strikingly different in the United States, where habitat destruction affects 92% of imperiled vertebrate species, followed by alien species (47%), pollution (46%), overexploitation (27%), and disease (11%). The greater frequency of overexploitation in China stems from China's larger, poorer, and more rural population, along with widespread trade in wildlife products. The apparent lower frequency of alien species in China may reflect neglect of this issue by Chinese scientists.

LI YIMING and DAVID S. WILCOVE (;)

2005-02-01

335

Observation of vertebral artery damage using angioscopy in autopsy cases.  

PubMed

The vertebral arteries are important blood vessels that supply the cerebral circulation in conjunction with the internal carotid arteries. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is necessary to examine the vertebral arteries as potential sources of bleeding due to blunt trauma (head and neck) or of cerebral embolism that originated on the surface of the damaged intima as a result of hyperflexion or hyperextension. However, a considerable part of the vertebral arterial surface is surrounded by bone, resulting in challenges during examination in a routine autopsy. In this study, angioscopy was used to inspect the vertebral artery intima for damage in cases of neck injury, head injury, or neck strangulation. Intimal damage was detected in 34 out of the total 75 cases. Of the 28 cases with cervical discopathy or fracture, 61% had intimal damage. In addition, postmortem application of computed tomography angiography was performed to identify the injured vessel in a case with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and a perforated hole was detected using angioscopy, which did not introduce autopsy-related artifacts. Therefore, angioscopy may be a useful and nondestructive method to identify intimal damage in the vertebral arteries during an autopsy. PMID:25030189

Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Makino, Yohsuke; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Sato, Kaoru; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2014-11-01

336

Tunguska Genetic Anomaly and Electrophonic Meteors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

Silagadze, Z. K.

2005-03-01

337

Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

1984-01-01

338

Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

Shea, James H.

1988-01-01

339

Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

340

Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

341

Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]?H??d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of ?-cohomology group, H??d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that H??d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

Wen, Xiao-Gang

2013-08-01

342

Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

2014-01-01

343

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

344

Probabilistic anomaly detection in distributed computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed host-based anomaly detection has not yet proven practical due to the ex- cessive computational overhead during training and detection. This paper considers an efficient algorithm for detecting resource anomalies in event streams with either Poisson or long-tailed arrival processes. A form of distributed, lazy evaluation is pre- sented, which uses a model for human-computer interaction based two-dimensional time and

Mark Burgess

2006-01-01

345

CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly  

E-print Network

It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

Yu Nakayama

2012-01-26

346

ANOMALY-BASED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new lossy compression algorithm for hyperspectral images, which is based on spectral principal component analysis (PCA), followed by JPEG2000 (JP2K). The approach employs an anomaly-removal model in the compression process to preserve anomalous pixels. Results on two different hyperspectral image scenes show that the new algorithm not only provides good post-compression anomaly-detection performance but also improves rate-

Qian Du; Wei Zhu; James E. Fowler

2009-01-01

347

Anomaly-Based Hyperspectral Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new lossy compression algorithm for hyperspectral images, which is based on spectral principal component analysis (PCA), followed by JPEG2000 (JP2K). The approach employs an anomaly-removal model in the compression process to preserve anomalous pixels. Results on two different hyperspectral image scenes show that the new algorithm not only provides good post-compression anomaly-detection performance but also improves rate-distortion

Qian Du; Wei Zhu; James E. Fowler

2008-01-01

348

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

349

Translational control of tropomyosin expression in vertebrate hearts.  

PubMed

The tropomyosin (TM) gene family produces a set of related TM proteins with important functions in striated and smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. In vertebrate striated muscle, the thin filament consists largely of actin, TM, the troponin (Tn) complex (Tn-I, Tn-C and Tn-T), and tropomodulin (Tmod) and is responsible for mediating Ca(2+) control of muscle contraction and relaxation. There are four known genes (designated as TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) for TM in vertebrates. The four TM genes generate a multitude of tissue- and developmental-specific isoforms through the use of different promoters, alternative mRNA splicing, different 3'-end mRNA processing and tissue-specific translational control. In this review, we have focused mainly on the regulation of TM expression in striated muscles, primarily in vertebrate hearts with special emphasis on translational control using mouse and Mexican axolotl animal models. PMID:25125172

Dube, Dipak K; McLean, Matthew D; Dube, Syamalima; Poiesz, Bernard J

2014-09-01

350

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

351

Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

Niimura, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

352

Erythropoiesis and red cell function in vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

All vertebrate embryos produce a specific erythroid cell population--primitive erythrocytes--early in development. These cells are characterized by expression of the specific embryonic haemoglobins. Many aspects of primitive erythropoiesis and the physiological function of primitive red cells are still enigmatic. Nevertheless, recent years have seen intensive efforts to characterize in greater detail the molecular events underlying the initiation of erythropoiesis in vertebrate embryos. Several key genes have been identified that are necessary for primitive and the subsequent definitive erythropoiesis, which differs in several aspect from primitive erythropoiesis. This review gives in its first part a short overview dealing with comparative aspects of primitive and early definitive erythropoiesis in higher and lower vertebrates and in the second part we discuss the physiological function of primitive red cells based mainly on results from mammalian and avian embryos. PMID:16281952

Baumann, R; Dragon, S

2005-12-01

353

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications.  

PubMed

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

354

Congenital anomaly surveillance in England and Wales.  

PubMed

The National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) was set up in 1964, following the thalidomide epidemic, as a monitoring system designed to detect changes in the frequency of reporting of malformations. Its original aim was to detect anomalies reported within 7 days of birth. The NCAS is voluntary at all stages and covers all live- and stillbirths. It has two tiers; a 'passive system' receiving congenital anomaly notifications through a standard paper notification form, known as the SD56, and the congenital anomaly registers that send notifications electronically. Congenital anomalies are classified using the International Classification of Diseases codes and 10 monitoring groups. The Office for National Statistics performs a statistical analysis on a monthly, quarterly and annual basis, using the cumulative sum technique, which is the basis upon which surveillance alerts are raised within the system. The NCAS is now an open database where congenital anomalies can be notified whenever they are detected. The aim of this paper is to describe the current operation and uses of the NCAS based on guidelines for the evaluation of public health surveillance systems published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:16337977

Misra, T; Dattani, N; Majeed, A

2006-03-01

355

Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

356

Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players  

PubMed Central

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

357

Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A.

