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1

Interface science of controlled metal/metal and metal/ceramic interfaces prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, constructed, and are operating a capability for production of controlled homophase and heterophase interfaces: an ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding machine. This machine is based on a previous design which is operating at the Max Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Stuttgart, FRG. In this method, flat-polished single or polycrystals of materials with controlled surfaced topography can be heat treated up to 1500C in ultrahigh vacuum. Surfaces of annealed samples can be sputter cleaned and characterized prior to bonding. Samples can then be precisely aligned crystallographically to obtain desired grain boundary misorientations. Material couples can then be bonded at temperatures up to 1500C and pressures up to 10 MPa. Results are presented from initial work on Mo grain boundaries and Cu/Al{sub 2}A{sub 3} interfaces.

King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Coombs, A.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Kelly, B.E.; Reitz, T.C.; Stoner, S.L.; Wien, W.L.; Wilson, D.M.

1993-04-01

2

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01

3

Diffusion bonding of titanium to 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion bonding between commercially pure titanium and an austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) has been carried out in the temperature range of 850–950 °C for 2 h at uniaxial pressure of 3 MPa in vacuum. The microstructure of the diffusion zone has been analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interdiffusion of the diffusing species across the interface

M. Ghosh; K. Bhanumurthy; G. B Kale; J. Krishnan; S. Chatterjee

2003-01-01

4

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

5

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

6

Electrospray emitters For diffusion vacuum pumps  

E-print Network

Following similar principles as regular diffusion vacuum pumps, an electrospray emitter is set to produce a jet of charged particles that will drag air molecules out of a volume. To be a feasible concept, the emitted ...

Diaz Gómez Maqueo, Pablo (Pablo Ly)

2011-01-01

7

Interface nanochemistry effects on stainless steel diffusion bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion-bonding behavior of single-phase austenitic stainless steel depends strongly on the chemistry of the surfaces to be bounded. We found that very smooth (0.5 nm root-mean-square (RMS) roughness), mechanically polished and lapped substrates would bond completely in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in 1 hour at 1000 °C under 3.5 MPa uniaxial pressure, if the native oxide on the substrates was removed by ion-beam cleaning, as shown by in-situ Auger analysis. No voids were observed in these bonded interfaces by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the strength was equal to that of the unbounded bare material. No bond formed between the substrates if in-situ ion cleaning was not used. The rougher cleaned substrates partially bonded, indicating that roughness, as well as native oxides, reduced the bonding kinetics.

Cox, M. J.; Carpenter, R. W.; Kim, M. J.

2002-02-01

8

Diffusion bonding of superplastic aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

Ability to diffusion bond aluminum alloys, in particular superplastic aluminum alloys, will complete the technology-base that is strongly needed to enhance the use of superplastic forming (SPF) technology. Concurrent diffusion bonding (DB)-SPF is considered to be an energy-saving manufacturing process since it simplifies the production of complex components. Moreover, because of increased design flexibility, overall manufacturing cost and component weight are significantly reduced. Diffusion bonding is an attractive manufacturing option for applications where the preservation of the base metal microstructure and, in turn, mechanical properties is imperative in the bond area. The process utilizes either the solid state or transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding to produce a bond with microstructure continuity in the joint. In addition, there is no localized thermal gradient present to induce distortion or to create residual stresses in the component, thereby increasing structural integrity.

Sunwoo, A.J.

1993-12-01

9

Vacuum pull down method for an enhanced bonding process  

DOEpatents

A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

10

Vacuum Head Checks Foam/Substrate Bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical inspection system quickly gives measurements indicating adhesion, or lack thereof, between rigid polyurethane foam and aluminum substrate. Does not damage inspected article, easy to operate, and used to perform "go/no-go" evaluations or as supplement to conventional destructive pull-plug testing. Applies vacuum to small area of foam panel and measures distance through which foam pulled into vacuum. Probe head applied to specimen and evacuated through hose to controller/monitor unit. Digital voltmeter in unit reads deflection of LVDT probe head.

Lloyd, James F.

1989-01-01

11

A ultra-high-vacuum wafer-fusion-bonding system.  

PubMed

The design of heterojunction devices is typically limited by material integration constraints and the energy band alignment. Wafer bonding can be used to integrate material pairs that cannot be epitaxially grown together due to large lattice mismatch. Control of the energy band alignment can be provided by formation of interface dipoles through control of the surface chemistry. We have developed an ultra-high-vacuum system for wafer-fusion-bonding semiconductors with in situ control and measurement of surface properties relevant to interface dipoles. A wafer-fusion-bonding chamber with annealing capabilities was integrated into an ultra-high-vacuum system with a sputtering chamber and an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system for preparing and measuring the surface chemistry of wafers prior to bonding. The design of the system along with initial results for the fusion-bonded InGaAs/Si heterojunction is presented. PMID:22667658

McKay, Kyle; Wolter, Scott; Kim, Jungsang

2012-05-01

12

Radiant heat source, vacuum bag, provide portable bonding oven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable bonding oven is formed to any desired size or configuration to attach doublers and brackets to the surfaces of large structures. A radiant heat source is used in combination with a heat resistant transport vacuum bag and a black heat absorbing cloth.

Nicholls, A. H.

1967-01-01

13

Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

14

Using Diffusion Bonding in Making Piezoelectric Actuators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for the fabrication of piezoelectric actuators that generate acceptably large forces and deflections at relatively low applied voltages involves the stacking and diffusion bonding of multiple thin piezoelectric layers coated with film electrodes. The present technique stands in contrast to an older technique in which the layers are bonded chemically, by use of urethane or epoxy agents. The older chemical-bonding technique entails several disadvantages, including the following: It is difficult to apply the bonding agents to the piezoelectric layers. It is difficult to position the layers accurately and without making mistakes. There is a problem of disposal of hazardous urethane and epoxy wastes. The urethane and epoxy agents are nonpiezoelectric materials. As such, they contribute to the thickness of a piezoelectric laminate without contributing to its performance; conversely, for a given total thickness, the performance of the laminate is below that of a unitary piezoelectric plate of the same thickness. The figure depicts some aspects of the fabrication of a laminated piezoelectric actuator by the present diffusion- bonding technique. First, stock sheets of the piezoelectric material are inspected and tested. Next, the hole pattern shown in the figure is punched into the sheets. Alternatively, if the piezoelectric material is not a polymer, then the holes are punched in thermoplastic films. Then both faces of each punched piezoelectric sheet or thermoplastic film are coated with a silver-ink electrode material by use of a silkscreen printer. The electrode and hole patterns are designed for minimal complexity and minimal waste of material. After a final electrical test, all the coated piezoelectric layers (or piezoelectric layers and coated thermoplastic films) are stacked in an alignment jig, which, in turn, is placed in a curved press for the diffusion-bonding process. In this process, the stack is pressed and heated at a specified curing temperature and pressure for a specified curing time. The pressure, temperature, and time depend on the piezoelectric material selected. At the end of the diffusion-bonding process, the resulting laminated piezoelectric actuator is tested to verify the adequacy of the mechanical output as a function of an applied DC voltage.

Sager, Frank E.

2003-01-01

15

Vacuum bag bonding with a high temperature adhesive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel controlled molecular weight form of LARC-TPI polymide that exhibits an exceptionally high degree of melt flow in the 340-360 C temperature range has been developed. This material has been evaluated as a high-temperature adhesive, and because of its flow, cost-effective vacuum bag/oven processing can be used. Comparison of adhesive performance with higher molecular weight forms bonded at higher pressures shows this novel material to be equal in mechanical strength.

Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

1991-01-01

16

Diffusion bonding of IN 718 to VM 350 grade maraging steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion bonding studies have been conducted on IN 718, VM 350 and the dissimilar alloy couple, IN 718 to maraging steel. The experimental processing parameters critical to obtaining consistently good diffusion bonds between IN 718 and VM 350 were determined. Interrelationships between temperature, pressure and surface preparation were explored for short bending intervals under vacuum conditions. Successful joining was achieved for a range of bonding cycle temperatures, pressures and surface preparations. The strength of the weaker parent material was used as a criterion for a successful tensile test of the heat treated bond. Studies of VM-350/VM-350 couples in the as-bonded condition showed a greater yielding and failure outside the bond region.

Crosby, S. R.; Biederman, R. R.; Reynolds, C. C.

1972-01-01

17

Better vacuum by removal of diffusion-pump-oil contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation technology were achieved which resulted in a two-decade-or-more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effects of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and for reclaiming contaminated oil by high-vacuum molecular distillation are described. Conceptual self-cleansing designs and operating procedures are proposed for modifying large diffusion pumps into high-efficiency distillation devices. The potential exists for application of these technological advancements to other disciplines, such as medicine, biomedical materials, metallurgy, refining, and chemical (diffusion-enrichment) processing.

Buggele, A. E.

1975-01-01

18

Diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium to 304 stainless steel using copper interlayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion bonding was carried out between commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and 304 stainless steel (304ss) using copper as interlayer in the temperature range of 850–950°C for 1.5h under 3MPa load in vacuum. The microstructures of the transition joints were revealed in optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study exhibits the presence of different reaction layers in the diffusion zone

S. Kundu; M. Ghosh; A. Laik; K. Bhanumurthy; G. B. Kale; S. Chatterjee

2005-01-01

19

Micromachining of Pyrex 7740 Glass by Silicon Molding and Vacuum Anodic Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wafer-level processing technology that is used to precisely fabricate regular arrays of deep cavities in a Pyrex 7740 glass wafer is presented by silicon molding and vacuum anodic bonding. The fabrication process is based on etching cavities in silicon, followed by vacuum anodic bonding of a glass wafer to the etched silicon wafer. The bonded wafers are then heated

Junwen Liu; Jintang Shang; Jieying Tang; Qing-An Huang

2011-01-01

20

Isostatic diffusion bonding of IN-718SPF sheet  

SciTech Connect

Isostatic diffusion bonding represents a potentially attractive technique for joining superplastically-formable nickel-base alloys such as Inconel alloy 718SPF sheet. Isostatic diffusion bonding trials have been carried out on Inconel alloy 718SPF/Inconel alloy 718SPF couples at temperatures ranging from 950 C (1,750 F) to 1,150 C (2,100 F) and isostatic pressures ranging up to 415 MPa (60,000 psi). Materials bonded at 1,150 C and 414 MPa exhibited room temperature shear strengths nearly comparable to those of the parent metal, but also showed substantial grain growth in the base metal away from the bond plane. Materials bonded at lower temperatures exhibited similar strengths with substantially less grain coarsening. Metallographic and mechanical testing results obtained on these diffusion bonded Inconel alloy 718SPF materials are presented and compared with existing diffusion bonding models.

McKimpson, M.G. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Campbell, J.R. [Brush Wellman Inc., Elmore, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

21

Measurement of Charged Particle Current Diffused from Vacuum Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles diffused from vacuum arc can be used for thin film formation. Diffusion of particles from vacuum arc influences current breaking properties of a vacuum interrupter. For these application it is essential to clarify the behavior of particles diffused from vacuum arc at around current zero point. In this paper dependence of diffused charged particles current on the crest value of arc current before current interruption point was shown with Faraday cup in case of oxygen-free copper electrodes and CuCr (Cu:Cr=50:50) electrodes. Experimental results were as follows. Ions and electrons diffused from vacuum arc entered into the Faraday cup with pulsive and intermittent states, when vacuum arc of DC 100 A?150 A was generated in case of oxygen-free copper electrodes. This phenomenon corresponds to the behavior of cathode spots. Electron current value was about 100 times as large as ion current value. The pulse width is about 1?10?s. When the crest value of arc current were 2,000 A?10,000 A in case of oxygen-free copper electrodes and CuCr (Cu:Cr=50:50) electrodes, the amount of charged particle current for CuCr before the current interruption point was larger than those for Cu. The ratios of the ion current to the electron current diffused from vacuum arc were calculated by the waveforms of electron and ion currents. The current ratios of 0?0.02 were taken when the crest value of arc current 2,000 A?10,000 A.

Furesawa, Masamichi; Yamano, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Shinichi

22

Investigation on the diffusion bonding of tungsten and EUROFER97  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its advantages, tungsten is selected as armor and structural material for use in future fusion power plants. To apply tungsten as structural material, a joint to EUROFER97 is foreseen in current divertor design for which the diffusion bonding is considered in this work. The joining must have acceptable strength and ductility without significant change in microstructures. So far, numerous diffusion bonding experiments without and with post bonding heat treatment (PBHT) are performed at 1050 °C for various bonding duration. For the bonding processes without PBHT, the bonding seams obtained are defect free and have a very high tensile strength. However they are brittle due to a thin layer of FeW intermetallic phase and metal carbides. For the bonding processes with PBHT, the bonding specimens fail at the bonding seam.

Basuki, Widodo Widjaja; Aktaa, Jarir

2011-10-01

23

Diffusion in Nickel-Base Superalloys and Bond Coats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nickel-base superalloys are known for their high temperature strengths and their corrosion resistant properties. To increase the service temperatures of the Ni-base superalloys, thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used in conjunction with a bond coat. The role of the bond coat is to prevent diffusion between the superalloy and the TBC, especially the depletion of Al from the superalloy. Diffusion studies between various bond coat materials and Ni-base superalloys were conducted for two purposes: (1) to better understand the interaction between the bond coats and the superalloys and (2) to provide data to evaluate the current diffusion mobility database. Superalloys considered in this study were Inconel X-750, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and CMSX-4. Bond coatings considered were RuAl, PtAl, and Ni. Diffusion couples were heat treated at 1150 C and 850 C for various times. For Ni/superalloy couples, diffusion simulations using multicomponent thermodynamics and diffusion mobility databases were performed. Evaluation of the bond coats and the diffusion mobility database required measurement of phase fraction and composition profiles. Optical metallography and image analysis software were used to measure the phasefraction profiles. Electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) was used to measure the composition profiles. This data was used to determine how well the bond coatings limited diffusion of Al out of the superalloy and into the bond coat. Comparison of the measured and calculated composition profiles and phase fraction profiles indicated whether specific mobility parameters or thermodynamic descriptions should be re-evaluated.

Mesick, Nathan

2005-01-01

24

Diffusion bonding of 410 stainless steel to copper using a nickel interlayer  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, plates of stainless steel (grade 410) were joined to copper ones through a diffusion bonding process using a nickel interlayer at a temperature range of 800-950 deg. C. The bonding was performed through pressing the specimens under a 12-MPa compression load and a vacuum of 10{sup -4} torr for 60 min. The results indicated the formation of distinct diffusion zones at both Cu/Ni and Ni/SS interfaces during the diffusion bonding process. The thickness of the reaction layer in both interfaces was increased by raising the processing temperature. The phase constitutions and their related microstructure at the Cu/Ni and Ni/SS diffusion bonding interfaces were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses through energy dispersive spectrometry. The resulted penetration profiles were examined using a calibrated electron probe micro-analyzer. The diffusion transition regions near the Cu/Ni and Ni/SS interfaces consist of a complete solid solution zone and of various phases based on (Fe, Ni), (Fe, Cr, Ni) and (Fe, Cr) chemical systems, respectively. The diffusion-bonded joint processed at 900 deg. C showed the maximum shear strength of about 145 MPa. The maximum hardness was obtained at the SS-Ni interface with a value of about 432 HV.

Sabetghadam, H., E-mail: h.sabetghadam@gmail.com [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanzaki, A. Zarei [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Araee, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

25

Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide for MEMS-LDI Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust joining approach is critically needed for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems-Lean Direct Injector (MEMS-LDI) application which requires leak free joints with high temperature mechanical capability. Diffusion bonding is well suited for the MEMS-LDI application. Diffusion bonds were fabricated using titanium interlayers between silicon carbide substrates during hot pressing. The interlayers consisted of either alloyed titanium foil or physically vapor deposited (PVD) titanium coatings. Microscopy shows that well adhered, crack free diffusion bonds are formed under optimal conditions. Under less than optimal conditions, microcracks are present in the bond layer due to the formation of intermetallic phases. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases in the diffusion bond. Various compatibility issues among the phases in the interlayer and substrate are discussed. Also, the effects of temperature, pressure, time, silicon carbide substrate type, and type of titanium interlayer and thickness on the microstructure and composition of joints are discussed.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, J. Douglas

2007-01-01

26

Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide Ceramics using Titanium Interlayers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust joining approaches for silicon carbide ceramics are critically needed to fabricate leak free joints with high temperature mechanical capability. In this study, titanium foils and physical vapor deposited (PVD) titanium coatings were used to form diffusion bonds between SiC ceramics using hot pressing. Silicon carbide substrate materials used for bonding include sintered SiC and two types of CVD SiC. Microscopy results show the formation of well adhered diffusion bonds. The bond strengths as determined from pull tests are on the order of several ksi, which is much higher than required for a proposed application. Microprobe results show the distribution of silicon, carbon, titanium, and other minor elements across the diffusion bond. Compositions of several phases formed in the joint region were identified. Potential issues of material compatibility and optimal bond formation will also be discussed.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, James D.

2006-01-01

27

Application of diffusion bonding to electronic interconnection of flatpack leads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion-bonded joints between gold-plated Kovar leads and indium-plated copper circuit pads offer some advantages for electronic circuit packaging. Test results show that consistent high strength bonds stronger than the copper circuit foil are achieved by parallel-gap bonding at relatively low power settings. The bonds are basically formed by the alloying of the gold, indium and copper at the bond interface. Other low melting metals such as tin can also be used; however, tin does not offer the ease of bonding that results in consistent separation of the copper foil during pull testing. The investigation was conducted in three parts consisting of: (1) an evaluation of the physical strength of resulting bonds at ambient and elevated temperature, (2) a metallurgical analysis of bonds using scanning electron microscopy and nondispersive X-ray analysis, and (3) evaluation and development of various schemes for multiple lead flatpack bonding.

Korb, R. W.; Lardenoit, V. F.

1973-01-01

28

Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

Jamieson, E.E.

2000-06-08

29

Diffusion bonding makes strong seal at flanged connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copper strip seals a high pressure fluid system connector so that it is insensitive to relaxation of the bolt loads. The copper strip is diffusion bonded to the surfaces of the connector flange by application of high pressure and temperature.

Gitzendanner, L. G.; Laniewski, J. P.; Rathbun, F. O., Jr.

1966-01-01

30

Joining of Silicon Carbide: Diffusion Bond Optimization and Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joining and integration methods are critically needed as enabling technologies for the full utilization of advanced ceramic components in aerospace and aeronautics applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. In the application, several SiC substrates with different hole patterns to form fuel and combustion air channels are bonded to form the injector. Diffusion bonding is a joining approach that offers uniform bonds with high temperature capability, chemical stability, and high strength. Diffusion bonding was investigated with the aid of titanium foils and coatings as the interlayer between SiC substrates to aid bonding. The influence of such variables as interlayer type, interlayer thickness, substrate finish, and processing time were investigated. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis were used to characterize the bonds and to identify the reaction formed phases.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

2008-01-01

31

Fabrication and Characterization of Diffusion Bonds for Silicon Carbide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion bonds of silicon carbide (SiC) were fabricated using several different types of titanium (Ti) based interlayers between the SiC substrates. The interlayers were an alloyed Ti foil, a pure Ti foil, and a physically vapor deposited (PVD) Ti coating. Microscopy was conducted to evaluate the cross-sections of the resulting bonds. Microprobe analysis identified reaction formed phases in the diffusion bonded region. Uniform and well adhered bonds were formed between the SiC substrates. In the case where the alloyed Ti foil or a thick Ti coating (i.e. 20 micron) was used as the interlayer, microcracks and several phases were present in the diffusion bonds. When a thinner interlayer was used (i.e. 10 micron PVD Ti), no microcracks were observed and only two reaction formed phases were present. The two phases were preferred and fully reacted phases that did not introduce thermal stresses or microcracks during the cool-down stage after processing. Diffusion bonded samples were evaluated with the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods of pulsed thermography and immersion ultrasonic testing. Joined SiC substrates that were fully bonded and that had simulated bond flaws in the interlayer were also evaluated using immersion ultrasound. Pull testing was conducted on the bonds to determine the tensile strength. To demonstrate the joining approach for a complex multilayered component for a low NOx injector application, the diffusion bonding approach was used to join three 4" diameter SiC discs that contained complex fuel and air flow channels.

Halbig, Michael; Singh, Mrityunjay; Martin, Richard E.; Cosgriff, Laura M.

