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1

Posterior Vertebral Column Resection for VATER\\/VACTERL Associated Spinal Deformity: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VATER\\/VACTERL association is a syndrome notable for congenital vertebral malformations, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies,\\u000a tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and renal or limb malformations. Vertebral malformations may include the entire\\u000a spectrum of congenital spinal deformities, including kyphosis, as was seen in this case. A 14-year-old girl presented to our\\u000a institution with severe rigid sagittal deformity in the thoracolumbar spine that

Matthew E. Cunningham; Gina Charles; Oheneba Boachie-Adje

2007-01-01

2

Genetics Home Reference: VACTERL association  

MedlinePLUS

... vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. People diagnosed with ... people with VACTERL association have a tracheo-esophageal fistula, which is an abnormal connection (fistula) between the ...

3

A case of VACTERL and non-VACTERL association without the "V and L"  

PubMed Central

VACTERL is a cluster of congenital malformations based on the non-random association of various congenital malformations in a single patient. Here “V” denotes vertebral defects or vascular anomalies (single umbilical artery), “A” anal atresia, “C” cardiac abnormalities, “TE” tracheoesophageal fistula, “R"renal (kidney) abnormalities and “L” for limb anomalies) It is called an association, rather than a syndrome because the complications are not pathogenetically related, tend to occur more frequently than expected and are thought to be linked to embryonic mesodermal defects. Studies have reported the coexistence of various other congenital malformations such as respiratory, cerebral anomalies, which are frequently referred as non-VACTERL-type of associations. Diagnosis of VACTERL association is done only when at least three of the above mentioned congenital malformations are identified in a patient. Although 80% of these cases have vertebral defects, our case is unique as patient does not have one of the commonest occuring association i.e., vertebral anomalies, but has all other associations and an additional non VACTERL brain anomaly, hitherto unreported in the literature. The other highlight of this case is although reports say that VACTERL babies with ipsilateral renal disorder have the same side limb defects, our case has a renal anomaly with no limb anomaly. Finally VACTERL and non VACTERL association was considered in our patient in view of ventricular septal defect, tracheo esophageal fistula, anal atresia, renal anomaly, seizure disorder and global developmental delay due to pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Padma, S; Sundaram, P Shanmuga; Sonik, Bhavya

2014-01-01

4

VACTERL/VATER Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL/VATER association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. In addition to these core component features, patients may also have other congenital anomalies. Although diagnostic criteria vary, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 40,000 live-born infants. The condition is ascertained clinically by the presence of the above-mentioned malformations; importantly, there should be no clinical or laboratory-based evidence for the presence of one of the many similar conditions, as the differential diagnosis is relatively large. This differential diagnosis includes (but is not limited to) Baller-Gerold syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Currarino syndrome, deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Feingold syndrome, Fryns syndrome, MURCS association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, and VACTERL with hydrocephalus. Though there are hints regarding causation, the aetiology has been identified only in a small fraction of patients to date, likely due to factors such as a high degree of clinical and causal heterogeneity, the largely sporadic nature of the disorder, and the presence of many similar conditions. New genetic research methods offer promise that the causes of VACTERL association will be better defined in the relatively near future. Antenatal diagnosis can be challenging, as certain component features can be difficult to ascertain prior to birth. The management of patients with VACTERL/VATER association typically centers around surgical correction of the specific congenital anomalies (typically anal atresia, certain types of cardiac malformations, and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula) in the immediate postnatal period, followed by long-term medical management of sequelae of the congenital malformations. If optimal surgical correction is achievable, the prognosis can be relatively positive, though some patients will continue to be affected by their congenital malformations throughout life. Importantly, patients with VACTERL association do not tend to have neurocognitive impairment.

2011-01-01

5

Clinical Geneticists' Views of VACTERL/VATER Association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association (sometimes termed “VATER association” depending on which component features are included) is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations, which tend to statistically co-occur in affected individuals: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, and Limb abnormalities. Although the clinical criteria for VACTERL association may appear to be straightforward, there is wide variability in the way clinical geneticists define the disorder and the genetic testing strategy they use when confronted with an affected patient. In order to describe this variability and determine the most commonly used definitions and testing modalities, we present the results of survey responses by 121 clinical geneticists. We discuss the results of the survey responses, provide a literature review and commentary from a group of physicians who are currently involved in clinical and laboratory-based research on VACTERL association, and offer an algorithm for genetic testing in patients with this association.

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Bear, Kelly A.; Kimonis, Virginia; de Klein, Annelies; Scott, Daryl A.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Tibboel, Dick; Reutter, Heiko; Giampietro, Philip F.

2012-01-01

6

Adriamycin-Induced Models of VACTERL Association  

PubMed Central

Animal models are of great importance for medical research. They have enabled analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of complex congenital malformations and have also led to major advances in the surgical and therapeutic management of these conditions. Animal models allow us to comprehend the morphological and molecular basis of disease and consequently to discover novel approaches for both surgical and medical therapy. The anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was incidentally found to have teratogenic effects on rats, producing a range of defects remarkably similar to the VACTERL association of congenital anomalies in humans, providing a reproducible animal model of this condition. VACTERL association is a spectrum of birth defects which includes vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, tracheo-oesophageal, renal and limb anomalies. In recent years, adriamycin rodent models of VACTERL have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of this complex association, particularly in relation to tracheo-oesophageal malformations. The adriamycin rat model and adriamycin mouse model are now well established in the investigation of the morphology of faulty organogenesis and the regulation of gene expression in tracheo-oesophageal anomalies.

Mc Laughlin, D.; Hajduk, P.; Murphy, P.; Puri, P.

2013-01-01

7

Is Duane retraction syndrome part of the VACTERL association?  

PubMed

We report here a patient with type 1 Duane's retraction syndrome and multiple congenital abnormalities as a result of the VACTERL association. The presented combination of Duane's retraction syndrome and the VACTERL association has not been reported in the literature. The present case was instructive for reviewing the continuous spectrum of ocular anomalies that accompany the VACTERL association. PMID:23658476

Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Kavadarli, Isilay; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-01-01

8

Is Duane retraction syndrome part of the VACTERL association?  

PubMed Central

We report here a patient with type 1 Duane’s retraction syndrome and multiple congenital abnormalities as a result of the VACTERL association. The presented combination of Duane’s retraction syndrome and the VACTERL association has not been reported in the literature. The present case was instructive for reviewing the continuous spectrum of ocular anomalies that accompany the VACTERL association.

Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Kavadarli, Isilay; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-01-01

9

Long-term outcomes of adults with features of VACTERL association  

PubMed Central

VACTERL association involves the presence of specific congenital, multi-organ malformations that tend to co-occur. Clinical and research efforts typically center on pediatric patients, and there is a scarcity of information in the literature regarding VACTERL-related issues and outcomes in adulthood. We describe here 11 adults with features of VACTERL association ascertained through our research study on the condition. In our cohort of adult patients, approximately 25% of medically significant malformations that are component features of VACTERL association, including 40% of vertebral, 50% of cardiac, and 50% of renal anomalies, were not identified during childhood. Additionally, medical sequelae of many of the primary malformations identified in infancy or early childhood persist or are first reported in adulthood. These sequelae can involve challenging medical and surgical management in adulthood. As most adults with VACTERL association are not specifically followed for VACTERL-related issues, a more uniform diagnostic work-up and a low threshold for investigation of medical sequelae of the primary disorder may enhance the quality of clinical management in these patients.

Raam, Manu S.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

10

Concomitant slide tracheoplasty and cardiac operation for congenital tracheal stenosis associated with VACTERL.  

PubMed

The association of congenital tracheal stenosis and tracheoesophageal (TE) fistula is rare. Here, we report 2 patients with tracheobronchial stenosis (complete cartilage ring) involving the lower trachea and right bronchus. Both patients had associated VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, TE, renal, and limb defects) congenital cardiac defects and tracheal diverticula after repair of the TE fistula in type C esophageal atresia. The stenotic segment began at the orifice of the TE fistula, which became diverticula after the TE fistula was repaired. Concomitant repair of congenital cardiac defects and a slide tracheoplasty with elimination of the diverticula were performed successfully. PMID:24088476

Wu, En-Ting; Wang, Ching-Chia; Lin, Ming-Tai; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Chen, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shu-Chien

2013-10-01

11

TACRD and VACTERL associations in a fetus: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Tracheal agenesis is a rare and potentially lethal congenital anomaly. The incidence is less than 1/50,000, with a male:female ratio of 2:1. We report the case of a male fetus with complete agenesis of the trachea and a tracheoesophageal fistula arising from the esophagus that connected through the carina, as well as several abnormalities (congenital cardiac abnormalities, duodenal atresia, vertebral defects, anal atresia, renal defects, limb defects, and diaphragmatic hernia). To our knowledge, few cases of infants with VACTERL or TACRD association have been reported to date. Here, we report a new case of a fetus that showed the full range of VACTERL and TACRD associations. PMID:24113157

Xu, Gan-qiong; Zhou, Qi-chang; Zhang, Ming; Pu, Da-rong; Ouyang, Zhu

2013-12-01

12

Aberrant abdominal umbilical arteries in VACTERL--association: a first case report.  

PubMed

A 38-week-gestational age male neonatal death from a 27-year-old-mother was reported. The autopsy found multiple congenital anomalies such as scoliosis of thoracic spine with 13 pairs of ribs, anal atresia, bilateral renal agenesis, and clubfeet. These anomalies were diagnosed VACTERL--association that must include at least three out of six principal anomalies of previously mentioned, e.g., (1) V--vertebral defects, (2) A--anal atresia, (3) C--cardiac anomalies, (4) TE--tracheo-esophageal fistula, (5) R--renal anomalies, and (6) L--limb abnormalities. In addition, other anomalies were also observed in this case, i.e., cryptorchidism both sides, jejunal diverticulum, and aberrant abdominal umbilical arteries. PMID:23193752

Peonim, Vichan; Sujirachato, Kanchana; Udnoon, Jitta; Chudoung, Ubon; Wongwichai, Sompong

2012-10-01

13

De novo 13q deletions in two patients with mild anorectal malformations as part of VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL-like association and analysis of EFNB2 in patients with anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

Anorectal malformations (ARMs) comprise a broad spectrum of conditions ranging from mild anal anomalies to complex cloacal malformations. In 40-50% of cases, ARM occurs within the context of defined genetic syndromes or complex multiple congenital anomalies, such as VATER/VACTERL (vertebral defects [V], ARMs [A], cardiac defects [C], tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia [TE], renal malformations [R], and limb defects [L]) association. Here, we report the identification of deletions at chromosome 13q using single nucleotide polymorphism-based array analysis in two patients with mild ARM as part of VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL-like associations. Both deletions overlap the previously defined critical region for ARM. Heterozygous Efnb2 murine knockout models presenting with mild ARM suggest EFNB2 as an excellent candidate gene in this region. Our patients showed a mild ARM phenotype, closely resembling that of the mouse. We performed a comprehensive mutation analysis of the EFNB2 gene in 331 patients with isolated ARM, or ARM as part of VATER/VACTERL or VATER/VACTERL-like associations. However, we did not identify any disease-causing mutations. Given the convincing argument for EFNB2 as a candidate gene for ARM, analyses of larger samples and screening of functionally relevant non-coding regions of EFNB2 are warranted. In conclusion, our report underlines the association of chromosome 13q deletions with ARM, suggesting that routine molecular diagnostic workup should include the search for these deletions. Despite the negative results of our mutation screening, we still consider EFNB2 an excellent candidate gene for contributing to the development of ARM in humans. PMID:24038947

Dworschak, Gabriel C; Draaken, Markus; Marcelis, Carlo; de Blaauw, Ivo; Pfundt, Rolph; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Bartels, Enrika; Hilger, Alina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Schmidt, Dominik; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Hosie, Stuart; Weih, Sandra; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Palta, Markus; Leonhardt, Johannes; Schäfer, Mattias; Kujath, Christina; Rissmann, Anke; Nöthen, Markus M; Zwink, Nadine; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

2013-12-01

14

Fanconi anemia in brothers initially diagnosed with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, and subsequently with Baller-Gerold syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Two brothers with presumed Baller-Gerold syndrome, one of whom was previously diagnosed with the association of vertebral, cardiac, renal, limb anomalies, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (VACTERL) association with hydrocephalus, were evaluated for chromosome breakage because of severe thrombo cytopenia in one of them. Spontaneous and clastogen-induced breakage was markedly increased in both patients as compared to control individuals. Clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage, consistent with Fanconi anemia, in patients with a prior diagnosis of either Baller-Gerold syndrome, reported earlier in one other patient, or with VACTERL association with hydrocephalus, recently reported in 3 patients, underline the clinical heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia and raise the question of whether these syndromes are distinct disorders or phenotypic variations of the same disease. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rossbach, H.C.; Granan, N.H.; Rossi, A.R.; Barbosa, J.L. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); and others

1996-01-02

15

Recessive mutations in CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Understanding the complex genetic makeup underlying congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is of primary importance to improve diagnosis, stratify risk for later-onset complications, and develop therapeutic strategies. Saisawat et al. used homozygosity mapping coupled with next-generation sequencing to identify recessive mutations in TRAP1 in families with isolated CAKUT and with VACTERL association. This study points to a novel player in kidney development, possibly affecting apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. PMID:24875543

Westland, Rik; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone

2014-06-01

16

A single-center experience with kidney transplantation in the verteberal, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb birth detects (VACTERL) association.  

PubMed

VACTERL association is a nonrandom association of birth defects in vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb structures. Renal anomalies are observed in ?60%-90% of VACTERL patients. We present 3 cases to demonstrate the clinical and surgical challenges that these patients present for renal transplantation. One pediatric and 2 adult patients with the VACTERL association were transplanted at a single center; their follow-up times were 6 years, 4 years, and 3 months. Only 1 of them had a suitable native bladder to receive the kidney graft; the other 2 required bladder augmentation, 1 of which was performed after the loss of the first graft. None of these patients had an uneventful posttransplantation course. Two patients had acute rejection episodes, and 2 had reoperations for urologic complications. One patient needed a surgical intervention owing to a sigmoid prolapse. All 3 grafts worked at last examination. The 2 patients with bladder reconstructions and longer follow-ups suffered recurrent pulmonary and urinary infections and had been hospitalized several times during each posttransplantation year. In conclusion, multiorgan involvement in VACTERL patients greatly complicates medical care after transplantation; urinary tract reconstruction seems to be essential before transplantation. PMID:21620102

Telkes, G; Reusz, G; Szabó, A J; Langer, R M

2011-05-01

17

Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged.

Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calo, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

2011-01-01

18

Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged. PMID:22654139

Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

2011-12-01

19

Splenic pseudocyst: a rare association with splenoptosis and vertebral segmentation anomalies.  

PubMed

Splenoptosis (wandering or ectopic spleen) is a congenital fusion anomaly of the dorsal mesogastrium in which the spleen is abnormally mobile due to its attachment by a long vascular pedicle. This abnormal mobility predisposes the spleen to complications such as torsion, infarction, gangrene and pancreatic necrosis. Pseudocyst formation is one of the rarely reported complications of splenoptosis. Few cases of splenoptosis associated with vertebral segmentation anomalies have been reported in the past. Here, we present the case of a young man with kyphoscoliosis, vertebral segmentation anomalies and splenoptosis complicated by pseudocyst formation. PMID:21808945

Noushif, M; Mohandas, K; Vasu, T A; Rishikesan, N K

2011-07-01

20

Double cystic duct in a child with VACTERL association: a case report.  

PubMed

Double cystic duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract not described in the pediatric literature. We report the first pediatric case born with VACTERL association found to have double cystic ducts during gallbladder surgery for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Description of the anatomic variability, cholangiography images, and pathologic findings along with review of the literature is included. PMID:19954104

Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Correa, Maria; Brunet, Hector

2009-01-01

21

Scoliosis and vertebral anomalies: Additional abnormal phenotypes associated with chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangement.  

PubMed

The typical chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangements are estimated to occur at a frequency of approximately 0.6% of all samples tested clinically and have been identified as a major cause of autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and seizures. Careful examination of patients with these rearrangements revealed association with abnormal head size, obesity, dysmorphism, and congenital abnormalities. In this report, we extend this list of phenotypic abnormalities to include scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. We present detailed characterization of phenotypic and radiological data of 10 new patients, nine with the 16p11.2 deletion and one with the duplication within the coordinates chr16:29,366,195 and 30,306,956 (hg19) with a minimal size of 555?kb. We discuss the phenotypical and radiological findings in our patients and review 5 previously reported patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement and similar skeletal abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with the recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangement have increased incidence of scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. However, additional studies are required to confirm this observation and to establish the incidence of these anomalies. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on the diagnosis, surveillance and genetic counseling of patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24458548

Al-Kateb, Hussam; Khanna, Geetika; Filges, Isabel; Hauser, Natalie; Grange, Dorothy K; Shen, Joseph; Smyser, Christopher D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

2014-05-01

22

Oculoauriculovertebral Spectrum with Radial Anomaly in Child  

PubMed Central

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial–renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

2013-01-01

23

Sirenomelia: a new type, showing VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome and a review of literature.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia or "mermaid syndrome" is a rare congenital anomaly known since antiquity. This congenital anomaly is defined as a polymalformative syndrome that associates major muscle and skeleton abnormalities (unique lower limbs) with visceral abnormalities (unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis, anomalies of the abdominal vascularisation). This phenotype, typical of sirenomelia syndrome, may be more or less severe. The pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome are still debated and its etiology remains unknown. We report here a new type of sirenomelia that we observed in a fetus belonging to the collection of the Department of Anatomy of Reims, which led us to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject: this type has never been reported and cannot be classified according to the Stocker and Heifetz classification. Moreover, this case also presents a VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome. PMID:23526679

Lhuaire, Martin; Jestin, Agnès; Boulagnon, Camille; Loock, Mélanie; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Gaillard, Dominique; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

2013-03-01

24

Ventricular Septal Defect Closure in a Patient with VACTERL Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Noncardiac components of genetic disorders can complicate the operative and postoperative courses of pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Prolonged hospital stay, increased treatment cost, morbidity, and death are more likely in this subgroup of patients. Ventricular septal defect, which is a component of various genetic disorders, has a 22.3% incidence in VACTERL syndrome—a rare, nonrandom pattern of birth defects. Herein, we discuss the impact of ventricular septal defect closure in a 4-month-old girl who was diagnosed after birth with Vacterl syndrome.

Hatemi, Ali Can; Gursoy, Mete; Ceviker, Kadir; Tongut, Aybala; Cetin, Gurkan; Celebi, Serdar; Kansiz, Erhan

2008-01-01

25

Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

26

VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5.  

PubMed

We have identified an ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced recessive mouse mutation (Vcc) with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes cardiac, tracheoesophageal, anorectal, anteroposterior patterning defects, exomphalos, hindlimb hypoplasia, a presacral mass, renal and palatal agenesis, and pulmonary hypoplasia. It results from a C470R mutation in the proprotein convertase PCSK5 (PC5/6). Compound mutants (Pcsk5(Vcc/null)) completely recapitulate the Pcsk5(Vcc/Vcc) phenotype, as does an epiblast-specific conditional deletion of Pcsk5. The C470R mutation ablates a disulfide bond in the P domain, and blocks export from the endoplasmic reticulum and proprotein convertase activity. We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to having anteroposterior patterning defects and renal and palatal agenesis, also have a presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and exomphalos. Pcsk5 mutation results in abnormal expression of several paralogous Hox genes (Hoxa, Hoxc, and Hoxd), and of Mnx1 (Hlxb9). These include known Gdf11 targets, and are necessary for caudal embryo development. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCSK5 in patients with VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb malformation OMIM 192350) and caudal regression syndrome, the phenotypic features of which resemble the mouse mutation. We propose that Pcsk5, at least in part via GDF11, coordinately regulates caudal Hox paralogs, to control anteroposterior patterning, nephrogenesis, skeletal, and anorectal development. PMID:18519639

Szumska, Dorota; Pieles, Guido; Essalmani, Rachid; Bilski, Michal; Mesnard, Daniel; Kaur, Kulvinder; Franklyn, Angela; El Omari, Kamel; Jefferis, Joanna; Bentham, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer M; Schneider, Jurgen E; Arnold, Sebastian J; Johnson, Paul; Tymowska-Lalanne, Zuzanna; Stammers, Dave; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Morris, Andrew; Brown, Steve D; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Constam, Daniel; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

2008-06-01

27

Encephalocele-radial, cardiac, gastrointestinal, anal/renal anomalies: novel evidence for a new condition?  

PubMed

The association between encephalocele and radial defects is considered uncommon. These features have been occasionally described separately in certain recurrent conditions such as VACTERL association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18). DK-phocomelia is a rare syndrome characterized by both findings. However, Froster-Iskenius and Meinecke [1992, Clin Dysmorphol 1: 37-41] and Kunze et al. [1992, Eur J Pediatr 151: 467-468] reported patients presenting similar malformations. We proposed, through the description of an additional case, that these last patients present the same condition and thus represent a new syndrome. The fetus presented a cranial vault deformity associated with an exuberant herniation of brain content, compatible with occipital encephalocele. Other uncommon features were also identified: microtia of the left ear with atresia of the external auditory canal; radial defect with aplasia of left radius and thumb; findings suggestive of a congenital heart defect and esophageal atresia; hypoplastic lungs and adrenals; thoracolumbar scoliosis; atrophic right kidney; and single umbilical artery. Thus, based on our review, we believe that these patients represent a new condition characterized by encephalocele and radial defects associated with multiple malformations. We propose, that the name "Encephalocele-radial, cardiac, gastrointestinal, anal/renal anomalies," as suggested by the London Medical Database, or even the name, "Froster-Iskenius and Meinecke syndrome" should be used to indicate these cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24648351

Valdez, Carolina M; Altmayer, Stephan P L; Barrow, McArthur A; Telles, Jorge A B; Betat, Rosilene da S; Zen, Paulo R G; Rosa, Rafael F M

2014-05-01

28

Prenatal diagnosis of VACTERL syndrome and partial caudal regression syndrome: a previously unreported association.  

PubMed

We describe a case of VACTERL syndrome associated with type 1 unilateral caudal regression syndrome. The abnormal sonographic findings at 26 weeks included hemivertebrae, scoliosis, hypoplastic and deformed lumbar spine and sacrum, preaxial polydactyly on the left hand, duplicated hallux on the left foot and hemihypoplasia of the left lower limb, bilateral club foot, and single umbilical artery. Postmortem examination confirmed prenatal sonographic findings with additional findings of supernumerary rib at the lumbar level and anal atresia. PMID:19536863

Gedikbasi, Ali; Yararbas, Kanay; Yildirim, Gokhan; Yildirim, Dogukan; Arslan, Oguz; Gul, Ahmet; Ceylan, Yavuz

2009-10-01

29

Associated nonurinary congenital anomalies among infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).  

PubMed

Infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CAKUT in a defined population from northeastern France. The associated anomalies in CAKUT were collected in all livebirths, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive births of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 1678 infants with CAKUT born during this period (prevalence at birth of 48.4 per 10,000), 563 (34%) had associated anomalies. There were 119 (7%) patients with chromosomal abnormalities including 33 trisomies 18 (2%), and 168 (10%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VA(C)TER(L) association (3%). However, other recognised dysmorphic conditions were registered including Meckel-Gruber syndrome (2%), and prune belly syndrome (1%). Two hundred seventy six (16%) of the patients had multiple congenital anomalies, non syndromic, non chromosomal (MCA). Anomalies in the musculoskeletal, the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 71% of dysmorphic syndromes with CAKUT. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in three infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of infants with CAKUT. The most commonly associated major nonurinary anomalies involved the musculoskeletal system, followed by the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CAKUT. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CAKUT can be classified into a recognizable anomaly syndrome or pattern in one out of six infants with CAKUT. PMID:24821302

Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

2014-07-01

30

Whole-exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association.  

PubMed

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat-shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle's loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or VACTERL association with CAKUT. PMID:24152966

Saisawat, Pawaree; Kohl, Stefan; Hilger, Alina C; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yung Gee, Heon; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Tasic, Velibor; Pennimpede, Tracie; Natarajan, Sivakumar; Sperry, Ethan; Matassa, Danilo S; Staji?, Nataša; Bogdanovic, Radovan; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Wijers, Charlotte H W; Bartels, Enrika; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Ludwig, Michael; Nöthen, Markus M; Draaken, Markus; Brosens, Erwin; Heij, Hugo; Tibboel, Dick; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Solomon, Benjamin D; de Klein, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Esposito, Franca; Reutter, Heiko M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2014-06-01

31

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Shirah, Greg; Allen, Jesse; Adamec, David

2003-02-03

32

Vertebrate Taphonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab exercise, students investigate taphonomic processes operating on a large vertebrate carcass (whitetail deer: Odocoileus virginianus) in a temperate, humid, terrestrial environment (i.e., central Ohio). Prior to the lab, students read the 1991 review article on terrestrial vertebrate accumulations by A. K. Behrensmeyer. Once in the field, they familiarize themselves with the locality and note the state of the carcass and the position of any disarticulated portions of the beast. Using the stake flags they mark the location of all the elements of the carcass. Next, using the Brunton compasses and the measuring tape, create a map of the site. They then reassemble all the elements of the carcass on the tarp and identify all of the skeletal elements. Finally, the students compare the disarticulated skeleton with a control carcass placed in a wire mesh cage designed to exclude any macro-scavengers. In the lab, student synthesize their results and respond to a series of questions related to vertebrate taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record.

Goodwin, David

33

Bangui Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

Taylor, Patrick T.

2004-01-01

34

Imaging of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Baruah, Udismita

2014-01-01

35

Imaging of vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures. PMID:24944921

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J; Baruah, Udismita

2014-05-01

36

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

37

Goldenhar's Syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia) with congenital facial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Goldenhar's Syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia) is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. In this report, a case of a male infant, with the features of hemi facial microsomia, anotia, vertebral anomalies, congenital facial nerve palsy and lagophthalmos is described. Although the syndrome itself is not uncommon, the presence of congenital facial nerve palsy, which has been reported in rare cases, prompted this case report. PMID:15004885

Berker, Nilufer; Acaro?lu, Golge; Soykan, Emel

2004-02-29

38

Peters' Anomaly  

PubMed Central

While conducting medical aid in Mozambique, a 41 year old African male presented to our eye clinic complaining of visual impairment. The male was found to have Peters’ anomaly type 2, a rare congenital ocular malformation leading to sensory amblyopia and glaucoma.