2014-01-01

358

Unexpected multiplicity of QRFP receptors in early vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we also identified a QRFP receptor (QRFPR) that mediates a functional response to sub-nanomolar concentrations of the amphioxus peptide as well as short and long human QRFP (Xu et al., submitted). Because the ancestral vertebrate underwent two tetraploidizations, it might be expected that duplicates of the QRFP gene and its receptor gene may exist. Indeed, we report here the identification of multiple vertebrate QRFPR genes. Three QRFPR genes are present in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, representing an early diverging sarcopterygian lineage. Three QRFPR genes are present in the basal actinopterygian fish, the spotted gar. Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses show that only two of these receptor genes are orthologous between the two species, thus demonstrating a total of four distinct vertebrate genes. Three of the QRFPR genes resulted from the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and were copied along with syntenic neuropeptide Y receptor genes. The fourth QRFPR gene may be an even older and distinct lineage. Because mammals and birds have only a single QRFPR gene, this means that three genes have been lost in these lineages, and at least one of these was lost independently in mammals and birds because it is still present in a turtle. In conclusion, these results show that the QRFP system gained considerable complexity in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and still maintains much of this in some lineages, and that it has been secondarily reduced in mammals. PMID:25386115

Larhammar, Dan; Xu, Bo; Bergqvist, Christina A

2014-01-01

359

Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.  

PubMed

In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

2007-01-01

360

Using Artificial Anomalies to Detect Unknown and Known Network Intrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) must be capable of detecting new and unknown attacks, or anomalies. We study the problem of building detection models for both pure anomaly detection and combined misuse and anomaly detection (i.e., detection of both known and unknown in- trusions). We propose an algorithm to generate artificial anomalies to coerce the inductive learner into discovering an accurate

Wei Fan; Matthew Miller; Salvatore J. Stolfo; Wenke Lee; Philip K. Chan

2001-01-01

361

Using artificial anomalies to detect unknown and known network intrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) must be capable of detecting new and unknown attacks, or anomalies. We study the problem of building detection models for both pure anomaly detection and combined misuse and anomaly detection (i.e., detection of both known and unknown intrusions). We show the necessity of artificial anomalies by discussing the failure to use conventional inductive learning methods to

Wei Fan; Matthew Miller; Salvatore J. Stolfo; Wenke Lee; Philip K. Chan

2004-01-01

362

Florida Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate Paleontology UF Master Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Florida Museum of Natural History, this online database allows researchers and others to search the University of Florida Vertebrate Paleontology (UF) Collection. The UF Collection of 209,432 catalogued specimens contains "many unique (i.e. not found in other museums) fossil vertebrates from important sites spanning from the Eocene and Pleistocene epochs." The UF Collection features marine and freshwater fossils as well as "an extraordinary array of extinct land-mammals from the past 20 million years in Florida." The database offers search fields for Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. Other available search fields include Site, Epoch, Formation, County, State, Nature of Specimen, and more.

363

Cyclostome studies in the context of vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

The proceedings in this volume follow from the 15(th) Center for Developmental Biology meeting on "Advances in Cyclostome Research" that we organized. The meeting was held at the CDB RIKEN Kobe Institute on 24 and 25 January 2008 with support from the CDB. Jawless vertebrates have been of interest to embryologists and comparative morphologists for more than a century. While the comparative morphology among lampreys, hagfishes, and gnathostomes has long been recognized in contributing to understanding the origin of jaws and other gnathostome traits, the availability of modern molecular methods has rekindled interest in these topics, and evolutionary developmental biology coupled with paleontology has opened new avenues into the study of gnathostome origins. Within the last decade, because of renewed interest in evolutionary developmental biology, the importance of lampreys and hagfishes to our understanding of vertebrate evolution has undergone resurgence in interest, as evidenced by the sea lamprey genome project currently underway at the National Human Genome Research Institute. As new molecular and imaging techniques become available, both paleontological and neontological questions are being readdressed and are providing new insights and speculation into vertebrate evolution. Thus, we determined the timing was optimal to bring together many of the researchers currently contributing to our understanding of the biology of agnathans. The diversity of speakers at the meeting included evolutionary developmental biologists, phylogenetics and genomics investigators, paleontologists, and endocrinology researchers, because as we move into the 21(st) century, integration among these disciplines has encouraged synergistic activities to develop. The goal of this meeting was to highlight in a single setting the most recent advances in this important basal group of vertebrates to facilitate interactions among the cyclostome community. Secondarily, we also hope that this gathering will enhance the visibility of jawless vertebrates as important models in the vertebrate "evo-devo" community. Several topics for further discussion emerged at this symposium, including: genomic data that have spurred renewed interest in gene duplications and their contribution to our understanding of cyclostome phylogeny and vertebrate evolution; the use of paleontology coupled with modern imaging techniques to clarify vertebrate phylogeny; and the evolution of the neuroendocrine and adaptive immune systems. These were among the topics that led to fruitful discussion. Here we summarize key research topics from the symposium that continue to advance as we move forward in the 21(st) century. PMID:19267629

McCauley, David W; Kuratani, Shigeru

2008-10-01

364

Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma  

PubMed Central

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

365

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

2010-05-01

366

Efficient selection of 3'-terminal exons from vertebrate DNA.  

PubMed Central

Identification of expressed sequences within genomic DNA is a hurdle in the characterization of complex genomes. We developed an exon trapping scheme that provides a positive selection for vertebrate 3'-terminal exons. A copy of the trapped exon sequence is obtained by RT/PCR amplification. The technique detects valid terminal exons without interference from partial exons or non-specific sequences, including simple human repeated sequences. Application to random human cosmids yielded one unique trapped terminal exon per cosmid on average. Because vertebrate terminal exons average 600-700 nucleotides in length, the technique provides transcribed sequences of sufficient length to assist further mapping efforts. Images PMID:8255777

Krizman, D B; Berget, S M

1993-01-01

367

iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology;)

2008-01-01

368

Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

WITSCHI, E

1959-08-14

369

Vertebral artery occlusion with vertebral artery-to-posterior inferior cerebellar artery stenting for preservation of the PICA in treating ruptured vertebral artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with a right vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm who was treated by placing an Enterprise stent\\u000a (Cordis Neurovascular, Miami Lakes, FL) from the proximal VA to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in order to\\u000a save the patency of the PICA. A 47-year-old man was admitted with a ruptured right VA dissecting aneurysm that involved the

Joonho Chung; Bum-soo Kim; Dongwoo Lee; Tae-Hyun Kim; Yong Sam Shin

2010-01-01

370

Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully  

E-print Network

Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column dolphin Delphinus delphis. The vertebral column of cetaceans, as in all vertebrates, transmits forces The primary skeletal structure used by dolphins to generate the dorsoventral bending characteristic

Long Jr., John H.

371

Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly.  