2007-01-01

32

Diffusion bonding of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel PM2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are well suited as structural materials, e.g. for claddings in fission reactors and for plasma facing components in fusion power plants due to their high mechanical and oxidation stability at high temperatures and their high irradiation resistance. PM2000 is an iron based ODS ferritic steel with homogeneously distributed nanometric yttria particles. Melting joining techniques are not suitable for such ODS materials because of the precipitation and agglomeration of the oxide particles and hence the loss of their strengthening effect. Solid state diffusion bonding is thus chosen to join PM2000 and is investigated in this work with a focus on oxide particles. The diffusion bonding process is aided by the computational modeling, including the influence of the ODS particles. For modeling the microstructure stability and the creep behavior of PM2000 at various, diffusion bonding relevant temperatures (50-80% Tm) are investigated. Particle distribution (TEM), strength (tensile test) and toughness (Charpy impact test) obtained at temperatures relevant for bonding serve as input for the prediction of optimal diffusion bonding parameters. The optimally bonded specimens show comparable strength and toughness relative to the base material.

Sittel, Wiebke; Basuki, Widodo W.; Aktaa, Jarir

2013-11-01

33

Evaluation of ultrasonic signals from diffusion and eutectic bond interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A research program is in progress at Rocky Flats to determine correlations between ultrasonic signal content and diffusion or eutectic bond joint condition, and to develop a computer-controlled scanning, data acquisition and analysis system which utilizes these correlations and waveform analysis techniques. The initial efforts to determine effective ultrasonic waveform parameters to characterize the strength of bond interfaces is complete. A development version of a computer-controlled, automated scanning and data acquisition system is in operation.

Brown, C. M.

1980-12-10

34

Diffusion bonding of commercially pure Ni using Cu interlayer  

SciTech Connect

The concentration dependence of diffusivity in a multi-component diffusion system makes it complicated to predict the concentration profiles of diffusing species. This so called chemical diffusivity can be expressed as a function of thermodynamic and kinetic data. DICTRA software can calculate the concentration profiles using appropriate mobility and thermodynamic data. It can also optimize the diffusivity data using experimental diffusivity data. Then the optimized diffusivity data is stored as mobility data which is a linear function of temperature. In this work, diffusion bonding of commercially pure Ni using Cu interlayers is reported. The mobility parameters of Ni-Cu alloy binary systems were optimized using DICTRA/Thermocalc software from the available self-, tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients. The optimized mobility parameters were used to simulate concentration profiles of Ni-Cu diffusion joints using DICTRA/Thermocalc software. The calculated and experimental concentration profiles agreed well at 1100 Degree-Sign C. Agreement between the simulated and experimental profiles was less good at 1050 Degree-Sign C due to the grain boundary contribution to the overall diffusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration profiles of Cu in Ni-Cu diffusion joints are modeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdiffusion coefficients in Ni-Cu system are optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized interdiffusion coefficients are expressed as mobility parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulated profiles are comparable with experimental profiles.

Rahman, A.H.M.E., E-mail: a.rahman@my.und.edu; Cavalli, M.N.

2012-07-15

35

Diffusion Bonding Aluminium Alloys and Composites: New Approaches and Modelling  

E-print Network

is entirely my own and includes nothing which is the outcome of work done in collaboration, except where. This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Higher Education of Iran, the Committee of Vice of the research, two new methods for TLP diffusion bonding of aluminium-based composites (aluminium alloys

Cambridge, University of

36

Investigation on the diffusion bonding of tungsten and EUROFER97  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its advantages, tungsten is selected as armor and structural material for use in future fusion power plants. To apply tungsten as structural material, a joint to EUROFER97 is foreseen in current divertor design for which the diffusion bonding is considered in this work. The joining must have acceptable strength and ductility without significant change in microstructures. So far,

Widodo Widjaja Basuki; Jarir Aktaa

2011-01-01

37

Diffusion bonding of iron aluminide Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} using a copper interlayer  

SciTech Connect

An Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} alloy was diffusion-bonded using a copper interlayer under vacuum at 1075 deg. C for 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h durations at 3.2 MPa applied pressure. The bond microstructure was found to be composed of the copper rich interlayer, copper rich precipitates and the base metal. SEM-EDS studies indicated major diffusion of aluminium and iron atoms from Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} into the copper interlayer and copper atoms from the copper interlayer into the Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} matrix. SEM observations of fractured surfaces of the diffusion-bonded samples showed some plastic deformation and signs of good bonding. Cu{sub 3}Al and B{sub 2}-FeAl-based phases were identified by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction studies at the bond and on the fracture surfaces of all samples investigated. Good bonding was achieved with a maximum shear strength of 298 MPa which is 65% of the parent material shear strength for a sample diffusion-bonded for 6 h.

Torun, O. [Afyonkarahisar Kocatepe University, Bolvadin Vocational High School, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Celikyuerek, I. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Institute of Metallurgy, Eskisehir (Turkey); Guerler, R. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Institute of Metallurgy, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: rgurler@ogu.edu.tr

2008-07-15

38

Diffusion bonded matrix of high gradient magnetic filter  

SciTech Connect

For improving the performance of high gradient magnetic filter (HGMF) used in steel mill process waste water treatment, a new filtering medium of diffusion bonded matrix has been developed. This new matrix has an excellent high filtering efficiency for feebly paramagnetic particles, and also has strong structural stiffness that prevents the matrix from compaction and the flow-out of fine wool fractions, which are serious defects in the conventional stainless wool matrix.

Soda, F.; Ishibe, H.; Yukawa, T.

1985-03-01

39

Joining of Silicon Carbide Through the Diffusion Bonding Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for ceramics to be fully utilized as components for high-temperature and structural applications, joining and integration methods are needed. Such methods will allow for the fabrication the complex shapes and also allow for insertion of the ceramic component into a system that may have different adjacent materials. Monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic material of focus due to its high temperature strength and stability. Titanium foils were used as an interlayer to form diffusion bonds between chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC ceramics with the aid of hot pressing. The influence of such variables as interlayer thickness and processing time were investigated to see which conditions contributed to bonds that were well adhered and crack free. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis were used to characterize the bonds and to identify the reaction formed phases.

Halbig, Michael .; Singh, Mrityunjay

2009-01-01

40

Vacuum packaging technology using localized aluminum\\/silicon-to-glass bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glass vacuum package based on localized aluminum\\/silicon-to-glass bonding has been successfully demonstrated. A constant heat flux model shows that heating can be confined locally in the dielectric layer underneath a microheater as long as the width of the microheater and the thickness of silicon substrate are much smaller than the die size and a good heat sink is placed

Y.-T. Cheng; Wan-Tai Hsu; K. Najafi; C. T.-C. Nguyen; Liwei Lin

2002-01-01

41

Reliable vacuum packaging using NanoGetters and glass frit bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to vacuum packaging micromachined resonant, tunneling, and display devices will be covered in this paper. A multi-layer, thin-film getter, called a NanoGetter, which is particle free and does not increase the chip size of the microsystem has been developed and integrated into conventional wafer-to-wafer bonding processes. Experimental data taken with chip-scale packages using glass frit bonding between the Pyrex and silicon wafers, has resulted in silicon resonators in which Q values in excess of 37,000 have been obtained. Reliability data for vacuum-sealed diaphragms and resonators will be presented. Unlike previous reliability studies without getters, no degradation in Q has been noted with NanoGetter parts after extended high temperature storage. Applications for this technology include gyroscopes, accelerometers, displays, flow sensors, density meters, IR sensors, microvacuum tubes, RF-MEMS, pressure sensors and other vacuum sealed devices.

Sparks, Douglas; Massoud-Ansari, Sonbol; Najafi, Nader

2003-12-01

42

Reliable vacuum packaging using NanoGetters and glass frit bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to vacuum packaging micromachined resonant, tunneling, and display devices will be covered in this paper. A multi-layer, thin-film getter, called a NanoGetter, which is particle free and does not increase the chip size of the microsystem has been developed and integrated into conventional wafer-to-wafer bonding processes. Experimental data taken with chip-scale packages using glass frit bonding between the Pyrex and silicon wafers, has resulted in silicon resonators in which Q values in excess of 37,000 have been obtained. Reliability data for vacuum-sealed diaphragms and resonators will be presented. Unlike previous reliability studies without getters, no degradation in Q has been noted with NanoGetter parts after extended high temperature storage. Applications for this technology include gyroscopes, accelerometers, displays, flow sensors, density meters, IR sensors, microvacuum tubes, RF-MEMS, pressure sensors and other vacuum sealed devices.

Sparks, Douglas; Massoud-Ansari, Sonbol; Najafi, Nader

2004-01-01

43

Mo/Ti Diffusion Bonding for Making Thermoelectric Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An all-solid-state diffusion bonding process that exploits the eutectoid reaction between molybdenum and titanium has been developed for use in fabricating thermoelectric devices based on skutterudite compounds. In essence, the process is one of heating a flat piece of pure titanium in contact with a flat piece of pure molybdenum to a temperature of about 700 C while pushing the pieces together with a slight pressure [a few psi (of the order of 10 kPa)]. The process exploits the energy of mixing of these two metals to form a strong bond between them. These two metals were selected partly because the bonds formed between them are free of brittle intermetallic phases and are mechanically and chemically stable at high temperatures. The process is a solution of the problem of bonding hot-side metallic interconnections (denoted hot shoes in thermoelectric jargon) to titanium-terminated skutterudite n and p legs during the course of fabrication of a unicouple, which is the basic unit cell of a thermoelectric device (see figure). The hot-side operating temperature required for a skutterudite thermoelectric device is 700 C. This temperature precludes the use of brazing to attach the hot shoe; because brazing compounds melt at lower temperatures, the hot shoe would become detached during operation. Moreover, the decomposition temperature of one of the skutterudite compounds is 762 C; this places an upper limit on the temperature used in bonding the hot shoe. Molybdenum was selected as the interconnection metal because the eutectoid reaction between it and the titanium at the ends of the p and n legs has characteristics that are well suited for this application. In addition to being suitable for use in the present bonding process, molybdenum has high electrical and thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability - characteristics that are desired for hot shoes of thermoelectric devices. The process takes advantage of the chemical potential energy of mixing between molybdenum and titanium. These metals have a strong affinity for each other. They are almost completely soluble in each other and remain in the solid state at temperatures above the eutectoid temperature of 695 C. As a result, bonds formed by interdiffusion of molybdenum and titanium are mechanically stable at and well above the original bonding temperature of about 700 C. Inasmuch as the bonds are made at approximately the operating temperature, thermomechanical stresses associated with differences in thermal expansion are minimized.

Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Kisor, Adam; Caillat, Thierry; Lara, Liana; Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Fleuiral, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

44

Delayed mechanical failure of silver-interlayer diffusion bonds  

SciTech Connect

Silver-interlayer diffusion bonds were fabricated using planar-magnetron sputtering (PMS). The bonds exhibit very high tensile strengths, despite the soft interlayer, because of the constraint by the base metal. However, these joints undergo delayed failure at relatively low tensile stresses at ambient temperatures, apparently by a ductile microvoid coalescence mechanism at the bond interfaces. Two classes of delayed tensile failure were investigated. In the first case, the applied stress does not produced any plastic deformation in the base metal, and failure appears to be controlled by time-dependent plasticity within the silver interlayer as a result of the effective stress in the interlayer. The plasticity causes cavity nucleation and, eventually, interlinkage and failure. In the second case, time-dependent plasticity is observed in base metals, and concomitant shear occurs within the softer silver under a high triaxial stress state. Here, the time-dependent plasticity of the base metal accelerates plasticity and failure in the interlayer. These models were substantiated by careful analysis of the stress and temperature dependence of the rupture times, finite element analysis of the stress state within the interlayer, and microscopy of the fracture surfaces and interfaces loaded to various fractions of the expected rupture times. These findings are applicable to bonds in which the interlayers are prepared by processes other than physical vapor deposition.

Kassner, M.E. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Rosen, R.S.; Henshall, G.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Physical Metallurgy and Joining Section)

1990-12-01

45

The diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide using refractory metals  

SciTech Connect

Joining is an enabling technology for the application of structural ceramics at high temperatures. Metal foil diffusion bonding is a simple process for joining silicon carbide or boron carbide by solid-state, diffusive conversion of the metal foil into carbide and silicide compounds that produce bonding. Metal diffusion bonding trials were performed using thin foils (5 {micro}m to 100 {micro}m) of refractory metals (niobium, titanium, tungsten, and molybdenum) with plates of silicon carbide (both {alpha}-SiC and {beta}-SiC) or boron carbide that were lapped flat prior to bonding. The influence of bonding temperature, bonding pressure, and foil thickness on bond quality was determined from metallographic inspection of the bonds. The microstructure and phases in the joint region of the diffusion bonds were evaluated using SEM, microprobe, and AES analysis. The use of molybdenum foil appeared to result in the highest quality bond of the metal foils evaluated for the diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide. Bonding pressure appeared to have little influence on bond quality. The use of a thinner metal foil improved the bond quality. The microstructure of the bond region produced with either the {alpha}-SiC and {beta}-SiC polytypes were similar.

Cockeram, B.V.

1999-10-01

46

Microstructure and mechanical properties of diffusion bonded W/steel joint using V/Ni composite interlayer  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion bonding between W and steel using V/Ni composite interlayer was carried out in vacuum at 1050 °C and 10 MPa for 1 h. The microstructural examination and mechanical property evaluation of the joints show that the bonding of W to steel was successful. No intermetallic compound was observed at the steel/Ni and V/W interfaces for the joints bonded. The electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that Ni{sub 3}V, Ni{sub 2}V, Ni{sub 2}V{sub 3} and NiV{sub 3} were formed at the Ni/V interface. The tensile strength of about 362 MPa was obtained for as-bonded W/steel joint and the failure occurred at W near the V/W interface. The nano-indentation test across the joining interfaces demonstrated the effect of solid solution strengthening and intermetallic compound formation in the diffusion zone. - Highlights: • Diffusion bonding of W to steel was realized using V/Ni composite interlayer. • The interfacial microstructure of the joint was clarified. • Several V–Ni intermetallic compounds were formed in the interface region. • The application of V/Ni composite interlayer improved the joining quality.

Liu, W.S.; Cai, Q.S., E-mail: cai2009pm@163.com; Ma, Y.Z.; Wang, Y.Y.; Liu, H.Y.; Li, D.X.

2013-12-15

47

Diffusion Bonding of Stainless Steel to Copper with Tin Bronze and Gold Interlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum diffusion bonding of stainless steel to copper was carried out at a temperature ranging from 830 to 950 °C under an axial pressure of 3 MPa for 60 min with three kinds of interlayer metals: tin-bronze (TB) foil, Au foil, and TB-Au composite interlayer. The results showed that the grain boundary wetting was formed within the steel adjacent to the interface due to the contact melting between TB and Au when TB-Au composite interlayer was used. The grain boundary wetting could occur at a relatively low temperature of 830 °C and becomes significant with the increase of temperature. The tensile strength of the joint with TB-Au was higher than that with TB or Au interlayer separately and could be 228 MPa at the joining temperature of 850 °C. Furthermore, the axial compression ratio of the specimen joined at 850 °C was approximately 1.2%. Therefore, a reliable and precise joining of stainless steel to copper could be realized by diffusion bonding with the TB-Au composite interlayer at a comparatively low temperature.

Xiong, Jiang-Tao; Xie, Qing; Li, Jing-Long; Zhang, Fu-Sheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

2012-01-01

48

The diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide using refractory metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joining is an enabling technology for the application of structural ceramics at high temperatures. Metal foil diffusion bonding is a simple process for joining silicon carbide or boron carbide by solid-state, diffusive conversion of the metal foil into carbide and silicide compounds that produce bonding. Metal diffusion bonding trials were performed using thin foils (5 μm to 100 μm) of

Cockeram

1999-01-01

49

On the Formation of a Diffusion Bond from Cold-Spray Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the development of diffusion bonding, which can increase the bonding strength, three different cold-sprayed coating/substrate systems were investigated, Ni/Cu, Cu/Cu, and Al/Mg, by annealing at increased temperatures for various times. The formation of intermetallic compounds in the Al/Mg system reduced the bonding strength dramatically. In Cu/Cu and Ni-Cu, diffusion bonds developed at lower temperatures as Ni-Cu forms an isomorphous system, which increased the bonding strength effectively. However, higher temperature annealing reduced bonding strength ultimately because of the Kirkendall pores.

Wang, Qiang; Birbilis, Nick; Zhang, Ming-Xing

2012-05-01

50

Interface characteristics in diffusion bonding of Fe3Al with Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel.  

PubMed

Fe3Al and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel were diffusion-bonded in vacuum and a Fe3Al/Cr18-Ni8 interface with reaction layer was formed. Microstructure in the reaction layer at Fe3Al/Cr18-Ni8 interface was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The growth of reaction layer with heating temperature (T) and holding time (t) was researched. The results indicate that FeAl, Fe3Al, Ni3Al, and alpha-Fe (Al) solid solution are formed in the reaction layer. These phases are favorable to promote the element diffusion and to accelerate the formation of the reaction layer at Fe3Al/Cr18-Ni8 interface. The growth of reaction layer obeys the parabolic law and its thickness (X) is expressed by X2 = 7.5 x 10(-4)exp(-83.59/RT)(t - t0). PMID:15797414

Wang, Juan; Li, Yajiang; Yin, Yansheng

2005-05-01

51

Lateral diffusion of receptor-ligand bonds in membrane adhesion zones: Effect of thermal membrane roughness  

E-print Network

The adhesion of cells is mediated by membrane receptors that bind to complementary ligands in apposing cell membranes. It is generally assumed that the lateral diffusion of mobile receptor-ligand bonds in membrane-membrane adhesion zones is slower than the diffusion of unbound receptors and ligands. We find that this slowing down is not only caused by the larger size of the bound receptor-ligand complexes, but also by thermal fluctuations of the membrane shape. We model two adhering membranes as elastic sheets pinned together by receptor-ligand bonds and study the diffusion of the bonds using Monte Carlo simulations. In our model, the fluctuations reduce the bond diffusion constant in planar membranes by a factor close to 2 in the biologically relevant regime of small bond concentrations.

H. Krobath; G. J. Schuetz; R. Lipowsky; T. R. Weikl

2007-03-19

52

Transient phonon vacuum squeezing due to femtosecond-laser-induced bond hardening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrashort optical pulses can be used both to create fundamental quasiparticles in crystals and to change their properties. In noble metals, femtosecond lasers induce bond hardening, but little is known about its origin and consequences. Here we simulate ultrafast laser excitation of silver at high fluences. We compute laser-excited potential-energy surfaces by all-electron ab initio theory and analyze the resulting quantum lattice dynamics. We also consider incoherent lattice heating due to electron-phonon interactions using the generalized two-temperature model. We find phonon hardening, which we attribute to the excitation of s electrons. We demonstrate that this may result in phonon vacuum squeezed states with an optimal squeezing factor of ˜0.001 at the L-point longitudinal mode. This finding implies that ultrafast laser-induced bond hardening may be used as a tool to manipulate the quantum state of opaque materials, where, so far, the squeezing of phonons below the zero-point motion has only been realized in transparent crystals by a different mechanism. On the basis of our finding, we further propose a method for directly measuring bond hardening.

Cheenicode Kabeer, Fairoja; Grigoryan, Naira S.; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.; Garcia, Martin E.

2014-09-01

53

Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

12. Other advances in QNDE and related topics: Preferred Session Laser-ultrasonics Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference QNDE Conference July 20-25, 2014 Boise Centre 850 West Front Street Boise, Idaho 83702 James A. Smith, Jeffrey M. Lacy, Barry H. Rabin, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID ABSTRACT: The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which is assigned with reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU. The new LEU fuel is based on a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to complete the fuel qualification process, the laser shock technique is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being investigated to characterize interface strength in fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on specimen’s surface is intractably complex. The shock wave energy is inferred from the velocity on the backside and the depth of the impression left on the surface from the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses and strengths at the interface, a finite element model is being developed and validated by comparing numerical and experimental results for back face velocities and front face depressions with experimental results. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop a finite element model for laser shock.

James A. Smith; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Barry H. Rabin

2014-07-01

54

Bonding Mechanisms in Resistance Microwelding of 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance microwelding (RMW) is an important joining process used in the fabrication of miniature instruments, such as electrical and medical devices. The excellent corrosion resistance of 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) wire makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The current study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of crossed resistance microwelded 316LVM wire. Microtensile and microhardness testing was used to analyze the mechanical performance of welds, and fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a bonding mechanism is proposed based on optimum joint breaking force (JBF) using metallurgical observations of weld cross sections. Moreover, comparisons with RMWs of Ni, Au-plated Ni, and SUS304 SS wire are discussed.