Sault, Robert W.; Sheridan, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

39

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

40

Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

2014-07-01

41

Spinal endodermal cysts without associated vertebral or other congenital abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four cases of spinal cysts lined by simple columnar epithelium of endodermal origin, without associated vertebral or other congenital anomalies, are reported. Pathology, pathogenesis and nomenclature of such cysts are discussed. Misplacement of endodermal cells is though to be the common developmental error leading to the formation of such cysts, as well as of those replicating intestinal wall or

L. Palma; N. Di Lorenzo

1976-01-01

42

Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and clinical features of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a registry-based study in Europe.  

PubMed

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a complex developmental disorder characterised mainly by anomalies of the ear, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aetiology is largely unknown, and the epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date, using data provided by the large network of congenital anomalies registries in Europe. The study population included infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum during the 1990-2009 period from 34 registries active in 16 European countries. Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340/355) live born, 0.8% (3/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly/anomalies associated with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye (24.3%) anomalies. There was a high rate (69.5%) of associated anomalies of other organs/systems. The most common were congenital heart defects present in 27.8% of patients. The prevalence of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, defined as microtia/ear anomalies and at least one major characteristic anomaly, was 3.8 per 100?000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder. PMID:24398798

Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Doray, Berenice; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Scarano, Gioacchino; Tucker, David

2014-08-01

43

Investigating Classification: Minnesota Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an interactive game that helps students learn that vertebrates are classified into five groups and that each group has common characteristics that distinguish the animal group from other respective groups.

44

Ebstein's anomaly.  

PubMed

Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease, accounting for less than 1% of all congenital heart diseases, characterized by a wide clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, anatomic and prognostic polymorphism. The disease can be fatal since birth or may remain asymptomatic until adulthood, sometimes being associated with septal defects, transposition of great vessels, preexcitation syndromes, or left ventricular noncompaction. The genetic changes underlying this syndrome are not fully known, but in the cases associating left ventricular nonompaction a mutation in MYH7 gene encoding the beta-myosin heavy chain was recently detected. The authors present 2 cases of Ebstein's anomaly with different onset and course and discuss the current clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria used for prognostic stratification of Ebstein disease in relation to international literature. PMID:24502034

Dima-Cozma, Corina; Cojocaru, Doina-Clementina; Chiriac, Silvia; Negru, R; Mitu, F

2013-01-01

45

Vertebral spinal osteophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies.\\u000a The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For\\u000a instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied\\u000a by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive

Zachary KlaassenR; R. Shane Tubbs; Nihal Apaydin; Robert Hage; Robert Jordan; Marios Loukas

2011-01-01

46

Autophagy During Vertebrate Development  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process by which cells degrade their own components through the lysosomal machinery. In physiological conditions, the mechanism is tightly regulated and contributes to maintain a balance between synthesis and degradation in cells undergoing intense metabolic activities. Autophagy is associated with major tissue remodeling processes occurring through the embryonic, fetal and early postnatal periods of vertebrates. Here we survey current information implicating autophagy in cellular death, proliferation or differentiation in developing vertebrates. In developing systems, activation of the autophagic machinery could promote different outcomes depending on the cellular context. Autophagy is thus an extraordinary tool for the developing organs and tissues.

Aburto, Maria R.; Hurle, Juan M.; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Magarinos, Marta

2012-01-01

47

Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained.

Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

1983-01-01

48

Vertebral spinal osteophytes.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to anterior cervical osteophytes, posterior and uncinate process osteophytes may form, compressing the spinal cord and vertebral artery blood supply, respectively. Cervical osteophytes have also been shown to form an accessory median atlanto-occipital joint when the relationship between the atlas, dens and basiocciput is involved. In the thorax, the esophagus is often affected by osteophytes and may result in dysphagia. Traumatic and non-traumatic thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm formation has been attributed to sharp osteophytes lacerating the aorta, a direct complication of the relationship between the aorta anterior vertebral column. Additionally, aspiration pneumonia was reported in patients with compression of a main stem bronchus, due to mechanical compression by thoracic osteophytes. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity to the spine are the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. Treatment of osteophytes is initially conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, followed by surgical removal. Increasing obesity and geriatric populations will continue to result in an array of osteoarthritic degenerative changes such as osteophyte formation. PMID:20383671

Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Hage, Robert; Jordan, Robert; Loukas, Marios

2011-03-01

49

Oesophageal atresia with cleft lip and palate: a marker for associated lethal anomalies?  

PubMed

An adverse association between oesophageal atresia (OA) and cleft lip-palate (3% incidence) has been reported. The present study analyses outcomes of this rare association at a UK paediatric surgical centre. Hospital charts of newborns diagnosed with OA were reviewed. Demographics, associated anomalies and prognostic classification (after Spitz 1994) were recorded. Mortality rates and causes of death were examined in OA babies with cleft lip-palate. Of 152 patients treated for OA, five babies (3%) had cleft lip-palate. All of these newborns had common variant OA-TEF and were Spitz group II category. Deaths occurred in 3 of 5 patients (60%) in the OA-cleft group compared to only 8 of 147 patients (5%) without clefts (p < 0.005; Fisher's exact test). OA-cleft non-survivors succumbed to tetralogy of Fallot (n = 2) and trisomy 18 (n = 1; treatment withdrawn). Both survivors with cleft lip-palate had features of the VACTERL sequence: one baby also had Goldenhaar syndrome, the other aortic coarctation. These children now attend mainstream school. Although high-quality survival is possible in OA with cleft lip-palate, this rare phenotype is associated with a substantially decreased survival. Rather than causing death directly, the combination of OA and cleft lip-palate appears to be a marker for further lethal anomalies. PMID:18427812

Mullassery, D; Llewellyn, R S; Almond, S L; Jesudason, E C; Losty, P D

2008-07-01

50

Gauge Anomalies, Gravitational Anomalies, and Superstrings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs. (ERA citation 11:021380)

W. A. Bardeen

1985-01-01

51

Head segmentation in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze.

Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

2008-01-01

52

Vertebrate heart development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes recent studies of the cellular and molecular events involved in the determination and differentiation of cardiac myocytes in vertebrate embryos. Fate-mapping studies in mouse, chick, amphibian and zebrafish embryos suggest that cardiac muscle precursors are specified shortly before or at the time of gastrulation. Nuclear factors, such as dHAND, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, GATA-6, Nkx-2.3, growth arrest homeobox

Gary E Lyons

1996-01-01

53

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools.

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

54

Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools. PMID:23858304

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna

2013-01-01

55

Molecular control of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations.  

PubMed

The vertebrate limb is a powerful model system for studying the cellular and molecular interactions that determine morphological pattern during embryonic development. Recent advances in our understanding of these interactions have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations. The transfer of information has, until recently, been largely one way, with developmental studies informing our understanding of the fossil record and clinical limb anomalies; however, evolutionary and clinical studies are now beginning to shed light onto one another and onto basic developmental processes. In this review, we discuss recent advances in these fields and how they are interacting to improve our understanding of vertebrate limb biology. PMID:10199960

Cohn, M J; Bright, P E

1999-04-01

56

Building the Vertebrate Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead to scoliosis in humans. Finally, the subsequent regional differentiation of the precursors of the vertebrae is controlled by Hox genes, whose collinear expression controls both gastrulation of somite precursors and their subsequent patterning into region-specific types of structures. Therefore somite development provides an outstanding paradigm to study patterning and differentiation in vertebrate embryos.

Pourquié, Olivier

2008-03-01

57

Spinal dermoid sinus in a Dachshund with vertebral and thoracic limb malformations  

PubMed Central

Background Dermoid sinus is an uncommon epithelial-lined fistula that may be associated with vertebral malformations. In humans, Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare condition characterized by congenital cervical vertebral fusion and may be associated with other developmental defects, including dermoid sinus. The present case report describes an adult Dachshund with cervical and cranial thoracic vertebral malformations as well as thoracic limb malformations resembling KFS with a concurrent type IV dermoid sinus. Case presentation A 1.5 year-old Dachshund with congenital thoracic limbs deformities and cervical-thoracic vertebral malformations presented with cervical hyperesthesia, rigidity of the cervical musculature and tetraparesis. Neurologic, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) (2D, 3D, CT fistulography) examinations revealed skeletal anomalies, a dermoid sinus in the cranial thoracic region and epidural gas within the vertebral canal. Surgical resection and histopathological evaluation of the sinus tract were performed and confirmed a type IV dermoid sinus. The clinical signs progressively recovered postoperatively, and no recurrent signs were observed after 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Cervical vertebral malformations associated with limbs anomalies have not been reported in dogs and may represent a condition similar to KFS in humans. KFS can occur concurrently with other congenital conditions including dermoid sinus and should be included among the complex congenital anomalies described in dogs.

2014-01-01

58

Rehabilitation in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Vertebral fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic patients due to an increased bone fragility. Vertebral fractures influence the quality of life, mobility and mortality. Preventive training exercises and proprioception reeducation can be utilised for improving posture, balance and level of daily function and for decreasing pain. Quality of life is improved even beyond the active training period. This mini review provides information based on the literature for the rehabilitation of osteoporotic vertebral fractures after conservative or surgical treatment.

Pratelli, Elisa; Cinotti, Irene; Pasquetti, Pietro

2010-01-01

59

Kimball's Online Text: Vertebrate Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section on vertebrate animal classification from the larger biology textbook. Includes information on morphological classification, evolution, some molecular classification, life cycles, drawings and diagrams.

PhD John W Kimball (Harvard MCB)

2007-05-14

60

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Shirah, Greg; Allen, Jesse; Adamec, David

2003-02-03

61

Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. PMID:10217474

Schittek, A

1999-01-01

62

Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified.

P. H. Serson; W. Hannaford; G. V. Haines

1968-01-01

63

Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland.  

PubMed

An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified. PMID:17836657

Serson, P H; Hannaford, W; Haines, G V

1968-10-18

64

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

65

Anomaly detection using topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new topology-based algorithm for anomaly detection in dimensionally large datasets. The motivating application is hyperspectral imaging where the dataset can be a collection of ~ 106 points in Rk, representing the reflected (or radiometric) spectra of electromagnetic radiation. The algorithm begins by building a graph whose edges connect close pairs of points. The background points are the points in the largest components of this graph and all other points are designated as anomalies. The anomalies are ranked according to their distance to the background. The algorithm is termed Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD). The algorithm is tested on hyperspectral imagery collected with the HYDICE sensor which contains targets of known reflectance and spatial location. Anomaly maps are created and compared to results from the common anomaly detection algorithm RX. We show that the TAD algorithm performs better than RX by achieving greater separation of the anomalies from the background for this dataset.

Basener, Bill; Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Messinger, David W.

2007-04-01

66

Elongation of the anterior tubercle of a cervical vertebral transverse process: An unusual variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongation of the anterior tubercle of a transverse process of a cervical vertebra is a congenital anomaly that should be considered in a patient demonstrating a bony mass projecting anterior to the vertebral body on a lateral radiograph of the cervical spine. Reported is a case of elongation of the tubercles of the transverse processes of both C5 and C6

Y. Applbaum; P. Gerard; D. Bryk

1983-01-01

67

Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a case of prenatally detected fetal hydrocolpos.  

PubMed

We report on a female fetus with prenatally suspected hydrometrocolpos. Postnatal evaluation additionally revealed ambiguous genitalia, anorectal atresia, vertebral segmentation anomalies and congenital intestinal aganglionosis. Colostomy was performed, but postoperative recovery was complicated by pulmonary hypertension and renal failure, resulting in death at day 18. Postmortem examination furthermore revealed a small ventricular septal defect, as well as rectovaginal and urethrovaginal fistulae, causing massive dilatation of the septated vagina (hydrocolpos). The possibility of an overlapping VACTERL and MURCS association is discussed. PMID:11530001

Geipel, A; Berg, C; Germer, U; Ahrens, P; Gloeckner-Hofmann, K; Möller, J; Gembruch, U

2001-08-01

68

Symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas.  

PubMed

Eight cases of vertebral haemangioma causing spinal cord or nerve root compression are described, together with one other which was not causing organic signs or symptoms. The compression was due to extradural tumour in 5 cases, bony expansion encroaching on the neural canal in 2 cases, and a combination of bony expansion and extradural tumour in one case. When present the classical radiological appearance of accentuated vertical striation or honeycomb pattern is easily recognized, but atypical features, such as apparent pedicular erosion, paravertebral soft tissue mass and bony expansion, may occur, making diagnosis more diffcult. In 2 cases the correct diagnosis was not made before surgery. In one of these there were no plain film changes and in the other a metastasis was considered the more likely diagnosis. In the asymptomatic case the absence of extra-osseous extension was an important factor in excluding any possible clinical significance of the haemangioma. The great importance of pre-operative spinal angiography is stressed. PMID:1122377

McAllister, V L; Kendall, B E; Bull, J W

1975-03-01

69

Traumatic bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679

Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi

2012-01-10

70

Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

2013-08-01

71

The generalized Bouguer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper states on the new concept of the generalized Bouguer anomaly (GBA) that is defined upon the datum level of an arbitrary elevation. Discussions are particularly focused on how to realize the Bouguer anomaly that is free from the assumption of the Bouguer reduction density rhoB, namely, the rhoB-free Bouguer anomaly, and on what is meant by the rhoB-free

Kyozo Nozaki

2006-01-01

72

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

73

Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

2014-01-01

74

Evolution of vertebrate retinal photoreception  

PubMed Central

Recent findings shed light on the steps underlying the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina. Vertebrate ciliary photoreceptors are not as wholly distinct from invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors as is sometimes thought. Recent information on the phylogenies of ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins has helped in constructing the likely routes followed during evolution. Clues to the factors that led the early vertebrate retina to become invaginated can be obtained by combining recent knowledge about the origin of the pathway for dark re-isomerization of retinoids with knowledge of the inability of ciliary opsins to undergo photoreversal, along with consideration of the constraints imposed under the very low light levels in the deep ocean. Investigation of the origin of cell classes in the vertebrate retina provides support for the notion that cones, rods and bipolar cells all originated from a primordial ciliary photoreceptor, whereas ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells all originated from rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Knowledge of the molecular differences between cones and rods, together with knowledge of the scotopic signalling pathway, provides an understanding of the evolution of rods and of the rods' retinal circuitry. Accordingly, it has been possible to propose a plausible scenario for the sequence of evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.

Lamb, Trevor D.

2009-01-01

75

Anomalies in Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results in cognitive psychology and experimental economics indicate that under identifiable conditions individuals do not act in an economically rational way. These results are important for Political Economy. Anomalies appear in the behaviour of voters, politicans and administrators. Economic markets do not fully eliminate anomalies in the aggregation process. It is shown that political aggregation by democracy, bargaining or bureaucracy

Bruno S. Frey; Reiner Eichenberger

1991-01-01

76

Filtering Marine Magnetic Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

When marine magnetic anomalies can be adequately modeled by two-dimensional magnetic structures within one or more plane layers, many interesting manipulations of both models and anomalies are linear filtering operations [Dean, 1958; Bott, 1967; Black and Scollar, 1969; Schouten, 1971]. Linear filters can be applied quickly and accurately by using the fast Fourier transform algorithm [Cooley and Tukey, 1965]. We

Hans Schouten; Keith McCamy

1972-01-01

77

Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities might reveal cytogenetic abnormalities of an unexpected complexity. Results We report a 24 years old male patient with lower spinal anomalies, hypospadia, bifid scrotum, cryptorchism, anal atresia, kidney stones, urethra anomalies, radial dysplasia, and a hypoplastic thumb. Some of the anomalies overlap with the VACTERL association. Chromosome analysis of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed an additional ring chromosome in 13% of the metaphases. Both parents had a normal karyotype, demonstrating the de novo origin of this ring chromosome. FISH analysis using whole chromosome paints showed that the additional chromosomal material was derived from chromosome 18. Chromosome analysis of cultured fibroblasts revealed only one cell with the supernumerary ring chromosome in the 400 analyzed. To characterize the ring chromosome in more detail peripheral blood derived DNA was analyzed using SNP-arrays. The array results indicated a 5 Mb gain of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 18q10-q11.2. FISH analysis using BAC-probes located in the region indicated the presence of 6 signals on the r(18) chromosome. In addition, microsatellite analysis demonstrated that the unique supernumerary ring chromosome was paternally derived and both normal copies showed biparental disomy. Conclusions We report on an adult patient with multiple congenital abnormalities who had in 13% of his cells a unique supernumerary ring chromosome 18 that was composed of 6 copies of the 5 Mb gene rich region of 18q11.

2010-01-01

78

Transposon tools hopping in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, tools derived from DNA transposons have made major contributions to vertebrate genetic studies from gene delivery to gene discovery. Multiple, highly complementary systems have been developed, and many more are in the pipeline. Judging which DNA transposon element will work the best in diverse uses from zebrafish genetic manipulation to human gene therapy is currently a complex task. We have summarized the major transposon vector systems active in vertebrates, comparing and contrasting known critical biochemical and in vivo properties, for future tool design and new genetic applications.

Ni, Jun; Clark, Karl J.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

2008-01-01

79

Anomalies on orbifolds  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

2001-03-16

80

Extracranial vertebral aneurysm with neurofibromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With neurofibromatosis neuromas of the cranial and cervical nerves are common findings and meningiomas and ependymonas appear more often than in the average population. Vascular manifestations of the disease are also commonly known in the renal and gastrointestinal vessels but rarely in the large cerebral arteries. The case of a 50 year old man with neurofibromatosis and a vertebral aneurysm

O. Schubiger; M. G. Yasargil

1978-01-01

81

Evolution of vertebrate visual pigments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual pigments of vertebrates evolved about 500 million years ago, before the major evolutionary step of the development of jaws. Four spectrally distinct classes of cone opsin evolved through gene duplication, followed by the rod opsin class that arose from the duplication of the middle-wave-sensitive cone opsin. All four cone classes are present in many extant teleost fish, reptiles

James K. Bowmaker

2008-01-01

82

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997

Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

2014-05-01

83

Short root anomaly.  

PubMed

A case of generalised short root anomaly is described. All permanent teeth had abnormally short roots, associated with microdontia, hypodontia and a dens invaginatus. Members of the patient's family were similarly affected. PMID:2261278

Edwards, D M; Roberts, G J

1990-11-10

84

The chlamydial anomaly clarified?  

PubMed

Getting visible: A new method to label bacterial cell walls shows the presence of functional peptidoglycan in the important pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. This might clarify the long-standing paradox of the "chlamydial anomaly". PMID:24891214

Mohammadi, Tamimount; Breukink, Eefjan

2014-07-01

85

SADM potentiometer anomaly investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 3 years Contraves Space have been developing a Low Power (1-2kW) Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) aimed at small series production. The mechanism was subjected to two test programmes in order to qualify the SADM to acceptable levels. During the two test programmes, anomalies were experienced with the Potentiometers provided by Eurofarad SA and joint investigations were undertaken to resolve why these anomalies had occurred. This paper deals with the lessons learnt from the failure investigation on the two Eurofarad (rotary) Potentiometer anomaly. The Rotary Potentiometers that were used were fully redundant; using two back to back mounted "plastic tracks". It is a pancake configuration mounted directly to the shaft of the Slip Ring Assembly at the extreme in-board end of the SADM. It has no internal bearings. The anomaly initially manifested itself as a loss of performance in terms of linearity, which was first detected during Thermal Vacuum testing. A subsequent anomaly manifested itself by the complete failure of the redundant potentiometer again during thermal vacuum testing. This paper will follow and detail the chain of events following this anomaly and identifies corrective measures to be applied to the potentiometer design and assembly process.

Wood, Brian; Mussett, David; Cattaldo, Olivier; Rohr, Thomas

2005-07-01

86

The Vertebrate Invasion of Fresh Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and early evolution of the vertebrates took place in exclusively marine conditions. From the Middle Cambrian chordate Pikaia, through the Upper Cambrian, Ordovician and early Silurian records, there is little evidence of non-marine vertebrate faunas. With the progressive closing of the Iapetus Ocean, there developed from Wenlock times possible brackish vertebrate faunas, dominated by thelodonts, anaspids and cephalaspids,

L. B. Halstead

1985-01-01

87

Morphological castes in a vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

2000-01-01

88

Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates.

Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

2012-01-01

89

Segmentation of the vertebrate body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segmental character of the vertebrate body wall is reflected by metamerically arranged tissues that are patterned during\\u000a embryonic life as a consequence of somite formation, compartmentalization and differentiation. The somites bud off the paraxial\\u000a mesoderm in a cranio-caudal sequence and are compartmentalized by local signals from adjacent structures. These signals may\\u000a be mediated by diffusible substances such as Sonic

B. Christ; Corina Schmidt; Ruijin Huang; Jörg Wilting; Beate Brand-Saberi

1997-01-01

90

Vertebral fragility and structural redundancy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of age-related vertebral fragility remain unclear, but may be related to the degree of “structural redundancy” of the vertebra, that is, its ability to safely redistribute stress internally after local trabecular failure from an isolated mechanical overload. To better understand this issue, we performed biomechanical testing and nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis on 12 elderly human thoracic ninth vertebral bodies (ages 76.9 ± 10.8 years). After experimentally overloading the vertebrae to measure strength, we used the nonlinear finite element analysis to estimate the amount of failed tissue and understand failure mechanisms. We found that the amount of failed tissue per unit bone mass decreased with decreasing bone volume fraction (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Thus, for the weak vertebrae with low bone volume fraction, overall failure of the vertebra occurred after failure of just a tiny proportion of the bone tissue (< 5%). This small proportion of failed tissue had two sources: the existence of fewer vertically oriented load paths to which load could be redistributed from failed trabeculae; and the vulnerability of the trabeculae in these few load paths to undergo bending-type failure mechanisms, which further weaken the bone. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that diminished structural redundancy may be an important aspect of age-related vertebral fragility: vertebrae with low bone volume fraction are highly susceptible to collapse since so few trabeculae are available for load redistribution if the external loads cause any trabeculae to fail.

Fields, Aaron J.; Nawathe, Shashank; Eswaran, Senthil K.; Jekir, Michael G.; Adams, Mark F.; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

91

Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic\\u000a fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed\\u000a tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and\\u000a minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I

Michael B. Pitton; Nadine Morgen; Sascha Herber; Philipp Drees; Bertram Böhm; Christoph Düber

2008-01-01

92

Superstrings, anomalies and unification  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the lectures covering the main lines of developments in the presently most active field of particle physics: string field theory, anomalies, unification and physics beyond the Planck length. The lectures are generally pedagogical in style, designed at the postdoctoral level, but at the same time they introduce one to the most recent results in the field.

Martinis, M.; Andric, I.

1987-01-01

93

Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous, automated audits. A workflow, process, or procedure,...

T. J. Smith S. Bryant

2005-01-01

94

Space Weather and Satellite Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth's magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment, are presented. Anomaly data from the \\

Lev Dorman; N. Iucci; A. E. Levitin; A. V. Belov; E. A. Eroshenko; N. G. Ptitsyna; G. Villoresi; G. V. Chizhenkov; L. I. Gromova; M. Parisi; M. I. Tyasto; V. G. Yanke

2010-01-01

95

Algebraic Structure of Chiral Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I will describe first the algebraic aspects of chiral anomalies, exercising however due care about the topological delicacies. I will illustrate the structure and methods in the context of gauge anomalies and will eventually make contact with results obta...

R. Stora

1985-01-01

96

Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identified ?1000 new domain pairs in the vertebrate lineage, including ?100 that were shared by all seven of the vertebrate species examined. Some of these pairs occur in the protein components of vertebrate-specific structures, such as cartilage and the inner ear, suggesting that domain shuffling made a marked contribution to the evolution of vertebrate-specific characteristics. The evolutionary history of the domain pairs is traceable; for example, the Xlink domain of aggrecan, one of the major components of cartilage, was originally utilized as a functional domain of a surface molecule of blood cells in protochordate ancestors, and it was recruited by the protein of the matrix component of cartilage in the vertebrate ancestor. We also identified genes that were created as a result of domain shuffling in ancestral chordates. Some of these are involved in the functions of chordate structures, such as the endostyle, Reissner's fiber of the neural tube, and the notochord. Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates.

Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

97

Segmentation of the vertebrate body.  

PubMed

The segmental character of the vertebrate body wall is reflected by metamerically arranged tissues that are patterned during embryonic life as a consequence of somite formation, compartmentalization and differentiation. The somites bud off the paraxial mesoderm in a cranio-caudal sequence and are compartmentalized by local signals from adjacent structures. These signals may be mediated by diffusible substances such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnts and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) or by cell-cell interactions via membrane-bound receptors and ligands such as Delta and Notch. Compartmentalization of the somites and their derivatives is reflected by the differential expression of developmental regulatory genes such as Pax-1, 3, 7 and 9, MyoD, paraxis, twist and others. Secondary segmentation is imposed upon other tissues, such as blood vessels and nerves, by the rearrangement and regionalization of the somitic derivatives, especially the sclerotome. Early cranio-caudal identity is determined by the expression of different Hox genes. Finally, fusion of segmental anlagen occurs to form segment-overbridging skeletal elements and muscles. The expression of homologous genes indicates that the process of segmentation in vertebrates and invertebrates is homologous, derived by descent from a common ancestor. PMID:9462855

Christ, B; Schmidt, C; Huang, R; Wilting, J; Brand-Saberi, B

1998-01-01

98

Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

1999-01-01

99

Yukawa textures and anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We augment the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with a gauged family-dependent U(1) to reproduce Yukawa textures compatible with experiment. In the simplest model with one extra chiral electroweak singlet field, acceptable textures require this U(1) to be anomalous. The cancellation of its anomalies by a generic Green-Schwarz mechanism requires sin2?w = 38 at the string scale, suggesting a supersting a

Pierre Binétruy; Pierre Ramond

1995-01-01

100

Penile anomalies in adolescence.  

PubMed

This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias) are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring) in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism. PMID:21399858

Wood, Dan; Woodhouse, Christopher

2011-01-01

101

Complex vascular anomalies.  