PubMed

Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the first study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M; Happ, Hannah C; Levin, Alex V; Wheeler, Patricia G; David, Karen L; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie; Semina, Elena V

2014-12-01

372

Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

1985-01-01

373

Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern  

E-print Network

Field Guide to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Late Triassic Age Rocks in the Southwestern Newark Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, in Philadelphia. This paper is essentially an updated

Olsen, Paul E.

374

Aquatic Vertebrate Assemblages in the Middle Trinity River Basin, with Emphasis on Turtles  

E-print Network

major aquatic vertebrate group, the turtles. I sampled fish and turtles at Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area (WMA) and used ordination analyses to visualize environmental gradients that may influence community structure for these two vertebrate...

Riedle, Jimmy

2014-05-03

375

OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit  

E-print Network

OIKOS 54: 185-188. Copenhagen 1989 Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate. Vertebrate frugivores and their interaction with invertebrate fruit predators: supporting evidence to a dramatic increase in the population of invertebrate fruit predators. Evidence consistent

Herrera, Carlos M.

376

Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* David Posada, and D. James Harris*  

E-print Network

Inverted Replication of Vertebrate Mitochondria Miguel M. Fonseca,* à David Posada,à and D. James, Vigo, Spain After analyzing the base composition asymmetry of coding regions in vertebrate mitochondria

Posada, David

377

Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin ?I Domains.  

PubMed

Half of the 18 human integrins ? subunits have an inserted ?I domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin ?I domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human ?I domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with ?I domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin ?I domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin ?I domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the ?1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin ?I domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with ?I domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Käpylä, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S

2014-01-01

378

Acute cervical radiculopathy due to vertebral AV fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 28 year old woman with acute, mainly motor, radiculopathy at C5-C6 on the right side secondary to a congenital vertebral arteriovenous fistula. The finding of a bruit at the side of the neck lent weight to the CT and MRI findings. Angiography was diagnostic. The fistula was embolized successfully.

F. Morello; G. Moro; M. Tibaldo; G. Siringo; W. Faggin; A. Franciosi

1992-01-01

379

Kyphoplasty—Minimally invasive vertebral compression fracture repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

•OSTEOPOROSIS is a skeletal disorder that compromises bone strength, predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. An estimated 700,000 spinal fragility fractures, such as vertebral compression fractures, directly related to osteoporosis occur annually.•KYPHOPLASTY, a minimally invasive fracture reduction procedure, has become a treatment option for osteoporotic fractures. A balloon is used in place of the conventional bone tamp

Kelley Erickson; Susan Baker; Jason Smith

2003-01-01

380

The Mosaic Genome of Warm-Blooded Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the nuclear genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is a mosaic of very long (>>200 kilobases) DNA segments, the isochores; these isochores are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content. The families of DNA molecules derived from such classes can be separated and used to study

Giorgio Bernardi; Birgitta Olofsson; Jan Filipski; Marino Zerial; Julio Salinas; Gerard Cuny; Michele Meunier-Rotival; Francis Rodier

1985-01-01

381

JANUARY 2011 VOL. 24, NO. 1 The Vertebral Column...  

E-print Network

OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY After 50 Years by Bruce Collette Reflections from an inside outsider after half a century at Natural History. I arrived in NMNH in Octo- ber 1960 after Antonio (with Ollie Flint). I have worked for the Bureau of Commercial Fish- eries, now the National Ma

Mathis, Wayne N.

382

A multidimensional approach for detecting species patterns in Malagasy vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of Madagascar is extraordinarily distinctive, diverse, and endangered. It is therefore urgent that steps be taken to document, describe, interpret, and protect this exceptional biota. As a collaborative group of field and laboratory biologists, we employ a suite of methodological and analytical tools to investigate the vertebrate portion of Madagascar's fauna. Given that species are the fundamental unit of evolution, where micro- and macroevolutionary forces converge to generate biological diversity, a thorough understanding of species distribution and abundance is critical for understanding the evolutionary, ecological, and biogeographic forces that have shaped Malagasy vertebrate diversity. We illustrate the means by which we apply Mayr's “three basic tasks” of the systematist [Mayr, E. (1942) Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA)] to identify, classify, and study the organisms that together constitute Madagascar's vertebrate community. Using field inventory methods, specimen-based studies, and morphological and molecular analyses, we formulate hypotheses of species identity that then serve as the foundation for subsequent studies of biology and history. Our experience, as well as that of other investigators, has shown that much of the vertebrate species diversity in Madagascar is “cryptic” for both biological and practical reasons. Beyond issues of cryptic biological diversity, the resolution of species identity in Madagascar has been hampered because of a lack of vouchered comparative material at the population level. Through our activities, we are attempting to remedy these limitations while simultaneously enhancing research capacity in Madagascar. PMID:15851666

Yoder, Anne D.; Olson, Link E.; Hanley, Carol; Heckman, Kellie L.; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Russell, Amy L.; Ranivo, Julie; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Karanth, K. Praveen; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Goodman, Steven M.

2005-01-01

383

[Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].  

PubMed

Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

1997-09-01

384

INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into  

E-print Network

, mutants with disrupted notochord development have a loss of muscle pioneers, and muscle pioneer loss of Engrailed-expressing muscle pioneers. In addition, mutant embryos have partial cyclopiaINTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into multiple fiber types based

Devoto, Stephen H.

385

Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates  

E-print Network

Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates Michael D. Shapiro* , Michael A. Bell. Pelvic reduction in stickleback fish (family Gasterostei- dae) provides a striking example of parallel at the Pitx1 locus control pelvic reduction in a population of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus

Shapiro, Mike

386

Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE)  

E-print Network

5139 Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) derive from domains forms the peripheral retina, a region that gives rise to several pigmented and nonpigmented, in a mixed genetic background, the progressive appearance of pigmented cells in the neural retina

Tabin, Cliff

387

DNA methylation, epigenetics, and evolution in vertebrates: facts and challenges.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution. PMID:24551476

Varriale, Annalisa

2014-01-01

388

NATURE OF CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON BIOTIC DIVERSITY OF WETLAND VERTEBRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no longer any doubt that cumulative impacts have important effects on wetland vertebrates. he interactions of species diversity and community structure produce a complex pattern in which environmental impacts can play a highly significant role. ariety of examples shows h...