Khan, M. I.; Kim, J. M.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

2009-04-01

55

Shirzadi et al. Surface and Interface Analysis 2001; 31:609-618 Interface evolution and bond strength when diffusion bonding  

E-print Network

of many steels, copper, titanium, tantalum, columbium and zirconium), and so metal-to- metal contact can problems with surface oxides when joining aluminium alloys and composites, are described and compared of oxide layers at the faying surfaces will affect the ease of diffusion bonding. For some metallic alloys

Cambridge, University of

56

In-process oxidation protection in fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum is cleaned of its oxide coating and is sealed immediately with polymeric material which makes it suitable for fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding. Time involved between cleaning and brazing is no longer critical factor.

Okelly, K. P.; Featherston, A. B.

1974-01-01

57

Method of fluxless brazing and diffusion bonding of aluminum containing components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of diffusion bonding and fluxless brazing of aluminum containing components is reported. The aluminum surfaces are freed of any aluminum oxide coating and are coated with a polymeric sealer which can be thermally removed leaving essentially no residue. The polymeric sealer is being removed in a substantially oxygen free environment, and the aluminum components are then being brazed or diffusion bonded without the use of a flux to remove oxide coating.

Featherston, A. B.; Okelly, K. P. (inventors)

1976-01-01

58

Si-based multilayered print circuit board for MEMS packaging fabricated by Si deep etching, bonding, and vacuum metal casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous works, metal injection technique into small diameter (10 -100micrometers ) through holes was developed and applied for fabrication of Si based print circuit board. In the present work, we present the metal filling technology by vacuum casting into 3 dimensional through holes and trenches structure fabricated in stacked layered Si wafers prepared by fusion bonding of ICP

Yoichi Murakoshi; Kotaro Hanada; Yaomin Li; Kazuyoshi Uchino; Takaaki Suzuki; Ryutaro Maeda

2001-01-01

59

Diffusion bonding of a superplastic Inconel 718SPF superalloy by electroless nickel plating  

SciTech Connect

Although intimate contact can be obtained for diffusion bonding of a superplastic Inconel 718SPF superalloy under a low pressure of 7 MPa, the precipitates formed at the interface retarded achievement of a sound joint. The shear strength was only 41.5 MPa for an overlap length of 12 T (T = 1.3 mm, sheet thickness). The diffusion bondability of t his Inconel 718SPF superalloy was enhanced by electroless nickel plating. In this situation, the bonding shear strength increased to 70.4 MPa for the same overlap length of 12 T under the same bonding condition, regardless of the roughness of the surface to be bonded. Upon decreasing the overlap length from 12 to 6T, the bonding strength remained constant.

Yeh, M.S.; Chang, C.B.; Chuang, T.H.

2000-02-01

60

Modified low-temperture direct bonding method for vacuum microelectronics application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the process and experimental results for the improved silicon-to-glass bonding using silicon direct bonding (SDB) followed by anodic bonding. The initial bonding between glass and silicon was caused by the hydrophilic surfaces of silicon-glass ensemble using SDB method. Then the initially bonded specimen had to be strongly bonded by anodic bonding process. The effects of the bonding process parameters on the interface energy were investigated as functions of the bonding temperature and voltage. We found that the specimen which was bonded using SDB process followed by anodic bonding process had higher interface energy than one using anodic bonding process only. The main factor contributing to the higher interface energy in the glass-to-silicon assemble bonded by SDB followed by anodic bonding was investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis.

Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Duck-Jung; Choi, Woo-Beom; Lee, Yun-Hi; Jang, Jin; Lee, Kwang-Bae; Oh, Myung-Hwan

1997-06-01

61

Wafer level vacuum packaging of scanning micro-mirrors using glass-frit and anodic bonding methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the authors report about the six inch wafer level vacuum packaging of electro-statically driven two dimensional micro-mirrors. The packaging was done by means of two types of wafer bonding methods: anodic and glass frit. The resulting chips after dicing are 4 mm wide, 6 mm long and 1.6 mm high and the residual pressure inside the package after dicing was estimated to be between 2 and 20 mbar. This allowed us to reduce the driving voltage of the micro-mirrors by more than 40% compared to the driving voltage without vacuum packaging. The vacuum stability after 5 months was verified by measurement using the so called "membrane method". Persistence of the vacuum was proven. No getter materials were used for packaging.

Langa, S.; Drabe, C.; Kunath, C.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Schenk, H.

2013-03-01

62

Diffusion welding. [heat treatment of nickel alloys following single step vacuum welding process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dispersion-strengthened nickel alloys are sanded on one side and chemically polished. This is followed by a single-step welding process wherein the polished surfaces are forced into intimate contact at 1,400 F for one hour in a vacuum. Diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface are obtained during postheating at 2,150 F for two hours in hydrogen.

Holko, K. H. (inventors)

1974-01-01

63

The effect of hydrogen bonds on diffusion mechanism of water inside single-walled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Nanopores can serve as a molecule channel for transport of fluid, where water diffusion differs remarkably from that of simple particles. Hydrogen bonds play an essential role in the diffusion anomaly. Detailed investigations are carried out on the systems of rigid (6, 6), (7, 7), (8, 8), (9, 9), and (10, 10) armchair carbon nanotubes, solvated with Lennard-Jones water fluids. The role of hydrogen bonds is examined by diffusivity statistics and animation snapshots. It is found that in small (6,6) CNT, hydrogen bonds tend to aggregate water into a wire and lead to rapid collective drift. Confinement can stabilize the hydrogen bond of water molecules and enhance its lifetime. In relatively smaller CNTs, the diffusion mechanism could be altered by the temperature. Moreover, in larger nanotubes hydrogen bonding network allows the water to form regional concentrated clusters. This allows water fluid in extremely low density exhibit rather slow self-diffusion motion. This fundamental study attempts to provide insights in understanding nanoscale delivery system in aqueous solution. PMID:24908026

Chen, Qu; Wang, Qi; Liu, Ying-Chun; Wu, Tao

2014-06-01

64

The effect of hydrogen bonds on diffusion mechanism of water inside single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanopores can serve as a molecule channel for transport of fluid, where water diffusion differs remarkably from that of simple particles. Hydrogen bonds play an essential role in the diffusion anomaly. Detailed investigations are carried out on the systems of rigid (6, 6), (7, 7), (8, 8), (9, 9), and (10, 10) armchair carbon nanotubes, solvated with Lennard-Jones water fluids. The role of hydrogen bonds is examined by diffusivity statistics and animation snapshots. It is found that in small (6,6) CNT, hydrogen bonds tend to aggregate water into a wire and lead to rapid collective drift. Confinement can stabilize the hydrogen bond of water molecules and enhance its lifetime. In relatively smaller CNTs, the diffusion mechanism could be altered by the temperature. Moreover, in larger nanotubes hydrogen bonding network allows the water to form regional concentrated clusters. This allows water fluid in extremely low density exhibit rather slow self-diffusion motion. This fundamental study attempts to provide insights in understanding nanoscale delivery system in aqueous solution.

Chen, Qu; Wang, Qi; Liu, Ying-Chun; Wu, Tao

2014-06-01

65

Diffusion bonding titanium to stainless steel using Nb/Cu/Ni multi-interlayer  

SciTech Connect

By using Nb/Cu/Ni structure as multi-interlayer, diffusion bonding titanium to austenitic stainless steel has been conducted. The effects of bonding temperature and bonding time on the interfacial microstructure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope, and the joint strength was evaluated by tensile test. The results showed that Ni atoms aggregated at the Cu-Nb interface, which promoted Cu solution in Nb. This phenomenon forms a Cu-Nb solution strengthening effect. However, such effect would decay by using long bonding time that dilutes Ni atom aggregation, or be suppressed by using high bonding temperature that embrittles the Cu-Nb interface due to the formation of large grown intermetallic compounds. The sound joint was obtained by promoted parameters as 850 Degree-Sign C for 30-45 min, under which a bonding strength around 300 MPa could be obtained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium was diffusion bonded to stainless steel using Nb/Cu/Ni multi-interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of bonding parameters on microstructure and joint strength were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel aggregation promotes Cu solution in Nb which can strengthen the joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sound joint with strength of around 300 MPa was obtained by promoted parameters.

Li Peng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Li Jinglong, E-mail: lijinglg@nwpu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Xiong Jiangtao; Zhang Fusheng; Raza, Syed Hamid [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

2012-06-15

66

Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Lean Direct Injector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust approaches for joining silicon carbide (SiC) to silicon carbide sub-elements have been developed for a micro-electro-mechanical systems lean direct injector (MEMS LDI) application. The objective is to join SiC sub-elements to form a leak-free injector that has complex internal passages for the flow and mixing of fuel and air. Previous bonding technology relied upon silicate glass interlayers that were not uniform or leak free. In a newly developed joining approach, titanium foils and physically vapor deposited titanium coatings were used to form diffusion bonds between SiC materials during hot pressing. Microscopy results show the formation of well adhered diffusion bonds. Initial tests show that the bond strength is much higher than required for the component system. Benefits of the joining technology are fabrication of leak free joints with high temperature and mechanical capability.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, James D.

2006-01-01

67

Joint design for improved fatigue life of diffusion-bonded box-stiffened panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple photoelastic models were used to identify a cross-section geometry that would eliminate the severe stress concentrations at the bond line between box stiffeners diffusion bonded to a panel skin. Experimental fatigue-test data from titanium test specimens quantified the allowable stress in terms of cycle life for various joint geometries. It is shown that the effect of stress concentration is reduced and an acceptable fatigue life is achieved.

Davis, R. C.; Moses, P. L.; Kanenko, R. S.

1985-01-01

68

A probabilistic, semi-empirical approach to modeling diffusion bond strength.  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture of critical diffusion bonded components could benefit from predictive models of diffusion bond joint strength. Existing models focus on porosity closure, which is a necessary but not sufficient condition for acceptable joint strength. The present work identifies modeled dynamics intrinsic to manufacturing but not captured in existing models. Controls regulating these dynamics are proposed, and the topography of real engineering surfaces is described by distribution functions. Pore closure kinetics then can successfully link initial surface topography and final porosity distribution, which in turn correlates to joint strength given experimental data linking porosity to joint strength.

Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Hartman, D. A. (Daniel A.); Barieri, J. M. (Joann M.)

2001-01-01

69

Directional diffusion and void formation at a Si (001) bonded wafer interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature hydrophobic bonding is an enabling technology allowing the fabrication of device structures. Current research into improvement of hydrophobic bonding has focused on the elimination of thermally generated voids. It has been observed that a regular grid etched into the bonding interface can eliminate the thermally generated voids. By manipulation of patterns etched into the bond interface, it was possible to ascertain that the diffusion of interfacial gasses that form the thermally generated voids is enhanced along the <110> directions. This is shown by an analysis of the void density at various locations in relation to the etched trenches at the bonded interface. Void density between trenches is shown to be 12% of the void density near trenches but nto along a <110> direction.

Esser, R. H.; Hobart, K. D.; Kub, F. J.

2002-08-01

70

TEM and HRTEM Characterization of TiAl Diffusion Bonds Using Ni/Al Nanolayers.  

PubMed

Diffusion bonding of TiAl alloys can be enhanced by the use of reactive nanolayer thin films as interlayers. Using these interlayers, it is possible to reduce the conventional bonding conditions (temperature, time, and pressure) and obtain sound and reliable joints. The microstructural characterization of the diffusion bond interfaces is a fundamental step toward understanding and identifying the bonding mechanisms and relating them to the strength of the joints. The interface of TiAl samples joined using Ni/Al nanolayers was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural characterization of the bond revealed that the interfaces consist of several thin layers of different composition and grain size (nanometric and micrometric). The bonding temperature (800, 900, or 1,000°C) determines the grain size and thickness of the layers present at the interface. Phase identification by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with fast Fourier transform and electron energy-loss spectroscopy analyses reveals the presence of several intermetallic compounds: AlTiNi, NiAl, and Al2TiNi. For bonds produced at 800 and 900°C, nanometric grains of Ti were detected at the center of the interface. PMID:25170561

Simões, Sónia; Viana, Filomena; Ramos, Ana S; Vieira, Maria T; Vieira, Manuel F

2015-02-01

71

The Breathing Orbital Valence Bond Method in Diffusion Monte Carlo: C-H Bond Dissociation ofAcetylene  

SciTech Connect

This study explores the use of breathing orbital valence bond (BOVB) trial wave functions for diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). The approach is applied to the computation of the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond dissociation energy (BDE) of acetylene. DMC with BOVB trial wave functions yields a C-H BDE of 132.4 {+-} 0.9 kcal/mol, which is in excellent accord with the recommended experimental value of 132.8 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol. These values are to be compared with DMC results obtained with single determinant trial wave functions, using Hartree-Fock orbitals (137.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol) and local spin density (LDA) Kohn-Sham orbitals (135.6 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol).

Domin, D.; Braida, Benoit; Lester Jr., William A.

2008-05-30

72

Chemically bonded ceramic matrix composites: Densification and conversion to diffusion bonding  

SciTech Connect

Chemically bonded ceramics appear to be a promising alternative route for near-net shape fabrication of multi-phase ceramic matrix composites (CMC`s). The hydraulic (and refractory) properties of fine mono-calcium aluminate (CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) powders were used as the chemically bonding matrix phase, while calcia stabilized zirconia powders were the second phase material. Samples containing up to 70 wt% (55 vol%) zirconia have been successfully compacted and sintered. Various processing techniques were evaluated. Processing was optimized based on material properties, dilatometry and simultaneous thermal analysis (DTA/TGA). The physical characteristics of this novel CMC were characterized by hardness, density, and fracture toughness testing. Microstructures were evaluated by SEM and phase identification was verified using XRD.

Johnson, B.R.; Guelguen, M.A.; Kriven, W.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-10-01

73

Thermomechanical analysis of diffusion-bonded tungsten/EUROFER97 with a vanadium interlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier basic investigations revealed that diffusion bonding between tungsten and RAFM-steel at a relatively low temperature using a thin low-activation vanadium interlayer having a CTE between that of the parent materials can significantly reduce the residual stresses and produce defect-free bond interfaces. The joint has a high strength as well as sufficient ductility and toughness especially at the test temperature of about 550 °C. To apply this knowledge in fusion power plants, particularly in divertors, an acceptable lifetime of such structural joints is required, since they are exposed to high thermomechanical cyclic loading. To simulate the possible operational conditions of a He-cooled divertor, diffusion-bonded specimens are loaded by thermal cycling in a temperature range between 350 °C and 500 °C and a constant tensile stress based on the calculation of the internal pressure of the divertor thimble. The aim of this experimental work is to check the resistance of the diffusion-bonded W/EUROFER97 against ratcheting during thermomechanical loading and analyze the evolution of microstructures of the joint especially along the bond interfaces.

Basuki, Widodo Widjaja; Dahm, Ralf; Aktaa, Jarir

2014-12-01

74

Self-diffusivity, hydrogen bonding and density of different water models in carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the density, hydrogen bonding and self-diffusivity of water confined in carbon nanotubes are investigated. Molecular dynamics is used to simulate a large variety of nanotubes with various water models. Our results produce, for the first time, the complete trend of these properties from narrow nanotubes, where water shows particularly anomalous behaviour, to large ones where its characteristics

Alessio Alexiadis; Stavros Kassinos

2008-01-01

75

Materials evaluation of diffusion bonded steel bar and its impact characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we apply non-destructive test for evaluating the soundness of weld joints it is necessary to know the mechanical properties of the joints by destructive test. In this paper we tried to obtain the correlation between the data by ultrasonic C-scope method and the absorbed energy by Charpy impact test for diffusion bonded steel bars. The surface roughness of specimens

Mitsuaki Katoh; Kazumasa Nishio; Tomiko Yamaguchi

2002-01-01

76

Diffusion bonding of silicon nitride to austenitic stainless steel with metallic interlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the diffusion bonding of hot-pressed silicon nitride (HPSN) to austenitic stainless steel using metallic interlayers. Experiments were carried out with Fe, Ni, invar, and kovar as the interlayer material. The best results were obtained with invar interlayers. Using these interlayers, joints having an average shear strength of 95 MPa were produced. The reaction layer formed at the ceramic-interlayer interface during the diffusion-bonding process consists of a porous zone anchored in the silicon nitride and a diffusion zone extending in the interlayer. No silicides were detected. The formation of the joint is governed by the decomposition of the silicon nitride. The free silicon generated by the decomposition reaction diffuses into the interlayer, whereas part of the free nitrogen disappears to the surface, the remainder being trapped in the form of pores. The mechanical strength of the joint depends strongly on the residual stress generated in the joint during cooling from diffusion-bonding temperature to room temperature due to the difference in thermal shrinkage between the ceramic and the metal. The residual stress level is directly related to the thickness of the reaction layer.

Stoop, B. T. J.; den Ouden, G.

1995-01-01

77

Ambient-temperature creep failure of silver-aided diffusion bonds between steel  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that thin (e.g., 1 {mu}m {minus} 1 mm) interlayer bonds between higher strength base materials may have high ultimate tensile or rupture strengths despite the relatively low strength of the filler metal. The high strength of the joint is due to the mechanical constraint provided by the stronger base metals which restricts transverse contraction of the interlayer. The constraint produces a triaxial state or stress and reduces the effective stress, thus reducing the tendency for the interlayer to plastically deform. Plasticity of the base metal reduces the constraint and decreases the strength of the bond. The purpose of this work was twofold. First, the validity of the base-metal- accelerated'' delayed-failure theory for bonds utilizing plastic base metals was checked. Creep-rupture tests were performed on diffusion-bonded specimens using silver interlayers deposited by planar-magnetron sputtering (PMS), a physical vapor-deposition process. The PMS process was preferred because of the superior quality and strength of the bond and because this modern low-temperature joining process is increasingly utilized for joining ceramic and composite materials. The role of plastic base metals in the fracture process was further investigated by conducting tensile-rupture tests of diffusion bonds made with stainless steel base metals of different yield strengths, and therefore different creep rates. The second purpose was to determine whether delayed failure occurs in interlayer bonds between elastic base metals, which do not creep over the range of applied stresses. This question is particularly relevant since many alloys, ceramics and composites fall within this category. Again, ambient and near-ambient temperature creep-rupture tests were performed at a variety of stresses below the UTS of the bond. 25 refs., 7 figs.

Henshall, G.A.; Kassner, M.E.; Rosen, R.S.

1990-01-15

78

Development and analysis of diffusion bonding techniques for LBE-cooled spallation targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spallation sources incorporating solid targets may be driven to utilize liquid metal coolants by neutronics or temperature concerns. If tungsten is chosen as the target material, it will require cladding given its poor performance under irradiation. One option to meet this need are ferritic/martensitic stainless steel alloys. This study investigates possible diffusion bonding techniques suitable to clad tungsten targets with HT9, a high chromium stainless steel familiar to the nuclear industry. A test bonding matrix was performed to identify bonding conditions and process parameters suitable for the three material systems of interest (HT9/Ta, HT9/W, and HT9/HT9). Temperatures of 900 and 1060 °C were investigated along with bonding pressures of 7 and 70 MPa. A nominal soak time of 3 h was used for all tests. Three interlayers were investigated: pure nickel, Ni-6P, and vanadium. Finally, different surface preparation techniques for the tungsten were explored in order to gage their effect on the bond quality. Following joining, the bonds were characterized using an array of microscopy and micromechanical techniques to determine the resulting interface character. The nickel and NiP coatings were found to stabilize austenite at the HT9 surface during bonding, while the vanadium remained generally inert given good solubility in each of the three systems. Intermetallic formation is also a significant concern at elevated bonding temperatures as FeTa, FeW, NiTa, and NiW each rapidly form during interdiffusion. Multiple failures were observed through crack propagation parallel to the interface along the intermetallic phases. Differing contraction rates among the base materials also resulted in brittle fracture within the tungsten during cooling from bonding temperatures. Bonding performed at 900 °C under 70 MPa for 3 h with the inclusion of a vanadium interlayer was found to be superior of the conditions explored in this work.

Nelson, A. T.; Hosemann, P.; Maloy, S. A.

2012-12-01

79

Design and fabrication of high performance wafer-level vacuum packaging based on glass-silicon-glass bonding techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a high performance wafer-level vacuum packaging technology based on GSG triple-layer sealing structure for encapsulating large mass inertial MEMS devices fabricated by silicon-on-glass bulk micromachining technology is presented. Roughness controlling strategy of bonding surfaces was proposed and described in detail. Silicon substrate was thinned and polished by CMP after the first bonding with the glass substrate and was then bonded with the glass micro-cap. Zr thin film was embedded into the concave of the micro-cap by a shadow-mask technique. The glass substrate was thinned to about 100 µm, wet etched through and metalized for realizing vertical feedthrough. During the fabrication, all patterning processes were operated carefully so as to reduce extrusive fragments to as little as possible. In addition, a high-performance micro-Pirani vacuum gauge was integrated into the package for monitoring the pressure and the leak rate further. The result shows that the pressure in the package is about 120 Pa and has no obvious change for more than one year indicating 10-13 stdcc s-1 leak rate.