PubMed

The classification system for vascular anomalies now used by experts worldwide comprises two distinct disease entities that differ in their biologic and pathologic features: vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors include infantile and congenital hemangiomas, tufted angiomas, and kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas. Infantile hemangiomas, the most common vascular anomaly, generally have a predetermined life cycle (proliferation and subsequent involution). GLUT-1, a glucose transporter, is a marker for these specific lesions during all phases of development. Vascular malformations are classified according to their vascular tissue of origin and include capillary, venous, arteriovenous, lymphatic, and mixed malformations. Complex lymphatic malformations and complex mixed malformations, which may have most vascular components, are the most difficult vascular malformations to successfully treat. These lesions are present at birth and often expand or grow in response to trauma, infection, or hormonal changes. Imaging advancements have enabled more accurate assessments and improved management of vascular anomalies. In addition, many lesions are now being managed with targeted pharmacologic therapy. Propranolol and steroids are used for complex or disfiguring tumors, and new anti-angiogenesis inhibitors such as sirolimus are selectively used to treat lymphatic and venous lymphatic malformations that are poorly responsive to sclerotherapy, embolization, and surgical excision. Multimodal therapies are often essential for complex lesions and require the combined expertise of an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23989523

Azizkhan, Richard G

2013-10-01

102

Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins.

Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

2010-01-01

103

Idiopathic segmental sclerosis of vertebral bodies  

SciTech Connect

Five cases of idiopathic vetebral sclerosis are presented. The features of this condition are segmental vertebral sclerosis of a single lumbar vertebra in a young adult without disc space narrowing or alteration of vertebral contour. The differential diagnosis is discussed. Lumbar vertebra biopsies of three patients showed reactive nonspecific osteosclerosis.

McCarthy, E.F.; Dorfman, H.D.

1982-12-01

104

Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks.

Keith, Minor

105

[Spondylosis: diseases of the vertebral column].  

PubMed

Frequent and transcendent diseases for the difficulties of his diagnosis and treatment. The components of the vertebral column, vertebral bodies, discs and unvertebral joints, spondylosis ligaments must be considered to be a functional Unit. The Patology of each one of their parts concerns or reverberates in others. PMID:18924356

Pérez, Amador Schüller

2008-01-01

106

Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

2002-01-01

107

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

108

Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

1985-01-01

109

Hypercharged anomaly mediation.  

PubMed

We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 < or = |alpha| < or = 0.25 and m(3/2) > or = 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario. PMID:18517937

Dermísek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

2008-04-01

110

[First branchial cleft anomalies].  

PubMed

First branchial cleft anomalies are congenital rare lesions that can sometimes be difficult to diagnose. During the normal embryonic development the outer ear canal derives from the first branchial cleft. Abnormal development can result in production of a cyst, sinus or fistula with recurring infections. Early and correct diagnosis is necessary for the correct choice of surgical set-up in which identification and preservation of the facial nerve is an important step. A case of first branchial cleft sinus is presented with further discussion of classification, diagnostics and treatment. PMID:18489895

Nikoghosyan, Gohar; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

2008-05-12

111

The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

Weems, R. E.

1992-01-01

112

Lunar Orbit Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

Riofrio, L.

2012-12-01

113

Supergravity theories, anomalies and compactification  

SciTech Connect

This book is a collection of reprints on the structure of Poincare, anti-de Sitter and conformal supergravity theories in one to eleven dimensions, their anomalies and compactification. Each chapter contains introductory comments and an extensive list of references. Contents: Vol. 1: Representations of Supersymmetry in Various Dimensions; Poincare and ADS Supergravity Theories in Various Dimensions; Anomalies in Supergravity Theories. Vol. 2: Compactification of Supergravity Theories; Conformal Supergravity Theories in Various Dimensions; Anomalies in Conformal Supergravity Theories.

Salam, A.; Sezgin, E.

1986-01-01

114

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

115

Back pain in osteoporotic vertebral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review article examines the epidemiology and pathogenesis of back pain and vertebral fractures in osteoporosis, reviewing\\u000a the management of pain in patients with vertebral fractures and the direct and indirect effect of osteoporosis treatments\\u000a on back pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The management of patients with vertebral fractures has largely concentrated on the prevention of further fractures by the\\u000a treatment of underlying osteoporosis,

R. M. Francis; T. J. Aspray; G. Hide; A. M. Sutcliffe; P. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

116

68Ga DOTATATE Uptake in Vertebral Hemangioma.  

PubMed

Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is an established modality for imaging well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. It is known that inflammatory diseases (eg, tuberculosis) may also accumulate somatostatin receptor analogs. Here, we present the case of a 69-year-old patient with a neuroendocrine tumor of the rectum showing uptake of Ga DOTATATE in 2 vertebrae that was caused by vertebral hemangiomas. This could be clearly demonstrated on the CT scan. Although studies outlining the normal distribution of Ga DOTATATE exist, uptake in vertebral hemangiomas has not been described yet. As the case shows, vertebral hemangiomas should be kept in mind as a benign differential diagnosis. PMID:24152639

Brogsitter, Claudia; Hofmockel, Thomas; Kotzerke, Jörg

2014-05-01

117

Fragility fractures requiring special consideration: vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

The treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures is complicated because of the comorbid conditions of the elderly patient. Underlying osteoporosis leads to malalignment of the weakened bone and impedes fracture fixation. The treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures is widely empirical, because standardized and accepted treatment evidence-based concepts are missing for certain fracture types. As in other osteoporotic fractures in the elderly, the key for good outcome may be a combination of interdisciplinary treatment approaches and adapted surgical procedures. This article gives an overview of the underlying problems and possible treatment strategies for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in geriatric patients. PMID:24721374

Kammerlander, Christian; Zegg, Michael; Schmid, Rene; Gosch, Markus; Luger, Thomas J; Blauth, Michael

2014-05-01

118

Vaginal surgery for congenital anomalies.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies of the vagina may be isolated to the vagina or be part of a more complex Mullerian tract anomaly with possible fertility concerns. Patient age, complete assessment of the anomaly before surgery, and the psychologic implications for the patient are important components of the initial evaluation and treatment planning. Imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, should be used to assess the extent of the anomaly and possibly other organ systems involved. Surgeries for imperforate hymen, longitudinal septum, and low thin transverse septum are relatively straightforward. More complicated surgeries should be performed by a specialized surgical team. PMID:20142648

Quint, Elisabeth H; McCarthy, Jenifer D; Smith, Yolanda R

2010-03-01

119

Organizational Heterogeneity of Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as “texts” using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter - GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

2012-01-01

120

Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

McCollum, Gin

2003-05-01

121

Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

122

A Lebanese family with autosomal recessive oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum and review of the literature: is OAV a genetically heterogeneous disorder?  

PubMed Central

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum summarizes a continuum of ocular, auricular, and vertebral anomalies. Goldenhar syndrome is a variant of this spectrum and is characterized by pre-auricular skin tags, microtia, facial asymmetry, ocular abnormalities, and vertebral anomalies of different sizes and shapes. Most cases are thought to be sporadic. However, a few families were reported to have an autosomal recessive inheritance and other families’ presentation of the syndrome strongly supported an autosomal dominant inheritance. We report OAV in a female infant presenting with tracheomalacia, diaphragmatic hernia, encephalomeningocele, sacral neural tube defect, and cardiac defect and her brother having no more than dysmorphic features. The mode of inheritance in this family supports an autosomal recessive inheritance where the transmission was from normal first-degree consanguineous parents to one of the sons and to the daughter. This report further broadens the clinical presentation and symptoms of OAV and supports the hypothesis advancing OAV as a genetically heterogeneous disorder.

Farra, Chantal; Yunis, Khaled; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Charafeddine, Lama; Wakim, Rima; Awwad, Johnny

2011-01-01

123

The Exotic Vertebrates of South Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species of introduced exotic vertebrates of south Florida (Lake Okeechobee southward) are identified and described. The principal factors responsible for their introductions are explored and recommendations are made for alleviation of current problems cau...

J. P. Crowder

1974-01-01

124

Genetics of lymphatic anomalies.  

PubMed

Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

2014-03-01

125

Cilia in vertebrate development and disease  

PubMed Central

Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. This ancient organelle has now emerged as a crucial component of certain signaling and sensory perception pathways in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction.

Oh, Edwin C.; Katsanis, Nicholas

2012-01-01

126

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

127

Osteoporotic vertebral collapse with late neurological complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes 27 patients who had a spinal fracture and underwent an anterior or a posterior spinal decompression, with or without spinal instrumentation, for late neurological compromise secondary to post-traumatic vertebral collapse associated with osteoporosis. Five males and 22 females were studied, with an average follow-up of 3.7 years. The patients developed delayed neurological compromise due to osteoporotic vertebral

H Baba; Y Maezawa; K Kamitani; N Furusawa; S Imura; K Tomita

1995-01-01

128

Anomaly detection in crowded scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel framework for anomaly detection in crowded scenes is presented. Three properties are identified as important for the design of a localized video representation suitable for anomaly detection in such scenes: (1) joint modeling of appearance and dynamics of the scene, and the abilities to detect (2) temporal, and (3) spatial abnormalities. The model for normal crowd behavior is

Vijay Mahadevan; Weixin Li; Viral Bhalodia; Nuno Vasconcelos

2010-01-01

129

Supergravity theories, anomalies and compactification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a collection of reprints on the structure of Poincare, anti-de Sitter and conformal supergravity theories in one to eleven dimensions, their anomalies and compactification. Each chapter contains introductory comments and an extensive list of references. Contents: Vol. 1: Representations of Supersymmetry in Various Dimensions; Poincare and ADS Supergravity Theories in Various Dimensions; Anomalies in Supergravity Theories. Vol.

A. Salam; E. Sezgin

1986-01-01

130

Bias in Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Vertebrate Rhodopsin Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spurious nodes were found in phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences in comparison with well- established vertebrate relationships. These spurious reconstructions were well supported in bootstrap analyses and occurred independently of the method of phylogenetic analysis used (parsimony, distance, or likelihood). Use of this data set of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences allowed us to exploit established vertebrate relationships, as well

Belinda S. W. Chang; Dana L. Campbell

131

TAT-NIDS: An Immune-Based Anomaly Detection Architecture for Network Intrusion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One emergent, widely used metaphor and rich source of inspiration for computer security has been the vertebrate Immune System\\u000a (IS). This is mainly due to its intrinsic nature of having to constantly protect the body against harm inflicted by external\\u000a (non-self) harmful entities. The bridge between metaphor and the reality of new practical systems for anomaly detection is cemented\\u000a by

Mário Antunes; Manuel Correia

2008-01-01

132

Artificial Immune Systems for Self-Nonself Discrimination: Application to Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-nonself discrimination is the ability of the vertebrate immune systems to distinguish between foreign objects and the\\u000a body’s own self. It provides the basis for several biologically inspired approachs for classification. The negative selection\\u000a algorithm, which is one way to implement self-nonself discrimination, is becoming increasingly popular for anomaly detection\\u000a applications. Negative selection makes use of a set of detectors

Sanjoy Das; Min Gui; Anil Pahwa

133

Anomaly detection in clinical processes  

PubMed Central

Meaningful anomalies in clinical processes may be related to caring performance or even the patient survival. It is imperative that the anomalies be timely detected such that useful and actionable knowledge of interest could be extracted to clinicians. Many previous approaches assume prior knowledge about the structure of clinical processes, using which anomalies are detected in a supervised manner. For a majority of clinical settings, however, clinical processes are complex, ad hoc, and even unknown a prior. In this paper, we investigate how to facilitate detection of anomalies in an unsupervised manner. An anomaly detection model is presented by applying a density-based clustering method on patient careflow logs. Using the learned model, it is possible to detect whether a particular patient careflow trace is anomalous with respect to normal traces in the logs. The approach has been validated over real data sets collected from a Chinese hospital.

Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

2012-01-01

134

Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

2003-01-01

135

Binning of satellite magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal magnetic anomaly signals over satellite orbits were simulated to investigate numerical averaging as an anomaly estimator. Averaging as an anomaly estimator involves significant problems concerning spatial and amplitude smoothing of the satellite magnetic observations. The results of simulations suggest that the error of numerical averaging constitutes a small and relatively minor component of the total error-budget of higher orbital anomaly estimates, whereas for lower orbital estimates numerical averaging error increases substantially. As an alternative to numerical averaging, least-squares collocation was investigated and observed to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates, particularly as the orbital elevation of prediction was decreased towards the crustal sources. In contrast to averaging, collocation is a significantly more resource-intensive procedure to apply because of the practical, but surmountable problems related to establishing and inverting the covariance matrix for accurate anomaly prediction. However, collocation may be much more effectively used to exploit the anomaly details contained in the lower orbital satellite magnetic data for geologic analysis.

Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

1985-01-01

136

Reactor antineutrino anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 238}U, increasing the mean flux by about 3%. To a good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976{+-}0.024. With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943{+-}0.023, leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth nonstandard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-{nu} data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |{Delta}m{sub new}{sup 2}|>1.5 eV{sup 2} (95%) and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub new})=0.14{+-}0.08 (95%). Constraints on the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle are revised.

Mention, G.; Fechner, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lasserre, Th.; Cribier, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A. [CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-04-01

137

Anomaly inflow and thermal equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the anomaly inflow mechanism, we compute the flavor/Lorentz non-invariant contribution to the partition function in a background with a U(1) isometry. This contribution is a local functional of the background fields. By identifying the U(1) isometry with Euclidean time we obtain a contribution of the anomaly to the thermodynamic partition function from which hydrostatic correlators can be efficiently computed. Our result is in line with, and an extension of, previous studies on the role of anomalies in a hydrodynamic setting. Along the way we find simplified expressions for Bardeen-Zumino polynomials and various transgression formulae.

Jensen, Kristan; Loganayagam, R.; Yarom, Amos

2014-05-01

138

Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

Cohn, M J

2001-01-01

139

Vertebral fractures in children with osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Background. The aim of our study was to analyze the results of biochemical, densitometic and calcaneous ultrasound examination in children with vertebral fractures. Material and methods. The study involved 19 patients (7 girls, 12 boys) with pathological vertebral fractures diagnosed radiologically. Bone mineral densitometry (DXA method) and ultrasound examinations of the calcaneous bone were performed. The biochemical examinations including serum concentration and diurnal elimination of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Concentrations of parathormon (PTH) were assessed by radioimmunometry, and 25OHD by the Elisa method. Results. Fifteen children had back pain complaints; in 5 cases there had been vertebral trauma before diagnosis, and in 12 at least one fracture of a long bone. The most common fractures occurred at Th6-L1 and L4- L5. Fractures of only one vertebra appeared in 3 children. In 10 patients the DXA Z-score was below -2.0, and in 7 from -1.0 to -2.0. In 11 patients at least one of the ultrasound parameters fell below -2.0. Seven patients had a low concentration of 25OHD and PTH, and there were 5 cases of hypomagnesemia. Conclusions. In children with pain complaints from the vertebral region and a significant quantitative decrease of bone mineral density (even without clinical symptoms), lateral X-rays of the lower thoracic and lumbar region are indicated. Pathological vertebral fractures (after exclusion of local changes and metastases) should be an important diagnostic criterion for osteoporosis regardless of quantitative bone examination results. PMID:17603441

Loba-Jakubowska, Elzbieta; Kilia?ska, Agnieszka; Micha?us, Izabela; Chlebna-Sokó?, Danuta

2006-04-28

140

Hedgehog Secretion and Signal Transduction in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is essential for proper embryonic patterning and development. Dysregulation of Hh signaling is associated with a variety of human diseases ranging from developmental disorders such as holoprosencephaly to certain forms of cancer, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Genetic studies in flies and mice have shaped our understanding of Hh signaling and revealed that nearly all core components of the pathway are highly conserved. Although many aspects of the Drosophila Hh pathway are conserved in vertebrates, mechanistic differences between the two species have begun to emerge. Perhaps the most striking divergence in vertebrate Hh signaling is its dependence on the primary cilium, a vestigial organelle that is largely absent in flies. This minireview will provide an overview of Hh signaling and present recent insights into vertebrate Hh secretion, receptor binding, and signal transduction.

Ryan, Kaitlyn E.; Chiang, Chin

2012-01-01

141

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

142

A global magnetic anomaly map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subset of Pogo satellite magnetometer data has been formed that is suitable for analysis of crustal magnetic anomalies. Through the use of a thirteenth-order field model fit to these data, magnetic residuals have been calculated over the world to latitude limits of plus or minus 50 deg. These residuals, averaged over 1-degree latitude-longitude blocks, represent a detailed global magnetic anomaly map derived solely from satellite data. The occurrence of these anomalies on all individual satellite passes independent of local time and their decay as altitude increases imply a definite internal origin. Their wavelength structure and their correlation with known tectonic features further suggest that these anomalies are primarily of geologic origin and have their sources in the lithosphere.

Regan, R. D.; Davis, W. M.; Cain, J. C.

1975-01-01

143

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

1994-02-01

144

Vaginal Anomalies: Fusion and Duplication  

MedlinePLUS

... dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication Having two of everything may be ... if your child's doctor diagnoses an "anomaly of fusion and duplication." What causes vaginal fusion and duplication? ...

145

Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-03-31

146

Obstetric consequences of uterovaginal anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This review discusses the diagnosis and classification of utero-vaginal anomalies as well as obstetric considerations in their management. Diagnosis is usually made by hysterosalpingography antepartum. Ultrasonography is also recommended. 40 references, 10 figures, 9 tables.

Rock, J.A.; Schlaff, W.D.

1985-05-01

147

The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these ‘living fossils’, we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land.

Collin, Shaun P.; Davies, Wayne L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.

2009-01-01

148

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina.  

PubMed

Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of improvement, giving rise to the 'bleaching' opsins that characterise cones and rods. Prior to the '2R' rounds of whole genome duplication near the base of the vertebrate lineage, 'cone' photoreceptors already existed; they possessed a transduction cascade essentially the same as in modern cones, along with two classes of opsin: SWS and LWS (short- and long-wave-sensitive). These cones appear to have made synaptic contact directly onto ganglion cells, in a two-layered retina that resembled the pineal organ of extant non-mammalian vertebrates. Interestingly, those ganglion cells appear to be descendants of microvillar photoreceptor cells. No lens was associated with this two-layered retina, and it is likely to have mediated circadian timing rather than spatial vision. Subsequently, retinal bipolar cells evolved, as variants of ciliary photoreceptors, and greatly increased the computational power of the retina. With the advent of a lens and extraocular muscles, spatial imaging information became available for central processing, and gave rise to vision in vertebrates more than 500 Mya. The '2R' genome duplications permitted the refinement of cascade components suitable for both rods and cones, and also led to the emergence of five visual opsins. The exact timing of the emergence of 'true rods' is not yet clear, but it may not have occurred until after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. PMID:23792002

Lamb, Trevor D

2013-09-01

149

Satellite elevation magnetic anomaly maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is currently being resubmitted and should be implemented shortly for quantitative comparison with free-air gravity anomaly, geothermal, and tectonic data.

Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

150

Mullerian duct anomalies: MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are rare, affecting approximately 1% of all women and about 3% of women with poor reproductive\\u000a outcomes. These congenital anomalies usually result from one of the following categories of abnormalities of the mullerian\\u000a ducts: failure of formation (no development or underdevelopment) or failure of fusion of the mullerian ducts. The American\\u000a Fertility Society (AFS) classification of

Leonardo Marcal; Maria Angela Nothaft; Francisco Coelho; Richard Volpato; Revathy Iyer

151

Vertebrate and invertebrate carotenoid-binding proteins.  

PubMed

In invertebrates and vertebrates, carotenoids are ubiquitous colorants, antioxidants, and provitamin A compounds that must be absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues where they are taken up and stabilized to perform their physiological functions. These processes occur in a specific and regulated manner mediated by high-affinity carotenoid-binding proteins. In this mini-review, we examine the published literature on carotenoid-binding proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate systems, and we report our initial purification and characterization of a novel lutein-binding protein isolated from liver of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). PMID:17188641

Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S

2007-02-15

152

The evolution of vertebrate color vision.  

PubMed

Color vision is conventionally defined as the ability of animals to reliably discriminate among objects and lights based solely on differences in their spectral properties. Although the nature of color vision varies widely in different animals, a large majority of all vertebrate species possess some color vision and that fact attests to the adaptive importance this capacity holds as a tool for analyzing the environment. In recent years dramatic advances have been made in our understanding of the nature of vertebrate color vision and of the evolution of the biological mechanisms underlying this capacity. In this chapter I review and comment on these advances. PMID:22399401

Jacobs, Gerald H

2012-01-01

153

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA) utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No complications were reported, pain completely resolved within 24 hours, and use of intravenous narcotics was progressively diminished within 1 week. Complete pain relief was maintained throughout 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion The Kiva System represents a novel and effective minimally invasive treatment option for patients suffering from severe pain due to osteolytic vertebral metastasis.

Anselmetti, Giovanni C; Tutton, Sean M; Facchini, Francis R; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

154

Lhx2, a vertebrate homologue of apterous, regulates vertebrate limb outgrowth.  

PubMed

apterous specifies dorsal cell fate and directs outgrowth of the wing during Drosophila wing development. Here we show that, in vertebrates, these functions appear to be performed by two separate proteins. Lmx-1 is necessary and sufficient to specify dorsal identity and Lhx2 regulates limb outgrowth. Our results suggest that Lhx2 is closer to apterous than Lmx-1, yet, in vertebrates, Lhx2 does not specify dorsal cell fate. This implies that in vertebrates, unlike Drosophila, limb outgrowth can be dissociated from the establishment of the dorsoventral axis. PMID:9735354

Rodriguez-Esteban, C; Schwabe, J W; Peña, J D; Rincon-Limas, D E; Magallón, J; Botas, J; Izpisúa Belmonte, J C

1998-10-01

155

MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

Lemouel, J. L. (principal investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

1981-01-01

156

Molecular evolution of color vision in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual systems of vertebrates exhibit a striking level of diversity, reflecting their adaptive responses to various color environments. The photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, can be synthesized in vitro and their absorption spectra can be determined. Comparing the amino acid sequences and absorption spectra of various visual pigments, we can identify amino acid changes that have modified the absorption spectra of

Shozo Yokoyama

2002-01-01

157

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

158

Genome size and chromatin condensation in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell membrane-dependent chromatin condensation was studied by flow cytometry in erythrocytes of 36 species from six classes of vertebrates. A positive relationship was found between the degree of condensation and genome size. The distribution of variances among taxonomic levels is similar for both parameters. However, chromatin condensation varied relatively more at the lower taxonomic levels, which suggests that the degree

Alexander E. Vinogradov

2005-01-01

159

Origin and early evolution of vertebrate skeletonization.  

PubMed

Data from living and extinct faunas of primitive vertebrates imply very different scenarios for the origin and evolution of the dermal and oral skeletal developmental system. A direct reading of the evolutionary relationships of living primitive vertebrates implies that the dermal scales, teeth, and jaws arose synchronously with a cohort of other characters that could be considered unique to jawed vertebrates: the dermoskeleton is primitively composed of numerous scales, each derived from an individual dental papilla; teeth are primitively patterned such that they are replaced in a classical conveyor-belt system. The paleontological record provides a unique but complementary perspective in that: 1) the organisms in which the skeletal system evolved are extinct and we have no recourse but to fossils if we aim to address this problem; 2) extinct organisms can be classified among, and in the same way as, living relatives; 3) a holistic approach to the incorporation of all data provides a more complete perspective on early vertebrate evolution. This combined approach is of no greater significance than in dealing with the origin of the skeleton and, combined with recent discoveries and new phylogenetic analyses, we have been able to test and reject existing hypotheses for the origin of the skeleton and erect a new model in their place. PMID:12430166

Donoghue, Philip C J; Sansom, Ivan J

2002-12-01

160

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

161

Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research in robotics, neuroscience, evolutionary neurobiology, and ethology with the aim of highlighting some points of agreement and convergence. Specifically, we compare Brooks' (1986) subsumption architecture for robot control with research in neuroscience demonstrating layered control systems in vertebrate brains, and with research in ethology that emphasizes the decomposition of control into multiple, intertwined behavior systems. From

Tony J. Prescott; Peter Redgrave; Kevin Gurney

1998-01-01

162

A vertebrate globin expressed in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemoglobins and myoglobins constitute related protein families that function in oxygen transport and storage in humans and other vertebrates. Here we report the identification of a third globin type in man and mouse. This protein is predominantly expressed in the brain, and therefore we have called it neuroglobin. Mouse neuroglobin is a monomer with a high oxygen affinity (half saturation

Thorsten Burmester; Bettina Weich; Sigrid Reinhardt; Thomas Hankeln

2000-01-01

163

Selected Bibliography of Certain Vertebrate Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide biologists with a basic set of references with which to initiate faunal surveys of vertebrates. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list, but should adequately introduce basic field techniques. Emphasis wa...

R. A. Thomas

1977-01-01

164

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using EST counts for 26 stages of development. We show that, in both species, genes expressed early in development (1) have a more dramatic effect of knock-out or mutation and (2) are more likely to revert to single copy after whole genome duplication, relative to genes expressed late. This supports high constraints on early stages of vertebrate development, making them less open to innovations (gene gain or gene loss). Results are robust to different sources of data—gene expression from microarrays, ESTs, or in situ hybridizations; and mutants from directed KO, transgenic insertions, point mutations, or morpholinos. We determine the pattern of these constraints, which differs from the model used to describe vertebrate morphological conservation (“hourglass” model). While morphological constraints reach a maximum at mid-development (the “phylotypic” stage), genomic constraints appear to decrease in a monotonous manner over developmental time.

Roux, Julien; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

2008-01-01

165

Conserved distances between vertebrate highly conserved elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

High numbers of sequence element with very high (>95%) sequence conservation between the human and other vertebrate genomes have been reported and ascribed putative cis-regulatory functions. We have inves- tigated the structural relationships between such elements in mammalian genomes and find that not only their sequences, but also the distances between them are significantly (P < 2.2 3 10216) more

Hong Sun; Geir Skogerbø; Runsheng Chen

2006-01-01

166

Limb preferences in non-human vertebrates.  