389

Cytoglobin: A Novel Globin Type Ubiquitously Expressed in Vertebrate Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrates possess multiple respiratory globins that differ in terms of structure, function, and tissue distribution. Three types of globins have been described so far: hemoglobin facilitates the transport of oxygen in the blood, myoglobin serves oxygen transport and storage in the muscle, and neuroglobin has a yet unidentified function in nerve cells. Here we report the identification of a fourth

Thorsten Burmester; Bettina Ebner; Bettina Weich; Thomas Hankeln

390

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn

Simona Santini; Jeffrey L. Boore; Axel Meyer

2003-01-01

391

Going nuclear: gene family evolution and vertebrate phylogeny reconciled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene duplications have been common throughout vertebrate evolution, introducing paralogy and so com- plicating phylogenetic inference from nuclear genes. Reconciled trees are one method capable of dealing with paralogy, using the relationship between a gene phylogeny and the phylogeny of the organisms con- taining those genes to identify gene duplication events. This allows us to infer phylogenies from gene families

James A. Cotton; Roderic D. M. Page

2002-01-01

392

Avian brains and a new understanding of vertebrate brain evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian cerebrum. Our current

Onur Güntürkün; Laura Bruce; András Csillag; Harvey Karten; Wayne Kuenzel; Loreta Medina; George Paxinos; David J. Perkel; Toru Shimizu; Georg Striedter; J. Martin Wild; Gregory F. Ball; Jennifer Dugas-Ford; Sarah E. Durand; Gerald E. Hough; Scott Husband; Lubica Kubikova; Diane W. Lee; Claudio V. Mello; Alice Powers; Connie Siang; Tom V. Smulders; Kazuhiro Wada; Stephanie A. White; Keiko Yamamoto; Jing Yu; Anton Reiner; Ann B. Butler; Erich D. Jarvis

2005-01-01

393

The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Mexican men  

PubMed Central

Summary The prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 413 in Mexican men is 9.7% (95% CI 6.85–12.55). Increase of vertebral fracture rises with age from 2.0% in the youngest group (50–59 years) to 21.4% in the oldest group (80 years and over). Introduction This is the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Mexican men using a standardized methodology reported in other studies. Methods The presence of radiographic vertebral fractures increases with age. This same pattern was found in Mexican women with steady age increments, but the higher prevalence of fractures in women starts at age 70, whereas in men, the higher prevalence starts a decade later (80 years and over). Results The standardized prevalence per 1,000 men 50 years and over in the Mexican population for the year 2005 is 65.8 (95% CI 29.9–105.5), and it is 68.6 (95% CI 32.2–108.7) in the US population for the year 2000. PMID:19936869

Cons-Molina, F.; Deleze, M.; Talavera, J. O.; Palermo, L.; Cummings, S. O.

2009-01-01

394

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role in engendering these differences by masculinizing the nervous system of males. Usually, the androgen must act early in life, often during

Bradley Cooke; Carol D. Hegstrom; Loic S. Villeneuve; S. Marc Breedlove

1998-01-01

395

Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls  

E-print Network

Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls Callum F. Ross1 and Keith A. Metzger2 1. It is often stated that the skull is optimally designed for resisting feeding forces, where optimality gradi- ents ­ variation in bone strain magnitudes across the skull ­ which in the primate skull have

396

Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrate fauna, North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Closely related terrestrial vertebrates in Cretaceous mid-latitude (30/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/) faunas of North America and Asia as well as scattered occurrences of footprints and skin impressions suggested that in the Late Mesozoic the Alaskan North Slope supported a diverse fauna. In 1961 abundant skeletal elements of Cretaceous, Alaskan dinosaurs (hadrosaurids) were discovered by the late R.L. Liscomb. This material is being described by K.L. Davies. Additional fossils collected by E.M. Brouwers and her associates include skeletal elements of hadrosaurid and carnosaurian (.tyrannosaurid) dinosaurs and other vertebrates. The fossil locality on the North Slope is not at about 70/sup 0/N. In the Late Cretaceous the members of this fauna were subject to the daylight regime and environment at a paleolatitude closer to 80/sup 0/N. Current hypotheses attributing extinctions of dinosaurs and some other terrestrial vertebrates to impact of an extraterrestrial object cite periods of darkness, decreased temperature (possibly followed by extreme warming) and acid rain as the direct causes of their demise. Unless members of this North Slope fauna undertook long-distance migrations, their high latitude occurrence indicates groups of dinosaurs and other terrestrial vertebrates regularly tolerated months of darkness.

Clemens, W.A.; Allison, C.W.

1985-01-01

397

Vertebral Artery Dissection in Children: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been infrequently recognized in children. The authors have reviewed 68 reported cases of VAD in children in the existing literature. An association between routine types of neck movement in sports and the evolution of VAD was recognized in half of the reported cases. Boys outnumbered girls by a ratio of 6.6 to 1, in contrast

Izhar Hasan; Simon Wapnick; Michael S. Tenner; William T. Couldwell

2002-01-01

398

Vertebrate heart development: Lessons learnt from live imaging  

E-print Network

Vertebrate heart development: Lessons learnt from live imaging California Institute of Technology employing different imaging techniques. Sub resolution imaging of beating zebrafish heart has however remained a challenge owing Embryonic heart is a 100 moving quasi-periodically at few Hertz frequency, over

Shyamasundar, R.K.

399

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The dynamics of vertebrate homeobox gene  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The dynamics of vertebrate homeobox gene evolution: gain and loss of genes in mouse and human lineages Ying-fu Zhong and Peter WH Holland* Abstract Background: Homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in transcriptional

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

400

Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three-  

E-print Network

2057 Introduction The vertebrate brain has a characteristic and complex three- dimensional structure, the development of which is not well understood. Brain morphogenesis begins during, and continues subsequent to, neural tube closure. One aspect of brain structure that is highly conserved throughout

Lowery, Laura Anne

401

Characteristic Features of the Vertebral Column Development in Hynobiidae (Caudata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We traced the development of the vertebral column in three species of the Hynobiidae family comprising primitive Caudata. The most detailed studies were performed on the Siberian salamander ( Salamandrella keyserlingi ), Semirechensk salamander ( Ranodon sibiricus ) and, partly, long-tailed clawed salamander ( Onychodactylus fisheri ). Early larval stages are not known for O. fisheri. In this species, the

E. I. Vorobyeva; T. P. Antipenkova

2002-01-01

402

Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

Corey, David P.

403

The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption  

E-print Network

The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates is how birds and bats satisfy relatively high energy needs with less absorptive surface area. Here, we further show that an enhanced paracellular pathway for intestinal absorption of water-soluble nutrients

Mladenoff, David

404

INTRODUCTION Studies of the neurons in both vertebrate and invertebrate  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Studies of the neurons in both vertebrate and invertebrate retinas have demonstrated that pattern them, have been the subject of much investigation. In the invertebrate, a wealth of experimental and invertebrate eyes are organized in regular arrays. Although much is known about the mechanisms involved

Reh, Thomas A.