Zhang, Jinwen; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jilong; Yang, Huabing

2012-12-01

80

Selective bonding and encapsulation for wafer-level vacuum packaging of MEMS and related micro systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser-assisted bonding technique is demonstrated for low temperature region selective processing. A continuous wave carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (?=10.6 ?m) is used for solder (Pb37\\/Sn63) bonding of metallized silicon substrates (chips or wafers) for MEMS applications. Laser-assisted selective heating of silicon led to the reflow of an electroplated, or screen-printed, intermediate solder layer which produced silicon–solder–silicon joints. The bonding

Yi Tao; Ajay P. Malshe; William D. Brown

2004-01-01

81

Effects of interface bonding and defects on boron diffusion at Si/SiO2 interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform first-principles density functional calculations to find the migration pathway and barrier for B diffusion at the Si/SiO2 interface. For various interface models, in which crystalline ?-quartz or amorphous silica (a-SiO2) is placed on Si, we examine stable and metastable configurations of B-related defects which play a role in B diffusion. While a substitutional B alone is immobile in Si, it tends to diffuse to the interface via an interstitialcy mechanism in the presence of a self-interstitial and then changes into an interstitial B in oxide via a kick-out mechanism, leaving the self-interstitial at the interface. At the defect-free interface, where bridging O atoms are inserted to remove interface dangling bonds, an interstitial B prefers to intervene between the interface Si and bridging O atoms and subsequently diffuses through the hollow space or along the network of the Si-O-Si bonds in oxide. The overall migration barriers are calculated to be 2.02-2.12 eV at the Si/?-quartz interface, while they lie in the range of 2.04 ± 0.44 eV at the Si/a-SiO2 interface, similar to that in ?-quartz. The migration pathway and barrier are not significantly affected by interface defects such as suboxide bond and O protrusion, while dangling bonds in the suboxide region can increase the migration barrier by about 1.5 eV. The result that the interface generally does not hinder the B diffusion from Si to SiO2 assists in understanding the underlying mechanism for B segregation which commonly occurs at the Si/SiO2 interface.

Kim, Geun-Myeong; Oh, Young Jun; Chang, K. J.

2013-12-01

82

Foil Patches Seal Small Vacuum Leaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discloses technique to patch holes in nickel-alloy rocket-engine nozzle parts prior to vacuum brazing. Technique involves lightly spot-welding nickel foil 0.002 in. thick over hole patched, then spot-welding corrosion-resistant steel foil of same thickness over nickel foil. Once patches subject to pressure and temperature of vacuum brazing, nickel foil diffuses to bond with nickel-alloy nozzle, making vacuum-tight seal.

Spiegel, Kirk W.; Reed, David W.

1995-01-01

83

Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The very high temperature reactor (VHTR), using gas-cooled reactor technology, is one of the six reactor concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum and is anticipated to be the reactor type for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP). In this type of reactor with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to secondary fluid for electricity production, process heat, or hydrogen cogeneration. The current Technology Readiness Level status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reactor core outlet temperatures of 750-800oC is 3 on a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most ready. At present, there is no proven high-temperature IHX concept for VHTRs. Amongst the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP is the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, two PCHEs were fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and will be experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The HTHF was primarily designed and constructed to test the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs The test facility is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800oC and 3 MPa, respectively. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical machining and diffusion bonding are briefly discussed for Alloy 617 plates. Diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 plates with and without a Ni interlayer is discussed. Furthermore, preliminary microstructural and mechanical characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented.

Mylavarapu, Sai K. [Ohio State University; Sun, Xiaodong [Ohio State University; Christensen, Richard N. [Ohio State University; Glosup, Richard E. [Ohio State University; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL

2012-01-01

84

Influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within SiO{sub 2} glass  

SciTech Connect

We study the influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within silicon oxide and fused silica substrates heated to high temperatures. By using scanning electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, we determine that the lower mobility of Ge found within SiO{sub 2}/Si films can be associated with the presence of unsaturated SiO{sub x} chemical bonds. Comparative measurements obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that 10% of silicon dangling bonds can reduce Ge desorption by 80%. Thus, the decrease of the silicon oxidation state yields a greater thermal stability of Ge inside SiO{sub 2} glass, which could enable to considerably extend the performance of Ge-based devices above 1300?K.

Barba, D.; Martin, F.; Ross, G. G. [INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Cai, R. S.; Wang, Y. Q. [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Demarche, J.; Terwagne, G. [LARN, Centre de Recherche en Physique de la Matière et du Rayonnement (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Rosei, F. [INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada)

2014-03-17

85

Diffusion Bonding of 17-4 Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel to Ti Alloy With and Without Ni Alloy Interlayer: Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the diffusion bonding of 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel to Ti alloy with and without nickel alloy as intermediate material was carried out in the temperature range of 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) in steps of 298 K (25 °C) for 60 minutes in vacuum. The effects of bonding temperature on interfaces microstructures of bonded joint were analyzed by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of directly bonded stainless steel and titanium alloy, the layerwise ?-Fe + ?, ?, FeTi + ?, FeTi + ?-Ti phase, and phase mixture were observed at the bond interface. However, when nickel alloy was used as an interlayer, the interfaces indicate that Ni3Ti, NiTi, and NiTi2 are formed at the nickel alloy-titanium alloy interface and the PHSS-nickel alloy interface is free from intermetallics up to 1148 K (875 °C) and above this temperature, intermetallics were formed. The irregular-shaped particles of Fe5Cr35Ni40Ti15 have been observed within the Ni3Ti intermetallic layer. The joint tensile and shear strength were measured; a maximum tensile strength of ~477 MPa and shear strength of ~356.9 MPa along with ~4.2 pct elongation were obtained for the direct bonded joint when processed at 1173 K (900 °C). However, when nickel base alloy was used as an interlayer in the same materials at the bonding temperature of 1148 K (875 °C), the bond tensile and shear strengths increase to ~523.6 and ~389.6 MPa, respectively, along with 6.2 pct elongation.

Kundu, S.; Anand, G.; Chatterjee, S.

2013-05-01

86

TEM Observation of the Ti Interlayer Between SiC Substrates During Diffusion Bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion bonding was carried out to join SiC to SiC substrates using titanium interlayers. In this study, 10 m and 20 m thick physical vapor deposited (PVD) Ti surface coatings, and 10 and 20 m thick Ti foils were used. Diffusion bonding was performed at 1250 C for PVD Ti coatings and 1200 C for Ti foil. This study investigates the microstructures of the phases formed during diffusion bonding through TEM and selected-area diffraction analysis of a sample prepared with an FIB, which allows samples to be taken from the reacted area. In all samples, Ti3SiC2, Ti5Si3Cx and TiSi2 phases were identified. In addition, TiC and unknown phases also appeared in the samples in which Ti foils were used as interlayers. Furthermore, Ti3SiC2 phases show high concentration and Ti5Si3Cx formed less when samples were processed at a higher temperature and thinner interlayer samples were used. It appears that the formation of microcracks is caused by the presence of intermediate phase Ti5Si3Cx, which has anisotropic thermal expansion, and by the presence of an unidentified Ti-Si-C ternary phase with relatively low Si content.

Tsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Shigeo; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mori

2012-01-01

87

Graphene Growth and Carbon Diffusion Process during Vacuum Heating on Cu(111)/Al2O3 Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the behavior of carbon atoms in the annealing/cooling process of graphene/Cu(111) substrates is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After the growth of graphene on Cu(111) surfaces, Cu2O was formed at the graphene/Cu interface during transportation through air atmosphere. The Cu2O layer completely disappeared by vacuum annealing at 500 °C. Graphene was decomposed and carbon atoms diffused into the Cu substrate by further elevation of annealing temperature to 950 °C. When the sample was cooled down, the carbon atoms did not segregate on the surface and remained in the Cu substrate. This result indicates the carbon atoms easily diffuse into Cu substrates in vacuum annealing while the amount of diffused carbon atoms in the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is smaller, suggesting that the barrier layer, which prevents the diffusion of C atoms, exists on Cu surfaces in the graphene CVD growth.

Ogawa, Shuichi; Yamada, Takatoshi; Ishidzuka, Shinji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hasegawa, Masataka; Teraoka, Yuden; Takakuwa, Yuji

2013-11-01

88

Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) using gas-cooled reactor technology is anticipated to be the reactor type for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). In this reactor concept with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation, hydrogen production, and/or industrial process heat applications. At present, there is no proven IHX concept for VHTRs. The current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reduced nominal reactor outlet temperatures of 750–800 degrees C is 3 on a 1–10 scale, with 10 indicating omplete technological maturity. Among the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP with Alloy 617, a candidate high-temperature structural material for NGNP applications, are the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 has been demonstrated, although the optimum diffusion bonding process parameters to engineer a quasi interface-free joint are yet to be determined. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical etching and diffusion bonding are discussed for Alloy 617 plates. In addition, the authors’ experiences with these non-conventional machining and joining techniques are discussed. Two PCHEs are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and are being experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a High-Temperature Helium Facility (HTHF). The HTHF is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800 degrees C and 3 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, some preliminary microstructural and mechanical property characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented. The characterization studies are restricted and less severe from an NGNP perspective but provide sufficient confidence to ensure safe operation of the heat exchangers in the HTHF. The test results are used to determine the design operating conditions for the PCHEs fabricated.

Sai K. Mylavarapu; Richard N. Christensen; Raymond R. Unocic; Richard E. Glosup; Mike W. Patterson

2012-08-01

89

Microstructural Characteristics of HIP-bonded Monolithic Nuclear Fuels with a Diffusion Barrier  

SciTech Connect

Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U–Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between fuel meat, cladding, and diffusion barrier, as well as U–10Mo fuel meat and Al–6061 cladding were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are • A typical Zr diffusion barrier of thickness 25 µm • Transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 µm • Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 µm in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7–13 wt% • Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase • A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer of thickness 1-2 µm • A visible UZr2 bearing layer of thickness 1-2 µm • Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U–Mo matrix • No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge • Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. • Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and interaction layer between U–Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

Jan-Fong Jue; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Glenn A. Moore; Mitchell K. Meyer

2014-05-01

90

Microstructural characteristics of HIP-bonded monolithic nuclear fuels with a diffusion barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high-performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press (HIP) bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U-Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between the fuel meat, the cladding, and the diffusion barrier, as well as between the U-10Mo fuel meat and the Al-6061 cladding, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are: diffusion barrier with a thickness of 25 ?m. A transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 ?m. Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 ?m in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7-13 wt.%. Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase. A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer with a thickness of 1-2 ?m. A visible UZr2 bearing layer with a thickness of 1-2 ?m. Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U-Mo matrix. No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge. Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along the cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and the interaction layer between the U-Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

Jue, Jan-Fong; Keiser, Dennis D.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.

2014-05-01

91

Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding.

Zhao, Yanyun; Li, Chunjing; Huang, Bo; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

2014-12-01

92

Fine pitch Cu/Sn solid state diffusion bonding for advanced three-dimensional chip stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) integration requires vertical stacking of dies while forming permanent electrical and mechanical connections between the input/output pins of the devices. How to enable stacking thermal sensitive devices at low temperature gains interest. This paper presents a systematic study of Cu/Sn bonding at 150–200 °C, during which intermetallic compounds were formed by solid state inter-diffusion. It was found that below the lower-limit pressure of 20 MPa it was hard to make good contact between the rough joint surfaces and hence electrical connection was lost. However, beyond the upper-limit of 150 MPa Sn squeezed out leading to electrical shorting between adjacent bumps. Oxides removal was another key factor for good bonding. Finally, this Cu/Sn solid state diffusion bonding together with Cu through-silicon-via (TSV) was used for making die to die vertical interconnection. The measured resistance of single Cu/Sn solder joint and Cu TSV was in the range of 12–25 m?.

Zhang, Wenqi

2015-03-01

93

Examination of superplastic forming combined with diffusion bonding for titanium: Perspective from experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superplastic forming (SPF) combined with diffusion bonding (DB) has been used successfully for the fabrication of titanium aerospace hardware. Many of these applications have been for military aircraft, whereby a complex built-up structure has been replaced with monolithic parts. Several methods for applying the two- and four-sheet titanium SPF/DB processes have been devised, including the welding of sheets prior to forming and the use of silk-screened stop-off (yttria) to prevent bonding where it is undesirable. Very little progress has been made in the past few years toward understanding and modeling the SPF/DB process using constitutive equations and data by laboratory testing. Concerns that engineers face in designing for fatigue life, acceptable design loads, and damage tolerance are currently being studied, but the database is very limited. This is a summary of past work found in the literature and forms the foundation for additional research.

Sanders, Daniel G.; Ramulu, Mamidala

2004-12-01

94

[Casting faults and structural studies on bonded alloys comparing centrifugal castings and vacuum pressure castings].  

PubMed

The casting processes in use today such as centrifugal casting and vacuum pressure casting were compared with one another. An effort was made to answer the question whether the occurrence of shrink cavities and the mean diameter of the grain of the alloy is dependent on the method of casting. 80 crowns were made by both processes from the baked alloys Degudent Universal, Degudent N and the trial alloy 4437 of the firm Degusa. Slice sections were examined for macro and micro-porosity and the structural appearance was evaluated by linear analysis. Statistical analysis showed that casting faults and casting structure is independent of the method used and their causes must be found in the conditions of casting and the composition of the alloy. PMID:352670

Fuchs, P; Küfmann, W

1978-07-01

95

Microstructure and mechanical strength of diffusion bonded joints between silicon carbide and F82H steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of SiC and reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels is attractive for fusion applications because it is expected to offer high thermal efficiency, high reliability and superior safety characteristic under a neutron irradiation environment. In this paper, diffusion bonding of SiC to F82H steel has been investigated. Direct joining of SiC to F82H was unsuccessful due to a large residual stress generated in the joint. A double W/Cu and a multiple W/Ni/Cu/Ni interlayer were used to reduce the residual stress, and encouraging results were obtained. The interfacial microstructure examination revealed that the various interfaces were bonded well. Diffusion products in the reaction zones were identified. The shear strength of the SiC/F82H joints measured by knife-edge tests at room temperature was found to increase with the increase in the joining temperature, and reached a maximum of 41.3 MPa. The fracture surfaces of the joints were also analyzed.

Zhong, Zhihong; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Kohyama, Akira

2011-10-01

96

Diffusion Bonding Technology of Tungsten and SiC/SiC Composites for Nuclear Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for the structural material in the next generation nuclear plants. Use of SiC/SiC composites is expected to increase the operation temperature of system over 1000 °C. For the high temperature system, refractory metals are planned to be used for several components. Tungsten is a candidate of armor on the divertor component in fusion, and is planned to be used for an upper-end plug of SiC/SiC fuel pin in a Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). Joining technique of the SiC/SiC composites and tungsten is an important issue for nuclear systems in future. Nano-Infiltration and Transient Eutectoid (NITE) method is able to provide dense stable and high strength SiC/SiC composites having high resistance against pressure at elevated temperature, a diffusion bonding technique is usable to join the materials. Present research produces a NITE-SiC/SiC composite and tungsten as the similar dimension as a projected cladding tube of fuel pin for GFR using diffusion bonding, and investigated microstructure and mechanical properties.

Kishimoto, Hirotatsu; Shibayama, Tamaki; Abe, Takahiro; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kawamura, Satoshi; Kohyama, Akira

2011-10-01

97

A Comparison Between Cold-Welded and Diffusion-Bonded Al/Cu Bimetallic Rods Produced by ECAE Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the application of equal channel angular extrusion process to produce both the cold-welded and diffusion-bonded Al/Cu bimetallic rods is assessed. The joints shear strength for both of the methods are measured and compared. The microstructure examinations were also carried out using scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX system and x-ray diffraction analysis. The results exhibit that the strength of the bond in cold-welded specimens is dependent on the amount of stretch and pressure at the materials interface. But in the diffusion-bonded specimens, it is depended on the struggle between the oxidation rate of the mating surfaces accompanied by inter-metallic compounds formation and the aluminum and copper atoms ability to diffuse in the joint interface.

Eslami, P.; Karimi Taheri, A.; Zebardast, M.

2013-10-01

98

Joining of tungsten carbide to nickel by direct diffusion bonding and using a Cu–Zn alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study various aspects of liquid and solid state diffusion bonding of cylindrical samples\\u000a of WC (with 6% Co) and commercially pure nickel (99.5%) produced by direct bonding and brazing using a 25 ?m thick 70Cu 30Zn (wt%) alloy as joining element. Joining experiments were carried out on WC\\/Ni and WC\\/Cu Zn\\/Ni\\u000a combinations at temperature

José Lemus-Ruiz; Leonel Ceja-Cárdenas; J. A. Verduzco; Osvaldo Flores

2008-01-01

99

Microstructures of brazed and solid-state diffusion bonded joints of tungsten with oxide dispersion strengthened steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brazed and solid-state diffusion bonded (SSDB) joints of tungsten with oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel were fabricated to use ODS steels as a structure component of first wall with tungsten as a plasma facing material in fusion blankets. Particular attention was paid to changes in the microstructure and chemical compositions in the bonding region. W was found to diffuse significantly into ODS steel, whereas there was only a limited diffusion of Fe and Cr from the ODS steel into W; these results are consistent with the diffusivity of each element. Interdiffusion multi-layer containing a layer with high concentration of B and of C was produced in the brazed joint and the SSDB joint, respectively.

Oono, Naoko; Noh, Sanghoon; Iwata, Noriyuki; Nagasaka, Takuya; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko

2011-10-01

100

Application of superplastically formed and diffusion bonded aluminum to a laminar flow control leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. Laminar flow control was one such technology. Two approaches for achieving laminar flow were designed and manufactured under NASA sponsored programs: the perforated skin concept used at McDonnell Douglas and the slotted design used at Lockheed-Georgia. Both achieved laminar flow, with the slotted design to a lesser degree (JetStar flight test program). The latter design had several fabrication problems concerning springback and adhesive flow clogging the air flow passages. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments is documented in designing and fabricating a small section of a leading edge article addressing a simpler fabrication method to overcome the previous program's manufacturing problems, i.e., design and fabrication using advanced technologies such as diffusion bonding of aluminum, which has not been used on aerospace structures to date, and the superplastic forming of aluminum.

Goodyear, M. D.

1987-01-01

101

Bonding  

MedlinePLUS

... between teeth Make teeth look longer Change the shape or color of teeth Sometimes, bonding also is used to ... a color that will most closely match the color of the tooth. He or she will shape the tooth with a drill (handpiece) if necessary, ...

102

The influence of bond-rigidity and cluster diffusion on the self-diffusion of hard spheres with square-well interaction  

E-print Network

Hard spheres interacting through a square-well potential were simulated using two different methods: Brownian Cluster Dynamics (BCD) and Event Driven Brownian Dynamics (EDBD). The structure of the equilibrium states obtained by both methods were compared and found to be almost the identical. Self diffusion coefficients ($D$) were determined as a function of the interaction strength. The same values were found using BCD or EDBD. Contrary the EDBD, BCD allows one to study the effect of bond rigidity and hydrodynamic interaction within the clusters. When the bonds are flexible the effect of attraction on $D$ is relatively weak compared to systems with rigid bonds. $D$ increases first with increasing attraction strength, and then decreases for stronger interaction. Introducing intra-cluster hydrodynamic interaction weakly increases $D$ for a given interaction strength. Introducing bond rigidity causes a strong decrease of $D$ which no longer shows a maximum as function of the attraction strength.

Sujin Babu; Jean Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai; C. De Michele

2007-11-02

103

Effect of hydrogen on diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium and hydrogenated Ti6Al4V alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium and hydrogenated Ti6Al4V alloys was carried out, and the effect of hydrogen was investigated by SEM, XRD, TEM and TG\\/DSC. The ?H phase increased with the hydrogen content increasing in hydrogenated alloys, and the ? titanium hydride and ?? martensite were found in high hydrogen content. The TG curves of hydrogenated alloys descended

H. Liu; J. Cao; P. He; J. C. Feng

2009-01-01

104

The effect of the nature of H-bonding groups on diffusion through PDMS membranes saturated with octanol and toluene.  