PubMed

There is considerable debate about whether population-level asymmetries in limb preferences are uniquely human or are a common feature among vertebrates. In the present article the results of studies investigating limb preferences in all non-extinct vertebrate orders are systematically analysed by employing cladographic comparisons. These studies analysed 119 different species, with 61 (51.26%) showing evidence for population-level asymmetries, 20 (16.81%) showing evidence for individual-level asymmetries and 38 (31.93%) showing no evidence for asymmetry. The cladographic comparison revealed that research in several key taxa in particular (e.g., Chondrichtyes, Crocodylia, Atlantogenata and Palaeognathae) would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate limb preferences. Furthermore, the findings of the present study support the position that population-level asymmetries in limb preferences as such represent a common vertebrate feature. Looking into the details, however, some important differences from human handedness become visible: Non-human limb preferences typically show a less-skewed lateralisation pattern and there are larger numbers of individuals without a preference in most species compared to humans. Moreover, limb preferences in non-human animals are often less task-invariant than human handedness and are more frequently modulated by external factors and individual characteristics. PMID:23167450

Ströckens, Felix; Güntürkün, Onur; Ocklenburg, Sebastian

2013-01-01

167

Late Development of Hagfish Vertebral Elements  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated recently that hagfishes, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates, have cartilaginous vertebral elements. Embryological and gene expression analyses have also shown that this group of animals develops a sclerotome, the potential primordium of the axial skeleton. However, it has not been shown unequivocally that the hagfish sclerotome truly differentiates into cartilage, because access to late-stage embryos and information about the cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) are lacking for these animals. Here we investigated the expression patterns of the biglycan/decorin (BGN/DCN) gene in the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. The homologue of this gene encodes the major noncollagenous component of the cartilaginous ECM among gnathostomes. We clearly identified the expression of this gene in adult vertebral tissues and in embryonic mesenchymal cells on the ventral aspect of the notochord. Taking into account that the sclerotome in the gnathostomes expresses BGN/DCN gene during the chondrogenesis, it is highly expected the hagfish BGN/DCN-positive mesenchymal cells are derived from the sclerotomes. We propose that hagfishes and gnathostomes share conserved developmental mechanisms not only in their somite differentiation, but also in chondrogenesis of their vertebral elements. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:129–139, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

2013-01-01

168

Percutaneous vertebroplasty in painful refractory vertebral hemangiomas  

PubMed Central

Background: Painful vertebral hemangiomas are often inadequately managed medically. We evaluated the outcome of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the treatment of painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management. Materials and Methods: 14 patients (four thoracic and ten lumbar vertebra) with painful vertebral hemangiomas presenting with severe back pain for more than 6 months not responding to medical therapy were treated by vertebroplasty. Cross sectional imaging of the spine with magnetic resonance was done. Blood investigations were done to exclude coagulopathy excluded. PVP was performed under local anesthesia. Results: The pain intensity numeric rating scale (PI-NRS-11) of these patients was in the range of 7-10 (Severe Pain). After vertebroplasty 8 patients were completely free of pain (PI NRS Score 0) while 6 were significantly relieved (PI-NRS Score 1-3). No complications were observed. Two patients with associated radicular pain had good pain relief following PVP. No recurrence was found during 36 months of postoperative followup. Conclusion: PVP is a safe and effective procedure in patients with painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management.

Narayana, RV; Pati, Rajesh; Dalai, Sibasankar

2014-01-01

169

Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

PubMed Central

We present the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The infection occurred in an 80-year-old woman who had been taking glucocorticosteroids. S. lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus with considerable potential as a human pathogen. Isolation of this organism should be regarded as significant unless evidence suggests otherwise.

Murdoch, D R; Everts, R J; Chambers, S T; Cowan, I A

1996-01-01

170

Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

2014-01-01

171

Bilateral asymmetrical duplicated origin of vertebral arteries: Multidetector row CT angiographic study  

PubMed Central

Bilateral duplicated origin of V-1 segment of vertebral arteries is an extremely rare vascular variant and only two such cases have been reported so far. Presence of this vascular abnormality was observed incidentally in a 36-year-old male patient, with a complaint of dizziness, evaluated by multidetector row computed tomography (CT) angiography. Two limbs of the right vertebral artery arose from the right subclavian artery and fused to form a single vessel at the interval between fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae, which entered the foramen transversarium of fourth cervical vertebra. On the left side, the medial limb originated directly from the arch of aorta and the lateral limb from the left subclavian artery, and both united at the interval between fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae to form a single vessel which entered the foramen transversarium of fifth cervical vertebra. No other cerebrovascular pathology like aneurysm, fenestration, dissection, and stenosis was detected, which could be correlated with the symptoms of the patient. This rare congenital vascular anomaly has diagnostic and therapeutic implications in any intervention involving the vertebral artery.

Rameshbabu, CS; Gupta, OM Prakash; Gupta, Kanchan Kumar; Qasim, Muhammad

2014-01-01

172

Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... following vertebroplasty. Some studies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been noted with vertebroplasty. 9 osteoblasts, the ... vertebra before injecting cement, patients can also expect restoration of some of the vertebral body height they ...

173

Analysis of Long Bone and Vertebral Failure Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Baboons were dropped vertically from four feet above the ground. The vertebral columns were examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Six months post-impaction, there was damage to the vertebral end plates and beginning osteoarthros...

J. A. C. Eurell

1983-01-01

174

Morphology of the human vertebral endplate.  

PubMed

It is presumed that poor intervertebral disc cell nutrition is a contributing factor in degeneration, and is exacerbated by vertebral endplate sclerosis. Yet, quantitative relationships between endplate morphology and degeneration are unavailable. We investigated how endplate bone microstructure relates to indices of disc degeneration, such as morphologic grade, proteoglycan content, and cell density. Intervertebral core samples [n?=?96, 14 subjects, L1-L5 level, ages 35-85 (64?±?16 years), degeneration grade 1 (n?=?4), grade 2 (n?=?32), grade 3 (n?=?44), grade 4 (n?=?10), grade 5 (n?=?6)] that included subchondral bone, cartilage endplate, and adjacent nucleus were harvested from human cadaveric lumbar spines. The morphology of the vertebral endplate was analyzed using µCT and the adjacent nucleus tissue was collected for biochemical and cellular analyses. Relationships between vertebral endplate morphology and adjacent disc degeneration were analyzed. Contrary to the prevailing notion, vertebral endplate porosity increased between 50% and 130% and trabecular thickness decreased by between 20% and 50% with advancing disc degeneration (p?vertebral capillaries, as opposed to decreased permeability of intervening tissues. PMID:21812023

Rodriguez, Azucena G; Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E; Burghardt, Andrew J; Berven, Sigurd; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2012-02-01

175

Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System.  

PubMed Central

The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health, Government of Alberta: birth notice and certificates of death and stillbirth; increased sources of ascertainment have greatly improved data quality. We present the data for 1980-86 and compare the prevalence rates of selected anomalies with the rates from three other surveillance systems. Surveillance systems do not guarantee that a new teratogen will be detected, but they are extremely valuable for testing hypotheses regarding causation. At the very least they provide baseline data with which to compare any deviation or trend. For many, if not most, congenital anomalies total prevention is not possible; however, surveillance systems can be used to measure progress in prevention.

Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Anderson-Redick, S

1989-01-01

176

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty  

PubMed Central

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean ± SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 ± 6.2; VBS: 3.7 ± 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 ± 9.4; VBS: 13.3 ± 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.

Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

2010-01-01

177

Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic\\u000a vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss\\u000a of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS)\\u000a was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent

Robert Rotter; Heiner Martin; Sebastian Fuerderer; Michael Gabl; Christoph Roeder; Paul Heini; Thomas Mittlmeier

2010-01-01

178

Intra-arterial Onyx Embolization of Vertebral Body Lesions  

PubMed Central

While Onyx embolization of cerebrospinal arteriovenous shunts is well-established, clinical researchers continue to broaden applications to other vascular lesions of the neuraxis. This report illustrates the application of Onyx (eV3, Plymouth, MN) embolization to vertebral body lesions, specifically, a vertebral hemangioma and renal cell carcinoma vertebral body metastatic lesion.

Sedora-Roman, Neda I.; Reddy, Arra Suresh; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Thomas, Ajith J.

2013-01-01

179

Heart development in Drosophila and its relationship to vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the vertebrate hox gene clusters and their structural and functional relationship to the Drosophila HOM-C cluster of homeotic genes revealed amazing similarities between the developmental mechanisms by which a major body axis is formed in vertebrates and those of many invertebrates, possibly encompassing all multicellular organisms. Recent data suggest that heart development in Drosophila also resembles vertebrate

Rolf Bodmer

1995-01-01

180

The Variety of Vertebrate Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates.

Trukhina, Antonina V.; Lukina, Natalia A.; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D.; Smirnov, Alexander F.

2013-01-01

181

Intra-arterial Onyx Embolization of Vertebral Body Lesions.  

PubMed

While Onyx embolization of cerebrospinal arteriovenous shunts is well-established, clinical researchers continue to broaden applications to other vascular lesions of the neuraxis. This report illustrates the application of Onyx (eV3, Plymouth, MN) embolization to vertebral body lesions, specifically, a vertebral hemangioma and renal cell carcinoma vertebral body metastatic lesion. PMID:24729960

Sedora-Roman, Neda I; Gross, Bradley A; Reddy, Arra Suresh; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

2013-12-01

182

Elastic anomalies of UGe2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed the ultrasonic sound velocity measurement on the single crystal of UGe2 in the temperature range 4.2-120 K at ambient pressure, focusing attention on the elastic behavior around the characteristic temperature T*?30 K. In the elastic constants for three modes c11, c55 and c66, all modes show the hardening with a kink at the Curie temperature as decreasing temperatures. We found the elastic anomaly related to T* in the longitudinal c11 mode. However, the anomaly around T* is very broad. Therefore, this result may suggest that T* is not related to a phase boundary of some second-order phase transition. On the other hand, no clear anomaly was observed around T* in the transverse c55 and c66 modes.

Kuwahara, K.; Sakai, T.; Kohgi, M.; Haga, Y.; ?nuki, Y.

2007-03-01

183

Second order transport from anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study parity odd transport at second order in derivative expansion for a non-conformal charged fluid. We see that there are 27 parity odd transport coefficients, of which 12 are non-vanishing in equilibrium. We use the equilibrium partition function method to express 7 of these in terms of the anomaly, shear viscosity, charge diffusivity and thermodynamic functions. The remaining 5 are constrained by 3 relations which also involve the anomaly. We derive Kubo formulae for 2 of the transport coefficients and show these agree with that derived from the equilibrium partition function.

Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; David, Justin R.; Thakur, Somyadip

2014-01-01

184

Analysis of DSN software anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.

Galorath, D. D.; Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Reifer, D. J.

1981-01-01

185

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Beta Integrin Genes and Proteins: Ancient Genes in Vertebrate Evolution  

PubMed Central

Intregins are heterodimeric ?- and ?-subunit containing membrane receptor proteins which serve various cell adhesion roles in tissue repair, hemostasis, immune response, embryogenesis and metastasis. At least 18 ?- (ITA or ITGA) and 8 ?-integrin subunits (ITB or ITGB) are encoded on mammalian genomes. Comparative ITB amino acid sequences and protein structures and ITB gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate ITB genes usually contained 13–16 coding exons and encoded protein subunits with ?800 amino acids, whereas vertebrate ITB4 genes contained 36-39 coding exons and encoded larger proteins with ?1800 amino acids. The ITB sequences exhibited several conserved domains including signal peptide, extracellular ?-integrin, ?-tail domain and integrin ?-cytoplasmic domains. Sequence alignments of the integrin ?-cytoplasmic domains revealed highly conserved regions possibly for performing essential functions and its maintenance during vertebrate evolution. With the exception of the human ITB8 sequence, the other ITB sequences shared a predicted 19 residue ?-helix for this region. Potential sites for regulating human ITB gene expression were identified which included CpG islands, transcription factor binding sites and microRNA binding sites within the 3?-UTR of human ITB genes. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships of vertebrate beta-integrin genes which were consistent with four major groups: 1: ITB1, ITB2, ITB7; 2: ITB3, ITB5, ITB6; 3: ITB4; and 4: ITB8 and a common evolutionary origin from an ancestral gene, prior to the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that ITB4 is the most likely primordial form of the vertebrate ? integrin subunit encoding genes, that is the only ? subunit expressed as a constituent of the sole integrin receptor ‘?6?4’ in the hemidesmosomes of unicellular organisms.

Holmes, Roger S.; Rout, Ujjwal K.

2011-01-01

186

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS): clinical evaluation and severity scoring of 53 patients and proposal for a new classification.  

PubMed

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OMIM164210) is a phenotypically and probably also a genetically heterogeneous disorder, characterized by anomalies of the ear (mostly microtia), hemifacial microsomia, and defects of the vertebral column. Associated clinical findings include anomalies of the eye and brain, and developmental delay. We have evaluated the clinical data and photographs of 53 unrelated patients with OAVS, all presenting with either isolated microtia or preauricular tags in association with hemifacial microsomia as minimal diagnostic criteria; five had a positive family history for OAVS. Based on the main clinical findings and unilateral or bilateral involvement, we have developed a new classification system for OAVS, consisting of six subgroups. There is a statistically significant correlation between the subgroup and number of associated clinical findings, and a statistically significant difference regarding prognosis in uni- and bilaterally affected patients, suggesting that this classification is clinically relevant to the categorization of patients with OAVS. The newly developed scoring system (two points for each main clinical finding and one for each associated clinical finding) presented here, also aids prognosis, especially for delay of motor development and brain anomalies, and statistical analysis revealed significant clustering between different clinical findings of OAVS confirming the clinical impression previously published by several authors. PMID:16378924

Tasse, Christiane; Böhringer, Stefan; Fischer, Sven; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Albrecht, Beate; Horn, Denise; Janecke, Andreas; Kling, Rainer; König, Rainer; Lorenz, Birgit; Majewski, Frank; Maeyens, Elisabeth; Meinecke, Peter; Mitulla, Beate; Mohr, Christopher; Preischl, Monika; Umstadt, Horst; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Wieczorek, Dagmar

2005-01-01

187

Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons  

PubMed Central

The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks.

Chandrasekhar, Anand

2007-01-01

188

Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

Carroll, Robert Lynn

1997-04-01

189

Function and evolution of vertebrate globins.  

PubMed

Globins are haem-proteins that bind O2 and thus play an important role in the animal's respiration and oxidative energy production. However, globins may also have other functions such as the decomposition or production of NO, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species or intracellular signalling. In addition to the well-investigated haemoglobins and myoglobins, genome sequence analyses have led to the identification of six further globin types in vertebrates: androglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, globin X, globin Y and neuroglobin. Here, we review the present state of knowledge on the functions, the taxonomic distribution and evolution of vertebrate globins, drawing conclusions about the functional changes underlying present-day globin diversity. PMID:24811692

Burmester, T; Hankeln, T

2014-07-01

190

Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

2014-01-01

191

Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT  

SciTech Connect

The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

1982-11-01

192

[Radiologic evaluation of an isolated vertebral hemangioma].  

PubMed

CT scan and M.R.I. features have been evaluated in case of compressive (H.V.C.) and asymptomatic (H.V.A.) vertebral hemangiomas. The main datas observed in H.V.C. are: 1) thoracic localization; 2) whole vertebral body involvement; 3) extension to the pedicles; 4) irregular trabeculation; 5) swelling of bone contours with 6) epidural and perivertebral extension. H.V.C. always exhibit at least three of these six datas while H.V.A. are associated with 2 or less. Also H.V.C. frequently present intravertebral contrast enhancement on CT and low signal intensity on T1 weighted and high signal intensity on T2 weighted M.R.I. PMID:2698449

Laredo, J D; Assouline, E; Gaston, A; Gelbert, F; Merland, J J

1989-01-01

193

Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.  

PubMed

We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. PMID:23454143

Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

2013-05-01

194

Vertebrate and invertebrate carotenoid-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In invertebrates and vertebrates, carotenoids are ubiquitous colorants, antioxidants, and provitamin A compounds that must be absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues where they are taken up and stabilized to perform their physiological functions. These processes occur in a specific and regulated manner mediated by high-affinity carotenoid-binding proteins. In this mini-review, we examine the published literature on

Prakash Bhosale; Paul S. Bernstein

2007-01-01

195

Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature.

Go, Gyeongo; Hwang, Soo-Hyun; Park, In Sung

2013-01-01

196

Dispersive Derivation of Triangle Anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A straightforward generalization of the results of some previous treatments, in which the Adler-Bell-Jachiw triangle anomaly has been recovered with the help of dispersion relation is presented. The absorptive part of the VVA triangle diagram with the ext...

J. Horejsi

1985-01-01

197

Anomaly-specified virtual dimensionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual dimensionality (VD) has received considerable interest where VD is used to estimate the number of spectral distinct signatures, denoted by p. Unfortunately, no specific definition is provided by VD for what a spectrally distinct signature is. As a result, various types of spectral distinct signatures determine different values of VD. There is no one value-fit-all for VD. In order to address this issue this paper presents a new concept, referred to as anomaly-specified VD (AS-VD) which determines the number of anomalies of interest present in the data. Specifically, two types of anomaly detection algorithms are of particular interest, sample covariance matrix K-based anomaly detector developed by Reed and Yu, referred to as K-RXD and sample correlation matrix R-based RXD, referred to as R-RXD. Since K-RXD is only determined by 2nd order statistics compared to R-RXD which is specified by statistics of the first two orders including sample mean as the first order statistics, the values determined by K-RXD and R-RXD will be different. Experiments are conducted in comparison with widely used eigen-based approaches.

Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

2013-09-01

198

Lunar rocks and thermal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent microwave and infrared spectral observations of several of the large bright-rayed craters on the moon suggest that the thermal anomalies in these craters are produced by large rocks, boulders, and exposed rock strata. The data for the crater Tycho can be simulated by a surface consisting of 16% loose rocks of I-meter size and 4% exposed rock strata. A

David Buhl

1971-01-01

199

Satellite Elevation Magnetic Anomaly Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is curr...

L. W. Braile W. J. Hinze

1982-01-01

200

A Global Magnetic Anomaly MAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A subset of POGO satellite magnetometer data has been formed that is suitable for analysis of crustal magnetic anomalies. Using a thirteenth order field model, fit to these data, magnetic residuals have been calculated over the world to latitude limits of...

R. D. Regan W. M. Davis J. C. Cain

1974-01-01

201

Factor Analysis Based Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel anomaly detection algorithm based on factor analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Factor analysis is used to uncover the latent structure (dimensions) of a set of variables. It reduces attribute space from a larger number of variables to a smaller number of factors. The Mahalanobis distance is used to determine the \\

Ningning Wu; Jing Zhang

2003-01-01

202

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5

John D. Anderson

2009-01-01

203

Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the ``excess wall heating`` in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

Menikoff, R.

1995-09-01

204

Coral can have growth anomalies  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

205

Monitoring smartphones for anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian OS in order to extract features that de- scribe the state of the device and can be used for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server, be- cause running a complex intrusion detection system (IDS) on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible,

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Sahin Albayrak

2008-01-01

206

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

207

Mucosal immunity in the gut: the non-vertebrate perspective.  

PubMed

Much is now known about the vertebrate mechanisms involved in mucosal immunity, and the requirement of commensal microbiota at mucosal surfaces for the proper functioning of the immune system. In comparison, very little is known about the mechanisms of immunity at the barrier epithelia of non-vertebrate organisms. The purpose of this review is to summarize key experimental evidence illustrating how non-vertebrate immune mechanisms at barrier epithelia compare to those of higher vertebrates, using the gut as a model organ. Not only effector mechanisms of gut immunity are similar between vertebrates and non-vertebrates, but it also seems that the proper functioning of non-vertebrate gut defense mechanisms requires the presence of a resident microbiota. As more information becomes available, it will be possible to obtain a more accurate picture of how mucosal immunity has evolved, and how it adapts to the organisms' life styles. PMID:23537860

Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Victor

2013-01-01

208

Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

Kim, Chul Han

2013-11-01

209

Evolution of Vertebrate GnRH Receptors from the Perspective of a Basal Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R) in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian), type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that two whole rounds of genome duplication (2R) occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.

Sower, Stacia A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Joseph, Nerine T.; Freamat, Mihael

2012-01-01

210

Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project (203-2044) has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous automated audits. A workflow, process, or procedure ...

T. J. Smith S. Bryant

2005-01-01

211

Semiparametric Model for Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using hyperspectral (HS) technology, this paper introduces an autonomous scene anomaly detection approach based on the asymptotic behavior of a semiparametric model under a multisample testing and minimum-order statistic scheme. Scene anomaly detection ha...

D. Rosario

2012-01-01

212

Eustachian tube duplication: a unique anomaly.  

PubMed

Very few eustachian tube anomalies have been published in the literature and have consisted of descriptions of diverticula, hypoplasia/aplasia, fistula, or aberrant associated musculature. We present a girl with a novel anomaly consisting of a eustachian tube duplication that originates in the nasopharynx and exits posterior to a microtic and atretic ear. We review the literature on eustachian tube anomalies and also consider the derivation of this anomaly. PMID:24751751

Hoesli, Rebecca Chow; Johnson, Jason; Meyer, Anna; Green, Glenn

2014-07-01

213

Cervical vertebral column morphology in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea assessed using lateral cephalograms and cone beam CT. A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Few studies have described morphological deviations in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients on two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalograms, and the reliability of 2D radiographs has been discussed. The objective is to describe the morphology of the cervical vertebral column on cone beam CT (CBCT) in adult patients with OSA and to compare 2D lateral cephalograms with three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images. Methods: For all 57 OSA patients, the cervical vertebral column morphology was evaluated on lateral cephalograms and CBCT images and compared according to fusion anomalies and posterior arch deficiency. Results: The CBCT assessment showed that 21.1% had fusion anomalies of the cervical column, i.e. fusion between two cervical vertebrae (10.5%), block fusions (8.8%) or occipitalization (1.8%). Posterior arch deficiency occurred in 14% as partial cleft of C1 and in 3.5% in combination with block fusions. The agreement between the occurrence of morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column between lateral cephalograms and CBCT images showed good agreement (??=?0.64). Conclusions: Prevalence and pattern in the cervical column morphology have now been confirmed on CBCT. The occurrence of morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column showed good agreement between lateral cephalograms and CBCT images. This indicates that 2D lateral cephalograms (already available after indication in connection with, e.g. treatment planning) are sufficient for identifying morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column. For a more accurate diagnosis and location of the deviations, CBCT is required. New 3D methods will suggest a need for new detailed characterization and division of deviations in cervical vertebral column morphology.

Sonnesen, L; Jensen, KE; Petersson, AR; Petri, N; Berg, S; Svanholt, P

2013-01-01

214

Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require some understanding of their sources and the physical properties of the crust, which also vary from place to place and time to time. Anomalies are not necessarily due to stress or earthquake preparation, and separating the extraneous ones is a problem as daunting as understanding earthquake behavior itself. Fourth, the associations presented between anomalies and earthquakes are generally based on selected data. Validating a proposed association requires complete data on the earthquake record and the geophysical measurements over a large area and time, followed by prospective testing which allows no adjustment of parameters, criteria, etc. The Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is dedicated to providing such prospective testing. Any serious proposal for prediction research should deal with the problems above, and anticipate the huge investment in time required to test hypotheses.

Jackson, D. D.

2008-12-01

215

Anomaly Resolution in the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include post flight 2A status, groundrules, anomaly resolution, Early Communications Subsystem anomaly and resolution, Logistics and Maintenance plan, case for obscuration, case for electrical short, and manual fault isolation, and post mission analysis. Photographs from flight 2A.1 are used to illustrate anomalies.

Evans, William A.

2000-01-01

216

Bouger Gravity Anomaly Map of South America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bouguer Anomaly Map of South America is a contoured representation of one degree x one degree mean Bouguer gravity anomaly values. Some of these mean anomaly values are computed directly using observed gravity data held by the DOD Gravity Library. Oth...

C. W. Beierle G. L. Breville J. R. Sanders J. T. Voss L. E. Wilcox

1973-01-01

217

Lunar Bouguer gravity anomalies - Imbrian age craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bouguer gravity of mass anomalies associated with four Imbrian age craters, analyzed in the present paper, are found to differ considerably from the values of the mass anomalies associated with some young lunar craters. Of the Imbrian age craters, only Piccolomini exhibits a negative gravity anomaly (i.e., a low density region) which is characteristic of the young craters studied.

J. Dvorak; R. J. Phillips

1978-01-01

218

Local gravity anomalies produced by dislocation sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rundle (1979) and Walsh and Rice (1979) have shown that the change in the vertical component of gravity is proportional to uplift for a spherical source of dilation and for slip on an infinitely long dip-slip fault. In the first case, no free air gravity anomaly is produced and in the second case no Bouguer gravity anomaly. Gravity anomalies due

J. C. Savage

1984-01-01

219

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC.

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

220

Limb body wall complex: a rare anomaly.  

PubMed

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC. PMID:24014975

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

221

The Scatter in Tropical Average Precipitation Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical mean precipitation anomalies ^P9& for 3-month averages appear quite scattered in relation to tropical average sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies ^& , based on examination of a number of observational T9 s datasets and of atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) results. Even though SST is locally important for determining precipitation, for a given warm SST anomaly, the tropical average

HUI S UA; NDJ. DAVID NEELIN

2003-01-01

222

Spectrum of anomalies in Fanconi anaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of various anomalies was compared in probands with Fanconi anaemia and their affected sibs. As probands are usually ascertained because of a 'characteristic' array of physical anomalies, the frequencies of these specific anomalies may be overestimated in probands, whereas their affected sibs may provide a more accurate estimate. The frequencies of growth retardation, skin hyperpigmentation, radial ray deformities,

A Glanz; F C Fraser

1982-01-01

223

Developmental venous anomaly: MR and angiographic features.  

PubMed

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is probably the most common anomaly of the intracranial vasculature. DVAs consist of multiple, radially oriented dilated medullary veins that converge into a transcerebral vein. We describe the imaging findings of this vascular anomaly in different patients and the role of different imaging modalities. PMID:24765765

Faure, M; Voormolen, M; Van der Zijden, T; Parizel, P M

2014-01-01

224

Diagnosing network-wide traffic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies are unusual and significant changes in a network's traffic levels, which can often span multiple links. Diagnosing anomalies is critical for both network operators and end users. It is a difficult problem because one must extract and interpret anomalous patterns from large amounts of high-dimensional, noisy data.In this paper we propose a general method to diagnose anomalies. This method

Anukool Lakhina; Mark Crovella; Christophe Diot

2004-01-01

225

A signal analysis of network traffic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying anomalies rapidly and accurately is critical to the efficient operation of large computer networks. Accurately characterizing important classes of anomalies greatly facilitates their identification; however, the subtleties and complexities of anomalous traffic can easily confound this process. In this paper we report results of signal analysis of four classes of network traffic anomalies: outages, flash crowds, attacks and measurement

Paul Barford; Jeffery Kline; David Plonka; Amos Ron

2002-01-01

226

Anomaly clustering in hyperspectral images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topological anomaly detection algorithm (TAD) differs from other anomaly detection algorithms in that it uses a topological/graph-theoretic model for the image background instead of modeling the image with a Gaussian normal distribution. In the construction of the model, TAD produces a hard threshold separating anomalous pixels from background in the image. We build on this feature of TAD by extending the algorithm so that it gives a measure of the number of anomalous objects, rather than the number of anomalous pixels, in a hyperspectral image. This is done by identifying, and integrating, clusters of anomalous pixels via a graph theoretical method combining spatial and spectral information. The method is applied to a cluttered HyMap image and combines small groups of pixels containing like materials, such as those corresponding to rooftops and cars, into individual clusters. This improves visualization and interpretation of objects.