405

Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

Braund, Martin

1998-01-01

406

Semaphorins and their receptors in vertebrates and invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semaphorins are a family of intercellular signaling proteins that has grown to include 19 identified members in higher vertebrates. Several of its members act as axonal guidance molecules. One participates in signaling in the immune system. The majority, however, do not yet have known biological functions. Recent studies have shown that neuropilins and plexins act as receptors for semaphorins.

Jonathan A Raper

2000-01-01

407

Vertebrate sex determination: many means to an end.  

PubMed

The differentiation of a testis or ovary from a bipotential gonadal primordium is a developmental process common to mammals, birds and reptiles. Since the discovery of SRY, the Y-linked testis-determining gene in mammals, extensive efforts have failed to find its orthologue in other vertebrates, indicating evolutionary plasticity in the switch that triggers sex determination. Several other genes are known to be important for sex determination in mammals, such as SOX9, AMH, WT1, SF1, DAX1 and DMRT1. Analyses of these genes in humans with gonadal dysgenesis, mouse models and using in vitro cell culture assays have revealed that sex determination results from a complex interplay between the genes in this network. All of these genes are conserved in other vertebrates, such as chickens and alligators, and show gonad-specific expression in these species during the period of sex determination. Intriguingly, the sequence, sex specificity and timing of expression of some of these genes during sex determination differ among species. This finding indicates that the interplay between genes in the regulatory network leading to gonad development differs between vertebrates. However, despite this, the development of a testis or ovary from a bipotential gonad is remarkably similar across vertebrates. PMID:12361462

Morrish, Bronwyn C; Sinclair, Andrew H

2002-10-01

408

OCTOBER, 2009 VOL. 22, NO. 4 The Vertebral Column...  

E-print Network

OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Bats and White Nose Syndrome by Don E. Wilson Our and wings of affected individu- als. White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a large scale epidemic that is killing in cold caves in the northeastern U.S., and occurs less frequently in a sixth, the Big Brown Bat

Mathis, Wayne N.

409

Resting and maximal heart rates in ectothermic vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting and maximal heart rates (HR) in ectothermic vertebrates are generally lower than those in endotherms and vary by more than an order of magnitude interspecifically. Variation of HR transcends phylogeny and is influenced by numerous factors including temperature, activity, gas exchange, intracardiac shunts, pH, posture, and reflexogenic regulation of blood pressure. The characteristic resting HR is rarely the intrinsic

Harvey B Lillywhite; Kevin C Zippel; Anthony P Farrell

1999-01-01

410

MANAGEMENT OF INVASIVE VERTEBRATES IN THE UNITED STATES: AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 161 introduced\\/invasive vertebrates have become established in the United States and its territories, including at least 81 mammalian, 94 avian, and 86 reptilian\\/amphibian species. Particularly problematic species include feral cats and dogs; feral pigs; commensal rats and mice; starlings, pigeons, and house sparrows; and bullfrogs, brown treesnakes, and coqui frogs. We briefly review these introductions and the types

GARY W. WITMER; PATRICK W. BURKE; Fort Collins Colorado; WILLIAM C. PITT; MICHAEL L. AVERY

411

Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates  

E-print Network

Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates Iain D. Couzin1 and Jens Krause2 1, we consider systems in which insights from self-organization theory have been useful in improving our understanding of the underlying mechanics. Self-organization theory suggests that much of complex group behavior

Richner, Heinz

412

Participants: -1 cadaveric spine, C7-L1 vertebral elements  

E-print Network

Participants: - 1 cadaveric spine, C7- L1 vertebral elements Instrumentation: 1) Faro 3D Scanner Idiopathic Scoliosis Following Instrumented Posterior Spinal Fusion: A Meta-Analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976 a surgical skills training platform for paediatric orthopaedic spine surgery. The specific objective

Toronto, University of

413

Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding  

E-print Network

Resource Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding Sites in the Human Genome Tae (CTCF), a protein that recognizes long and diverse nucleotide sequences. While insulators are critical to bind to a number of dissimilar regulatory se- quences in the promoter-proximal regions of the chicken

414

Neural Crest and the Origin of Vertebrates: A New Head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the morphological and functional differences between vertebrates and other chordates occur in the head and are derived embryologically from muscularized hypomere, neural crest, and epidermal (neurogenic) placodes. In the head, the neural crest functions as mesoderm and forms connective, skeletal, and muscular tissue. Both the neural crest and the epidermal placodes form special sense organs and other neural

Carl Gans; R. Glenn Northcutt

1983-01-01

415

New pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate faunas from coastal Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new late Pleistocene faunas have been collected in Chatham County, Georgia, in the vicinity of Savannah. Together they have produced 103 vertebrate taxa (12 chondrichthyans, 25 actinopterygians, 7 amphibians, 20 reptiles, 4 birds, and 35 mammals), of which at least 14 are extinct. About 75 percent of these taxa are reported for the first time as fossils from coastal

Richard C. Hulbert Jr; Ann E. Pratt

1998-01-01

416

Evolutionary transitions in parental care and live bearing in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide the é rst review of phylogenetic transitions in parental care and live bearing for a wide variety of vertebrates. This includes new analyses of both numbers of transitions and transition probabilities. These reveal numerous transitions by shorebirds and anurans toward uniparental care by either sex. Whereas most or all of the shorebird transitions were from biparental care, nearly

John D. Reynolds; Nicholas B. Goodwin; Robert P. Freckleton

2002-01-01

417

DNA Methylation, Epigenetics, and Evolution in Vertebrates: Facts and Challenges  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution. PMID:24551476

2014-01-01

418

Thermophysical property anomalies of Baltic seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine salinity calculation from conductivity measurements. Recent numerical models of multi-component aqueous electrolytes permit the simulation of physical chemical properties of seawater with variable solute composition. In this paper, the FREZCHEM model is used to derive a Gibbs function for Baltic seawater, and the LSEA_DELS model to provide estimates for the conductivity anomaly relative to Standard Seawater. From additional information such as direct density measurements or empirical salinity anomaly parameterisation, the quantitative deviations of properties between Baltic and Standard Seawater are calculated as functions of salinity and temperature. While several quantities show anomalies that are comparable with their measurement uncertainties and do not demand special improvement, others exhibit more significant deviations from Standard Seawater properties. In particular density and sound speed turn out to be significantly sensitive to the presence of anomalous solute. Suitable general correction methods are suggested to be applied to Baltic Sea samples with known Practical Salinity and, optionally, directly determined density.

Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.; Pawlowicz, R.; Wright, D. G.

2010-06-01

419

Thermophysical property anomalies of Baltic seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine salinity calculation from conductivity measurements. Recent numerical models of multi-component aqueous electrolytes permit the simulation of physical chemical properties of seawater with variable solute composition. In this paper, the FREZCHEM model is used to derive a Gibbs function for Baltic seawater, and the LSEA_DELS model to provide estimates for the conductivity anomaly relative to Standard Seawater. From additional information such as direct density measurements or empirical salinity anomaly parameterisation, the quantitative deviations of properties between Baltic and Standard Seawater are calculated as functions of salinity and temperature. While several quantities show anomalies that are comparable with their measurement uncertainties and do not demand special improvement, others exhibit more significant deviations from Standard Seawater properties. In particular density and sound speed turn out to be significantly sensitive to the presence of anomalous solute. Suitable general correction methods are suggested to be applied to Baltic Sea samples with known Practical Salinity and, optionally, directly determined density.

Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.; Pawlowicz, R.; Wright, D. G.

2010-11-01

420

New type of anomaly in turbulence.  

PubMed

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ??, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du(2)/dt?=-4?? at t=0, where u[over ?] is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du(2)/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times. PMID:25062187

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-11

421

New Type of Anomaly in Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ? ¯, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du2/dt?=-4? ¯ at t =0, where u ? is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du2/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times.

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-01

422

Endovascular interventional therapy and classification of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The current study aimed to summarise the clinical features and classifications of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to optimise strategies for endovascular interventional therapy. The clinical features and results of 31 inpatients with VADA were retrospectively analysed. The aneurysms were classified according to their location and association between the aneurysm and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and into subtypes according to the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral artery. Different endovascular interventional therapy strategies were selected for each classification. Three types of aneurysm with two subtypes each were identified. An aneurysm located distally to the PICA was termed type I (10/31 patients). Aneurysms with a contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype a (type Ia, 6/31 patients) and aneurysms with hypoplasia of the contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype b (type Ib, 4/31 patients). An aneurysm located at the origin of the PICA was termed type II (13/31 patients), with seven cases classified as IIa and six cases as IIb. An aneurysm located proximally to the PICA was termed type III (8/31 patients), with five cases classified as IIIa and three cases as IIIb. Among the 31 patients, 18 received stent-assisted coiling, two received coiling, 10 received coiling with parent artery occlusion and one patient received conservative treatment. Among the 31 patients with VADA, 21 were occluded completely, nine were partially occluded and one was not occluded. One patient developed a coma following coiling; however, the other 30 patients recovered well. Thus, the classification of an aneurysm based on its location and the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral arteries appears to be an effective and safe approach for the selection of appropriate endovascular interventional therapy strategies. PMID:25289031

WANG, YIHUA; ZHAO, CUIPING; HAO, XIAOGUANG; WANG, CHENGWEI; WANG, ZHIGANG

2014-01-01

423

Comparison of Ultra-Conserved Elements in Drosophilids and Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Metazoan genomes contain many ultra-conserved elements (UCEs), long sequences identical between distant species. In this study we identified UCEs in drosophilid and vertebrate species with a similar level of phylogenetic divergence measured at protein-coding regions, and demonstrated that both the length and number of UCEs are larger in vertebrates. The proportion of non-exonic UCEs declines in distant drosophilids whilst an opposite trend was observed in vertebrates. We generated a set of 2,126 Sophophora UCEs by merging elements identified in several drosophila species and compared these to the eutherian UCEs identified in placental mammals. In contrast to vertebrates, the Sophophora UCEs are depleted around transcription start sites. Analysis of 52,954 P-element, piggyBac and Minos insertions in the D. melanogaster genome revealed depletion of the P-element and piggyBac insertions in and around the Sophophora UCEs. We examined eleven fly strains with transposon insertions into the intergenic UCEs and identified associated phenotypes in five strains. Four insertions behave as recessive lethals, and in one case we observed a suppression of the marker gene within the transgene, presumably by silenced chromatin around the integration site. To confirm the lethality is caused by integration of transposons we performed a phenotype rescue experiment for two stocks and demonstrated that the excision of the transposons from the intergenic UCEs restores viability. Sequencing of DNA after the transposon excision in one fly strain with the restored viability revealed a 47 bp insertion at the original transposon integration site suggesting that the nature of the mutation is important for the appearance of the phenotype. Our results suggest that the UCEs in flies and vertebrates have both common and distinct features, and demonstrate that a significant proportion of intergenic drosophila UCEs are sensitive to disruption. PMID:24349264

Makunin, Igor V.; Shloma, Viktor V.; Stephen, Stuart J.; Pheasant, Michael; Belyakin, Stepan N.

2013-01-01

424

Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family.  

PubMed

The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH encoded by non-orthologous genes have been defined based upon sequence homology as well as unique catalytic properties or gene expression patterns. Each class of vertebrate ADH shares <70% sequence identity with other classes of ADH in the same species. Classes may be further divided into multiple closely related isoenzymes sharing >80% sequence identity such as the case for class I ADH where humans have three class I ADH genes, horses have two, and mice have only one. Presented here is a nomenclature that uses the widely accepted vertebrate ADH class system as its basis. It follows the guidelines of human and mouse gene nomenclature committees, which recommend coordinating names across species boundaries and eliminating Roman numerals and Greek symbols. We recommend that enzyme subunits be referred to by the symbol "ADH" (alcohol dehydrogenase) followed by an Arabic number denoting the class; i.e. ADH1 for class I ADH. For genes we recommend the italicized root symbol "ADH" for human and "Adh" for mouse, followed by the appropriate Arabic number for the class; i.e. ADH1 or Adh1 for class I ADH genes. For organisms where multiple species-specific isoenzymes exist within a class, we recommend adding a capital letter after the Arabic number; i.e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C for human alpha, beta, and gamma class I ADHs, respectively. This nomenclature will accommodate newly discovered members of the vertebrate ADH family, and will facilitate functional and evolutionary studies. PMID:10424757

Duester, G; Farrés, J; Felder, M R; Holmes, R S; Höög, J O; Parés, X; Plapp, B V; Yin, S J; Jörnvall, H