PubMed

The permeation of a series of structurally related compounds across silicone membranes (PDMS) was studied. The PDMS was saturated either with toluene, to mimic a functionally inert barrier, or octanol, to mimic the polar/hydrogen bonding environment of the stratum corneum lipid barrier. Phenol, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, anisole, phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol were chosen in an attempt to relate permeation to their different H-bonding capabilities. The flux was lower through the octanol system suggesting retardation by polar/H-bonding interactions. Separation of the permeability coefficient into its thermodynamic (partition coefficient) and kinetic (diffusion coefficient) terms suggests that the effect of altering polarity within the membrane has a greater impact on the diffusion of permeant rather than its chemical potential within the membrane. PMID:11803132

Du Plessis, Jeanetta; Pugh, W John; Judefeind, Anja; Hadgraft, Jonathan

2002-02-01

105

Method for producing components with internal architectures, such as micro-channel reactors, via diffusion bonding sheets  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

Alman, David E. (Corvallis, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR); Davis, Daniel L. (Albany, OR)

2011-03-08

106

The Structure and Properties of Diffusion Assisted Bonded Joints in 17-4 PH, Type 347, 15-5 PH and Nitronic 40 Stainless Steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion assisted bonds are formed in 17-4 PH, 15-5 PH, type 347 and Nitronic 40 stainless steels using electrodeposited copper as the bonding agent. The bonds are analyzed by conventional metallographic, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscopic techniques as well as Charpy V-notch impact tests at temperatures of 77 and 300 K. Results are discussed in terms of a postulated model for the bonding process.

Wigley, D. A.

1981-01-01

107

Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

2010-06-01

108

Effects of interface bonding and defects on boron diffusion at Si/SiO{sub 2} interface  

SciTech Connect

We perform first-principles density functional calculations to find the migration pathway and barrier for B diffusion at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. For various interface models, in which crystalline ?-quartz or amorphous silica (a-SiO{sub 2}) is placed on Si, we examine stable and metastable configurations of B-related defects which play a role in B diffusion. While a substitutional B alone is immobile in Si, it tends to diffuse to the interface via an interstitialcy mechanism in the presence of a self-interstitial and then changes into an interstitial B in oxide via a kick-out mechanism, leaving the self-interstitial at the interface. At the defect-free interface, where bridging O atoms are inserted to remove interface dangling bonds, an interstitial B prefers to intervene between the interface Si and bridging O atoms and subsequently diffuses through the hollow space or along the network of the Si-O-Si bonds in oxide. The overall migration barriers are calculated to be 2.02–2.12?eV at the Si/?-quartz interface, while they lie in the range of 2.04?±?0.44?eV at the Si/a-SiO{sub 2} interface, similar to that in ?-quartz. The migration pathway and barrier are not significantly affected by interface defects such as suboxide bond and O protrusion, while dangling bonds in the suboxide region can increase the migration barrier by about 1.5?eV. The result that the interface generally does not hinder the B diffusion from Si to SiO{sub 2} assists in understanding the underlying mechanism for B segregation which commonly occurs at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface.

Kim, Geun-Myeong; Oh, Young Jun; Chang, K. J., E-mail: kchang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-14

109

Time-dependent failure of silver-interlayer diffusion bonds between non-deforming base-metals  

SciTech Connect

Silver-interlayer diffusion-bonds, fabricated at low temperatures using planar-magnetron sputtering, exhibit very high tensile strengths. Earlier work has shown that these joints undergo delayed failure at relatively low tensile stresses at ambient temperature for the case in which plasticity occurs in the base materials. Failure apparently occurs by a microvoid coalescence mechanism at the bond interfaces. Delayed tensile failures were investigated in this study for the case in which the applied stress does not produce any plastic deformation in the base metal. Failure occurs and appears to be controlled by time-dependent plasticity within the silver interlayer, which is governed by the effective stress in the interlayer. The plasticity causes cavity nucleation and, eventually, interlinkage and failure. These findings are believed to be generally applicable to any thin interlayer bond, including those prepared by processes different than physical vapor-deposition. 25 refs., 5 figs.

Kassner, M.E.; Rosen, R.S.; Henshall, G.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Challenger, K.D. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1989-11-22

110

Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloys for elevated temperature structural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapidly solidified alloys, based upon the Al-Fe-V-Si system and designed for elevated temperature applications, were evaluated for superplasticity and diffusion bonding behavior. Alloys with 8, 16, 27, and 36 volume percent silicide dispersoids were produced; dispersoid condition was varied by rolling at 300, 400, and 500 C (572, 752, and 932 F). Superplastic behavior was evaluated at strain rates from 1 x 10(exp -6)/s to 8.5/s at elevated temperatures. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in elongation at higher strain rates and at temperatures above 600 C (1112 F). However, the exposure of the alloys to temperatures greater than 600 C (1112 F) resulted in the coarsening of the strengthening dispersoid and the degradation of mechanical properties. Diffusion bonding was possible using low gas pressure at temperatures greater than 600 C (1112 F) which also resulted in degraded properties. The bonding of Al-Fe-V-Si alloys to 7475 aluminum alloy was performed at 516 C (960 F) without significant degradation in microstructure. Bond strengths equal to 90 percent that of the base metal shear strength were achieved. The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the alloys were investigated.

Ting, E. Y.; Kennedy, J. R.

1989-01-01

111

The effect of intermetallics on the strength properties of diffusion bonds formed between Ti–5.5Al–2.4V and 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state diffusion bonding was done to produce transition joints between Ti–5.5Al–2.4V and type 304 austenitic stainless steel in the temperature range of 850–950°C under uniaxial load for 1h. The diffusion-bonded couples thus produced were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. Scanning electron microscopy in back scattered mode reveals the presence of different reaction bands

M Ghosh; S Chatterjee; B Mishra

2003-01-01

112

Diffusion kinetics in aluminium–gold bond contacts from first-principles density functional calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common joining method in microelectronics is thermosonic bonding of gold wires to aluminium pads deposited on the integrated circuit. In the interface between the wire and the pad a number of intermetallic compounds AlxAuy can develop, which significantly affect the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the bonds. Based on Onsager’s extremal principle of irreversible thermodynamics, the present paper

Christian M. Ulrich; Adham Hashibon; Ji??´ Svoboda; Christian Elsässer; Dirk Helm; Hermann Riedel

2011-01-01

113

An investigation on diffusion bonding of aluminum to copper using equal channel angular extrusion process.  

PubMed

A new method for production of bimetallic rods, utilizing the equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) process has been introduced before by previous researchers, but no attempt has been made to assess the effect of different temperatures and holding times in order to achieve a diffusional bond between the mating surfaces. In present research copper sheathed aluminum rods have been ECAEed at room temperature and subsequently held at a constant ECAE pressure, at different temperatures and holding times to produce a diffusional bond between the copper sheath and the aluminum core. The bonding quality of the joints was examined by shear strength test and a sound bonding interface was achieved. Based on the results, a bonding temperature of 200 °C and holding time of 60-80 min yielded the highest shear strength value. PMID:21760654

Eslami, P; Taheri, A Karimi

2011-06-30

114

Study of diffusion bond development in 6061 aluminum and its relationship to future high density fuels fabrication.  

SciTech Connect

Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium alloys and silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the RERTR program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. Testing is done with miniplate-type fuel plates to simulate standard fuel with cladding and matrix in plate-type configurations. In order to seal the dispersion fuel plates, a diffusion bond must exist between the aluminum coverplates surrounding the fuel meat. Four different variations in the standard method for roll-bonding 6061 aluminum were studied. They included mechanical cleaning, addition of a getter material, modifications to the standard chemical etching, and welding methods. Aluminum test pieces were subjected to a bend test after each rolling pass. Results, based on 400 samples, indicate that at least a 70% reduction in thickness is required to produce a diffusion bond using the standard rollbonding method versus a 60% reduction using the Type II method in which the assembly was welded 100% and contained open 9mm holes at frame corners.

Prokofiev, I.; Wiencek, T.; McGann, D.

1997-10-07

115

Effect of High Temperature Storage in Vacuum, Air, and Humid Conditions on Degradation of Gold/Aluminum Wire Bonds in PEMs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microcircuits encapsulated in three plastic package styles were stored in different environments at temperatures varying from 130 C to 225 C for up to 4,000 hours in some cases. To assess the effect of oxygen, the parts were aged at high temperatures in air and in vacuum chambers. The effect of humidity was evaluated during long-term highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress testing (HAST) at temperatures of 130 C and 150 C. High temperature storage testing of decapsulated microcircuits in air, vacuum, and HAST chambers was carried out to evaluate the role of molding compounds in the environmentally-induced degradation and failure of wire bonds (WB). This paper reports on accelerating factors of environment and molding compound on WB failures. It has been shown that all environments, including oxygen, moisture, and the presence of molding compounds reduce time-to-failures compared to unencapsulated devices in vacuum conditions. The mechanism of the environmental effect on KB degradation is discussed.

Teverovsky, Alexander

2006-01-01

116

Dynamic bond portfolio choice in a model with Gaussian diffusion regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies bond prices, intertemporal consumption and portfolio choice in a simple two-factor continuous-time regime-switching term structure model. The real interest rate and the expected inflation are modelled as an “extended” Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, whose mean and variance shift randomly within a high–low Markovian regime. The prices of nominal and indexed bonds, the nominal and real term premia and the

João Libório

2005-01-01

117

Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Magnesium Alloy (Mg-AZ31) to Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V have physical characteristics and mechanical properties that makes it attractive for a wide range of engineering applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion hinder the use of traditional fusion welding techniques. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al- 4V was performed and different interlayer types and configurations were used to facilitate joint formation. The joining of these alloys using Ni foils was successful at a bonding temperature of 515°C, bonding pressure 0.2 MPa, for bonding time of 5 minutes. At the Ni/Mg-AZ31 bond interface, the formation of a eutectic liquid between Mg and Ni was observed. The formation of Mg2Ni and Mg3AlNi2 were identified along the bond interface resulting in an isothermally solidified joint. At the Ni/Ti-6Al-4V interface, the solid-state diffusion process results in joint formation. The use of double Ni-Cu sandwich joint resulted in further enhancement in joint formation and this produced joints with greater shear strength values. The configuration of Mg-AZ31/Cu- Ni/Ti-6Al-4V or Mg-AZ31/Ni-Cu/Ti-6Al-4V influence the mechanism of bonding and the type of intermetallics formed within the joint. The application of thin Ni electrodeposited coatings resulted in further enhancements of joint quality due to better surface-to-surface contact and a reduction in the formation of intermetallics at the joint. The effect of Cu nano-particles in the coatings was found to decrease the eutectic zone width and this resulted in an increase the shear strength of the joints. The highest shear strength of 69 MPa was possible with bonds made using coatings containing Cu nano-particle dispersion.

Atieh, Anas Mahmoud

118

Brazing process using'al-Si filler alloy reliably bonds aluminum parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brazing process employs an aluminum-silicon filler alloy for diffusion bonding of aluminum parts in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere. This process is carried out at temperatures substantially below those required in conventional process and produces bonds of greater strength and reliability.

Beuyukian, C. S.; Johnson, W. R.

1966-01-01

119

Dynamics of supercritical methanol of varying density from first principles simulations: Hydrogen bond fluctuations, vibrational spectral diffusion, and orientational relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first principles study of the dynamics of supercritical methanol is carried out by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, the fluctuation dynamics of hydroxyl stretch frequencies, hydrogen bonds, dangling hydroxyl groups, and orientation of methanol molecules are investigated for three different densities at 523 K. Apart from the dynamical properties, various equilibrium properties of supercritical methanol such as the local density distributions and structural correlations, hydrogen bonding aspects, frequency-structure correlations, and dipole distributions of methanol molecules are also investigated. In addition to the density dependence of various equilibrium and dynamical properties, their dependencies on dispersion interactions are also studied by carrying out additional simulations using a dispersion corrected density functional for all the systems. It is found that the hydrogen bonding between methanol molecules decreases significantly as we move to the supercritical state from the ambient one. The inclusion of dispersion interactions is found to increase the number of hydrogen bonds to some extent. Calculations of the frequency-structure correlation coefficient reveal that a statistical correlation between the hydroxyl stretch frequency and the nearest hydrogen-oxygen distance continues to exist even at supercritical states of methanol, although it is weakened with increase of temperature and decrease of density. In the supercritical state, the frequency time correlation function is found to decay with two time scales: One around or less than 100 fs and the other in the region of 250-700 fs. It is found that, for supercritical methanol, the times scales of vibrational spectral diffusion are determined by an interplay between the dynamics of hydrogen bonds, dangling OD groups, and inertial rotation of methanol molecules and the roles of these various components are found to vary with density of the supercritical solvent. Effects of system size on the calculated structural and dynamical properties are also investigated in the present study.

Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu

2013-06-01

120

Dynamics of supercritical methanol of varying density from first principles simulations: hydrogen bond fluctuations, vibrational spectral diffusion, and orientational relaxation.  

PubMed

A first principles study of the dynamics of supercritical methanol is carried out by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, the fluctuation dynamics of hydroxyl stretch frequencies, hydrogen bonds, dangling hydroxyl groups, and orientation of methanol molecules are investigated for three different densities at 523 K. Apart from the dynamical properties, various equilibrium properties of supercritical methanol such as the local density distributions and structural correlations, hydrogen bonding aspects, frequency-structure correlations, and dipole distributions of methanol molecules are also investigated. In addition to the density dependence of various equilibrium and dynamical properties, their dependencies on dispersion interactions are also studied by carrying out additional simulations using a dispersion corrected density functional for all the systems. It is found that the hydrogen bonding between methanol molecules decreases significantly as we move to the supercritical state from the ambient one. The inclusion of dispersion interactions is found to increase the number of hydrogen bonds to some extent. Calculations of the frequency-structure correlation coefficient reveal that a statistical correlation between the hydroxyl stretch frequency and the nearest hydrogen-oxygen distance continues to exist even at supercritical states of methanol, although it is weakened with increase of temperature and decrease of density. In the supercritical state, the frequency time correlation function is found to decay with two time scales: One around or less than 100 fs and the other in the region of 250-700 fs. It is found that, for supercritical methanol, the times scales of vibrational spectral diffusion are determined by an interplay between the dynamics of hydrogen bonds, dangling OD groups, and inertial rotation of methanol molecules and the roles of these various components are found to vary with density of the supercritical solvent. Effects of system size on the calculated structural and dynamical properties are also investigated in the present study. PMID:23781799

Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu

2013-06-14

121

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion  

E-print Network

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

Fayer, Michael D.

122

M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

2015-04-01

123

M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

2015-01-01

124

Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

Rack, Philip D.

125

Influence of bonding atmosphere on low-temperature wafer bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of bonding atmosphere was investigated for the wafer bonding at 25~200°C using a surface activated bonding method. The results of the analysis of activated Si surfaces under different vacuum background and the residual gases in vacuum before and after Ar fast atom beam irradiation is reported. Based on the analysis, bonding of Si wafers in nitrogen atmosphere is

Ying-Hui Wang; Tadatomo Suga

2010-01-01

126

Ceramic-to-metal vacuum seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knife-edge sealing technique forms reliable, vacuum-tight bonds between materials having very different thermal-expansion characteristics. Seal is thin and flexible and absorb shear, hoop, and bonding stresses at joint so that seal remains vacuum tight.

Sackerlotzky, O. H.

1979-01-01

127

Localized heating and bonding technique for MEMS packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized heating and bonding techniques have been developed for hermetic and vacuum packaging of MEMS devices, including silicon-to-glass fusion, silicon-gold eutectic, and silicon-to-glass bonding using PSG, indium, aluminum, and aluminum/silicon alloy as the intermediate layer. Line shaped phosphorus-doped polysilicon or gold films are used as resistive microheaters to provide enough thermal energy for bonding. The bonding processes are conducted in the common environment of room temperature and atmospheric pressure and can achieve bonding strength comparable to the fracture toughness of bulk silicon in less than 10 minutes. About 5 watts of input power is needed for localized bonding which can seal a 500 x 500 mum2 area. The total input power is determined by the thermal properties of bonding materials, including the heat capacity and latent heat. Two important bonding results are obtained: (1) The surface step created by the electrical interconnect line can be planarized by reflowing the metal solder. (2) Small applied pressure, less than 1MPa, for intimate contact reduces mechanical damage to the device substrate. This new class of bonding technology has potential applications for MEMS fabrication and packaging that require low temperature processing at the wafer level, excellent bonding strength and hermetic sealing characteristics. A hermetic package based on localized aluminum/silicon-to-glass bonding has been successfully fabricated. Less than 0.2 MPa contact pressure with 46mA input current for two parallel 3.5mum wide polysilicon on-chip microheaters can create as high as 700°C bonding temperature and achieve a strong and reliable bond in 7.5 minutes. Accelerated testing in an autoclave shows some packages survive more than 450 hours under 3 atm, 100%RH and 128°C. Premature failure has been attributed to some unbonded regions on the failed samples. The bonding yield and reliability have been improved by increasing bonding time and applied pressure. Finally, vacuum encapsulation of folded-beam comb-drive mu-resonators used as pressure monitors has been demonstrated using localized aluminum/silicon-to-glass bonding. With 3.4 watt heating power, ˜0.2MPa applied contact pressure, and 90 minutes wait time before bonding, vacuum encapsulation can be achieved with the same vacuum level as the packaging environment which is about 25 mtorr. Metal coating used as diffusion barrier and a longer wait time before bonding are used to improve the vacuum level of the package. Long-term measurement of the Q of un-annealed vacuum-packaged mu-resonators, illustrates stable operation after 19 weeks.

Cheng, Yu-Ting

128

Fabrication and evaluation of enhanced diffusion bonded titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels with titanium aluminide face sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joining process was developed for fabricating lightweight, high temperature sandwich panels for aerospace applications using Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets and Ti-3Al-2.5V honeycomb core. The process, termed Enhanced Diffusion Bonding (EDB), relies on the formation of a eutectic liquid through solid-state diffusion at elevated temperatures and isothermal solidification to produce joints in thin-gage titanium and titanium aluminide structural components. A technique employing a maskant on the honeycomb core was developed which permitted electroplating a controlled amount of EDB material only on the edges of the honeycomb core in order to minimize the structural weight and metallurgical interaction effects. Metallurgical analyses were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the EDB materials and the constituents of the sandwich structure following EDB processing. The initial mechanical evaluation was conducted with butt joint specimens tested at temperatures from 1400 - 1700 F. Further mechanical evaluation was conducted with EDB sandwich specimens using flatwise tension tests at temperatures from 70 - 1100 F and edgewise compression tests at ambient temperature.

Hoffmann, E. K.; Bird, R. K.; Bales, T. T.

1989-01-01

129

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

130

Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Bond Dissociation Energies for BH2, B(OH)2, BCl2, and BCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On basis of bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for BH2, B(OH)2, BCl2, and BCl, the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is applied to explore the BDEs of HB-H, HOB-OH, ClB-Cl, and B-Cl. The effect of the choice of orbitals, as well as the backflow transformation, is studied. The Slater-Jastrow DMC algorithm gives BDEs of 359.1±0.12 kJ/mol for HB-H, 410.5±0.50 kJ/mol for HOB-OH, 357.8±1.46 kJ/mol for ClB-Cl, and 504.5±0.96 kJ/mol for B-Cl using B3PW91 orbitals and similar BDEs when B3LYP orbitals are used. DMC with backflow corrections (BF-DMC) gives a HB-H BDE of 369.9±0.12 kJ/mol which is close to one of the available experimental value (375.8 kJ/mol). In the case of HOB-OH BDE, the BF-DMC calculation is 446.0±1.84 kJ/mol that is closer to the experimental BDE. The BF-DMC BDE for ClB-Cl is 343.2±2.34 kJ/mol and the BF-DMC B-Cl BDE is 523.3±0.33 kJ/mol, which are close to the experimental BDEs, 341.9 and 530.0 kJ/mol, respectively.

Li, Hui-ran; Cheng, Xin-lu; Zhang, Hong

2012-02-01

131

MEMS vacuum packaging technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum packaging is essential for various kinds of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices for enhancing the performance and reliability. This paper presents our works on research on vacuum packaging of MEMS devices. A hermetical sealing technique has been developed, which involves the processes of anodic bonding for silicon and glass wafers with imperfect interface, adhesive bonding, glass frit bonding and silicon-to-gold

Y. Jin; Z. F. Wang; P. C. Lim; D. Y. Pan; J. Wei; C. K. Wong

2003-01-01

132

Thermal diffusivity measurement of BMS 10-102 thermal insulation material in a vacuum condition using a cyclic heating method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the many different types of spacecraft missions, insulation techniques are required to advance spacecraft thermal design. In order to create a reliable thermal design system, it is essential to characterize materials and basic properties accurately. In this paper, the cyclic heating method is used to measure the thermal diffusivity for a high-temperature porous material as an insulation material for

Gi-Won Nam; Cheol-Won Kong; Yeong-Moo Yi; Akira Ohnishi

2009-01-01

133

In Situ Characterization of NiTi/Ti6Al4V Joints During Reaction-Assisted Diffusion Bonding Using Ni/Ti Multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction-assisted diffusion bonding process of NiTi and Ti6Al4V was studied in situ. For this purpose, experiments were carried out at the High Energy Materials Science beamline (P-07) at PETRA-III (DESY). Ni/Ti multilayer thin films 2.5 ?m thick with 12 and 25 nm modulation periods were directly deposited by magnetron sputtering onto the materials being joined. The NiTi and Ti6Al4V coated parts were placed with the films facing each other in a dilatometer equipped with Kapton windows for the x-ray beams. Microjoining was promoted by applying a 10 MPa pressure and inductively heating the materials, while simultaneously acquiring x-ray diffraction scans across the bond interface. Sound joints were produced at 750 °C. The formation of the NiTi2 phase could not be avoided.