Doster, Timothy J.; Ross, David S.; Messinger, David W.; Basener, William F.

2009-05-01

227

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

228

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

229

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

230

Surgical treatment of cloacal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1989–1998 14 patients were treated with cloacal anomalies: 5 typical cloacas (PC), 5 posterior cloacas, and 4 cloacal\\u000a exstrophies (CE); 12 underwent surgery. Four typical cloacas were resolved with posterior sagittal anorectovagino-urethroplasty\\u000a (PSARVUP), whereas in the 5th total urogenital mobilization (TUM) was used. Three PCs were managed with transanorectal TUM\\u000a and 2 with anterior TUM without opening the anal

Z. D. Krstic; M. Lukac; R. Lukac; Z. Smoljanic; V. Vukadinovic; D. Varinac

2001-01-01

231

Monitoring Smartphones for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian operating system and Windows Mobile in order to extract\\u000a features for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server because running a complex intrusion detection system\\u000a on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible due to capability and hardware limitations. We give examples on

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Christian Scheel; Seyit Ahmet Çamtepe; Sahin Albayrak

2009-01-01

232

Imaging of müllerian duct anomalies.  

PubMed

The müllerian ducts are paired embryologic structures that undergo fusion and resorption in utero to give rise to the uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, and upper two-thirds of the vagina. Interruption of normal development of the müllerian ducts can result in formation of müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs). MDAs are a broad and complex spectrum of abnormalities that are often associated with primary amenorrhea, infertility, obstetric complications, and endometriosis. MDAs are commonly associated with renal and other anomalies; thus, identification of both kidneys is important. However, MDAs are not associated with ovarian anomalies. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is routinely used in evaluation of infertility. Because a key component of MDA characterization is the external uterine fundal contour, HSG is limited for this purpose. Patients suspected of having an MDA are often initially referred for pelvic ultrasonography (US). Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is typically reserved for complex or indeterminate cases. MR imaging is the imaging standard of reference because it is noninvasive, does not involve ionizing radiation, has multiplanar capability, allows excellent soft-tissue characterization, and permits a greater field of interrogation than does US. Use of MR imaging for evaluation of MDAs reduces the number of invasive procedures and related costs by guiding management decisions. PMID:23065173

Behr, Spencer C; Courtier, Jesse L; Qayyum, Aliya

2012-10-01

233

Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

2011-01-01

234

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01

235

Magsat scalar anomaly distribution - The global perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is established that geographic coincidences exist between high-altitude Magsat scalar anomalies and major geologic and tectonic structures, with oceanic abyssal plains overlain by negative anomalies agreeing well in spatial extent and position and submarine platforms lying beneath positive scalar anomalies. In addition, geographic coincidence is found in the continents between many high-latitude positive anomalies and shields and cratons in North America, Eurasia and Australia. While these correlations are qualitative, they serve to identify regions for detailed study. The global distribution of anomalies provides a basis for comparative study which will be enhanced when reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat data become available.

Frey, H.

1982-01-01

236

Regularization schemes and the multiplicative anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elizalde, Vanzo, and Zerbini have shown that the effective action of two free Euclidean scalar fields in flat space contains a `multiplicative anomaly' when ?-function regularization is used. This is related to the Wodzicki residue. I show that there is no anomaly when using a wide range of other regularization schemes and that the anomaly can be removed by an unusual choice of renormalization scales. I define new types of anomalies and show that they have similar properties. Thus multiplicative anomalies encode no novel physics. They merely illustrate some dangerous aspects of ?-function and Schwinger proper time regularization schemes.

Evans, T. S.

1999-06-01

237

Prenatal diagnosis of vertebral deformities associated with pentalogy of Cantrell: the role of three-dimensional sonography?  

PubMed

Pentalogy of Cantrell was diagnosed in a fetus at 14 weeks of gestation, on routine two-dimensional sonographic examination with Doppler imaging, which revealed a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect including herniated liver, an ectopia cordis without intracardiac anomalies, and a large omphalocele containing intestines. Although left unilateral club foot deformity was also detected as an associated anomaly in the same examination, severe lumbar lordoscoliosis was only detected by using three-dimensional sonography because of the spatial configuration of the deformity. After termination of the pregnancy, postnatal inspection of the fetus confirmed the diagnosis of pentalogy of Cantrell associated with skeletal deformities and revealed low implant ears as an additional finding. Although two-dimensional sonography with Doppler imaging is sufficient to diagnose pentalogy of Cantrell, it may fail to show the complex vertebral deformities and three-dimensional sonography may assist in visualizing the defect accurately. PMID:20607852

Gün, Ismet; Kurdo?lu, Mertihan; Müngen, Ercüment; Muhcu, Murat; Babacan, Ali; Atay, Vedat

2010-10-01

238

A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos  

PubMed Central

Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov) and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set.

Werneburg, Ingmar

2009-01-01

239

Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment  

PubMed Central

Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old) and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments). Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length) and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length). The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

Herrero, Carlos Fernando P. S.; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Garcia, Luis Vicente; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

2014-01-01

240

Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors. VLRs generate diversity comparable to that of gnathostome antigen receptors by assembling variable leucine-rich repeat modules. The discovery of VLR has revolutionized our understanding of how adaptive immunity emerged and highlighted the differences between the adaptive immune systems (AISs) of jawed and jawless vertebrates. However, emerging evidence also indicates that their AISs have much in common. Particularly striking is the conservation of lymphocyte lineages. The basic architecture of the AIS including the dichotomy of lymphocytes appears to have been established in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. We review here the current knowledge on the AIS of jawless vertebrates, emphasizing both the similarities to and differences from the AIS of jawed vertebrates. PMID:24507155

Kasahara, Masanori; Sutoh, Yoichi

2014-01-01

241

Vertebral Fracture Assessment: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions.  

PubMed

Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is an established, low radiation method for detection of prevalent vertebral fractures. Vertebral fractures are usually not recognized clinically at the time of their occurrence, but their presence indicates a substantial risk for subsequent fractures independent of bone mineral density. Significant evidence supporting VFA use for many post-menopausal women and older men has accumulated since the last ISCD Official Position Statement on VFA was published. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry considered the following issues at the 2007 Position Development Conference: (1) What are appropriate indications for Vertebral Fracture Assessment; (2) What is the most appropriate method of vertebral fracture detection with VFA; (3) What is the sensitivity and specificity for detection of vertebral fractures with this method; (4) When should additional spine imaging be performed following a VFA; and (5) What are the reporting obligations for those interpreting VFA images? PMID:18442755

Schousboe, John T; Vokes, Tamara; Broy, Susan B; Ferrar, Lynne; McKiernan, Fergus; Roux, Christian; Binkley, Neil

2008-01-01

242

Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

2003-01-01

243

Trends in environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Anomaly Data Base was useful in identifying trends in anomaly occurrence. Trends alone do not provide quantitative testimony to a spacecraft's reliability, but they do indicate areas that command closer study. An in-depth analysis of a specific anomaly can be expensive and difficult without access to the spacecraft. Statistically verified anomaly trends can provide a good reference point to begin anomaly analysis. Many spacecraft experience an increase in anomalies during the period of several days centered on the solar equinox, a period that is also correlated with sun eclipse at geostationary altitude and an increase in major geomagnetic storms. Increase anomaly occurrence can also be seen during the local time interval between midnight and dawn. This local time interval represents a region in Earth's near space that experiences an enhancement in electron plasma density due to a migration from the magnetotail during or following a geomagnetic substorm.

Wilkinson, Daniel C.

1989-01-01

244

Anomaly detection and diagnosis in Grid environments.  

SciTech Connect

Identifying and diagnosing anomalies in application behavior is critical to delivering reliable application-level performance. In this paper we introduce a strategy to detect anomalies and diagnose the possible reasons behind them. Our approach extends the traditional window-based strategy by using signal-processing techniques to filter out recurring, background fluctuations in resource behavior. In addition, we have developed a diagnosis technique that uses standard monitoring data to determine which related changes in behavior may cause anomalies. We evaluate our anomaly detection and diagnosis technique by applying it in three contexts when we insert anomalies into the system at random intervals. The experimental results show that our strategy detects up to 96% of anomalies while reducing the false positive rate by up to 90% compared to the traditional window average strategy. In addition, our strategy can diagnose the reason for the anomaly approximately 75% of the time.

Yang, L.; Liu, C.; Schopf, J. M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Microsoft Corp.

2007-01-01

245

Congenital anomalies in the baboon (Papio spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background A comprehensive survey of the prevalence of congenital anomalies in baboons has not been previously reported. We report the congenital anomalies observed over a 26-year period in a large captive baboon colony. Methods A computer search was performed for all baboon congenital anomalies identified at necropsy and recorded on necropsy submissions. Results We identified 198 congenital anomalies in 166 baboons from 9,972 necropsies (1.66% of total necropsies). The nervous, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems were most commonly affected. The most common organs affected were the brain, bone, heart, testicle, kidney, penis, aorta, and skeletal muscle. The most frequent congenital anomalies were blindness, seizures, and hydrocephalus. Conclusions The baboon has an overall frequency of congenital anomalies similar to humans and other nonhuman primates. Although the most frequently affected systems are similar, congenital anomalies involving the digestive system appear to be less common in the baboon.

Fox, Benjamin; Owston, Michael A.; Kumar, Shyamesh; Dick, Edward J.

2011-01-01

246

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

247

The Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Vertebrate Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

All vertebrate cardiac muscle responds intrinsically to mechanical stimulation which can lead to changes in both the inotropic\\u000a and chronotropic state of the heart. However the magnitude and physiological relevance of these mechanically-induced responses\\u000a differ between vertebrate classes. This review will discuss the differences and similarities in the response of vertebrate\\u000a hearts to stretch. It will focus on responses to

Holly A. Shiels; Ed White

248

Simultaneous Bilateral Vertebral Artery 3D Rotational Angiography  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe the first reported use of simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery rotational angiography to visualize an aneurysm. Images acquired from 3D rotational angiography with a single vertebral injection provided insufficient anatomic detail in two cases with vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms associated with fenestration. Therefore, simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery 3D rotational runs were performed. Anatomic detail was superior with the simultaneous injection and this allowed for the appropriate plan of care to be instituted. In the rare cases of vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm associated with fenestration, simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery 3D rotational angiography may provide the most useful anatomic detail when evaluating a patient for possible endovascular intervention.

Reavey-Cantwell, J.F.; Lewis, S.B.; Firment, C.

2005-01-01

249

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before.

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

250

Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Associated With Lower Trabecular BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Bone marrow fat (BMF) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) are negatively correlated. However, little is known about the association of BMF with fracture or with separate trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between vertebral BMF, BMD by quantitative computed tomography, and fracture in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures included vertebral BMF (L1–L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and DXA scans of the hip and spine, and DXA vertebral fracture assessments. Previous clinical fracture was determined from medical records. Results: In 257 participants without recent bone-active medication use, mean age was 79 (SD 3.1) years. Mean BMF was 53.5% ± 8.1% in men and 55.0% ± 8.4% in women. Those with prevalent vertebral fracture (21 men, 32 women) had higher mean BMF in models adjusted for BMD. In separate models by sex, the difference was statistically significant only in men (57.3% vs 52.8%, P = 0.02). BMF was associated with lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the spine (?10.5% difference for each 1 SD increase in BMF, P < 0.01), total hip, and femoral neck, but not with cortical vBMD, in women. In men, BMF was marginally associated with trabecular spine vBMD (?6.1%, P = 0.05). Total hip and spine areal BMD (aBMD) were negatively correlated with BMF in women only. Conclusion: Higher marrow fat correlated with lower trabecular, but not cortical, BMD in older women but not men. Higher marrow fat was associated with prevalent vertebral fracture in men, even after adjustment for BMD.

Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Shet, Keerthi; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

2013-01-01

251

Vertebral rim lesions in the dorsolumbar spine.  

PubMed Central

The frequency, distribution, and histological characteristics of vertebral rim lesions have been studied at D11 and L4 in 117 post-mortem spines in subjects aged 13-96 years. Only one lesion was found in patients less than 30 years, but thereafter the frequency increased with age. At least one rim was affected in the majority of patients greater than or equal to 50 years. They were found more frequently in the upper than the lower rim and they were also more common anteriorly than posteriorly. Lesions were associated with focal avulsion of the annulus in an otherwise healthy disc or with annular tears running into the rim. Rim lesions can be recognised radiographically by the presence of the vacuum phenomenon, vertebral rim sclerosis with or without a cup-shaped defect in the rim and osteophytes confined to one side of the disc. The histological appearances suggest a traumatic aetiology, and since bone is known to be supplied with pain sensitive nerve endings the lesions may be important in the general context of low back pain. Images

Hilton, R C; Ball, J

1984-01-01

252

Trial by fire in the vertebrate graveyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an introduction to vertebrate skeletal material, students work individually through a series of stations displaying isolated bones and teeth. Associated with each station are two to six short-answer questions that ask the students to identify, orient, and taxonomically classify the specimens, and to describe the rationale for their answers. Students must respond to every question. Even if they have no prior course experience with vertebrate anatomy, they are required to propose and defend an answer, based on careful observation, "common sense," and relevant personal experience. After the students have worked through the stations and answered all the questions, instructor and class discuss the samples and student interpretations. This activity is deliberately designed to force students to work outside of their comfort zone. In the exercise and discussion, students are required to employ careful and reasoned observation in developing hypotheses concerning the identities of the samples, and to defend those hypotheses based on physical characteristics of the bones. The point of the exercise is not to identify the specimens correctly (although students often do better than they expect), but to demonstrate that skeletal anatomy makes "sense", and that thoughtful reasoning based on solid evidence is key to interpreting skeletal remains.

Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

253

Intraembryonic hematopoietic cell migration during vertebrate development.  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells are derived from vental mesoderm, which is postulated to migrate to both extra- and intraembryonic positions during gastrula and neurula stages. Extraembryonic migration has previously been documented, but the origin and migration of intraembryonic hematopoietic cells have not been visualized. The zebrafish and most other teleosts do not form yolk sac blood islands during early embryogenesis, but instead hematopoiesis occurs solely in a dorsal location known as the intermediate cell mass (IM) or Oellacher. In this report, we have isolated cDNAs encoding zebrafish homologs of the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1 and GATA-2 and have used these markers to determine that the IM is formed from mesodermal cells in a posterior-lateral position on the yolk syncytial layer of the gastrula yolk sac. Surprisingly, cells of the IM then migrate anteriorly through most of the body length prior to the onset of active circulation and exit onto the yolk sac. These findings support a hypothesis in which the hematopoietic program of vertebrates is established by variations in homologous migration pathways of extra- and intraembryonic progenitors. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Detrich, H W; Kieran, M W; Chan, F Y; Barone, L M; Yee, K; Rundstadler, J A; Pratt, S; Ransom, D; Zon, L I

1995-01-01

254

What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?  

PubMed Central

Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution.

2014-01-01

255

Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94%) have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand) in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

Pan, Deng; Zhang, Liqing

2008-01-01

256

Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

2005-02-07

257

Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development.

2011-01-01

258

Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin.  

PubMed

In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation. PMID:24869937

Svoboda, Ond?ej; Stachura, David L; Macho?ová, Olga; Pajer, Petr; Brynda, Ji?í; Zon, Leonard I; Traver, David; Bart?n?k, Petr

2014-07-10

259

Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

Olson, E. C.

1988-01-01

260

The road to the vertebral formula.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

2009-01-01

261

Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24688876

Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

2014-01-01

262

"Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." PMID:21440457

Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

2012-11-01

263

The diameter of the vertebral canal in dogs in cases of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

. From Th1 to L7 midsagittal and interpedicular vertebral canal diameters were measured in macerated spines of 162 dogs to determine, whether the presence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations are associated with dislocation of the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal. Relative to dogs with a regular number of 27 presacral vertebrae (C7\\/Th13\\/L7), the maximal enlargement

Sabine Breit; Wolfgang Künzel

2002-01-01

264

Survival of children born with congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the survival to age 5 years of children born with congenital anomalies. Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 6153 live born cases of congenital anomaly were diagnosed and registered by the population based Glasgow Register of Congenital Anomalies. They were retrospectively followed to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 5 years. Results: The proportions of all live born infants with congenital anomalies surviving to the end of the first week, and first and fifth year were 94%, 89%, and 88%, respectively. Survival to age 5, the end point of follow up, was significantly poorer for infants with chromosomal anomalies (48%) compared to neural tube defects (72%), respiratory system anomalies (74%), congenital heart disease (75%), nervous system anomalies (77%), and Down's syndrome (84%). Conclusion: Although almost 90% of all live born infants with congenital anomalies survive to 5 years, there are notable variations in survival between anomaly types. Our findings should be useful for both clinicians and geneticists to assess the prognosis of congenital anomalies. This information is also important for affected families and for the planning of health care needs for this high risk population.

Dastgiri, S; Gilmour, W; Stone, D

2003-01-01

265

Congenital Stapes Anomalies with Normal Eardrum  

PubMed Central

Objectives A non-progressive and conductive hearing loss with normal eardrum, but no history of trauma and infection, is highly suggestive of a congenital ossicular malformation. Among ossicular anomalies, stapes anomaly is the most common. The purpose of this study is to describe patterns of stapes anomaly and to analyze its surgical outcome with special reference to its patterns. Methods We conducted a retrospective case review. The subjects comprised 66 patients (76 ears) who were decisively confirmed by the exploratory tympanotomy as congenital stapes anomalies without any anomalies of the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal. The preoperative and postoperative audiological findings, temporal bone computed tomography scan, and operative findings were analyzed. Results There were 16 anomalous patterns of stapes among which footplate fixation was the most common anomaly. These 16 patterns were classified into 4 types according to the status of stapes footplate. Successful hearing gain was achieved in 51 out of 76 ears (67.1%) after surgical treatment. Conclusion Footplate fixation was usually bilateral, whereas stapes anomalies associated with other ossicular anomaly were usually unilateral. The success of the surgical treatment of stapes anomaly might depend on its developmental status of the footplate. Stapes anomalies were detected without any fixed patterns, therefore, it is quite possible to detect a large variety of patterns in future.

Park, Hun Yi; Han, Dong Hee; Lee, Jong Bin; Han, Nam Soo; Choung, Yun-Hoon

2009-01-01

266

Prenatal ultrasound and urological anomalies.  

PubMed

Prenatal ultrasound is an integral part of caring for pregnant women in the United States. Although surprisingly few data exist to support the clinical benefit of screening ultrasound during pregnancy, its use continues to rise. Urologic anomalies are among the most commonly identified, with overall detection sensitivity approaching 90%. Prenatal hydronephrosis is the most frequently identified finding and predicting postnatal pathology based on its presence can be difficult. As the degree of fetal hydronephrosis increases so does the risk of true urinary tract pathology. Diagnoses that require more urgent care include causes of lower urinary tract obstruction and bladder and cloacal exstrophy. PMID:22857826

Clayton, Douglass B; Brock, John W

2012-08-01

267

Congenital Anomalies of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Poland syndrome is a combination of chest wall deformity and absent or hypoplastic pectoralis muscle and breast associated with shortening and brachysyndactyly of the upper limb. Clinical presentation varies widely; therefore, reconstructive procedures have to be adapted to the deformity, ranging from chest wall stabilization or augmentation, dynamic muscle transfer, nipple and areola repositioning, and breast augmentation using prosthesis or autologous tissue transfer. Other congenital breast anomalies include supernumerary nipple and areola (polythelia) and breast (polymastia), which can generally be found on the embryonic mammary ridge. Absence of the nipple, areola (athelia), or the breast tissue (amastia) is less frequent.

Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Borsuk, Daniel

2013-01-01

268

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

269

Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundances of chromium isotopes, in refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite, show wide-spread anomalies. The chromium isotope anomalies are similar in pattern to the anomalies discovered in Ca and Ti. The largest effects occur at the neutron-rich isotopes Ca-48, Ti-50 and Cr-54. Individual Cr-rich pink spinels, from the Murchison meteorite, exhibit large and variable excesses in Cr-53 and Cr-54 including the largest Cr-53 anomaly so far reported. Magnesium isotopes, in Murchison Cr-poor blue spinels, also show variable anomalies in Mg-26 including mass-dependent fractionation favoring the lighter isotopes. The Cr-53, Cr-54 and Mg-26 anomalies in Murchison spinels are indicative of a heterogeneous distribution of magnesium and chromium isotopes in the early solar nebula and require a contribution from several nucleosynthetic components in addition to physicochemical processing.

Esat, T. M.; Ireland, T. R.

1989-02-01

270

Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of

Allison M Churcher; John S Taylor

2009-01-01

271

Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with

Adam Siepel; Gill Bejerano; Jakob S. Pedersen; Angie S. Hinrichs; Minmei Hou; Kate Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; John Spieth; LaDeana W. Hillier; Stephen Richards; George M. Weinstock; Richard K. Wilson; Richard A. Gibbs; W. James Kent; Webb Miller; David Haussler

2006-01-01

272

Evolutionary diversity of reverse (R) fluorescent chromosome bands in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic chromosomes, interphase cell nuclei, and male meiosis of 41 species representing all vertebrate classes were analyzed with distamycin A\\/mithramycin counterstaining. The purpose of the study was to recognize differences and common characteristics in the reverse (R) fluorescent banding patterns in the chromosomes of vertebrate species at various stages of evolution. In contrast to the warm-blooded mammals and birds, the

Michael Schmid; Martina Guttenbach

1988-01-01

273

Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

274

Molecular control of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate limb is a powerful model system for studying the cellular and molecular interactions that determine morphological pattern during embryonic development. Recent advances in our understanding of these interactions have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate limb development, evolution and congenital malformations. The transfer of information has, until recently, been largely one way, with developmental studies

Martin J. Cohn; Philippa E. Bright

1999-01-01

275

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example

Stephen J. Godfrey; Joshua B. Smith

2010-01-01

276

Thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual complication of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Vertebral osteomyelitis complicating Crohn's disease is a rare occurrence and mostly occurred in patients with Crohn's disease complicated by an abscess or fistulising disease. We report a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, occurring in a refractory Crohn's disease without contiguous abscess or fistula with the bowel. PMID:24916975

Ajayi, Olushola; Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Iqbal, Nasir

2014-01-01

277

Vertebral reconstruction with cortical allograft: long-term evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of large anterior vertebral column defects is indicated in a number of pathological conditions including tumor, infection, trauma and post-traumatic deformity. Several substitutes and techniques are available for the functional restoration of the vertebral column. Vascularized bone transfers, autografts, allografts or xenografts have been used, as well as metal or ceramic implants. All of these bear potential advantages and

E. Munting; A. Faundez; E. Manche

2001-01-01

278

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation in non-human vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralisation of conspecific vocalisation has been observed in several vertebrate species. In the present article we review the results of behavioural and neuroanatomical studies investigating this feature. By employing cladographic comparisons we identify those vertebrate orders in which evidence for or against lateralisation of production and perception of conspecific vocalisation has been reported, and those orders in which further research

Sebastian Ocklenburg; Felix Ströckens; Onur Güntürkün

2011-01-01

279

Cement augmentation in vertebral burst fractures.  

PubMed

As a result of axial compression, traumatic vertebral burst fractures disrupt the anterior column, leading to segmental instability and cord compression. In situations with diminished anterior column support, pedicle screw fixation alone may lead to delayed kyphosis, nonunion, and hardware failure. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty) have been used in an effort to provide anterior column support in traumatic burst fractures. Cited advantages are providing immediate stability, improving pain, and reducing hardware malfunction. When used in isolation or in combination with posterior instrumentation, these techniques theoretically allow for improved fracture reduction and maintenance of spinal alignment while avoiding the complications and morbidity of anterior approaches. Complications associated with cement use (leakage, systemic effects) are similar to those seen in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures; however, extreme caution must be used in fractures with a disrupted posterior wall. PMID:24981904

Zaryanov, Anton V; Park, Daniel K; Khalil, Jad G; Baker, Kevin C; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

2014-07-01

280

Endovascular treatment of extracranial vertebral artery stenosis  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis seems a safe, effective and useful technique for resolving symptoms and improving blood flow to the posterior circulation, with a low complication rate and good long-term results. In patients with severe tortuosity of the vessel, stent placement is a real challenge. The new coronary balloon-expandable stents may be preferred. A large variability of restenosis rates has been reported. Drug-eluting stents may be the solution. After a comprehensive review of the literature, it can be concluded that percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenosis is technically feasible, but there is insufficient evidence from randomized trials to demonstrate that endovascular management is superior to best medical management.

Kocak, Burak; Korkmazer, Bora; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

2012-01-01

281

Morphogenesis and evolution of vertebrate appendicular muscle  

PubMed Central

Two different modes are utilised by vertebrate species to generate the appendicular muscle present within fins and limbs. Primitive Chondricthyan or cartilaginous fishes use a primitive mode of muscle formation to generate the muscle of the fins. Direct epithelial myotomal extensions invade the fin and generate the fin muscles while remaining in contact with the myotome. Embryos of amniotes such as chick and mouse use a similar mechanism to that deployed in the bony teleost species, zebrafish. Migratory mesenchymal myoblasts delaminate from fin/limb level somites, migrate to the fin/limb field and differentiate entirely within the context of the fin/limb bud. Migratory fin and limb myoblasts express identical genes suggesting that they possess both morphogenetic and molecular identity. We conclude that the mechanisms controlling tetrapod limb muscle formation arose prior to the Sarcopterygian or tetrapod radiation.

HAINES, LYNN; CURRIE, PETER D.