1999-08-01

425

Evolution and differential expression of a vertebrate vitellogenin gene cluster  

PubMed Central

Background The multiplicity or loss of the vitellogenin (vtg) gene family in vertebrates has been argued to have broad implications for the mode of reproduction (placental or non-placental), cleavage pattern (meroblastic or holoblastic) and character of the egg (pelagic or benthic). Earlier proposals for the existence of three forms of vertebrate vtgs present conflicting models for their origin and subsequent duplication. Results By integrating phylogenetics of novel vtg transcripts from old and modern teleosts with syntenic analyses of all available genomic variants of non-metatherian vertebrates we identify the gene orthologies between the Sarcopterygii (tetrapod branch) and Actinopterygii (fish branch). We argue that the vertebrate vtg gene cluster originated in proto-chromosome m, but that vtg genes have subsequently duplicated and rearranged following whole genome duplications. Sequencing of a novel fourth vtg transcript in labrid species, and the presence of duplicated paralogs in certain model organisms supports the notion that lineage-specific gene duplications frequently occur in teleosts. The data show that the vtg gene cluster is more conserved between acanthomorph teleosts and tetrapods, than in ostariophysan teleosts such as the zebrafish. The differential expression of the labrid vtg genes are further consistent with the notion that neofunctionalized Aa-type vtgs are important determinants of the pelagic or benthic character of the eggs in acanthomorph teleosts. Conclusion The vertebrate vtg gene cluster existed prior to the separation of Sarcopterygii from Actinopterygii >450 million years ago, a period associated with the second round of whole genome duplication. The presence of higher copy numbers in a more highly expressed subcluster is particularly prevalent in teleosts. The differential expression and latent neofunctionalization of vtg genes in acanthomorph teleosts is an adaptive feature associated with oocyte hydration and spawning in the marine environment. PMID:19123940

Finn, Roderick Nigel; Kolarevic, Jelena; Kongshaug, Heidi; Nilsen, Frank

2009-01-01

426

Comparative Morphology, Development, and Function of Blood Cells in Nonmammalian Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of our knowledge regarding vertebrate blood and blood cells is based on mammalian references. The critical study of nonmammalian vertebrate blood is relatively new, and comparatively few investigations have been published that focus on these animals' ontogeny and structure-function relationships of blood cells. Nonmammalian vertebrates comprise birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes, all of which have a wide range of

Juan A. Claver; Agustin I. E. Quaglia

2009-01-01

427

Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton  

E-print Network

Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton vertebrate skeleton. Lampreys and hagfishes, by contrast, are thought to have noncollagenous cartilage the divergence of jawless fish from the jawed vertebrates 500 million years ago. Here we report that lampreys

Cohn, Martin

428

A multidisciplinary surgical approach to superior sulcus tumors with vertebral invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Vertebral body invasion by superior sulcus tumor has traditionally been considered a contraindication to surgical resection. Attempts at definitive radiation or chemoradiation have not been successful. Recent advances in spinal instrumentation have allowed more complete resection of vertebral body tumors. We, therefore, reviewed our recent experience with vertebral resection of superior sulcus tumors.Methods. All patients (n = 17) undergoing

Sunil Gandhi; Garrett L Walsh; Ritsuko Komaki; Ziya L Gokaslan; Jonathan C Nesbitt; Joe B Putnam; Jack A Roth; Kelly W Merriman; Ian E McCutcheon; Reginald F Munden; Stephen G Swisher

1999-01-01

429

Computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs based on morphometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporosis-related fractures. It is important to detect vertebral fractures, because they are associated with increased risk of subsequent fractures, and because pharmacologic therapy can reduce the risk of subsequent fractures. Although vertebral fractures are often not clinically recognized, they can be visualized on lateral chest radiographs taken for other purposes. However, only 15-60% of

Satoshi Kasai; Feng Li; Junji Shiraishi; Qiang Li; Christopher Straus; Tamara Vokes; Heber MacMahon; Kunio Doi

2007-01-01

430

Development of computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Several clinical trials indicated clearly that pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis is effective for persons with vertebral fractures for preventing subsequent fractures. It is, therefore, important to diagnose vertebral fractures early. Although most vertebral fractures are asymptomatic, they can often be detected on lateral chest radiographs which may be

Satoshi Kasai; Feng Li; Junji Shiraishi; Qiang Li; Yongkang Nie; Kunio Doi

2006-01-01

431

Convergent evolution and locomotion through complex terrain by insects, vertebrates and robotsq  

E-print Network

Convergent evolution and locomotion through complex terrain by insects, vertebrates and robotsq Roy locomotion that are critical for success. Arthropods and vertebrates evolved legged locomotion independently three aspects of legged locomotion that are found in both insects and vertebrates and that provide

Ritzmann, Roy E

432

Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY) receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian

Tomas A Larsson; Frida Olsson; Gorel Sundstrom; Lars-Gustav Lundin; Sydney Brenner; Byrappa Venkatesh; Dan Larhammar

2008-01-01

433

L2 Spinal Nerve–Block Effects on Acute Low Back Pain From Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly patients with osteoporosis sometimes experience lumbar vertebral fracture and may feel diffuse nonlocalized pain in the back, the lateral portion of the trunk, and the area surrounding the iliac crest. The pattern of sensory innervation of vertebral bodies remains unclear. Some sensory nerves from the L2 and L5 vertebral bodies may enter the paravertebral sympathetic trunks and reach the

Seiji Ohtori; Masaomi Yamashita; Gen Inoue; Kazuyo Yamauchi; Munetaka Suzuki; Sumihisa Orita; Yawara Eguchi; Nobuyasu Ochiai; Shunji Kishida; Masashi Takaso; Kazuhisa Takahashi

2009-01-01

434

Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle — that is, an anyon — in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.

Castro, Alejandra; Detournay, Stephane; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric

2014-07-01

435

Trace anomalies in chiral theories revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the search for possible CP violating terms in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in theories coupled to gravity we revisit the problem of trace anomalies in chiral theories. We recalculate the latter and ascertain that in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of theories with chiral fermions at one-loop the Pontryagin density appears with an imaginary coefficient. We argue that this may break unitarity, in which case the trace anomaly has to be used as a selective criterion for theories, analogous to the chiral anomalies in gauge theories. We analyze some remarkable consequences of this fact, that seem to have been overlooked in the literature.

Bonora, Loriano; Giaccari, Stefano; de Souza, Bruno Lima

2014-07-01

436

Interpretation of satellite elevation magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present discussion is based on a study of the magnetic field data obtained with the aid of the magnetic field satellite Magsat, deployed in October 1979, over most of the earth during a 7.5-month mission. Inversions using spherical harmonic coefficients are considered along with the inversion of residual fields. In order to perform the correct operation, it is necessary to add on to the source function produced by the inversion process a magnetization function which has no external field. Such a function is known as an annihilator. The use of the annihilator for Pacific Ocean anomalies is discussed. Attention is given to models of oceanic crustal magnetization, and continental long-wavelength anomalies. It is found that in continental regions the annihilator is also useful if induced magnetizations are thought to be responsible for the long-wavelength anomaly.