Cavaleiro, A. J.; Ramos, A. S.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Schell, N.; Vieira, M. T.

2014-05-01

134

Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals.  

PubMed

We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species' diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system. PMID:25770496

Wyrick, Jonathan; Einstein, T L; Bartels, Ludwig

2015-03-14

135

Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species' diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system.

Wyrick, Jonathan; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

2015-03-01

136

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None; )

2006-11-09

137

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

138

The effect of the nature of H-bonding groups on diffusion through PDMS membranes saturated with octanol and toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeation of a series of structurally related compounds across silicone membranes (PDMS) was studied. The PDMS was saturated either with toluene, to mimic a functionally inert barrier, or octanol, to mimic the polar\\/hydrogen bonding environment of the stratum corneum lipid barrier. Phenol, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, anisole, phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol were chosen in an attempt to relate permeation

Jeanetta Du Plessis; W. John Pugh; Anja Judefeind; Jonathan Hadgraft

2002-01-01

139

The characteristics of atmospheric ice nuclei measured at the top of Huangshan (the Yellow Mountains) in Southeast China using a newly built static vacuum water vapor diffusion chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly built static vacuum water vapor diffusion chamber was built to measure the concentration of ice nuclei (INs) at the top of Huangshan (the Yellow Mountains) in Southeast China. The experiments were conducted under temperatures between - 15 °C and - 23 °C and supersaturations with respect to ice between 4% and 25%. The results show that the average IN concentration was in the range of 0.27 to 7.02 L- 1, when the temperature was varied from - 15 °C to - 23 °C. The changes in IN concentrations with time were correlated with the change of number concentration of the aerosol particles of 0.5-20 ?m in diameter. The square correlation coefficients (R2) between IN and coarse aerosol particles (0.5-20 ?m in diameter) were all higher than 0.60, much higher than that (0.10) between IN and smaller particles (0.01-0.5 ?m). The concentration of ice nuclei at 14:00 LST was significantly higher than that at 08:00 LST, which is correlated with the diurnal variation of the concentration of aerosol particles. A parametric equation was developed based on measurements to represent the variations of IN concentration with temperature and supersaturation.

Jiang, Hui; Yin, Yan; Su, Hang; Shan, Yunpeng; Gao, Renjie

2015-02-01

140

Diffusion of elements in porcelain into titanium oxide.  

PubMed

The diffusion of elements of commercial porcelain for titanium into titanium oxide during heating was investigated. Titanium was deposited on three kinds of disk-shaped porcelains by vacuum-vaporization and the porcelains were then heated. A thin titanium oxide film was formed on the porcelains by the heating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the surfaces of the porcelains with and without titanium oxide. Only sodium, potassium, and barium diffused into titanium oxide during heating, where they formed a complex oxide with titanium. The diffusion of these elements may be involved in the bonding of porcelain to titanium. PMID:7758276

Hanawa, T; Kon, M; Ohkawa, S; Asaoka, K

1994-12-01

141

Plates for vacuum thermal fusion  

DOEpatents

A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

142

Bonding thermoplastic polymers  

DOEpatents

We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

Wallow, Thomas I. (Fremont, CA); Hunter, Marion C. (Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen Lee (Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Domeier, Linda A. (Danville, CA)

2008-06-24

143

Method for vacuum pressing electrochemical cell components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assembling electrochemical cell components using a bonding agent comprising aligning components of the electrochemical cell, applying a bonding agent between the components to bond the components together, placing the components within a container that is essentially a pliable bag, and drawing a vacuum within the bag, wherein the bag conforms to the shape of the components from the pressure outside the bag, thereby holding the components securely in place. The vacuum is passively maintained until the adhesive has cured and the components are securely bonded. The bonding agent used to bond the components of the electrochemical cell may be distributed to the bonding surface from distribution channels in the components. To prevent contamination with bonding agent, some areas may be treated to produce regions of preferred adhesive distribution and protected regions. Treatments may include polishing, etching, coating and providing protective grooves between the bonding surfaces and the protected regions.

Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

144

Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

Schmitt, Edward H. (Livermore, CA); Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

145

Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

1991-09-10

146

Efficient second harmonic generation of double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser producing 7.9 W yellow light.  

PubMed

A high power and efficient 588 nm yellow light is demonstrated through intracavity frequency doubling of an acousto-optic Q-switched self-frequency Raman laser. A 30-mm-length double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO(4) crystal was utilized for efficient self-Raman laser operation by reducing the thermal effects and increasing the interaction length for the stimulated Raman scattering. A 15-mm-length LBO with non-critical phase matching (theta = 90 degrees, phi = 0 degrees) cut was adopted for efficient second-harmonic generation. The focus position of incident pump light and both the repetition rate and the duty cycle of the Q-switch have been optimized. At a repetition rate of 110 kHz and a duty cycle of 5%, the average power of 588 nm light is up to 7.93 W while the incident pump power is 26.5 W, corresponding to an overall diode-yellow conversion efficiency of 30% and a slope efficiency of 43%. PMID:19997395

Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Huang, Chenghui; Wei, Yong; Shen, Hongyuan; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Lingxiong; Chen, Zhenqiang

2009-11-23

147

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

148

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

149

All-solid-state cw sodium D2 resonance radiation based on intracavity frequency-doubled self-Raman laser operation in double-end diffusion-bonded Nd3+:LuVO4 crystal.  

PubMed

We report for the first time (to our knowledge) cw orange-yellow emission at 589 nm from a compact double-end diffusion-bonded Nd(3+):LuVO(4) self-Raman laser with intracavity frequency doubling in LiB(3)O(5), pumped by an 880 nm diode laser. A 3.5 W cw orange-yellow emission with an overall diode-to-visible conversion efficiency of 13.3% is achieved through the use of an 18-mm-long double-ended diffusion-bonded Nd(3+):LuVO(4) crystal. The M(2) factors are 1.35 and 1.74 in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions, respectively. PMID:20808384

Lü, Yanfei; Zhang, Xihe; Li, Shutao; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Weibo; Xiong, Zheng

2010-09-01

150

Vacuum Virtues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

Rathey, Allen

2007-01-01

151

Vacuum Energy  

E-print Network

There appears to be three, perhaps related, ways of approaching the nature of vacuum energy . The first is to say that it is just the lowest energy state of a given, usually quantum, system. The second is to equate vacuum energy with the Casimir energy. The third is to note that an energy difference from a complete vacuum might have some long range effect, typically this energy difference is interpreted as the cosmological constant. All three approaches are reviewed, with an emphasis on recent work. It is hoped that this review is comprehensive in scope. There is a discussion on whether there is a relation between vacuum energy and inertia. The solution suggested here to the nature of the vacuum is that Casimir energy can produce short range effects because of boundary conditions, but that at long range there is no overall effect of vacuum energy, unless one considers lagrangians of higher order than Einstein's as vacuum induced. No original calculations are presented in support of this position. This is not a review of the cosmological constant {\\it per se}, but rather vacuum energy in general, my approach to the cosmological constant is not standard.

Mark D. Roberts

2001-07-22

152

Vacuum mechatronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

1989-01-01

153

Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2000-01-01

154

Microstructural evolution during transient liquid phase bonding of Inconel 738LC using AMS 4777 filler alloy  

SciTech Connect

IN-738LC nickel-based superalloy was joined by transient liquid phase diffusion bonding using AMS 4777 filler alloy. The bonding process was carried out at 1050 Degree-Sign C under vacuum atmosphere for various hold times. Microstructures of the joints were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Continuous centerline eutectic phases, characterized as nickel-rich boride, chromium-rich boride and nickel-rich silicide were observed at the bonds with incomplete isothermal solidification. In addition to the centerline eutectic products, precipitation of boron-rich particles was observed in the diffusion affected zone. The results showed that, as the bonding time was increased to 75 min, the width of the eutectic zone was completely removed and the joint was isothermally solidified. Homogenization of isothermally solidified joints at 1120 Degree-Sign C for 300 min resulted in the elimination of intermetallic phases formed at the diffusion affected zone and the formation of significant {gamma} Prime precipitates in the joint region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TLP bonding of IN-738LC superalloy was performed using AMS 4777 filler alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insufficient diffusion time resulted in the formation of eutectic product. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of B-rich particles was observed within the DAZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extent of isothermal solidification increased with increasing holding time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogenizing of joints resulted in the dissolution of DAZ intermetallics.

Jalilvand, V., E-mail: jalilvand@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidvar, H. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, H.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Rahimipour, M.R. [Department of Ceramic, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj 31787-316 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Ceramic, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj 31787-316 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-01-15

155

Wafer level vacuum packaging of MEMS sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been developed for wafer level vacuum packaging MEMS sensors, which are fabricated from etched, single crystal silicon structures, anodically bonded to metallized glass wafers. Key objectives of the process design were to minimize the number of changes to sensor fabrication, insure a high level of vacuum integrity, and flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of sensor

Thomas F. Marinis; Joseph W. Soucy; James G. Lawrence; Megan M. Owens

2005-01-01

156

Vacuum mounting for piezoelectric transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Special housing couples piezoelectric transducers to nonporous surfaces for ultrasonic or acoustic-emission testing. Device, while providing sound isolation on flat or nonflat surfaces, can be attached and detached quickly. Vacuum sealing mechanism eliminates need for permanent or semipermanent bonds, viscous coupling liquids, weights, magnets, tape, or springs ordinarily used.

Tiede, D. A.

1977-01-01

157

Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss flow regimes of gas. The PDF includes 14 instructional slides demonstrating related concepts in vacuum technology. Keywords: Reynolds' number, Knudsen's number

Rack, Philip D.

158

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

159

Gauge calibration by diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum gage calibration by diffusing a known quantity of gas through a heated barrier into a gauge is examined. The gas flow raises the pressure in the gauge to known level and is then compared with the gauge's pressure reading.

Brock, F. J.; Feakes, F. (inventors)

1968-01-01

160

Vacuum Waves  

E-print Network

As an example of the unification of gravitation and particle physics, an exact solution of the five-dimensional field equations is studied which describes waves in the classical Einstein vacuum. While the solution is essentially 5D in nature, the waves exist in ordinary 3D space, and may provide a way to test for an extra dimension.

Paul S. Wesson

2012-12-11

161

Silicon carbide wafer bonding by modified surface activated bonding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4H-SiC wafer bonding has been achieved by the modified surface activated bonding (SAB) method without any chemical-clean treatment and high temperature annealing. Strong bonding between the SiC wafers with tensile strength greater than 32 MPa was demonstrated at room temperature under 5 kN force for 300 s. Almost the entire wafer has been bonded very well except a small peripheral region and few voids. The interface structure was analyzed to verify the bonding mechanism. It was found an amorphous layer existed as an intermediate layer at the interface. After annealing at 1273 K in vacuum for 1 h, the bonding tensile strength was still higher than 32 MPa. The interface changes after annealing were also studied. The results show that the thickness of the amorphous layer was reduced to half after annealing.

Suga, Tadatomo; Mu, Fengwen; Fujino, Masahisa; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakazawa, Haruo; Iguchi, Kenichi

2015-03-01

162

Chemical Bonds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

163

High Temperature Adhesives for Bonding Kapton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental polyimide resins were developed and evaluated as potential high temperature adhesives for bonding Kapton polyimide film. Lap shear strengths of Kapton/Kapton bonds were obtained as a function of test temperature, adherend thickness, and long term aging at 575K (575 F) in vacuum. Glass transition temperatures of the polyimide/Kapton bondlines were monitored by thermomechanical analysis.

Stclair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.; Stclair, T. L.

1978-01-01

164

High temperature adhesives for bonding Kapton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental polyimide resins have been developed and evaluated as potential high temperature adhesives for bonding Kapton polyimide film. Lap shear strengths of 'Kapton'/'Kapton' bonds were obtained as a function of test temperature, adherend thickness, and long term aging at 575K (575 F) in vacuum. Glass transition temperatures of the polyimide/'Kapton' bondlines were monitored by thermomechanical analysis.

Saint Clair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.; Saint Clair, T. L.

1978-01-01

165

Healing of the Interface Between Splashed Particles and Underlying Bulk Coating and Its Influence on Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of LPPS MCrAlY Bond Coat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermally grown oxide formed on the bond coat surface plays an important role in determining the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The splashed particles on the thermally sprayed MCrAlY bond coat surface are weakly bonded to the underlying bulk coating, leading to the formation of mixed oxides and contributing to the TBC failure. In this study, the healing behavior of the weakly bonded interface between splashed particles and underlying MCrAlY bulk coating deposited by low pressure plasma spraying was examined, and the influence of interface healing on the isothermal oxidation behavior of the bond coat was discussed. Results show that the granular particles resulting from splashing of molten droplets were exposed on smooth splats which make up the surface of bulk coating. After the pre-diffusion treatment in vacuum, the small granular splashed particles are immersed into the bulk coating resulting from the element diffusion on the interface between splashed particles and underlying bulk coating. After the vacuum heat treatment, the formation of mixed oxides was effectively restrained due to the healing of the splashed particle/underlying bulk coating interface.

Zhang, Bang-Yan; Shi, Jing; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

2015-02-01

166

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, J.D.

1995-03-07

167

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA)

1995-01-01

168

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, J.D.

1993-11-09

169

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, John D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

170

THE VACUUM/STEAM/VACUUM PROCESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Vacuum/Steam/Vacuum surface intervention pilot plant process was developed. The process was developed for chicken, hot dogs, fruits and vegetables, and catfish. Optimum process conditions were determined as nominally, 138 C saturated steam, vacuum and steam times of 0.1 s except that the final...

171

High-temperature adhesives for bonding polyimide film. [bonding Kapton film for solar sails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental polyimide resins were developed and evaluated as potential high temperature adhesives for bonding Kapton polyimide film. Lap shear strengths of Kapton/Kapton bonds were obtained as a function of test temperature, adherend thickness, and long term aging at 575 K (575 F) in vacuum. Glass transition temperatures of the polyimide/"Kapton" bondlines were monitored by thermomechanical analysis.

St.clair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.

1980-01-01

172

Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU)  

E-print Network

Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU) Some graphs courtesy of KJLesker, Edwards, Veeco #12;I. VacuumI. Vacuum 1 atm= 760 torr = 1.0132 bar = 1.013x105 Pa = 14.7 psi Rough Vacuum (RV) 1 torr ­ 760 torrg ( ) Medium Vacuum (MV) 10-5 torr

Liu, Kai

173

Fluxless flip chip bonding processes and aerial fluxless bonding technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New fluxless flip chip processes of Sn-rich non-eutectic Au-Sn solder bumps were developed using vacuum deposition and electroplating technique. It is believed that this is the first report that non-eutectic Au-Sn flip chip solder bonding is achieved without the use of flux. In order to make 200mum diameter and 10mum thick Au-Sn solder bump 0.03mum of Cr, 10mum of Sn

Dongwook Kim

2004-01-01

174

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

175

Surface activated bonding of 8 in. Si wafers for MEMS and microfluidic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges for direct wafer bonding using surface activated bonding (SAB) method have been investigated. For this purpose, 4-8 in silicon wafers with and without fine patterns were bonded in vacuum. Three challenges are identified through comprehensive investigations of the bonded interfaces using infrared (IR) transmission, tensile pulling, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation. First is the alignment between

M. M. R. Howlader; T. Suga

2009-01-01

176

Heater decomposes oil backstreaming from high-vacuum pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heater placed between an oil diffusion pump and a vacuum chamber prevents backstreaming of oil molecules into the work area of the chamber. It breaks the oil molecules into basic constituents that can be pumped away.

Shapiro, H.

1965-01-01

177

Novel hydrophilic SiO2 wafer bonding using combined surface-activated bonding technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature hydrophilic SiO2–SiO2 wafer bonding has been performed in vacuum by a new combined surface-activated bonding (SAB) technique. In this technique, wafers are irradiated by ion beam bombardment and simultaneously deposited with silicon by in situ silicon sputter deposition, and then terminated with Si–OH groups by water vapor exposure prior to bonding in vacuum. A surface energy of more than 1 J/m2 was achieved by 200 °C postbonding annealing. A void-free oxide intermediate layer with a thickness of about 15 nm was observed at the bonding interface by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The increased bonding energy can be attributed to the greater number of Si–OH formed through hydroxylation of the silicon deposited on the SiO2 surfaces.

He, Ran; Fujino, Masahisa; Yamauchi, Akira; Suga, Tadatomo

2015-03-01

178

Carbon nanotube vacuum gauges utilizing long, dissipative tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon nanotube-based thermal conductivity vacuum gauge is described which utilizes 5-10 mum long diffusively contacted SWNTs for vacuum sensing. By etching the thermal SiO2 beneath the tubes and minimizing heat conduction through the substrate, pressure sensitivity was extended toward higher vacuums. The pressure response of unannealed and annealed devices was compared to that of released devices. The released devices

Anupama B. Kaul; Harish M. Manohara

2008-01-01

179

High power ultrasonic bond strength evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>Bond strength of diffusion and adhesive bonds has long remained one of ;\\u000a the unsolved problems facing the materials testing industry. Many techniques are ;\\u000a available for the detection of unbonds but these tend to become inaccurate when ;\\u000a the unbonded surfaces are in intimate contact. Weak bonds in almost all cases ;\\u000a cannot be distinguished from bends which approach

1973-01-01

180

Numerical Simulation of Transient Liquid Phase Bonding under Temperature Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient Liquid Phase bonding under Temperature Gradient (TG-TLP bonding) is a relatively new process of TLP diffusion bonding family for joining difficult-to-weld aerospace materials. Earlier studies have suggested that in contrast to the conventional TLP bonding process, liquid state diffusion drives joint solidification in TG-TLP bonding process. In the present work, a mass conservative numerical model that considers asymmetry in joint solidification is developed using finite element method to properly study the TG-TLP bonding process. The numerical results, which are experimentally verified, show that unlike what has been previously reported, solid state diffusion plays a major role in controlling the solidification behavior during TG-TLP bonding process. The newly developed model provides a vital tool for further elucidation of the TG-TLP bonding process.

Ghobadi Bigvand, Arian

181

Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

Saha, T. K.

2008-03-01

182

Car-Parrinello simulation of an O-H stretching envelope and potential of mean force of an intramolecular hydrogen bonded system: Application to a Mannich base in solid state and in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) study was performed for an anharmonic system—an intramolecularly hydrogen bonded Mannich-base-type compound, 4,5-dimethyl-2(N,N-dimethylaminemethyl)phenol, to investigate the vibrational spectrum associated with the O-H stretching. Calculations were carried out for the solid state and for an isolated molecule. The classical CPMD simulation was performed and then the proton potential snapshots were extracted from the trajectory. The vibrational Schrödinger equation for the snapshots was solved numerically, and the (O-H) envelope was calculated as a superposition of the 0?1 transitions. The potential of mean force for the proton stretching mode was calculated from the proton vibrational eigenfunctions and eigenvalues incorporating statistical sampling, nuclear quantum effects, and effects of the environment. Perspectives for application of the presented methodology in the computational support of biocatalysis are given in the study.

Jezierska, Aneta; Panek, Jaros?aw J.; Koll, Aleksander; Mavri, Janez

2007-05-01

183

Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry  

E-print Network

Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon

Hirn, Matthew

184

UHV-Bonding and Reversible Interconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesion between two clean surfaces was investigated using a surface-activated bonding method in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) at room temperature. Adhesion was observed in all combinations of SUS440C/Ti-6Al-4V, INCONEL718/Ti-6Al-4V, A7075/SUS440C, SUS304/Al and INCONEL718/SUS440C. To understand the basic problems of UHV bonding, the influence of the surface roughness on bonding strength and interface structure has been studied. The surface roughness at the nanometer scale strongly influenced the bonding strength. In the case of SUS304 and Al, surfaces with less than l nm (RMS) had a high bonding strength of over 80 MPa. The interface does not have a thick reaction layer, only an amorphous layer on the order of several nanometers. Separation of the SUS304/Al interface by heat treatment has been also studied. A specimen heated at 823 K for 2 hr in a vacuum separated spontaneously without any external mechanical force. Separation occurred at the interface between the Al and the layer of the reaction products. This separation occurred only if the specimen was heated in a vacuum or argon atmosphere. The specimen did not separate when it was heated in air, nitrogen or oxygen atmospheres. The separated SUS304 could be re-bonded to Al at room temperature.