2001-01-01

282

Evolutionary attempts at 4 eyes in vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To understand and compare the optical, histological, and ecological differences among 4 vertebrate species that have had evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes. METHODS: An evolutionary attempt at 4 eyes in defined as the duplication or one or more structures integral to the refraction or interpretation of the visible spectrum for that animal. We reviewed and compared the known optics, histology, and ecology of each of these vertebrate species with attempts at 4 eyes including Anableps anableps, Dialomnus fuscus, Mnierpes macrocephalus, and Bathylychnops exilis. These animals have developed portions of ancillary eyes that have diverged from the primary globe in 3 different patterns. At least 1 specimen of each of those vertebrate species known to have 4 eyes was examined histologically and compared to the animal's ecology and current cladistic relationship. RESULTS: A anabteps has 2 distinct optical systems in each eye: an upper one for aerial vision and a lower system for aquatic vision. These systems feature separate retinae and an asymmetric lens to achieve focus in the aerial and aquatic vision, but only 1 optic nerve per eye. The visual system is split horizontally to function optimally in a "prone" position in the water. D fuscus is a terrestrial feeder and has a vertically (almost perpendicular to the long axis of the fish) divided cornea using pigment and a condensation of collagen as the divider, a single pupil, and a divided retina. The split cornea allows for the fish to remain vertical with 1 cornea in air and 1 cornea in water. M macrocephalus is probably closely related to D fuscus with a similar split cornea. B exilis is a mesopelagic inhabitant living at approximately 200 to 1,000 m and has an ancillary globe that "buds" off the primary globe. This secondary globe is directed inferiorly toward the ocean floor as compared to the primary globe, which is directed 35 degrees superiorly from the horizontal. Adult species of B exilis have 2 additional scleral bodies suspected to be lenses. If so, these structures would be capable of focusing light from the inferior field onto the superior retina, presumably adding to the panoramic inferior visual field. There are other mesopelagic species, including Styleophorus chordatus, Opisthoproctus grimaldii, Scopelarchus gantheri (or guentheri), Dolichopteryx binocularis, Benthalbella infans, and Evermannella indica, that have other unusual ocular mechanisms, such as retinal diverticulae and lens pads capable of reflection, but do not meet the definition of multiple eyes, as defined for purposes of this work. CONCLUSIONS: D fuscus and M macrocephalus are terrestrial feeders requiring aquatic and aerial vision, and hence have a split cornea for this purpose, and they probably use their anterior corneae for terrestrial vision. A anableps swims at the surface with combined aerial and aquatic vision for feeding and protection from predators. B exilis is a mesopelagic feeder requiring a binocular visual field in the horizontal meridian and above, and simultaneously is a bottom scavenger using an ancillary globe and perhaps scleral lenses for recognition of bioluminescent detritus. Although 2 of these models are related (D fuscus and M macrocephalus), these 4 fish represent 3 separate, distinct, and unrelated convergent evolutionary attempts toward 4 eyes in vertebrates satisfying the ecological needs of each. The 3 different models are unrelated evolutionarily and are found in 3 separate orders.

Schwab, I R; Ho, V; Roth, A; Blankenship, T N; Fitzgerald, P G

2001-01-01

283

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

284

Anomalies associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To detect the associated anomalies in patients with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is clinically important, because\\u000a early treatment for such anomalies is crucial to both visual and systemic development. This study was conducted to clarify\\u000a the associated anomalies in the syndrome.? Methods: We evaluated 21 patients with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome encountered at\\u000a Nagoya City University Hospital over a 16-year period. Patients who

Hironori Ozeki; Shoichiro Shirai; Kozo Ikeda; Yuichiro Ogura

1999-01-01

285

Pancake kidney: A rare developmental anomaly  

PubMed Central

There are many developmental anomalies of the kidney. Pancake kidney is one of the rarest types of renal ectopia. We report a case of pancake kidney which was detected incidentally while treating a female patient for a urinary tract infection. Although urinary system anomalies often coexist with malformations of other organs and systems, no associated anomalies could be detected in this case. Pancake kidney is usually managed by surgery, but this case was managed conservatively without any complication.

Tiwari, Alok Kumar; Choudhary, Anil Kumar; Khowal, Hemant; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder. P.

2014-01-01

286

Bouguer anomaly map of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bouguer map of New Zealand exhibits two major negative gravity anomalies. The Rangitikei-Waiapu Anomaly, which intersects tne axial ranges of the North Island, indicates a crustal downwarp which is not in isostatic equilibrium. This anomaly is closely parallel to the zone of intense seismicity, to the Taupo-White Island volcanic belt, to the Kaimanawa-Huiarau-Raukumara Ranges, to the thick Upper Pliocene

E. I. Robertson; W. I. Reilly

1958-01-01

287

The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

2005-01-01

288

Uhl's anomaly in a domestic shorthair cat.  

PubMed

A 2-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat was presented for investigation of dyspnea and episodic weakness. Clinical and ultrasonographic features were consistent with right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Pathological findings documented Uhl's anomaly. Although rare, Uhl's anomaly should be a differential diagnosis for cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. In particular, Uhl's anomaly could be misdiagnosed as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy due to the similarity of clinical and echocardiographic findings. PMID:21041339

Quintavalla, Cecilia; Bossolini, Elena; Rubini, Giuseppe; Tursi, Massimiliano

2010-01-01

289

Chiral and gravitational anomalies in any dimension  

SciTech Connect

Gravitational contributions to the chiral anomaly in 4N space-time dimensions as well as the purely gravitational anomaly in 4N-2 dimensions are expressed in terms of the Riemann--Christoffel tensor. Using this formula, we give a simple proof that if N > or = 4 there is no way to cancel the gravitational anomalies using fields of spin- 1/2 , - (3)/(2) , and -1.

Delbourgo, R.; Matsuki, T.

1985-06-01

290

Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

2008-04-01

291

Kinesin-2 family in vertebrate ciliogenesis  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors—heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin—in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation.

Zhao, Chengtian; Omori, Yoshihiro; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kovach, Peter; Malicki, Jarema

2012-01-01

292

Applications of memory alloy stent in vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating vertebral compression fractures using an autonomously developed nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent. Material/Methods Thoracolumbar vertebral specimens from adult human cadavers were made into models of compression fractures. The models were divided into group A, which received percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), balloon dilation, and nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent implantation (PKP + nitinol stent group); group B, which received percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and direct implantation of a nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent (PVP + nitinol stent group); and group C, which received PKP, balloon dilation, and bone cement vertebroplasty (PKP + polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) group). Vertebral heights were measured before and after the surgery and the water bath incubation to compare the impact of the 3 different surgical approaches on reducing vertebral compression. Results The 3 surgical groups could all significantly restore the heights of compressed vertebral bodies. The vertebral heights of the PKP + nitinol stent group, PVP + nitinol stent group, and PKP + PMMA group were changed from the preoperative levels of (1.59±0.08) cm, (1.68±0.08) cm, and (1.66±0.11) cm to the postoperative levels of (2.00±0.09) cm, (1.87±0.04) cm, and (1.99±0.09) cm, respectively. After the water bath, the vertebral heights of each group were changed to (2.10±0.07) cm, (1.98±0.09) cm, and (2.00±0.10) cm, respectively. Pairwise comparison of the differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral heights showed that group A and group B differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.003); and group A and group C had no significant difference (P=0.172). Pairwise comparison of the differences in the vertebral heights before and after the water bath showed that group A and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); and group A and group B had no significant difference (P=0.157). Conclusions The nitinol memory alloy stents can effectively support and reduce the compression of vertebral endplates and can be used to treat vertebral compression fractures without neurological symptoms.

Yimin, Yang; Zhi, Zhang; ZhiWei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

2014-01-01

293

Treatment options for vertebral fractures an overview of different philosophies and techniques for vertebral augmentation.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: For more than 30 years, minimally invasive surgical procedures have been available to stabilize the fractured vertebrae by cement augmentation leading to significant pain relief, a distinct improvement in quality of life and decreased mortality for patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This overview article is designed to provide information on the wide range of augmentation methods previously tested and clinically applied in surgery in an attempt to compile the clinically relevant information on safety and efficacy in the published literature. METHOD: Based on an extensive literature review on the topic of "vertebral fractures-surgical augmentation techniques" we summarized the results of published clinical trials and experimental testing which address clinically relevant questions. The selection of the publications in reference books and scientific journals covers the time period from the end of the 1970s until the present. RESULTS: The final selection of more than 50 publications with, in the opinion of the authors, clinically relevant data led to the following results, which can be of significance for clinical application. The prerequisites for the success of all augmentation methods include the earliest possible surgical intervention, optimal technical equipment and an experienced, interdisciplinary team, as well as thorough consideration of the situation of the individual patient. The selection of the material for vertebral augmentation depends on the surgical method. The material of choice remains polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and the best record of efficacy and safety is displayed by radiofrequency kyphoplasty with ultrahigh-viscosity cement. Regarding clinical efficacy and safety, there are many convincing documentations showing superiority of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in comparison with conservative therapeutic regimens. Initial results of clinical studies with additional implants indicate a trend toward further improvement in clinical success and suggest possible broader clinical possibilities of application. CONCLUSION: Modern, minimally invasive augmentation techniques represent a real alternative to conservative treatment of patients with vertebral fractures. Further technical and clinical development in this area should aim at optimizing procedural safety while continuing to achieve comparably good results to current methods. Minimizing damage to the remaining trabecular structures as well as to adjacent vertebral disks and vertebrae should be paramount of importance. Options for the treatment of vertebral fractures: Reductions in bone density and pathological changes in bone structure are associated with an elevated risk of fractures, which can lead to decisive functional impairment, pain, and a host of further comorbidities. Vertebral augmentation can be considered as an alternative conservative treatment, in order to achieve immediate and lasting pain relief as well as improvement in functional impairment. To achieve greater safety, instrumentation for transpedicular access and incorporation of radiopacifiers in PMMA for vertebroplasty were developed in mid-eighties. Balloon kyphoplasty was introduced in the end nineties, and results of prospective, randomized clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy; the destruction of the remaining native spongiosa structures during balloon expansion is viewed as a disadvantage of this method. The two step method of cavity creation followed by cement delivery known as kyphoplasty has been further refined and developed by and varied by technology/procedural developments. This includes most the radiofrequency kyphoplasty (DFINE Inc., San Jose, CA, USA), in which ultrahigh-viscosity cement is delivered at a controlled delivery rate, following producing a bone sparing size and side specific cavity which minimizes loss of spongiosa, allowing for mechanical stability upon interdigitation of cement into that remaining trabecular bone. This combination has been shown to preserve vertebral structures and

Bornemann, R; Koch, E M W; Wollny, M; Pflugmacher, R

2013-06-16

294

Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

Pitton, Michael Bernhard, E-mail: pitton@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Koch, Ulrike [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Drees, Philip [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, University Hospital (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2009-09-15

295

Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

Canyigit, Murat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Arat, Anil [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: anilarat@netscape.net; Cil, Barbaros E. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sahin, Gurdal [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey); Turkbey, Baris [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Elibol, Bulent [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

296

The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Catia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

2012-01-01

297

Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

Weldon, Paul J.

2010-05-01

298

The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

Albert, G.

1979-01-01

299

Dysmenorrhea due to a rare müllerian anomaly.  

PubMed

Müllerian duct anomalies may produce reproductive failure like abortion and preterm birth, or obstetric problems like malpresentation, retained placenta, etc., or they may be asymptomatic. Unicornuate uterus with a noncommunicating functional rudimentary horn is a type of müllerian anomaly that results in obstruction to menstrual blood flow, leading to endometriosis and dysmenorrhea. Though the majority of cases of dysmenorrhea in adolescents are primary in nature and require only reassurance and symptomatic management, it is important to be aware of rare causes such as müllerian anomalies so that these cases can be properly managed. Hence, we present this case report, with interesting illustrations, so as to increase awareness regarding these anomalies. PMID:22037089

Agarwal, M; Das, A; Singh, A S

2011-01-01

300

Initial scalar magnetic anomaly map from Magsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magsat data acquired during the November 1979-June 1980 mission was used to derive a scalar magnetic anomaly map covering +50 to -50 deg geographic latitude, and the separation of anomaly fields from core and external fields was accomplished by techniques developed for POGO satellite data. Except in the Atlantic and Pacific at latitudes south of -15 deg, comparison of the Magsat map with its POGO data-derived counterpart shows basic anomaly patterns to be reproducible, and higher resolution due to Magsat's lower measurement altitude. Color-coded scalar anomaly maps are presented for both satellites.

Langel, R. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.

1982-01-01

301

Anomaly-free sets of fermions  

SciTech Connect

We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.

2005-10-01

302

Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates.

Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

2012-01-01

303

Characteristics of a prevalent vertebral deformity predict subsequent vertebral fracture: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a prevalent vertebral deformity increases the risk of a future vertebral fracture. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain characteristics of the prevalent deformity, including its shape and location in the spine, influenced this effect. The 3100 men and 3500 women who took part in this analysis were recruited from population registers for participation

Mark Lunt; Terence W O'Neill; Dieter Felsenberg; Jonathan Reeve; John A Kanis; Cyrus Cooper; Alan J Silman

2003-01-01

304

Posterior decompression and stabilization, and surgical vertebroplasty with the vertebral body stenting for metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression.  

PubMed

We present the technique of combined posterior decompression and spinal instrumentation, and surgical (open) vertebroplasty using a novel system called vertebral body stenting (VBS) during a single session in a patient with metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression. PMID:20082355

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Starantzis, Konstantinos; Korres, Demetrios S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2010-03-01

305

The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.  

PubMed

Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

2014-01-01

306

Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this case the spectra and cross spectra show that the source of the noise is instability in the gyro platform. Spectral techniques should always be applied to vector data in order to avoid overinterpretation of short-wavelength features.

Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

2013-12-01

307

[Formation of vertebral-subclavian steal syndrome in abnormal origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic ark].  

PubMed

Presented herein is a clinical case report concerning the formation of vertebral-subclavian steal syndrome combined with occlusion of the left subclavian artery and an abnormal origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch. Duplex scanning data and angiography findings showed that the collateral compensation of haemocirculation in the upper extremity took place through the subclavian-vertebral collateral net. Doppler ultrasonography signs of the latent steal syndrome were revealed in the intracranial segment of the left vertebral artery and were confirmed by the findings of the reactive hyperthermia test. Balloon angioplasty with stenting of the 1st portion of the left subclavian artery resulted in normalization of the Doppler spectrum in the intracranial segment of the left vertebral artery. PMID:21983471

Kirsanov, R I; Kulikov, V P; Arzamastsev, D D; Subbotin, Iu G

2011-01-01

308

MAWILab: combining diverse anomaly detectors for automated anomaly labeling and performance benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating anomaly detectors is a crucial task in traffic monitoring made particularly difficult due to the lack of ground truth. The goal of the present article is to assist researchers in the evaluation of detectors by providing them with labeled anomaly traffic traces. We aim at automatically finding anomalies in the MAWI archive using a new methodology that combines different

Romain Fontugne; Pierre Borgnat; Patrice Abry; Kensuke Fukuda

2010-01-01

309

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies.  

PubMed Central

We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases had cleft lip/palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, or a cardiac defect. Mental retardation was found in five of the surviving 11 patients and early death occurred in one-third. We compared the cases with OAVS and hydrocephalus with published reports of OAVS and other cerebral anomalies and found no significant clinical differences. However, the clinical characteristics were clearly more severely expressed than generally found in patients with OAVS. Children with OAVS and more severe clinical features, especially anophthalmia/microphthalmia and cleft lip/palate, seem to be at an increased risk for cerebral malformations and for mental retardation. Images

Schrander-Stumpel, C T; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hennekam, R C; Fryns, J P; Bouckaert, P X; Brouwer, O F; da Costa, J J; Lommen, E J; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P D

1992-01-01

310

Resolving Bouguer anomalies in continents—A new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature of anomalies present in free air gravity and their corresponding anomalies in Bouguer gravity over continents are analysed in light of isostatic compensation of topographic masses. These anomalies are classified into regional, residual and local and criteria are evolved to identify them. The regional anomaly corresponds to regional topography that is compensated. The local anomaly is related to local

D. V. Subba Rao

1996-01-01

311

Resolving Bouguer anomalies in continents-A new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature of anomalies present in free air gravity and their corresponding anomalies in Bouguer gravity over continents are analyzed in light of isostatic compensation of topographic masses. These anomalies are classified into regional, residual and local and criteria are evolved to identify them. The regional anomaly corresponds to regional topography that is compensated. The local anomaly is related to local

D. V. Subba Rao

1996-01-01

312

Anomaly Detection over Noisy Data using Learned Probability Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional anomaly detection techniques focus on detecting anomalies in new data after training on normal (or clean) data. In this paper we present a technique for detecting anomalies without training on normal data. We present a method for detecting anomalies within a data set that contains a large number of normal elements and relatively few anomalies. We present a mixture

Eleazar Eskin

2000-01-01

313

A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

2012-01-01

314

Quantification of Vertebral Involvement in Metastatic Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction: For patients with a solitary and well-delimitated spinal metastasis that resides inside the vertebral body, without vertebral canal invasion, and who are in good general health with a long life expectancy, en bloc spondylectomy/total vertebrectomy combined with the use of primary stabilizing instrumentation has been advocated. However, clinical experience suggests that these qualifying conditions occur very rarely. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the distribution of vertebral involvement in spinal metastases and determine the frequency with which patients can be considered candidates for radical surgery (en bloc spondylectomy). Methods: Consecutive patients were classified accordingly to Enneking’s and Tomita’s schemes for grading vertebral involvement of metastases. Results: Fifty-one (51) consecutive patients were evaluated. Eighty-three percent of patients presented with the involvement of multiple vertebral levels and/or spinal canal invasion. Conclusion: Because of diffuse vertebral involvement of metastases, no patients in this sample were considered to be candidates for radical spondylectomy of vertebral metastasis.

Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Jose Marcus

2013-01-01

315

Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Africa has been compiled using only terrestrial data. The map is a contoured representation of one degree x one degree mean anomaly values. Some one degree x one degree values are computed by conventional or statistical me...

J. R. Sanders L. E. Wilcox R. L. Slettene R. S. Blouse

1973-01-01

316

Local Gravity Anomalies Produced by Dislocation Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravity anomalies due to other dislocation sources in three dimensions are as follows: For strike-slip faulting the ratio of the gravity change to uplift depends upon position; however, the gravity change contours are roughly similar to those corresponding to a zero free air gravity anomaly. Nor is the ratio constantfor dip-slip faulting except for the two special cases of dip

J. C. Savage

1984-01-01

317

A REINTRODUCTION TO ANOMALIES OF CRITICALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...'

PUIGH RJ

2009-01-01

318

Trends in Environmentally Induced Spacecraft Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Spacecraft Anomaly Data Base was useful in identifying trends in anomaly occurrence. Trends alone do not provide quantitative testimony to a spacecraft's reliability, but they do indicate areas that command closer study. An in-depth analysis of a spec...

D. C. Wilkinson

1989-01-01

319

Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

2011-01-01

320

On Gravity Prediction Using Mean Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of prediction of mean gravity anomalies for areas of 1 degree x 1 degree, 2 degree x 2 degree, 5 degree x 5 degree, and 10 degree x 10 degree from known mean anomalies is studied. The least standard prediction error is found to be about 1/2...

E. Groten

1965-01-01

321

American depository receipts and calendar anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to examine the presence of calendar anomalies in American Depository Receipts (ADR) returns. Existing literature has documented several calendar anomalies in US and foreign markets. ADRs, however, represent a unique class of securities because they represent the ownership of stock of a foreign firm, but they are traded on US markets. We use the Standard

Janie Casello Bouges; Ravi Jain; Yash R. Puri

2009-01-01

322

Fermi Surface of Lead from Kohn Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersion relations for phonons in lead determined by neutron spectrometry exhibit a large number of Kohn anomalies, which may all be related to the Fermi surface in a consistent manner by considering both electron transitions diametrically across the Fermi surface and nondiametral transitions between points with parallel tangent planes. Factors affecting the size and shape of anomalies are reviewed.

R. Stedman; L. Almqvist; G. Nilsson; G. Raunio

1967-01-01

323

Mining anomalies using traffic feature distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing practicality of large-scale flow capture makes it possible to conceive of traffic analysis methods that detect and identify a large and diverse set of anomalies. However the challenge of effectively analyzing this massive data source for anomaly diagnosis is as yet unmet. We argue that the distributions of packet features (IP addresses and ports) observed in flow traces

Anukool Lakhina; Mark Crovella; Christophe Diot

2005-01-01

324

Information-Theoretic Measures for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection is an essential component of the pro- tection mechanisms against novel attacks. In this pa- per, we propose to use several information-theoretic mea- sures, namely, entropy, conditional entropy, relative condi- tional entropy, information gain, and information cost for anomaly detection. These measures can be used to describe the characteristics of an audit data set, suggest the appro- priate

Wenke Lee; Dong Xiang

2001-01-01

325

Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the

P. A. Murad

2004-01-01

326

Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

2010-02-19

327

The development of the avian vertebral column.  

PubMed

Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm leads to somite formation. The underlying molecular mechanisms involve the oscillation of "clock-genes" like c-hairy-1 and lunatic fringe indicative of an implication of the Notch signaling pathway. The cranio-caudal polarity of each segment is already established in the cranial part of the segmental plate and accompanied by the expression of genes like Delta1, Mesp1, Mesp2, Ulicx-1, and EphA4 which are restricted to one half of the prospective somite. Dorsoventral compartmentalization of somites leads to the development of the dermomyotome and the sclerotome, the latter forming as a consequence of an epithelio-to-mesenchymal transition of the ventral part of the somite. The sclerotome cells express Pax-1 and Pax-9, which are induced by notochordal signals mediated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) and noggin. The craniocaudal somite compartmentalization that becomes visible in the sclerotomes is the prerequisite for the segmental pattern of the peripheral nervous system and the formation of the vertebrae and ribs, whose boundaries are shifted half a segment compared to the sclerotome boundaries. Sclerotome development is characterized by the formation of three subcompartments giving rise to different parts of the axial skeleton and ribs. The lateral sclerotome gives rise to the laminae and pedicles of the neural arches and to the ribs. Its development depends on signals from the notochord and the myotome. The ventral sclerotome giving rise to the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is made up of Pax-1 expressing cells that have invaded the perinotochordal space. The dorsal sclerotome is formed by cells that migrate from the dorso-medial angle of the sclerotome into the space between the roof plate of the neural tube and the dermis. These cells express the genes Msx1 and Msx2, which are induced by BMP-4 secreted from the roof plate, and they later form the dorsal part of the neural arch and the spinous process. The formation of the ventral and dorsal sclerotome requires directed migration of sclerotome cells. The regionalization of the paraxial mesoderm occurs by a combination of functionally Hox genes, the Hox code, and determines the segment identity. The development of the vertebral column is a consequence of a segment-specific balance between proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of cells. PMID:10994991

Christ, B; Huang, R; Wilting, J

2000-09-01

328

Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. PMID:22580082

Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

2012-08-01

329

Lunar Bouguer gravity anomalies - Imbrian age craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bouguer gravity of mass anomalies associated with four Imbrian age craters, analyzed in the present paper, are found to differ considerably from the values of the mass anomalies associated with some young lunar craters. Of the Imbrian age craters, only Piccolomini exhibits a negative gravity anomaly (i.e., a low density region) which is characteristic of the young craters studied. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are zero for each of the remaining Imbrian age craters. Since, Piccolomini is younger, or at least less modified, than the other Imbrian age craters, it is suggested that the processes responsible for the post-impact modification of the Imbrian age craters may also be responsible for removing the negative mass anomalies initially associated with these features.

Dvorak, J.; Phillips, R. J.

1978-01-01

330

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

331

Dental anomalies in patients with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of dental anomalies in Brazilian patients with Down syndrome. A sample with 49 panoramic x-rays of syndromic patients aged 3 to 33 years (22 male and 27 female) was used. The characteristics of dental anomalies were observed in the panoramic radiographs in both the primary and permanent dentition, according to the ICD (International Classification of Diseases). The corresponding tables and percentile analysis were elaborated. There was a high incidence of syndromic patients with different types of anomalies, such as taurodontism (50%), proven anodontia (20.2%), suspected anodontia (10.7%), conic teeth (8.3%) and impacted teeth (5.9%). In conclusion, patients with Down syndrome presented a high incidence of dental anomalies and, in most cases, the same individual presented more than one dental anomaly. PMID:18278307

de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar; Dotto, Gustavo Nogara; Dotto, Patrícia Pasquali; dos Santos, Luis Roque de Araújo

2007-01-01

332

Semaphorin Signaling in Vertebrate Neural Circuit Assembly  

PubMed Central

Neural circuit formation requires the coordination of many complex developmental processes. First, neurons project axons over long distances to find their final targets and then establish appropriate connectivity essential for the formation of neuronal circuitry. Growth cones, the leading edges of axons, navigate by interacting with a variety of attractive and repulsive axon guidance cues along their trajectories and at final target regions. In addition to guidance of axons, neuronal polarization, neuronal migration, and dendrite development must be precisely regulated during development to establish proper neural circuitry. Semaphorins consist of a large protein family, which includes secreted and cell surface proteins, and they play important roles in many steps of neural circuit formation. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors also mediate signaling by semaphorins. Upon semaphorin binding to their receptors, downstream signaling molecules transduce this event within cells to mediate further events, including alteration of microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, I review recent studies on semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly, with the goal of highlighting how this diverse family of cues and receptors imparts exquisite specificity to neural complex connectivity.

Yoshida, Yutaka

2012-01-01

333

Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record.  

PubMed

The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of 'soft' cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2?1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella. PMID:20947532

Sansom, Robert S; Gabbott, Sarah E; Purnell, Mark A

2011-04-22

334

Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA formation mechanisms presume that HFA is formed when particles are reflected on bow shock, get swept by motional electric field and are injected back into the area. We tried to calculate the balance of energy in solar wind and within HFA to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for "internal recovery" area to be the real energy source. These estimations suggest that this energy balance is nearly fulfilled in 4 of 5 analyzed HFAs, and does not hold for one HFA. This energy balance may be in favor of quasi-stationary nature of HFA structure. References Thomsen, M. F., J. T. Gosling, S. A. Fuselier, S. J. Bame, and C. T. Russell (1986), Hot, diamagnetic cavities upstream from the Earth's bow shock, J. Geophys. Res., 91(A3), 2961-2973, doi:10.1029/JA091iA03p02961. Vaisberg, O.L., J.H.Waite, L.Avanov, V.N.Smirnov, D.Dempsey J.L.Burch and A.A.Skalsky, HFA-like signatures observed with Interball-Tail spacecraft, in: Solar Wind Nine, ed. By S.R.Habbal, R.Esser, J.V.Hollweg, and P.A.Isenberg, AIP 1-56396-865-7, 1999, pp. 551-554.

Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

2012-12-01

335

The diameter of the vertebral canal in dogs in cases of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations.  