Harrison, C. G. A.; Carle, H. M.; Hayling, K. L.

1986-01-01

437

Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

438

Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

Mosiej, Lukasz

2009-06-01

439

The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

Haggerty, S. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

440

Identifying Anomalies in Gravitational Lens Time Delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of cold dark matter substructure. Earlier work using anomalous flux ratios in four-image quasar lenses has shown that lensing is sensitive to substructure which raises the exciting prospect of constraining the mass function and spatial distribution of dark matter satellites in galaxies. We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as "time-delay anomalies." We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131-1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131-1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time-delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in four additional lenses. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Our work argues for a large sample of strong lenses with precisely-measured time delays. The first of these objectives will be readily achievable as the next generation of optical and radio telescopes come online, while the second will require a dedicated one-meter class space-based observatory. Meeting these goals will make it possible to examine the properties of dark matter on sub-galactic scales, which is essential for distinguishing among the various dark matter candidates from particle physics. Part of this work was funded by NSF grant AST-0747311. ABC is currently supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, C. R.; Nordgren, C. E.

2009-05-01

441

New type of anomaly in turbulence  

E-print Network

The turbulent energy flux through scales, $\\bar{\\epsilon}$, remains constant and non vanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, $\\left=-4 \\bar{\\epsilon}$ at $t=0$, where $\\vec{u}$ is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. In this letter we demonstrate that this derivation assumed first taking the limit $t \\to 0$ and then $\

Anna Frishman; Gregory Falkovich

2014-01-23

442

Anomaly matching for the QCD string  

E-print Network

A criterion to be satisfied by a string theory of QCD is formulated in the ultraviolet regime. It arises from the trace anomaly of the QCD stress tensor computed using instantons. It is sensitive to asymptotic freedom. It appears to be related to the trace anomaly of the QCD string. Our current understanding of noncritical strings in physical dimensions is limited, but remarkably, a formal treatment of the bosonic string yields numerical agreement both in magnitude and sign for the gauge group SU(2).

Balakrishna, B S

1993-01-01

443

Holography and Anomaly Matching for Resonances  

E-print Network

We derive a universal relation for the transverse part of triangle anomalies within a class of theories whose gravity dual is described by the Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. This relation provides a set of sum rules involving the masses, decay constants and couplings between resonances, and leads to the formulas for the matrix elements of the vector and axial currents in the presence of the soft electromagnetic field. We also discuss that this relation is valid in real QCD at least approximately. This may be regarded as the anomaly matching for resonances as an analogue of that for the massless excitations in QCD.

Dam T. Son; Naoki Yamamoto

2010-10-04

444

The holomorphic anomaly for open string moduli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We complete the holomorphic anomaly equations for topological strings with their dependence on open moduli. We obtain the complete system by standard path integral arguments generalizing the analysis of BCOV (Commun. Math. Phys. 165 (1994) 311) to strings with boundaries. We study both the anti-holomorphic dependence on open moduli and on closed moduli in presence of Wilson lines. By providing the compactification à la Deligne-Mumford of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces with boundaries, we show that the open holomorphic anomaly equations are structured on the (real codimension one) boundary components of this space.

Bonelli, Giulio; Tanzini, Alessandro

2007-10-01

445

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

446

Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

447

The relationship between clear sky water vapor and SST anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between clear sky water vapor anomalies and the SST anomalies (SSTAs) was investigated with the purpose of providing data for evaluating the clear sky greenhouse effect predicted in many global warming scenarios, by statistically analyzing anomaly data sets of SST and the water vapor anomaly data (obtained by subtracting the mean value of the six years of data for a given month from the observed values). Results show that clear sky water vapor anomalies increase in association with increases in SSTAs. The clear sky water vapor anomalies high in the troposphere were also found to increase with increasing SSTA.

Peterson, Thomas C.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

1992-01-01

448

Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500?Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

2014-01-01

449

Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes.  

PubMed

Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500?Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

2014-01-01

450

Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

2014-08-01

451

Ebstein's anomaly: repair based on functional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: ‘Classical’ repair of Ebstein's anomaly is usually performed with transverse plication of the atrialized chamber. However, the anterior leaflet has restricted motion which is an important factor of the tricuspid valve insufficiency. We studied the long term results of mobilization of the anterior leaflet associated with longitudinal plication of the right ventricule. Methods: From 1980 to July 2002, 191

S Chauvaud; A Berrebi; N d'Attellis; E Mousseaux; A Hernigou; A Carpentier

2003-01-01

452

Anomalies, U(1)' and the MSSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Thesis reviews an extension of the MSSM by the addition of an anomalous abelian vector multiplet and contains some original results concerning the phenomenology of an anomalous $Z'$. The review part covers an introduction of the MSSM focusing on its main features, a discussion on the chiral anomalies and how to cancel them in the Standard Model and by

Antonio Racioppi

2009-01-01

453

Dorsal Forebrain Anomaly in Williams Syndrome  

E-print Network

in range to that seen in Down syndrome, show an unusual and uneven neuropsychological profileDorsal Forebrain Anomaly in Williams Syndrome Albert M. Galaburda, MD; J. Eric Schmitt, BS; Scott W. Atlas, MD; Stephan Eliez, MD; Ursula Bellugi, EdD; Allan L. Reiss, MD Background: Williams syndrome (WMS

454

Timing Anomalies in Dynamically Scheduled Microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous timing analysis methods have assumed that the worst-case instruction execution time necessarily cor- responds to the worst-case behavior. We show that this assumption is wrong in dynamically scheduled processors. A cache miss, for example, can in some cases result in a shorter execution time than a cache hit. Many examples of such timing anomalies are provided. We first provide

Thomas Lundqvist; Per Stenström

1999-01-01

455

Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian spacetimes, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

Zahn, Jochen

2015-01-01

456

IPrognosis of Aircraft Anomalies 2010 Phase II  

E-print Network

Technical Abstract A Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Assessment Network (PFDAN) toolkit for Abaqus. It is based on a high fidelity Fatigue Damage Assessment Network (FDAN) which includes 1) a coupled continuumSBIR 30 31 IPrognosis of Aircraft Anomalies 2010 Phase II Proposal A1.12-8884 Probabilistic

457

Gravity anomaly detection: Apollo/Soyuz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Apollo-Soyuz Geodynamics Experiment is described. It was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of tracking and recovering high frequency components of the earth's gravity field by utilizing a synchronous orbiting tracking station such as ATS-6.