Hosoda, Naoe; Suga, Tadatomo; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

185

Educational Vacuum Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

Hansen, Steve

186

Radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

187

Cosmology of Vacuum  

E-print Network

Shortly the vacuum component of the Universe from the geometry point of view and from the point of view of the standard model of physics of elementary particles is discussed. Some arguments are given to the calculated value of the cosmological constant (Zeldovich approximation). A new component of space vacuum (the gravitational vacuum condensate) is involved the production of which has fixed time in our Universe. Also the phenomenon of vacuum selforganization must be included in physical consideration of the Universe evolution.

V. Burdyuzha; G. Vereshkov

2007-12-29

188

Vacuum String Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief review of vacuum string field theory, a new approach to open string field theory based on the stable vacuum of the tachyon. We discuss the sliver state explaining its role as a projector in the space of half-string functionals. We review the construction of D-brane solutions in vacuum string field theory, both in the algebraic approach

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2001-01-01

189

Vacuum Vessel Remote Handling  

E-print Network

FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, H-M Fan, G. Jones #12;13 July 2002 Snowmass Review: FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling 2 Presentation Outline · Vacuum Vessel - Design requirements - Design concept and features - Analysis to date - Status and summary

190

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

191

One Step Room Temperature Silicon Direct Bonding for MEMS Practical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one step direct silicon boding process was developed which any commercial polished silicon wafers can be bonded at Room Temperature without heat Treatment by using IC technology standard clean, applying uniform force to the wafers inside a low vacuum micro clean-room. No clean room and high vacuum conditions are needed. Bonding process can be monitored by a infra-red (IR)

Yong-Jian Feng; Qing-Hai Wu; Chung-Chiun Liu

192

Vacuum wafer-level packaging for MEMS applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several kinds of MEMS (gyrometers, accelerometers, RF MEMS, bolometers, vacuum allows a significant improvement of performances. Leti has developed a high performance sensor operating at a pressure lower than 10-3 mbar. In a first phase, a ceramic vacuum packaging has been developed: the device is encapsulated in a cavity containing a getter. However, this technique increases considerably the fabrication costs, because it is made at the chip level. For that reason, Leti has also developed wafer-level vacuum packaging process. The process to manufacture encapsulated devices is presented in this paper. The vacuum function is obtained thanks to an additional wafer (glass or silicon wafer), which supports getters. This wafer is bonded by an hermetic bonding. Characterisation of different kinds of bonding, in term of hermeticity, is presented. First chips manufactured with this process have been tested. The vacuum level in the cavities has been measured, and was lower than 10-3 mbar. Moreover, vacuum evolution during 6 months does not show pressure increase. This process can be easily adapted to several MEMS applications. With these experiments, Leti has so proved the possibility of manufacturing low cost vacuum packaged MEMS.

Caplet, Stephane; Sillon, Nicolas; Delaye, Marie-Therese; Berruyer, Pascale

2003-01-01

193

Reliability of vacuum packaged MEMS gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest challenge for the successful commercialization of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) technology is proving its reliability. Of concern in particular are the reliability and long-term stability of wafer level vacuum packaged MEMS gyroscope sensors subjected to cyclic mechanical stresses at high frequencies. In this study, we carried out several reliability tests and investigated the failure mechanisms of the anodically bonded

S. H. Choa

2005-01-01

194

Investing in Bonds  

E-print Network

Bonds, which are issued by governments and corporations, can be an important part of one's investment portfolio. U.S. government bonds, municipal bonds, zero-coupon bonds and other types are described. Also learn strategies for coping with inflation...

Johnson, Jason; Polk, Wade

2002-08-12

195

Ultrahigh vacuum equipment described  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrahigh vacuum equipment for filming with a blockade value and a substrate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The equipment has the following characteristics: (1) the vacuum chamber is exposed to the atmosphere, the lockade valve can maintain a vacuum of 1 to 10 to the -9 power torr for a long period of time; (2) it greatly reduces the working cycle compared to before the blockade valve was installed; and (3) the temperature of the sample substrate in the vacuum chamber can be adjusted continuously between 77 K and room temperature. The ultrahigh vacuum filming equipment China now produces does not have an ultrahigh vacuum valve, when inserting and removing samples, the pump casing is exposed to the atmosphere so that even after the pump has operated for a time, its limited vacuum is 10 to the -8 power torr. A bakeable metallic blockade valve is installed between the vacuum pump intake and the vacuum chamber to form a fliming device. The device is simple, the vacuum is increased several levels, and it can make samples at different substrate temperatures.

Li, Yuzhi; Jing, Shiqun; Peng, Xianhui

1985-10-01

196

A fluxless bonding technology using indium-silver multilayer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluxless bonding process has been developed using indium-silver multilayer composites deposited on silicon and GaAs wafers in one high vacuum cycle to inhibit the oxidation of the bonding media. The in situ formation of AgIn2 intermetallic outer layer protects the inner media from oxidation when exposed to atmosphere. The bonding process is performed at 180°C temperature in inert environment

Yi-Chia Chen; William W. So; Chin C. Lee

1997-01-01

197

Vacuum pump aids ejectors  

SciTech Connect

The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

Nelson, R.E.

1982-12-01

198

Bonded Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

1977-01-01

199

Fluxless flip chip bonding processes and aerial fluxless bonding technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New fluxless flip chip processes of Sn-rich non-eutectic Au-Sn solder bumps were developed using vacuum deposition and electroplating technique. It is believed that this is the first report that non-eutectic Au-Sn flip chip solder bonding is achieved without the use of flux. In order to make 200mum diameter and 10mum thick Au-Sn solder bump 0.03mum of Cr, 10mum of Sn and 0.3mum of Au were vacuum deposited on the Si wafer through the high carbon steal stencil mask. Nearly void-free solder bumps with small grains of AuSn4 intermetallic compound were achieved. The re-melting temperature of solder bumps was measured to be 220°C. In the second part, first, the fluxless bonding process was performed in hydrogen environment with electroplated 4 mm x 4mm Au-Sn multi-layer chips if electroplating technique is compatible with our process. High quality and nearly void free solder joint was successfully achieved with this new process. After proving compatibility of the process, tall electroplated Sn/Au bumps (50 mum) were produced by photolithography method using Su-8 photoresist. The bumps in the chip were flip chip bonded to the borosilicate glass wafer coated with Cr (0.03 mum) and Au (0.05 mum) pads without using any flux. Fluxless and lead-free bonding technology in air ambient based on non eutectic 5 at. % Au-95 at. % Sn and eutectic 57 at. %Sn-43 at. % Bi with Au capping layer have been developed and studied. To understand the fluxless bonding principles in air ambient, phase formation mechanism of Au-Sn intermetallics embedded in Bi matrix has been postulated. The Au-Sn intermetallic-capping layer covers most outer surface of the samples and inhibits formation of oxide layer due to the minimizing exposure of (beta-Sn) phase to the air. In conclusion, new-lead free and fluxless bonding processes for flip chip packages were developed. In this work, Sn-rich Au-Sn flip chip solder bumps using vacuum deposition and electroplating process were successfully produced. It is believed that the processes presented in this dissertation offer additional process windows to lead-free flip chip technology and have various applications where flux cannot be used such as optoelectronic devices, biomedical devices, and MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices. Aerial fluxless bonding technology was also reported for the first time in my knowledge. Although conventional fluxless bonding processes has been successfully adopted in many application, the need of specific ambient gases such as forming gas or hydrogen is not compatible with pick-and-place bonding machines in the electronic industry. Thus, fluxless bonding technology in air ambient could provide a valuable and economical alternative way to the electronic and photonic packaging industries. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kim, Dongwook

200

Physical Vacuum in Superconductors  

E-print Network

Although experiments carried out by Jain et al. showed that the Cooper pairs obey the strong equivalence principle, The measurement of the Cooper pairs inertial mass by Tate et al. revealed an anomalous excess of mass. In the present paper we interpret these experimental results in the framework of an electromagnetic model of dark energy for the superconductors' vacuum. We argue that this physical vacuum is associated with a preferred frame. Ultimately from the conservation of energy for Cooper pairs we derive a model for a variable vacuum speed of light in the superconductors physical vacuum in relation with a possible breaking of the weak equivalence principle for Cooper pairs.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2009-08-31

201

NSLS II Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

2009-09-13

202

Vacuum probe surface sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

203

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

204

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface. 3 figs.

Affinito, J.D.

1996-08-20

205

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16

206

Vacuum Energy Decay  

E-print Network

The problem of the vacuum energy decay is studied through the analysis of the vacuum survival amplitude ${\\mathcal A}(z, z')$. Transition amplitudes are computed for finite time-span, $Z\\equiv z^\\prime-z$, and their {\\em late time} behavior is discussed up to first order in the coupling constant, $\\l$.

Enrique Álvarez; Roberto Vidal

2011-11-09

207

Modeling Vacuum Arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a model of vacuum arcs to describe vacuum breakdown in 805 MHz systems, however the basic mechanisms at work should apply to other applications. The model assumes: 1) that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, 2) this is followed by ionization of fragments by field emitted currents and

J. Norem; Z. Insepov; Th. Proslier; D. Huang; S. Mahalingam; S. Veitzer

2010-01-01

208

Working in a Vacuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

Rathey, Allen

2005-01-01

209

Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11

210

1466 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Vacuum-Packaged Suspended Microchannel  

E-print Network

material, and the resonator is vacuum packaged on the wafer scale using glass frit bonding. Packaged sample volumes. Their integration with microfluidic sample preparation into lab-on-a-chip devices can

211

Li diffusion in zircon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0–1.2 GPa) conditions has\\u000a been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed\\u000a under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted\\u000a to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects

D. J. CherniakE; E. B. Watson

2010-01-01

212

A road map to extreme high vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and procedures [1, 2]. Until now much attention has been paid to minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the vacuum chamber wall materials, however, procedures and processing deserve further scrutiny. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1×10-12 Torr l/sec should be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This paper presents the current status of the CEBAF DC photogun. This state of the art technology is driving the need for Extreme High Vacuum (XHV). We also present sensitive helium leak detection techniques with RGA's, vacuum gauge and RGA calibration procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to XHV, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load and clean assembly procedures. Further, alternative backing pump systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps are also discussed.

Adderley, P.; Myneni, G.

2008-05-01

213

Hydrodynamics of the Vacuum  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamics is the appropriate "effective theory" for describing any fluid medium at sufficiently long length scales. This paper treats the vacuum as such a medium and derives the corresponding hydrodynamic equations. Unlike a normal medium the vacuum has no linear sound-wave regime; disturbances always "propagate" nonlinearly. For an "empty vacuum" the hydrodynamic equations are familiar ones (shallow water-wave equations) and they describe an experimentally observed phenomenon -- the spreading of a clump of zero-temperature atoms into empty space. The "Higgs vacuum" case is much stranger; pressure and energy density, and hence time and space, exchange roles. The speed of sound is formally infinite, rather than zero as in the empty vacuum. Higher-derivative corrections to the vacuum hydrodynamic equations are also considered. In the empty-vacuum case the corrections are of quantum origin and the post-hydrodynamic description corresponds to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. I conjecture the form of the post-hydrodynamic corrections in the Higgs case. In the 1+1-dimensional case the equations possess remarkable `soliton' solutions and appear to constitute a new exactly integrable system.

P. M. Stevenson

2005-07-30

214

Evading death by vacuum  

E-print Network

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; João P. Silva

2013-03-15

215

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOEpatents

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2000-01-01

216

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOEpatents

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2001-01-01

217

On Entanglement with Vacuum  

E-print Network

The so-called entanglement with vacuum is not a property of the Fock space, but of some rather pathological representations of CCR/CAR algebras. In some other Fock space representations the notion simply does not exist. We have checked all the main Gedanken experiments where the notion of entanglement with vacuum was used, and found that all the calculations could be performed at a representation-independent level. In particular any such experiment can be formulated in a Fock-space representation where the notion of entanglement with vacuum is meaningless. So, for the moment there is no single experiment where the notion is needed, and probably it is simply unphysical.

Marcin Pawlowski; Marek Czachor

2005-07-16

218

Use of vacuum bagging for fabricating thermoplastic microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

Cassano, Christopher L; Simon, Andrew J; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z Hugh

2015-01-01

219

Bonding Diamond To Metal In Electronic Circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved technique for bonding diamond to metal evolved from older technique of soldering or brazing and more suitable for fabrication of delicate electronic circuits. Involves diffusion bonding, developed to take advantage of electrically insulating, heat-conducting properties of diamond, using small diamond bars as supports for slow-wave transmission-line structures in traveling-wave-tube microwave amplifiers. No fillets or side coats formed because metal bonding strips not melted. Technique also used to mount such devices as transistors and diodes electrically insulated from, but thermally connected to, heat sinks.

Jacquez, Andrew E.

1993-01-01

220

29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules §...

2010-07-01

221

29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules §...

2013-07-01

222

29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules §...

2014-07-01

223

29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules §...

2012-07-01

224

29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules §...

2011-07-01

225

Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum  

SciTech Connect

We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan 25137 (China)

2011-02-15

226

Semiconductor wafer bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When mirror-polished, flat, and clean wafers are brought into contact, they are locally attracted to each other and adhere or bond. This phenomenon is known as semiconductor wafer bonding. Different adhesion forces (van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding) are the reason for the bonding effect at room temperature. The different bonding mechanisms acting in dependence on the surface conditions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) are reviewed. Variations of the properties of bonded interfaces (structural, mechanical, electrical) during annealing are discussed. The focus is on low-temperature bonding techniques. Reasons for the formation of interface defects are presented. Applications of semiconductor wafer bonding for future developments are briefly summarized.

Reiche, M.

2006-03-01

227

Tungsten diffusion in olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

2014-03-01

228

Vacuum Camera Cooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

Laugen, Geoffrey A.

2011-01-01

229

Cosmology of gravitational vacuum  

E-print Network

Production of gravitational vacuum defects and their contribution to the energy density of our Universe are discussed. These topological microstructures (defects) could be produced in the result of creation of the Universe from "nothing" when a gravitational vacuum condensate has appeared. They must be isotropically distributed over the isotropic expanding Universe. After Universe inflation these microdefects are smoothed, stretched and broken up. A part of them could survive and now they are perceived as the structures of Lambda-term and an unclustered dark matter. It is shown that the parametrization noninvariance of the Wheeler-De Witt equation can be used to describe phenomenologically vacuum topological defects of different dimensions (worm-holes, micromembranes, microstrings and monopoles). The mathematical illustration of these processes may be the spontaneous breaking of the local Lorentz-invariance of the quasi-classical equations of gravity. Probably the gravitational vacuum condensate has fixed tim...

Burdyuzha, V; Pacheco, J

2008-01-01

230

Cosmology of gravitational vacuum  

E-print Network

Production of gravitational vacuum defects and their contribution to the energy density of our Universe are discussed. These topological microstructures (defects) could be produced in the result of creation of the Universe from "nothing" when a gravitational vacuum condensate has appeared. They must be isotropically distributed over the isotropic expanding Universe. After Universe inflation these microdefects are smoothed, stretched and broken up. A part of them could survive and now they are perceived as the structures of Lambda-term and an unclustered dark matter. It is shown that the parametrization noninvariance of the Wheeler-De Witt equation can be used to describe phenomenologically vacuum topological defects of different dimensions (worm-holes, micromembranes, microstrings and monopoles). The mathematical illustration of these processes may be the spontaneous breaking of the local Lorentz-invariance of the quasi-classical equations of gravity. Probably the gravitational vacuum condensate has fixed time in our Universe. Besides, 3-dimensional topological defects renormalize Lambda-term.

V. Burdyuzha; G. Vereshkov; J. Pacheco

2007-12-29

231

Pumpdown and Vacuum Pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss vacuum pumpdown. Graphics are included which depict pumpdown procedure, venting procedure, pressure curves and system pumpdown. Keywords: Outgassing, pressure range, rotary vane, rotary piston, roots blower

Rack, Philip D.

232

Vacuum chamber-free centrifuge with magnetic bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centrifuges are devices that separate particles of different densities and sizes through the application of a centrifugal force. If a centrifuge could be operated under atmospheric conditions, all vacuum-related components such as the vacuum chamber, vacuum pump, diffusion pump, and sealing could be removed from a conventional centrifuge system. The design and manufacturing procedure for centrifuges could then be greatly simplified to facilitate the production of lightweight centrifuge systems of smaller volume. Furthermore, the maintenance costs incurred owing to wear and tear due to conventional ball bearings would be eliminated. In this study, we describe a novel vacuum chamber-free centrifuge supported by magnetic bearings. We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum chamber-free centrifuge by presenting experimental results that verify its high-speed support capability and motoring power capacity.

Park, Cheol Hoon; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

2013-09-01

233

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the diffusion process. The two models that have been developed to explain the mechanism for the diffusion of dopants into silicon are the Vacancy model and the Interstitial model. It is the different bonding characteristics of the dopants with silicon that determine the diffusion mechanism. Although each model is based on these differences, they are not mutually exclusive. Objective: Explain the difference between the Vacancy and Interstitial diffusion models. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 019 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

234

VACUUM SYSTEMS PHYSICS 359E  

E-print Network

VACUUM SYSTEMS PHYSICS 359E September 28, 2004 INTRODUCTION In this laboratory, you will familiarize yourself with the principles of simple vacuum systems and their use. You will measure the pumping.) VACUUM SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS In one way or another vacuum techniques appear in most fields of modern

Landstreet, John D.

235

Dynamic Allocation of Treasury and Corporate Bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we solve the intertemporal investment problem of an in- vestor holding a portfolio of default-free and defaultable bonds. Default- risk is modeled in an intensity based framework with state variables fol- lowing an affine diffusion. The structure of the optimal portfolio over time is investigated and compared to the static mean-variance portfolio. Furthermore, we describe the impact

Roger Walder

236

Savings Bonds Value Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, this site computes the redemption value of users's US savings bonds. Easy-to-use pull-down menus allow visitors to enter information such as the date of issue and face value of their Series E bonds, Series EE bonds, and Series S bonds. After entering the information, the Calculator will then show a chart of issue dates and denominations and actual worth of the bonds, if cashed within a set period of time.

237

Vacuum Techniques Lecture Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most modern day experimental research in physical chemistry is performed with the use of some sort of vacuum system. Organic and inorganic chemists are also finding it is essential to conduct synthetic and kinetic work under controlled or reduced pressures. The term "vacuum system" is applied rather broadly, from instrumentation that operates at very low pressures (i.e., below 10-8 torr) to systems that are only pumped down once to remove air and then used to handle gases at moderate pressures (up to and sometimes over one atmosphere). Vacuum systems vary widely in their size and complexity (and expense) depending on the requirements of pumping speed and attainable vacuum. This experiment is designed to illustrate the purpose and use of the basic components found on typical vacuum apparati. The volumes of the isolatable sections of the system will be measured. Also, some of the variables, such as pumping speed, which should be considered in designing such a system, will be investigated.

238

Bonded ultrasonic transducer and method for making  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic transducer is formed as a diffusion bonded assembly of piezoelectric crystal, backing material, and, optionally, a ceramic wear surface. The mating surfaces of each component are silver films that are diffusion bonded together under the application of pressure and heat. Each mating surface may also be coated with a reactive metal, such as hafnium, to increase the adhesion of the silver films to the component surfaces. Only thin silver films are deposited, e.g., a thickness of about 0.00635 mm, to form a substantially non-compliant bond between surfaces. The resulting transducer assembly is substantially free of self-resonances over normal operating ranges for taking resonant ultrasound measurements.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Roe, Lawrence H. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1995-01-01

239

Bonded ultrasonic transducer and method for making  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic transducer is formed as a diffusion bonded assembly of piezoelectric crystal, backing material, and, optionally, a ceramic wear surface. The mating surfaces of each component are silver films that are diffusion bonded together under the application of pressure and heat. Each mating surface may also be coated with a reactive metal, such as hafnium, to increase the adhesion of the silver films to the component surfaces. Only thin silver films are deposited, e.g., a thickness of about 0.00635 mm, to form a substantially non-compliant bond between surfaces. The resulting transducer assembly is substantially free of self-resonances over normal operating ranges for taking resonant ultrasound measurements. 12 figs.