PubMed

From Th1 to L7 midsagittal and interpedicular vertebral canal diameters were measured in macerated spines of 162 dogs to determine, whether the presence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae or numerical vertebral variations are associated with dislocation of the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal. Relative to dogs with a regular number of 27 presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L7), the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal was more frequently ( P < 0.05) located at vertebra 24 in dogs with 26 presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L6), and more frequently at vertebra 25 in dogs with 28 presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L8). However, in dogs with 26 presacral vertebrae, maximal agreement in the spinal position of maximal lumbar vertebral canal diameters was achieved relative to dogs with 28 presacral vertebrae by adding one additional thoracic (Th6, 7, or 8) segment. Therefore, the present findings strongly suggest that relative to the regular (C7/Th13/L7) condition, decrease in the number of presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L6) is associated with incorporation of a midthoracic segment, whereas increase in the number of presacral vertebrae (C7/Th13/L8) is not related to the presence of an additional vertebral segment. When using Th1 as landmark, the difference in the position of the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal between dogs with 26 and dogs with 28 presacral vertebrae in average was only one segment. It is known from previous reports that the maximal enlargement of the lumbar vertebral canal corresponds with the maximal enlargement of the lumbar spinal cord. When using S1 or the transitional vertebra as the landmark for determination of the appropriate site for subarachnoid cannulation, this site is expected to range within the same limits regardless of the vertebral formula. PMID:12021914

Breit, Sabine; Künzel, Wolfgang

2002-05-01

336

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

337

A Correlation Study Relating Spacecraft Anomalies to Environmental Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An environmental data program was initiated so that the operational environment for geosynchronous orbiting DSCS satellites could be specified at times of satellite anomalies. The anomalies studied included uncommanded logic reset anomalies, spinup anomal...

C. P. Pike M. H. Bunn

1976-01-01

338

DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS  

PubMed Central

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

2010-01-01

339

GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

340

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

341

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

342

Vertebral artery dissection as a cause of cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

The acute onset of neck pain and arm weakness is most commonly due to cervical radiculopathy or inflammatory brachial plexopathy. Rarely, extracranial vertebral artery dissection may cause radiculopathy in the absence of brainstem ischemia. We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection presenting as cervical radiculopathy in a previously healthy 43-year-old woman who presented with proximal left arm weakness and neck pain aggravated by movement. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed dissection of the left vertebral artery with an intramural hematoma compressing the left C5 and C6 nerve roots. Antiplatelet treatment was commenced, and full power returned after 2 months. Recognition of vertebral artery dissection on cervical MRI as a possible cause of cervical radiculopathy is important to avoid interventions within the intervertebral foramen such as surgery or nerve root sleeve injection. Treatment with antithrombotic agents is important to prevent secondary ischemic events. PMID:24353851

Silbert, Benjamin Isaac; Khangure, Mark; Silbert, Peter Linton

2013-12-01

343

Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

1981-12-01

344

Expression of histo-blood group antigens in vertebrate gonads.  

PubMed

The tissue expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in vertebrates, as well as their evolutionary tendencies and relation to histogenesis, especially in the reproductive system, are not entirely understood.The present research comprises a large-scale immunohistochemical study of HBGA A and B expression in ovaries and testicles of 14 species belonging to six classes of free-living vertebrates from Chondrichtyes to Mammalia .We present novel data for ABH antigen reactivity in reproductive organs of vertebrates which have not been studied so far. Our results suggest that HBGA are evolutionary stable structures, most possibly related to vitellogenesis in oocytes with high yolk content. The tendency observed in A and B antigen expression is mostly associated with the processes of gamete differentiation and vitellogenesis, rather than with the evolutionary development of vertebrate species. PMID:20194100

Tomova, Elena S; Sarafian, Victoria S

2010-03-01

345

Experiment K307: Vertebral body strength of rat spinal columns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight on vertebral body bone strength excised were investigated. Comparative biomechanical investigations of vertebral body strength for flight, synchronous, and vivarium rats following spacecraft recovery (R+0), at R+6 and R+29 days post flight recovery are presented. Statistical analyses are presented for the mechanical properties of stiffness, ultimate load, displacement to ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load. At R+0 all of the above properties show that the vertebral body exhibits an increasing susceptibility to fracture. The reduction of bone strength is inhomogeneous and dependent on vertebral level. The R+6 recovery data was inconclusive since it varied above and below the R+0 data. At R+29 ultimate load values showed a statistically significant increase in bone strength approaching that of the vivarium or control group.

Kazarian, L. E.

1981-01-01

346

Hyperspectral anomaly detection beyond RX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic multivariate anomaly detector ("the RX algorithm") of Kelly and Reed remains little altered after nearly 30 years and performs reasonably well with hyperspectral imagery. However, better performance can be achieved in spectral applications by recognizing a deficiency in the hypothesis test that generates RX. The problem is commonly associated with the improved performance that results from deleting several high-variance clutter dimensions before applying RX, a procedure not envisioned in the original algorithm. There is, moreover, a better way to enhance detection than simply deleting the offending subspace. Instead of invoking the "additive target" model, one can exploit expected differences in spectral variability between target and background signals in the clutter dimensions. Several methods are discussed for achieving detection gain using this principle. Two of these are based on modifications to the RX hypothesis test. One results in Joint Subspace Detection, the other in an algorithm with a similar form but which does not postulate a clutter subspace. Each of these modifies the RX algorithm to incorporate clutter-dependent weights, including "anti-RX" terms in the clutter subspace. A newer approach is also described, which effects a nonlinear suppression of false alarms that are detected by an RX-type algorithm, employed as a preprocessor. Both techniques rely ultimately on the incorporation of simple spectral phenomenology into the detection process.

Schaum, A. P.

2007-04-01

347

The free-convective anomaly.  

PubMed

Persons exposed to high temperature, or to equivalent environmental factors, have quantifiable reactions, such as reducing the resistance to both heat and moisture flow in skin tissues and clothing needed to maintain thermal equilibrium. The one-to-one relationship between this resistance in the walking person and temperature, with the other factors neutral, is the basis for the apparent temperature scale and the derived heat index. When this approach is taken to assess the thermal environment for a still person exposed to heat in still air, there is a zone of ambient conditions in which there are three solutions to the heat-balance equation. Extraordinary thermal stress occurs, depending slightly on other conditions, at ambient temperatures near 41 degrees C, especially at high humidity, because of the difficulty in carrying sweat vapor from the person when free convection is minimal. This anomaly is examined for a range of ambient vapor pressures and extra radiation. The rapid rise in heat stress when ambient temperature just exceeds body temperature in still conditions may explain the severity of some observed distress. PMID:10409558

Steadman, R G

1999-07-01

348

Data Mining for Anomaly Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

2013-01-01

349

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins containing membrane attack complex\\/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens,

Carlos J. Rosado; Ashley M. Buckle; Ruby H. P. Law; Rebecca E. Butcher; Wan-Ting Kan; Catherina H. Bird; Kheng Ung; Kylie A. Browne; Katherine Baran; Tanya A. Bashtannyk-Puhalovich; Noel G. Faux; Wilson Wong; Corrine J. Porter; Robert N. Pike; Andrew M. Ellisdon; Mary C. Pearce; Stephen P. Bottomley; Jonas Emsley; A. Ian Smith; Jamie Rossjohn; Elizabeth L. Hartland; Ilia Voskoboinik; Joseph A. Trapani; Phillip I. Bird; Michelle A. Dunstone; James C. Whisstock

2007-01-01

350

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate\\u000a tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth\\u000a impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth\\u000a marks. They provide another example

Stephen J. Godfrey; Joshua B. Smith

2010-01-01

351

The genetic and evolutionary basis of colour variation in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in vertebrates. Although mammals show less variation\\u000a in body pigmentation than other vertebrate groups, the genetics of colour determination and variation is best understood for\\u000a them. More than 150 genes have been identified that influence pigmentation, and in many cases, the cause for variation in\\u000a pigmentation has been identified

Michael Hofreiter; Torsten Schöneberg

2010-01-01

352

Structure, Regulation and Evolution of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steven Shoei-Lung Li (1998) Structure, regulation and evolution of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase genes. Zoological Studies 37(1): 1-6. In vertebrates, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes A (muscle) and B (heart) are best suited for pyruvate reduction and lactate oxidation, respectively. In mammals and columbid birds, a 3rd LDH-C isozyme is expressed in testis. In advanced teleost fish a 3rd LDH isozyme is

Steven Shoei-Lung Li

1998-01-01

353

Recognition of Vertebral Fracture in a Clinical Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have important health consequences for older individuals, including disability and\\u000a increased mortality. Because these fractures can be prevented with appropriate medications, recognition and treatment of high-risk\\u000a patients is warranted. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a large, regional hospital in New England to examine the\\u000a frequency with which vertebral fractures are identified and treated by

S. H. Gehlbach; C. Bigelow; M. Heimisdottir; S. May; M. Walker; J. R. Kirkwood

2000-01-01

354

Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. Results: 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). Conclusion: The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

2013-01-01

355

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup  

SciTech Connect

Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

1986-01-01

356

Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

2000-06-01

357

The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology  

PubMed Central

Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome duplication events. In addition, several transcriptional enhancers are conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates—a very wide phylogenetic distance. In contrast, urochordate genomes have lost many genes, including a diversity of homeobox families and genes involved in steroid hormone function. The amphioxus genome also exhibits derived features, including duplications of opsins and genes proposed to function in innate immunity and endocrine systems. Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates.

Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam; Hallbook, Finn; Hirose, Dan; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kasahara, Masanori; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kawashima, Takeshi; Kimura, Ayuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Laudet, Vincent; Litman, Gary W.; McHardy, Alice C.; Meulemans, Daniel; Nonaka, Masaru; Olinski, Robert P.; Pancer, Zeev; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pestarino, Mario; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Roch, Graeme; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Satake, Masanobu; Satou, Yutaka; Schubert, Michael; Sherwood, Nancy; Shiina, Takashi; Takatori, Naohito; Tello, Javier; Vopalensky, Pavel; Wada, Shuichi; Xu, Anlong; Ye, Yuzhen; Yoshida, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Yu, Jr-Kai; Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Holland, Peter W.H.

2008-01-01

358

Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of neurological signs, including incoordination in his hindlimbs, of about 7 months' duration. On initial examination, the horse exhibited ataxia and paresis in all limbs with more severe deficits in the hindlimbs. Cervical radiographs displayed severe osteoarthritis of the articular processes between C5 and C6. On subsequent cervical myelography the dorsal contrast column was reduced by 90% at the level of the intervertebral space between C5 and C6. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy, including epidural (epiduroscopy) and subarachnoid endoscopy (myeloscopy), was performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial narrowing of the subarachnoid space at the level between C6 and C7 was seen during myeloscopy, while no compression was apparent between C5 and C6. Epiduroscopy showed no abnormalities. After completion of the procedure, the horse was subjected to euthanasia and the cervical spinal cord submitted for histopathological examination. Severe myelin and axon degeneration of the white matter was diagnosed at the level of the intervertebral space between C6 and C7, with Wallerian degeneration cranially and caudally, indicating chronic spinal cord compression at this site. Myeloscopy was successfully used to identify the site of spinal cord compression in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, while myelography results were misleading. PMID:21696435

Prange, T; Carr, E A; Stick, J A; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Patterson, J S; Derksen, F J

2012-01-01

359

Vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. In steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Osteichthyes), H(2)S produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. In this study, we examined H(2)S vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether H(2)S is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. H(2)S was generated from NaHS and examined in unstimulated and precontracted systemic and, when applicable, pulmonary arteries (PA) from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti, Agnatha), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Agnatha), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus milberti, Chondrichthyes), marine toad (Bufo marinus, Amphibia), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Reptilia), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aves), and white rat (Rattus rattus, Mammalia). In otherwise unstimulated vessels, NaHS produced 1) a dose-dependent relaxation in Pacific hagfish dorsal aorta; 2) a dose-dependent contraction in sea lamprey dorsal aorta, marine toad aorta, alligator aorta and PA, duck aorta, and rat thoracic aorta; 3) a threshold relaxation in shark ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, and afferent branchial artery; and 4) a multiphasic contraction-relaxation-contraction in the marine toad PA, duck PA, and rat PA. Precontraction of these vessels with another agonist did not affect the general pattern of NaHS vasoactivity with the exception of the rat aorta, where relaxation was now dominant. These results show that H(2)S is a phylogenetically ancient and versatile vasoregulatory molecule that appears to have been opportunistically engaged to suit both organ-specific and species-specific homeostatic requirements. PMID:15345473

Dombkowski, Ryan A; Russell, Michael J; Schulman, Alexis A; Doellman, Meredith M; Olson, Kenneth R

2005-01-01

360

Clinical and radiographic results of balloon kyphoplasty for treatment of vertebral body metastases and multiple myelomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is used to augment vertebral body strength. This technique has been commonly used to treat osteoporotic, vertebral body compression fractures. The technique was also used to augment painful metastatic vertebral fractures. The objective of this study was to review the clinical and radiological results after kyphoplasty in patients with vertebral body compression fractures

Sedat Dalbayrak; Mehmet Re?id Önen; Mesut Y?lmaz; Sait Naderi

2010-01-01

361

The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of specific criteria for the definition of vertebral fracture has major implications for assessing the apparent prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformity. Also, little is known of the effect of using different criteria for new vertebral fractures in clinical studies. We therefore developed radiological criteria for vertebral fracture in women for assessing both the prevalence and the incidence

E. V. McCloskey; T. D. Spector; K. S. Eyres; E. D. Fern; N. O'Rourke; S. Vasikaran; J. A. Kanis

1993-01-01

362

Visual Assessment of Vertebral Deformity by X-ray Absorptiometry: A Highly Predictive Method to Exclude Vertebral Deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The accurate identification of prevalent vertebral fractures is important in both the clinical and research setting as they\\u000a are associated with increased risk of further fracture and irreversible clinical consequences. This study reports a direct\\u000a comparison of prevalent vertebral deformity identification using X-ray absorptiometry (XA) scans, acquired on a dual-energy\\u000a X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine, and conventional radiographs in a

J. A. Rea; J. Li; G. M. Blake; P. Steiger; H. K. Genant; I. Fogelman

2000-01-01

363

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Color Key  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A color bar is displayed below the data. This animation is a minor revision of animation ID 790.

Shirah, Greg; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2004-02-09

364

Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

365

The Pioneer anomaly and the holographic scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the recently obtained relation between the Verlinde's holographic model and the first phenomenological Modified Newtonian dynamics. This gives also a promising possible explanation to the Pioneer anomaly.

Giné, Jaume

2012-01-01

366

Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

1984-01-01

367

Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

2005-07-11

368

Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

Shea, James H.

1988-01-01

369

Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging and Anomaly Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed and applied successfully new algorithms for hyperspectral imagery. These include compressive sensing, anomaly detection, target detection, endmember detection, unmixing and change detection. These were tested on data provided by AFRL wit...

K. Kelly P. Thiyanarantnam S. Chen S. Osher W. Yin

2013-01-01

370

Principal Component-based Anomaly Detection Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, a novel anomaly detection scheme that uses a robust principal component classifier (PCC) to handle computer\\u000a network security problems is proposed. An intrusion predictive model is constructed from the major and minor principal components\\u000a of the normal instances, where the difference of an anomaly from the normal instance is the distance in the principal component\\u000a space. The

Mei-ling Shyu; Shu-ching Chen; Kanoksri Sarinnapakorn; Liwu Chang

2006-01-01

371

Potter syndrome with an unusual cardiac anomaly  

PubMed Central

Potter syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterised by bilateral renal agenesis, pulmonary hypoplasia, cardiac, skeletal abnormalities and maternal oligohydramnios. Here we report a case of Potter syndrome with bilateral renal agenesis, pulmonary hypoplasia and complete transposition of the great vessels, which had been identified during a post-mortem examination. Although cardiac anomalies are known to exist with Potter syndrome, complete transposition of the great vessels has not been reported in the literature.

Prabhu, Savit; Sigamani, Elanthenral; Das, Prasenjit; Sasi, Arun; Safaya, Rajni

2009-01-01

372

ANOMALY-BASED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new lossy compression algorithm for hyperspectral images, which is based on spectral principal component analysis (PCA), followed by JPEG2000 (JP2K). The approach employs an anomaly-removal model in the compression process to preserve anomalous pixels. Results on two different hyperspectral image scenes show that the new algorithm not only provides good post-compression anomaly-detection performance but also improves rate-

Qian Du; Wei Zhu; James E. Fowler

2009-01-01

373

Anomaly-Based Hyperspectral Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new lossy compression algorithm for hyperspectral images, which is based on spectral principal component analysis (PCA), followed by JPEG2000 (JP2K). The approach employs an anomaly-removal model in the compression process to preserve anomalous pixels. Results on two different hyperspectral image scenes show that the new algorithm not only provides good post-compression anomaly-detection performance but also improves rate-distortion

Qian Du; Wei Zhu; James E. Fowler

2008-01-01

374

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

375

Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]?H??d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of ?-cohomology group, H??d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that H??d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

Wen, Xiao-Gang

2013-08-01

376

Statistics and Dynamics of Persistent Anomalies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent anomalies with recurrent spatial patterns play an important role in the atmosphere's low-frequency variability. We establish a connection between statistical and dynamical methods of description and prediction of persistent anomalies. This is done by computing and analyzing the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) in a simple deterministic model, on the one hand, and in Southern Hemisphere geopotential heights, on the other.The dynamical model is governed by the fully nonlinear, equivalent-barotropic vorticity equation on the sphere, with simplified forcing, dissipation and topography. Model solutions exhibit persistent anomalies identifiable with blocked, zonal and wave-train anomalies in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric data. Flow structures similar to the patterns above occur as high-variance EOFs of this nonlinear model.The Southern Hemisphere data we analyze consist in gridded daily maps of 500 mb heights from June 1972 to July 1983. Two types of persistent anomalies appear in this time series, both having a strong wavenumber-three component; they differ by the value of the constant phase of this wave and by the strength of the wavenumber-one component. The first two EOFs bear a striking resemblance to these two patterns.We conclude that the dynamical interpretation of EOFs is their pointing from the time mean to the most populated regions of the system's phase space. Pursuing this interpretation, we introduce a Markov-chain formulation of transitions from one persistent anomaly regime to another, and discuss the implications for long-range forecasting.

Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael

1987-03-01

377

Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

McIntosh, Dawn

2006-01-01

378

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36).  

PubMed

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53-100% identity as compared with 29-32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 'short loops'; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36. PMID:24970143

Holmes, Roger S

2012-01-01

379

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)  

PubMed Central

Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and SCARB2 genes. These suggested that CD36 originated in an ancestral genome and was subsequently duplicated to form three vertebrate CD36 gene family members, SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36.

Holmes, Roger S.

2012-01-01

380

Back pain caused by a pseudo-tumorous vertebral collapse: atypical presentation of primary vertebral hydatidosis  

PubMed Central

Hydatidosis, also known as echinococcosis, is a rare but serious parasitic disease in endemic areas. Primary spinal location is extremely rare. This case report describes a rare instance of hydatid cyst that caused severe and progressive low-back pain and neurologic dysfunction. Spine MRI showed a unique vertebral collapse of Th12 body with multicystic lesions filling the spinal canal. In addition, hydatidosis serodiagnostic test was positive at 1/725. Treatment depended on the actual surgical removal of the cysts. Surgery consisted in excision and extirpation of the cysts, associated with decompressive laminectomy. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histological results. No coincidental hydatid visceral involvement was found. Antihelminthic drugs (Albendazole) were promptly given before surgery for a long period. The outcome was satisfactorily marked by total regression of the motor deficit and sphincter disorders.

Mrabet, D; Rekik, S; Khiari, H; Mizouni, H; Meddeb, N; Cheour, I; Elleuch, M; Mnif, E; Mrabet, A; Sahli, H; Sellami, S

2011-01-01

381

The genetic basis of modularity in the development and evolution of the vertebrate dentition.  

PubMed Central

The construction of organisms from units that develop under semi-autonomous genetic control (modules) has been proposed to be an important component of their ability to undergo adaptive phenotypic evolution. The organization of the vertebrate dentition as a system of repeated parts provides an opportunity to study the extent to which phenotypic modules, identified by their evolutionary independence from other such units, are related to modularity in the genetic control of development. The evolutionary history of vertebrates provides numerous examples of both correlated and independent evolution of groups of teeth. The dentition itself appears to be a module of the dermal exoskeleton, from which it has long been under independent genetic control. Region-specific tooth loss has been a common trend in vertebrate evolution. Novel deployment of teeth and reacquisition of lost teeth have also occurred, although less frequently. Tooth shape differences within the dentition may be discontinuous (referred to as heterodonty) or graded. The occurrence of homeotic changes in tooth shape provides evidence for the decoupling of tooth shape and location in the course of evolution. Potential mechanisms for region-specific evolutionary tooth loss are suggested by a number of mouse gene knockouts and human genetic dental anomalies, as well as a comparison between fully-developed and rudimentary teeth in the dentition of rodents. These mechanisms include loss of a tooth-type-specific initiation signal, alterations of the relative strength of inductive and inhibitory signals acting at the time of tooth initiation and the overall reduction in levels of proteins required for the development of all teeth. Ectopic expression of tooth initiation signals provides a potential mechanism for the novel deployment or reacquisition of teeth; a single instance is known of a gene whose ectopic expression in transgenic mice can lead to ectopic teeth. Differences in shape between incisor and molar teeth in the mouse have been proposed to be controlled by the region-specific expression of signalling molecules in the oral epithelium. These molecules induce the expression of transcription factors in the underlying jaw mesenchyme that may act as selectors of tooth type. It is speculated that shifts in the expression domains of the epithelial signalling molecules might be responsible for homeotic changes in tooth shape. The observation that these molecules are regionally restricted in the chicken, whose ancestors were not heterodont, suggests that mammalian heterodonty may have evolved through the use of patterning mechanisms already acting on skeletal elements of the jaws. In general, genetic and morphological approaches identify similar types of modules in the dentition, but the data are not yet sufficient to identify exact correspondences. It is speculated that modularity may be achieved by gene expression differences between teeth or by differences in the time of their development, causing mutations to have cumulative effects on later-developing teeth. The mammalian dentition, for which virtually all of the available developmental genetic data have been collected, represents a small subset of the dental diversity present in vertebrates as a whole. In particular, teleost fishes may have a much more extensive dentition. Extension of research on the genetic control of tooth development to this and other vertebrate groups has great potential to further the understanding of modularity in the dentition.

Stock, D W

2001-01-01

382

New views of the spherical Bouguer gravity anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a number of new concepts concerning the gravity anomaly. First, it identifies a distinct difference between a surface (2-D) gravity anomaly (the difference between actual gravity on one surface and normal gravity on another surface) and a solid (3-D) gravity anomaly defined in the fundamental gravimetric equation. Second, it introduces the `no topography' gravity anomaly (which turns

P. Vanícek; R. Tenzer; L. E. Sjöberg; Z. Martinec; W. E. Featherstone

2004-01-01

383

A new method for gravity anomaly distortion correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using gravity anomaly covariance function based on second-order Gaussian Markov gravity anomaly potential model, the state equation of gravity anomaly signal is obtained in marine gravimetry. Combined with the system state equation and the measurement equation, a new method of cascade Kalman filter is proposed and applied to the correction of gravity anomaly distortion. In the signal processing procedure, inverse

Liye Zhao; Hongsheng Li

2008-01-01

384

Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation - Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study identifying horizontal and vertical structures of low patterns occurring with persistent 500 mb height anomalies in the central North Pacific, eastern North Atlantic, and northern Soviet Union regions is presented. The flow patterns of positive and negative anomalies are compared. The relationship between persistent anomalies and small recurrent anomaly patterns is examined. The temporal fluctuations of the persistent patterns are analyzed.

Dole, R. M.

1986-01-01

385

Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors  

PubMed Central

Background A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and of the cellular components of the olfactory system. Results We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs. Conclusion Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining receptor conformation or regulating receptor activity. We anticipate that the identification of vertebrate OR orthologs in amphioxus will lead to an improved understanding of OR gene family evolution, OR gene function, and the mechanisms that control cell-specific expression, axonal guidance, signal transduction and signal integration.

Churcher, Allison M; Taylor, John S

2009-01-01

386

The origin and evolution of vertebrate glycine transporters.  

PubMed

In the vertebrate central nervous system, glycinergic neurotransmission is regulated by the action of the glycine transporters 1 and 2 (GlyT1 and GlyT2)--members of the solute carrier family 6 (SLC6). Several invertebrate deuterostomes have two paralogous glycine carrier genes, with one gene in the pair having greater sequence identity and higher alignment scores with respect to GlyT1 and the other paralog showing greater similarity to GlyT2. In phylogenetic trees, GlyT2-like sequences from invertebrate deuterostomes form a monophyletic subclade with vertebrate GlyT2, while invertebrate GlyT1-like proteins constitute an outgroup to both the GlyT2-like proteins and to vertebrate GlyT1 sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vertebrate GlyT1 and GlyT2 are, respectively, derived from GlyT1- and GlyT2-like genes in invertebrate deuterostomes. This implies that the gene duplication which gave rise to these paralogs occurred prior to the origin of vertebrates. GlyT2 subsequently diverged significantly from its invertebrate orthologs (i.e., through the acquisition of a unique N-terminus) as a consequence of functional specialization, being expressed principally in the lower CNS; while GlyT1 has activity in both the lower CNS and several regions of the forebrain. PMID:24619162

Shpak, Max; Gentil, Luciana Girotto; Miranda, Manuel

2014-04-01

387

Vertebrate extinctions and survival across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical analysis of the fossil vertebrate record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary shows that the available evidence is far less accurate than that concerning invertebrates and microfossils. Far-reaching conclusions have been drawn from generalisations about vertebrate extinctions in the continental realm based on the local record from western North America, but little is known about patterns of terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions in other parts of the world, and even the western North American record is ambiguous. Despite this unsatisfactory record, it clearly appears that terminal Cretaceous vertebrate extinctions were highly selective, with some groups (e.g. dinosaurs) becoming completely extinct, whereas others seem to be virtually unaffected. This argues against devastating catastrophes of the kind postulated by some recent impact scenarios. However, the survival of groups known to be sensitive to climatic deterioration (such as crocodilians and other non-dinosaurian reptiles) indicates that alternative hypotheses involving gradual but fairly important climatic changes on a world-wide scale are not convincing either. The pattern of extinction and survival among vertebrates across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary may be explained as a consequence of the disruption of some food chains following a crisis in the plant kingdom, which itself may have been the result of the atmospheric consequences of unusual extraterrestrial or internal events.

Buffetaut, Eric

1990-01-01

388

Insights from Amphioxus into the Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage  

PubMed Central

Central to the story of vertebrate evolution is the origin of the vertebrate head, a problem difficult to approach using paleontology and comparative morphology due to a lack of unambiguous intermediate forms. Embryologically, much of the vertebrate head is derived from two ectodermal tissues, the neural crest and cranial placodes. Recent work in protochordates suggests the first chordates possessed migratory neural tube cells with some features of neural crest cells. However, it is unclear how and when these cells acquired the ability to form cellular cartilage, a cell type unique to vertebrates. It has been variously proposed that the neural crest acquired chondrogenic ability by recruiting proto-chondrogenic gene programs deployed in the neural tube, pharynx, and notochord. To test these hypotheses we examined the expression of 11 amphioxus orthologs of genes involved in neural crest chondrogenesis. Consistent with cellular cartilage as a vertebrate novelty, we find that no single amphioxus tissue co-expresses all or most of these genes. However, most are variously co-expressed in mesodermal derivatives. Our results suggest that neural crest-derived cartilage evolved by serial cooption of genes which functioned primitively in mesoderm.

Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

2007-01-01

389

The common ancestral core of vertebrate and fungal telomerase RNAs  

PubMed Central

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein with an intrinsic telomerase RNA (TER) component. Within yeasts, TER is remarkably large and presents little similarity in secondary structure to vertebrate or ciliate TERs. To better understand the evolution of fungal telomerase, we identified 74 TERs from Pezizomycotina and Taphrinomycotina subphyla, sister clades to budding yeasts. We initially identified TER from Neurospora crassa using a novel deep-sequencing–based approach, and homologous TER sequences from available fungal genome databases by computational searches. Remarkably, TERs from these non-yeast fungi have many attributes in common with vertebrate TERs. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of highly conserved regions within Pezizomycotina TERs revealed two core domains nearly identical in secondary structure to the pseudoknot and CR4/5 within vertebrate TERs. We then analyzed N. crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomerase reconstituted in vitro, and showed that the two RNA core domains in both systems can reconstitute activity in trans as two separate RNA fragments. Furthermore, the primer-extension pulse-chase analysis affirmed that the reconstituted N. crassa telomerase synthesizes TTAGGG repeats with high processivity, a common attribute of vertebrate telomerase. Overall, this study reveals the common ancestral cores of vertebrate and fungal TERs, and provides insights into the molecular evolution of fungal TER structure and function.

Qi, Xiaodong; Li, Yang; Honda, Shinji; Hoffmann, Steve; Marz, Manja; Mosig, Axel; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Stadler, Peter F.; Selker, Eric U.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

2013-01-01

390

Management of tumor adherent to the vertebral column.  

PubMed

Twelve patients with non-small cell lung cancer had tumors that were adherent to the vertebral column and clinically suspected of invading the bone. All were free of mediastinal node involvement as assessed by pretreatment mediastinoscopy. All received 3000 rads of preoperative radiation followed by en bloc resection of the lung and a tangential portion of the involved vertebral bodies. A complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy was also performed. Three patients had true Pancoast's syndrome and in the remaining nine the tumor was located above T6 with the majority in the apex of the chest. Resectability was based on the absence of tumor extension into the costotransverse foramen and the extent of vertebral body involvement. Detailed studies of the decalcified surgical specimen show that the tumor extended into the cortex in two patients, periosteum in six, parietal in three, and up to the visceral pleura in one. Six patients are alive after 1 to 11 years (four beyond 5 years) without evidence of recurrent tumor and arthritic pain. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier method) was 42%. In patients with tumors adherent to the vertebral body and no evidence of roentgenographic erosion, the en bloc removal of the lung and the involved portion of the vertebral body is required for complete excision and is associated with long-term survival without sequelae. PMID:2537446

DeMeester, T R; Albertucci, M; Dawson, P J; Montner, S M

1989-03-01

391

Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.  

PubMed

Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies. PMID:12592127

Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

2003-03-01

392

Aggregation and Thresholding Schemes for Anomaly-Based Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly-based approaches often require multiple profiles and models in order to characterize different aspects of normal behaviors.\\u000a In particular, anomaly scores of audit events are obtained by aggregating several local anomaly scores. Remarkably, most works\\u000a focus on profile\\/model definition while critical issues of anomaly measuring, aggregating and thresholding are dealt with\\u000a ”simplistically”. This paper addresses the issue of anomaly scoring

Salem Benferhat; Karim Tabia

393

Erythropoiesis and red cell function in vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

All vertebrate embryos produce a specific erythroid cell population--primitive erythrocytes--early in development. These cells are characterized by expression of the specific embryonic haemoglobins. Many aspects of primitive erythropoiesis and the physiological function of primitive red cells are still enigmatic. Nevertheless, recent years have seen intensive efforts to characterize in greater detail the molecular events underlying the initiation of erythropoiesis in vertebrate embryos. Several key genes have been identified that are necessary for primitive and the subsequent definitive erythropoiesis, which differs in several aspect from primitive erythropoiesis. This review gives in its first part a short overview dealing with comparative aspects of primitive and early definitive erythropoiesis in higher and lower vertebrates and in the second part we discuss the physiological function of primitive red cells based mainly on results from mammalian and avian embryos. PMID:16281952

Baumann, R; Dragon, S

2005-12-01

394

Fish and frogs: models for vertebrate cilia signaling  

PubMed Central

The presence of cilia in many vertebrate cell types and its function has been ignored for many years. Only in the past few years has its importance been rediscovered. In part, this was triggered by the realization that many gene products mutated in polycystic kidney diseases are localized to cilia and dysfunctional cilia result in kidney disease. Another breakthrough was the observation that the establishment of the left-right body axis is dependent on cilia function. Since then, many other developmental paradigms have been shown to rely on cilia-dependent signaling. In addition to mouse and Chlamydomonas, lower vertebrate model systems such as zebrafish, medaka and Xenopus have provided important new insights into cilia signaling and its role during embryonic development. This review will summarize those studies. We will also illustrate how these lower vertebrates are promising model systems for future studies defining the physiological function of cilia during organogenesis and disease pathophysiology.

Wessely, Oliver; Obara, Tomoko

2013-01-01

395

RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development  

PubMed Central

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left–right patterning.

Chung, Mei-I; Peyrot, Sara M.; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Park, Tae Joo; McGary, Kriston L.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Wallingford, John B.

2012-01-01

396

RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development.  

PubMed

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left-right patterning. PMID:22227339

Chung, Mei-I; Peyrot, Sara M; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Park, Tae Joo; McGary, Kriston L; Marcotte, Edward M; Wallingford, John B

2012-03-01

397

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications.  

PubMed

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

398

Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

Niimura, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

399

Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy.

Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

2014-01-01

400

Vertebral fracture assessment: the 2005 ISCD Official Positions.  

PubMed

Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) is a low radiation method for imaging the thoraco-lumbar spine using bone densitometers. VFA can easily be performed at the time of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, allowing integration of BMD and vertebral fracture information into clinical patient care. As VFA is a relatively new procedure, it has received limited study and heretofore has not had widespread clinical application. Consequently, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) considered the following VFA issues at the 2005 Position Development Conference: (1) indications for VFA; (2) methodology for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures using VFA; and (3) indications for additional imaging after VFA. The ISCD Official Positions with respect to the above issues, as well as the rationale and evidence used to derive these positions, are presented here. PMID:16731430

Vokes, Tamara; Bachman, Donald; Baim, Sanford; Binkley, Neil; Broy, Susan; Ferrar, Lynne; Lewiecki, E Michael; Richmond, Bradford; Schousboe, John

2006-01-01

401

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens.

402

The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications  

PubMed Central

An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes.

Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

2014-01-01

403

Ghrelin: a multifunctional hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates.  

PubMed

In mammals, ghrelin is a non-amidated peptide hormone, existing in both acylated and non-acylated forms, produced mainly from the X/A or ghrelin cells present in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), and functions primarily as a GH-releasing hormone and an orexigen, as well as having several other biological actions. Among non-mammalian vertebrates, amino acid sequence of ghrelin has been reported in two species of cartilaginous fish, seven species of teleosts, two species of amphibians, one species of reptile and six species of birds. The structure and functions of ghrelin are highly conserved among vertebrates. This review presents a concise overview of ghrelin biology in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:18222718

Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Peter, Richard E; Unniappan, Suraj

2008-02-01

404

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe.

Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

2011-01-01

405

Percutaneous vertebral augmentation in metastatic disease: state of the art.  

PubMed

Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have prolonged cancer survival, with a consequent increase in the incidence of spinal metastases and vertebral compression fractures with associated axial pain, progressive radiculomyelopathy, and mechanical instability. Pain relief in malignant vertebral compression fractures is key to achieving a better quality of life in patients under palliative care. The gold standard for pain relief is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids. Nonresponsive cases are then treated with radiotherapy, which may require 2-4 weeks to take effect and in most cases does not provide complete pain relief. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty can in particular give relief in patients with vertebral body compression fractures that do not cause neurological deficits but severely compromise quality of life because of intractable pain. PMID:21465731

Tancioni, Flavio; Lorenzetti, Martin A; Navarria, Pierina; Pessina, Federico; Draghi, Riccardo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Scorsetti, Marta; Alloisio, Marco; Santoro, Armando; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

2011-01-01

406

Congenital Pelger-Hu?t anomaly in a Danish/Swedish Farmdog: Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 13 year old Danish/Swedish Farmdog from Denmark was evaluated in a veterinary clinic in Warsaw, Poland for evaluation of an orthopedic problem. Radiographs revealed spondylosis and degenerative vertebral disease, which responded to treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. A predominance of hyposegmented neutrophils and eosinophils containing condensed chromatin and normal cytoplasm were identified on a routine CBC. Follow-up blood film evaluations over the course of 12 months confirmed that the hyposegmented granulocytes persisted. The majority of neutrophils contained Grade 2 nuclei (slightly indented), and the mean nuclear score varied from 1.9 to 2.3. Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA), presumably congenital, was diagnosed based on persistent hyposegmented granulocytes in the absence of an underlying cause for acquired PHA; genetically related dogs were unavailable for testing to confirm vertical transmission. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of PHA in a Danish/Swedish Farmdog.

2011-01-01

407

Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes.  

PubMed

The detection and localization of anomalous behaviors in crowded scenes is considered, and a joint detector of temporal and spatial anomalies is proposed. The proposed detector is based on a video representation that accounts for both appearance and dynamics, using a set of mixture of dynamic textures models. These models are used to implement 1)~a center-surround discriminant saliency detector that produces spatial saliency scores, and 2)~a model of normal behavior that is learned from training data and produces temporal saliency scores. Spatial and temporal anomaly maps are then defined at multiple spatial scales, by considering the scores of these operators at progressively larger regions of support. The multi-scale scores act as potentials of a conditional random field that guarantees global consistency of the anomaly judgments. A dataset of densely crowded pedestrian walkways is introduced and used to evaluate the proposed anomaly detector. Experiments on this and other datasets show that the latter achieves state-of-the-art anomaly detection results. PMID:23775463

Li, Weixin; Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno

2013-06-12

408

New type of anomaly in turbulence.  

PubMed

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ?[over ¯], remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du^{2}/dt?=-4?[over ¯] at t=0, where u[over ?] is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du^{2}/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times. PMID:25062187

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-11

409

Anomaly detection and localization in crowded scenes.  

PubMed

The detection and localization of anomalous behaviors in crowded scenes is considered, and a joint detector of temporal and spatial anomalies is proposed. The proposed detector is based on a video representation that accounts for both appearance and dynamics, using a set of mixture of dynamic textures models. These models are used to implement 1) a center-surround discriminant saliency detector that produces spatial saliency scores, and 2) a model of normal behavior that is learned from training data and produces temporal saliency scores. Spatial and temporal anomaly maps are then defined at multiple spatial scales, by considering the scores of these operators at progressively larger regions of support. The multiscale scores act as potentials of a conditional random field that guarantees global consistency of the anomaly judgments. A data set of densely crowded pedestrian walkways is introduced and used to evaluate the proposed anomaly detector. Experiments on this and other data sets show that the latter achieves state-of-the-art anomaly detection results. PMID:24231863

Li, Weixin; Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno

2014-01-01

410

Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

2009-01-01

411

Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?  

PubMed

Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour. PMID:23658679

McInnes, Lynsey; Jones, F Andrew; Orme, C David L; Sobkowiak, Benjamin; Barraclough, Timothy G; Chase, Mark W; Govaerts, Rafaël; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent

2013-01-01

412

Relationship between New Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Instrumented Lumbar Arthrodesis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between a new osteoporotic vertebral fracture and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Overview of Literature In contrast to the growing recognition of the importance of adjacent segment disease after lumbar arthrodesis, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty five patients with a thoracolumbar vertebral fracture following instrumented arthrodesis for degenerative lumbar disorders (study group) were investigated. The influence of instrumented lumbar arthrodesis was examined by comparing the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck in the study group with that of 28 patients (control group) who had sustained a simple osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The fracture after instrumented arthrodesis was diagnosed at a mean 47 months (range, 7 to 100 months) after the surgery. Results There was a relatively better BMD in the study group, 0.67 ± 0.12 g/cm2 compared to the control group, 0.60 ± 0.13 g/cm2 (p = 0.013). The level of back pain improved from a mean of 7.5 ± 1.0 at the time of the fracture to a mean of 4.9 ± 2.0 at 1 year after the fracture (p = 0.001). However, 12 (48%) patients complained of severe back pain 1 year after the fracture. There was negative correlation between the BMD of the femoral neck and back pain at the last follow up (r = - 0.455, p = 0.022). Conclusions Osteoporotic vertebral fractures after instrumented arthrodesis contribute to the aggravation of back pain and the final outcome of degenerative lumbar disorders. Therefore, it is important to examine the possibility of new osteoporotic vertebral fractures for new-onset back pain after lumbar instrumented arthrodesis.

Kim, Bung-Hak; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Jeon, Seong-Hun

2010-01-01

413

Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

414

Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players  

PubMed Central

There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n?=?52) and union (n?=?43) players (n?=?95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (?2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n?=?23), T9 (n?=?18) and T10 (n?=?21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

2014-01-01

415

Giant pseudoaneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery: case report.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial vertebral artery are extremely rare due to their deep location and the anatomical protection of this artery. They can be caused by cervical traumas (firearm injuries, sports, hyperextension of the neck and iatrogeny). The authors report the case of a patient who developed a giant pseudoaneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery after surgery for the removal of a tumor of the cerebellopontine angle in which surgical lesion of the artery occurred. Treatment was performed by endovascular approach. Literature is reviewed and comments are made on the physiopathogeny of the lesion and the different forms of treatment. PMID:8984990

Gallo, P; Dalacorte, A; Raupp, E; Santos, A J; Frank, M R; Saraiva, G A

1996-06-01

416

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland.  

PubMed

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation. PMID:20213300

Godfrey, Stephen J; Smith, Joshua B

2010-05-01

417

Lumbo-Costo-Vertebral Syndrome with Congenital Lumbar Hernia  

PubMed Central

Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done.

Gupta, Lucky; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

2014-01-01

418

Molecular genetics and the evolution of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Despite the biological importance of UV vision, its molecular bases are not well understood. Here, we present evidence that UV vision in vertebrates is determined by eight specific amino acids in the UV pigments. Amino acid sequence analyses show that contemporary UV pigments inherited their UV sensitivities from the vertebrate ancestor by retaining most of these eight amino acids. In the avian lineage, the ancestral pigment lost UV sensitivity, but some descendants regained it by one amino acid change. Our results also strongly support the hypothesis that UV pigments have an unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore.

Shi, Yongsheng; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Yokoyama, Shozo

2001-01-01

419

Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

2010-05-01

420

Quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses\\u000a to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of\\u000a gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  To consistently quantify losses of orthologous groups of genes, we compared the gene repertoires of five vertebrates

Stefan Wyder; Evgenia V Kriventseva; Reinhard Schröder; Tatsuhiko Kadowaki; Evgeny M Zdobnov

2007-01-01

421

iBioSeminar: The Origin of Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern cell and developmental biology has a lot to contribute to our understanding of the deep history of animal origins, which until recently has been largely the province of paleontology. In this set of lectures, I hope to show how recent studies by a very small group of scientists on a virtually unknown phylum of marine organisms, the hemichordates, has helped explain some of the major mysteries of the origin of vertebrates. This is a tour of not only vertebrate origins but the contribution that modern molecular and genomic tools are making to developmental biology.

Marc W. Kirschner (Harvard Medical School/Systems Biology;)

2008-01-01

422

[Numerical anomalies of the dentition with respect to various types of teeth. 2. (Molars and multiple anomalies). Dentition anomalies among cases of a district dentist, 7].  

PubMed

The significance of the numerical anomalies of the teeth is seen for the general medical science that it may be helpful for solving of questions raised by other hereditary anomalies. This report deals with the numerical anomalies of the molars, and it reports the variety of the multiple numerical anomalies. The latters may appear very multifarously and may occur extremities (complete edentulousness and jaw bone doubling, respectively), too. PMID:2201575

Sárhegyi, J

1990-06-01

423

The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

Haggerty, S. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

424

How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?  

PubMed

Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

2014-07-21

425

Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

426

Anomaly mediation in local effective theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon known as "anomaly mediation" can be understood in a variety of ways. Rather than an anomaly, certain gaugino bilinear terms are required by local supersymmetry and gauge invariance (the derivation of these terms is in some cases related to anomalies in scale invariance or R symmetries). We explain why the gaugino bilinear is required in supersymmetric gauge theories with varying number of colors and flavors. By working in the Higgs phase, gauging a flavor group, or working below the scale of gaugino condensation, each of these theories has a local effective description in which we can identify the bilinear term, establishing its necessity in the microscopic theory. For example, in theories that exhibit gaugino condensation, the potential in the very low energy theory is supersymmetric precisely due to the relation between the nonperturbative superpotential and the gaugino bilinear terms. Similarly, the gravitino mass appears from its coupling to the gaugino bilinear.

Dine, Michael; Draper, Patrick

2014-02-01

427

Universality and ambiguities of the conformal anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-loop structure of the trace anomaly is investigated using different regularizations and renormalization schemes: dimensional, proper time and Pauli Villars. The universality of this anomaly is analysed from a very general perspective. The Euler and Weyl terms of the anomalous trace of the stress tensor are absolutely universal. The pure derivative squR term is shown to be universal only if the regularization breaks conformal symmetry softly. If the breaking of conformal symmetry by the regularization method is hard the coefficient of this term might become arbitrary which points out the presence of an ambiguous \\int\\sqrt{-g} R^2 term in the effective quantum action. These ambiguities arise in some prescriptions of dimensional and Pauli Villars regularizations. We discuss the implications of these results for anomaly-induced inflationary scenarios and AdS/CFT correspondence.

Asorey, M.; Gorbar, E. V.; Shapiro, I. L.

2004-01-01

428

Influence of ionospheric anomalies in the positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNSS observables depend on the satellite-receiver distance, atmospheric effects, satellite and receiver offsets and phase ambiguities, as well as satellite and receiver equipment delays. GNSS observations specific to a receiver and a satellite (undifferenced observations) can be used to estimate the ionospheric effect. In this study, different procedures are used to estimate the ionospheric delay from GNSS data belonging to permanent GPS stations. In particular, these tests intend to detect ionospheric anomalies under certain conditions in equatorial geographical latitudes. From the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimated between one GPS station and several satellites the contribution of the anomalies is isolated and its amplitude and duration are computed. Finally, an analysis of the possible influence of these anomalies in the positioning estimation is carried out.

Rodriguez-Caderot, G.; Moreno, B.; de Lacy, M. C.

2009-04-01

429

Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

1995-01-01

430

Instantons and Chiral Anomaly in Fuzzy Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In continuum physics, there are important topological aspects like instantons, ?-terms and the axial anomaly. Conventional lattice discretizations often have difficulties in treating one or the other of these aspects. In this paper, we develop discrete quantum field theories on fuzzy manifolds using noncommutative geometry. Basing ourselves on previous treatments of instantons and chiral fermions (without fermion doubling) on fuzzy spaces and especially fuzzy spheres, we present discrete representations of ?-terms and topological susceptibility for gauge theories and derive axial anomaly on the fuzzy sphere. Our gauge field action for four dimensions is bounded by a constant times the modulus of the instanton number as in the continuum.

Balachandran, A. P.; Vaidya, S.

431

Thermal anomaly in Enceladus' South Pole subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 6, 2011, during the E16 flyby, the Cassini Radar had a unique opportunity to closely observe Enceladus in both its active and passive modes of operation. The E16 swath aimed at about 66°S, close to the active South polar rifted area. In this paper, we show that the radiometry data collected during this flyby revealed brightness temperatures much higher than expected, pointing to a geothermal anomaly in the subsurface. This anomaly could be indicative of a buried heat source, unless it is due to exotic thermal processes such as the solid-state greenhouse effect.

Le Gall, A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Stolzenbach, A.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K.; Ries, P.

2013-09-01

432

Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Path integrals provide a powerful method for describing quantum phenomena. This book introduces the quantum mechanics of particles moving in curved space by employing path integrals and then using them to compute anomalies in quantum field theories. These anomalies provide enormous constraints in the search for physical theories such as those of elementary particles, quantum gravity and string theories. An advanced text for researchers and graduate students of quantum field theory and string theory, the first part is also a stand-alone introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics.

Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; van Nieuwenhuizen, Peter

433

Resistance anomaly in disordered superconducting films.  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on a resistance anomaly in disordered superconducting films containing arrays of irregularly distributed nanoscale holes. At high driving currents, peaks appear in the resistance as a function of temperature, with peak values up to 2% above the classic normal-state resistance. The authors attribute the observed resistance anomaly to dissipation-induced granularity which enhances the contributions from fluctuation-induced reduction of the density of states of the quasiparticles. The granular feature of a disordered superconducting film originates from the inhomogeneous temperature distribution caused by the variation of the local dissipation and/or heat transfer.

Hua, J.; Xiao, Z. L.; Rosenmann, D.; Beloborodov, I.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.; Materials Science Division; Northern Illinois Univ.

2007-01-01

434

Developmental venous anomaly responsible for hemifacial spasm.  

PubMed

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial movement disorder characterized by involuntary, unilateral and intermittent contractions of the facial muscles. It is one of the syndromes related to neurovascular conflict, first described by Jannetta et al. in 1979. Typically, HFS is due to pulsatile compression by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. We describe a rare case of left developmental venous anomaly in a 59-year-old man referred to us with a six-month history of left-sided HFS. We performed an MR study of the brain and cerebellopontine angles, which demonstrated a compression of the ipsilateral facial nerve by the developmental venous anomaly. PMID:23859243

Chiaramonte, R; Bonfiglio, M; D'Amore, A; Chiaramonte, I

2013-04-01

435

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

436

The source of marine magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

Harrison, Christopher G. A.

1987-01-01

437

Fatty Acid Composition of Myelin Proteolipid Protein During Vertebrate Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrophobic myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) contains covalently bound long-chain fatty acids which are attached to intracellular cysteine residues via thioester linkages. To gain insight into the role of acylation in the structure and function of myelin PLP, the amount and pattern of acyl groups attached to the protein during vertebrate evolution was determined. PLP isolated from brain myelin of

Oscar A. Bizzozero; Marjorie B. Lees

1999-01-01

438

The making of the somite: molecular events in vertebrate segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reiterated structures of the vertebrate axial skeleton, spinal nervous system and body muscle are based on the metameric structure of somites, which are formed in a dynamic morphogenetic process. Somite segmentation requires the activity of a biochemical oscillator known as the somite-segmentation clock. Although the molecular identity of the clock remains unknown, genetic and experimental evidence has accumulated that

Hiroyuki Takeda; Yumiko Saga

2001-01-01

439

Case report on vertebral artery dissection in mixed martial arts.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man presented to the ED with severe vertigo 2 days after a grappling injury while training in mixed martial arts. Imaging revealed a cerebellar infarct with complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery secondary to dissection. Management options are discussed as is the ongoing controversy regarding the safety of the sport. PMID:22487672

Slowey, Michael; Maw, Graeme; Furyk, Jeremy

2012-04-01

440

Neural Crest and the Origin of Vertebrates: A New Head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the morphological and functional differences between vertebrates and other chordates occur in the head and are derived embryologically from muscularized hypomere, neural crest, and epidermal (neurogenic) placodes. In the head, the neural crest functions as mesoderm and forms connective, skeletal, and muscular tissue. Both the neural crest and the epidermal placodes form special sense organs and other neural

Carl Gans; R. Glenn Northcutt

1983-01-01

441

Genetic and Physiologic Dissection of the Vertebrate Cardiac Conduction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate hearts depend on highly specialized cardiomyocytes that form the cardiac conduction system (CCS) to coordinate chamber contraction and drive blood efficiently and unidirectionally throughout the organism. Defects in this specialized wiring system can lead to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Thus, a greater understanding of cardiac conduction development may help to prevent these devastating clinical outcomes. Utilizing a cardiac-specific

Neil C Chi; Robin M Shaw; Benno Jungblut; Jan Huisken; Tania Ferrer; Rima Arnaout; Ian Scott; Dimitris Beis; Tong Xiao; Herwig Baier; Lily Y Jan; Martin Tristani-Firouzi; Didier Y. R Stainier

2008-01-01

442

Paleogene terrestrial vertebrates: northernmost occurrence, ellesmere island, Canada.  

PubMed

Recently discovered Paleogene land vertebrates from the Eureka Sound Formation at about latitude 78 degrees north in Arctic Canada include fish, turtles, an alligatorid, and several taxa of mammals. The assemblage, which is probably early or middle Eocene in age, adds to previously known paleobotanical evidence in suggesting temperate to warm-temperate climatic conditions. PMID:17777182

Dawson, M R; West, R M; Langston, W; Hutchison, J H

1976-05-21

443

Osteochondroma of C1 causing vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Spinal osteochondromas constitute a small percentage of all intraspinal tumours, and are a rare cause of neurological symptoms. We describe a patient with a vertebral artery occlusion secondary to an osteochondroma of the C1 vertebra presenting with symptoms of cerebral ischaemia. This case is reported because of its extreme rarity. PMID:22844969

Altaf, Farhaan; Movlik, Harvard; Brew, Stefan; Rezajooi, Kia; Casey, Adrian

2013-02-01

444

The Organizational Concept and Vertebrates without Sex Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity in vertebrate reproductive patterns provides natural experiments that yield new insights into behavioral endocrinology. Discussed here is the generality of the concept of an organizing sex during sexual differentiation. In its present form the Organizational Concept emphasizes hormonally induced organization of the male phenotype, with the female phenotype being the neutral or default condition. Does this concept extend