Dixon, R.D.; Roe, L.H.; Migliori, A.

1995-11-14

240

Bonding soft rubber or plasticized elastomers to metal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approach using bond-cover coat of unplasticized rubber between soft rubber and adhesive eliminates diffusion problem. Approach is useful in making improved seals in automobile engines, industrial and public plumbing, and in other areas using soft-rubber-to-metal bonds. Seals and gaskets made this way would not have to be replaced very often, reducing cost of maintenance.

Clemons, J. M.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; White, W. T.

1980-01-01

241

Bonding silicon-on-insulator to glass wafers for integrated bio-electronic Hyun S. Kima)  

E-print Network

borosilicate glass is a typical material that con- tains sodium oxide Na2O . The presence of mobile metal ions rinse, the SOI wafers are bonded to glass wafers in a vacuum chamber. This is performed at a temperature

Eom, Chang Beom

242

LET'S BOND! A Chemical Bonding Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we are going to use the internet to explore chemical bonding! Even though there are just a few questions for each website, you need to read the entire content. Don't worry about understanding all of it, but make sure that you are familiar with it! Stay on task and have fun! Let's start with some basics. Click on the link below and answer the questions on your worksheet under "Bonding Basics". Bonding Basics Good job! Lets move on and talk about ions. Ions are a big part of bonding, so make sure you get this section down pat! Click on the ...

Mrs. Hicken

2009-04-08

243

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

E-print Network

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Bogus?aw Broda; Piotr Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-12-29

244

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

245

Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

2003-01-01

246

Vacuum Packaging of MEMS With Multiple Internal Seal Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of design and fabrication of vacuum-packaged microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and of individual microelectromechanical devices involves the use of multiple internal seal rings (MISRs) in conjunction with vias (through holes plated with metal for electrical contacts). The proposed method is compatible with mass production in a wafer-level fabrication process, in which the dozens of MEMS or individual microelectromechanical devices on a typical wafer are simultaneously vacuum packaged by bonding a capping wafer before the devices are singulated (cut apart by use of a dicing saw). In addition to being compatible with mass production, the proposed method would eliminate the need for some complex and expensive production steps and would yield more reliable vacuum seals. Conventionally, each MEMS or individual microelectromechanical device is fabricated as one of many identical units on a device wafer. Vacuum packaging is accomplished by bonding the device wafer to a capping wafer with metal seal rings (one ring surrounding each unit) that have been formed on the capping wafer. The electrical leads of each unit are laid out on what would otherwise be a flat surface of the device wafer, against which the seal ring is to be pressed for sealing. The resulting pattern of metal lines and their insulating oxide coverings presents a very rough and uneven surface, upon which it is difficult to pattern the sealing metal. Consequently, the seal is prone to leakage unless additional costly and complex planarization steps are performed before patterning the seal ring and bonding the wafers.

Hayworth, Ken; Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Bae, Youngsam; Wiberg, Dean; Peay, Chris; Challoner, Anthony

2008-01-01

247

Realization of MEMS-IC Vertical Integration Utilizing Smart Bumpless Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports fundamental technologies, properties, and new experimental results of SBB (Smart Bumpless Bonding) to realize MEMS-IC vertical integration. Although conventional bonding technologies have had difficulties integrating MEMS and its processing circuit because of their rough bonding surfaces, fragile structures, and thermal restriction, SBB technology realized the vertical integration without thermal treatment, any adhesive materials including bumps, and chemical mechanical polishing. The SBB technology bonds sealing parts for vacuum sealing and electrodes for electrical connection simultaneously as published in previous experimental study. The plasma CVD SiO2 is utilized to realize vacuum sealing as sealing material. And Au projection studs are formed on each electrode and connected electrically between two wafers by compressive plastic deformation and surface activation. In this paper, new experimental results including vacuum sealing properties, electrical improvement, IC bonding results on the described fundamental concept and properties are reported.

Shiozaki, Masayoshi; Moriguchi, Makoto; Sasaki, Sho; Oba, Masatoshi

248

Semipermanent sealing of leaks in high vacuum systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicone-rubber adhesive is applied externally to seal hair-line cracks in sections of high vacuum system while system is partially evacuated. No pretreatment of surface is required since adhesive will be drawn into crack while diffusion or ion pump is off.

Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.

1974-01-01

249

Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

Veklenko, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15

250

The vacuum conservation theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

Minguzzi, E.

2015-03-01

251

Vacuum System at IUAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology is an integral part of any accelerator system. At IUAC we have a 15UD PELLETRON, superconduting LINAC, Low Energy Ion beam Facility and a 1.7MV pelletron. Vacuum requirement in these accelerators is ~10-8 torr. Various types of Vacuum pump are used in different zones of the accelerators depending on load. Since the whole accelerator is quite long, distributed pumps are placed in different sections as per load. In ion sources displacement type pump viz turbo-pumps are usually used as the gas load is quite high. In other parts of the accelerator combination of getter and ion pumps are used. It is very much necessary to isolate different sections for maintenance purpose. Proper valves are used to isolate the sections and to avoid vacuum accidents proper interlock system is introduced. If air goes in some sections accidentally, valves will close automatically to protect other sections. The talk will cover different types of pumps and interlock used in accelerators at IUAC.

Mandal, A.

2012-11-01

252

Triggered vacuum gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a sealed vacuum gap are described and the difficulties encountered in applying this gap as an overvoltage protection device are discussed. It is shown how these difficulties can be ameliorated by the use of gas-free electrode materials and by triggering the gap when breakdown is required. Several methods of triggering are discussed and some practical triggering devices are

J. M. Lafferty

1966-01-01

253

Vacuum configurations for superstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 × E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing cosmological constant. In the E8 × E8 case, one of these possibilities leads to a model that in four dimensions has an

P. Candelas; Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger; Edward Witten

1985-01-01

254

Type D Vacuum Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, the vacuum field equations are solved for Petrov type D. An exhaustive set of ten metrics is obtained, including among them a new rotating solution closely related to the Ehlers-Kundt ``C'' metric. They all possess at least two Killing vectors and depend only on a small number of arbitrary constants.

William Kinnersley

1969-01-01

255

Vacuum arc recovery phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

1964-01-01

256

Vacuum Kundt waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

2013-03-01

257

(Reverse) engineering vacuum alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the alignment of the vacuum with respect to the gauge group is often controlled by quadratically divergent operators in the low energy non-linear sigma model. In principle the magnitudes and signs of these operators can be changed by making different assumptions about the ultraviolet physics, but in practice all known ways of regulating

Clifford Cheung; Jesse Thaler

2006-01-01

258

Local anodic bonding of Kovar to Pyrex aimed at high-pressure, solvent-resistant microfluidic connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local anodic bonding of a common Kovar alloy to Pyrex is presented. This technique is ideally suitable for temperature-, solvent- and pressure-resistant microfluidic connections. In this paper we mainly concentrate on the stress problems occurring during and after bonding. Because of the different thermal expansion coefficients of Kovar and Pyrex a structure is added in order to release the thermal stresses induced during bonding. Optimum bonding conditions in vacuum on Pyrex and on a Pyrex-Si bonded wafer pair are investigated. In the latter case bonding for 3 h at 250 °C and 1.5 kV results in a high-quality bond.

Blom, M. T.; Chmela, E.; Gardeniers, J. G. E.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, M.; Tijssen, R.; van den Berg, A.

2001-07-01

259

Handling Vacuum Regions in a Hybrid Plasma Solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a hybrid plasma solver (particle ions, fluid mass-less electrons) regions of vacuum, or very low charge density, can cause problems since the evaluation of the electric field involves division by charge density. This causes large electric fields in low density regions that can lead to numerical instabilities. Here we propose a self consistent handling of vacuum regions for hybrid solvers. Vacuum regions can be considered having infinite resistivity, and in this limit Faraday's law approaches a magnetic diffusion equation. We describe an algorithm that solves such a diffusion equation in regions with charge density below a threshold value. We also present an implementation of this algorithm in a hybrid plasma solver, and an application to the interaction between the Moon and the solar wind. We also discuss the implementation of hyperresistivity for smoothing the electric field in a PIC solver.

Holmström, M.

2013-04-01

260

Diffusion /Osmosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is use to review the concepts of diffusion and osmosis 1. Watch the tutorials on diffusion and osmosis. Take the online quiz at the end of each one. Diffusion Animation Osmosis Animation 2. Do the interactive lab on diffusion. Stop when you get to the calculating water potential section. Diffusion/Osmosis Interactive Demo 3. Play the Quia review games. Quia Games- matching/concetration Quia Jeopardy 4. Check out the Elodea leaf cells. Be able to ...

Jensen

2007-11-26

261

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

262

Transient liquid-phase bonding of ODS steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of transient liquid-phase bonding of 9CrODS steels using Fe-3B-2Si-0.5C filler was investigated for bonding temperature of 1180 °C and hold times of 0.5-4.0 h. The sequential process, consisting of isothermal melting, solidification and homogenization, was confirmed for bonding the 9CrODS steel. The precipitation of chromium boride found in 19CrODS steel is avoided in 9CrODS steel due to the lower Cr content. Silicon tends to be slightly enriched inside the bonding zone. Agglomeration and coarsening of Y 2O 3 particles in 9CrODS steel lead to softening inside the bonding zone formed by incipient melting of the foil bonding alloy, and in a diffusion affected zone (DAZ) adjacent to the bonding zone.

Noto, H.; Ukai, S.; Hayashi, S.

2011-10-01

263

Mechanisms for room temperature direct wafer bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the temperature needed for high strength bonding which was and is driven by the need to reduce effects of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, reduce thermal budgets, and increase throughput has led to the development of plasma treatment procedures capable of bonding Si wafers below 300 °C with a bond strength equivalent to Si bulk. Despite being widely used, the physical and chemical mechanisms enabling low temperature wafer bonding have remained poorly understood. We developed an understanding of the beneficial surface modifications by plasma and a model based on short range low temperature diffusion through bonding experiments combined with results from spectroscopic ellipsometry, depth resolving Auger electron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. We also present experimental results showing that even at room temperature reasonable bond strength can be achieved. We conclude that the gap closing mechanism is therefore a process which balances the lowering of the total energy by minimizing the sum of the free surface energy (maximizing the contact area between the surfaces) and strain energy in the oxide at the bond interface.

Plach, T.; Hingerl, K.; Tollabimazraehno, S.; Hesser, G.; Dragoi, V.; Wimplinger, M.

2013-03-01

264

Essays on corporate bonds  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of three empirical essays on corporate bonds, examining the role of both credit risk and liquidity. In the first chapter, I test the ability of structural models of default to price corporate bonds in ...

Bao, Jack (Jack C.)

2009-01-01

265

Direct bonding and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a number of recent evaluations of direct bonding, a glueless bonding technology, performed under ambient conditions. If combined with bond-strengthening, this geometry-conserving technology is well suited for an application in far ultraviolet immersion lithography. Our term beyond direct bonding refers to taking at least one additional technological step beyond direct bonding, involving chemical interface engineering, advanced silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, whereby the unwanted influence of dilatation mismatch is obviated. The combination of successive direct bonding, nanopillar lattice structures and silicon-technological engineering makes it possible for us to arrange quantum dots, wires, and planes in a transversal cascade. We also address the interrelationship between direct bonding and elasticity, as well as plasticity; the latter is in relation to direct bonded glass wafers that are thermally treated to create the geometric shape, e.g., required for specific lab-on-a-chip components with a three-dimensional overall configuration.

Haisma, Jan; Hattu, Nico; (Dook) Pulles, J. T. C. M.; Steding, Esther; Vervest, Jan C. G.

2007-09-01

266

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

267

Dielectric Theory of the Vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum is proposed to be a dielectric medium constituted of neutral but polarizable vacuuons based on overall experimental observations in separate publications. In the present paper I formally develop the dielectric theory for this dielectric vacuum.

J. X. Zheng-Johansson

2006-12-11

268

Bonding silicones with epoxies  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that silicones, both room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) and millable rubber (press cured) can be successfully bonded to other materials using plasma treatment and epoxy adhesives. The plasma treatment using dry air atmosphere increases the surface energy of the silicone and thus provides a lower water contact angle. This phenomenon allows the epoxy adhesive to wet the silicone surface and ultimately bond. Bond strengths are sufficiently high to result in failures in the silicone materials rather than the adhesive bond.

Tira, J.S.

1980-01-01

269

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

270

Rapid adhesive bonding concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

1984-01-01

271

IMPROVED BONDING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ; ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are ; coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for ; bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state ; proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals.

E. V. Jr. Padgett; D. H. Warf

1964-01-01

272

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, Gordon H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-08-09

273

Vacuum Energy:. Myths and Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: "unbearable lightness of space-time" the dominating contribution of zero-point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the observed dark energy. That is why the vacuum energy is the plausible candidate for the dark energy.

Volovik, G. E.

274

Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality  

E-print Network

We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the observed dark energy. That is why the vacuum energy is the plausible candidate for the dark energy.

G. E. Volovik

2006-07-10

275

Vacuum Electronics: Status and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast preponderance of U.S. radar transmitters today use vacuum electronic amplifiers, spanning the spectrum from UHF to EHF. Enhancements to performance, reliability, and cost of ownership are being applied continuously to these systems; routine in-service life extensions mandate continuing vacuum electronics research and development to support system needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, exciting advances in vacuum electronics

Baruch Levush; D. K. Abe; J. P. Calame; B. G. Danly; K. T. Nguyen; E. J. Dutkowski; R. H. Abrams; R. K. Parker

2007-01-01

276

Vacuum Electronics: Status and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast preponderance of US radar transmitters today use vacuum electronic amplifiers, spanning the spectrum from UHF to EHF. Enhancements to performance, reliability, and cost of ownership are being applied continuously to these systems: routine in-service life extensions mandate continuing vacuum electronics research and development to support system needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, exciting advances in vacuum electronics

Baruch Levush; David K. Abe; Jeffrey P. Calame; Bruce G. Danly; Khanh T. Nguyen; E. Joseph Dutkowski; R. H. Abrams; Robert Parker

2007-01-01

277

Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu  

E-print Network

) ) M. M. Hou Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu and Cu of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 TheLow Temperature TransientLiquidPhase Diffusion Bonding (LTTLP) process has been bonded to copper heatsink.s at temperatures less than 160"C, using /n-Sn eutectic solders. After

Eagar, Thomas W.

278

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

279

Edison's vacuum technology patents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

Waits, Robert K.

2003-07-01

280

Rotating vacuum wormhole  

E-print Network

We investigate whether self-maintained vacuum traversible wormhole can exist described by stationary but nonstatic metric. We consider metric being the sum of static spherically symmetric one and a small nondiagonal component which describes rotation sufficiently slow to be taken into account in the linear approximation. We study semiclassical Einstein equations for this metric with vacuum expectation value of stress-energy of physical fields as the source. In suggestion that the static traversible wormhole solution exists we reveal possible azimuthal angle dependence of angular velocity of the rotation (angular velocity of the local inertial frame) that solves semiclassical Einstein equations. We find that in the macroscopic (in the Plank scale) wormhole case a rotational solution exists but only such that, first, angular velocity depends on radial coordinate only and, second, the wormhole connects the two asymptotically flat spacetimes rotating with angular velocities different in asymptotic regions.

V. M. Khatsymovsky

1998-03-06

281

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-04-28

282

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1993-01-05

283

Vacuum Structure and Potential  

E-print Network

Based on overall experimental observations, especially the pair processes, I developed a model structure of the vacuum along with a basic-particle formation scheme begun in 2000 (with collaborator P-I Johansson). The model consists in that the vacuum is, briefly, filled of neutral but polarizable vacuuons, consisting each of a p-vaculeon and n- vaculeon of charges $+e$ and $-e$ of zero rest masses but with spin motions, assumed interacting each other with a Coulomb force. The model has been introduced in full in a book (Nova Sci, 2005) and referred to in a number of journal/E-print papers. I outline in this easier accessible paper the detailed derivation of the model and a corresponding quantitative determination of the vacuuon size.

J. X. Zheng-Johansson

2007-04-02

284

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

285

Dry vacuum pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

Sibuet, R.

2008-05-01

286

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

287

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1993-01-01

288

An automated vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

Atkins, W.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vaughn, G.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Bridgman, C. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

289

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

290

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

291

Materials Science and Engineering A 458 (2007) 101107 Fluxless silicon-to-alumina bonding using electroplated  

E-print Network

. The new bonding process is entirely fluxless, or flux-free. It is performed in vacuum (50 milli challenge in silicon-to-alumina bonding is the large thermal expansion mismatch between silicon (2.7 ppm/ C procedures necessary to turn the Au/Sn/Au structure into homogeneous eutectic alloy without the chip breaking

Tang, William C

292

Is vacuum dispersive?  

E-print Network

The question we ask is: does the speed of light {\\it{in vacuo}} depend on its frequency? While the answer is NO in the frame of classical physics, we point out that the opposite could be true if one takes into account the polarization of Dirac sea. We estimate the dependence of the index of refraction of vacuum + Dirac sea versus the wavelength of an incoming beam, and suggest a way to test this effect.

Yves Pomeau

2014-09-02

293

The vacuum energy crisis  

E-print Network

The smallness of the vacuum energy density and its near coincidence with the average matter density of the universe are naturally explained by anthropic selection. An alternative explanation, based on the cyclic model of Steinhardt and Turok, does not address the coincidence problem and is therefore less convincing. This article appeared in ``Science'' (4 May 2006) as a ``perspective'' for Steinhardt and Turok's paper in the same issue (astro-ph/0605173).

Alexander Vilenkin

2006-05-09

294

Prospective bonding applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

1981-07-01

295

Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)  

SciTech Connect

Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

2008-10-31

296

Bonding of reinforced Teflon to metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reinforced FEP Teflon composite material is bonded to a metal substrate by applying a thin layer of copper on the metal surface and disposing irregularly shaped copper particles on the coated surface. The reinforced Teflon is then assembled in contact with the particles, and the assembly is heated under pressure at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the Teflon. A diffusion bond stronger than the reinforced Teflon component is produced, thus enabling the fabrication of self-lubricating bodies with relatively high strength.

Laiacona, F. P. (inventor)

1971-01-01

297

Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds  

SciTech Connect

Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

1997-03-01

298

Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

2014-06-01

299

Hydrophobic silicon wafer bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wafers prepared by an HF dip without a subsequent water rinse were bonded at room temperature and annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Based on substantial differences between bonded hydrophilic and hydrophobic Si wafer pairs in the changes of the interface energy with respect to temperature, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we suggest that hydrogen bonding between Si-F and H-Si across two mating wafers is responsible for room temperature bonding of hydrophobic Si wafers. The interface energy of the bonded hydrophobic Si wafer pairs does not change appreciably with time up to 150 °C. This stability of the bonding interface makes reversible room-temperature hydrophobic wafer bonding attractive for the protection of silicon wafer surfaces.

Tong, Q.-Y.; Schmidt, E.; Gösele, U.; Reiche, M.

1994-01-01

300

A vacuum-driven peristaltic micropump with valved actuation chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a simple peristaltic micropump design incorporated with valved actuation chambers and propelled by a pulsed vacuum source. The vacuum-driven peristaltic micropump offers high pumping rates, low backflow, appreciable tolerance to air bubbles, and minimal destruction to fluid contents. The pumping device, fabricated by laser micromachining and plasma bonding of three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers, includes a pneumatic network, actuation membranes, and microfluidic channels. As the key to peristaltic motion, the sequential deflection of the elastic membranes is achieved by periodic pressure waveforms (negative) traveling through the pneumatic network, provided by a vacuum source regulated by an electromagnetic valve. This configuration eliminates the complicated control logic typically required in peristaltic motion. Importantly, the valved actuation chambers substantially reduce backflow and improve the pumping rates. In addition, the pneumatic network with negative pressure provides a means to effectively remove air bubbles present in the microflow through the gas-permeable PDMS membrane, which can be highly desired in handling complex fluidic samples. Experimental characterization of the micropump performance has been conducted by controlling the resistance of the pneumatic network, the number of normally closed valves, the vacuum pressure, and the frequency of pressure pulses. A maximal flow rate of 600 µL min-1 has been optimized at the pulsed vacuum frequency of 30 Hz with a vacuum pressure of 50 kPa, which is comparable to that of compressed air-actuated peristaltic micropumps.

Cui, Jianguo; Pan, Tingrui

2011-06-01

301

Diffusion of highly charged cations in olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of tungsten, titanium and phosphorus have been measured in natural iron-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Experiments were run under buffered conditions (with iron-wustite or Ni-NiO buffers) in 1-atm furnaces. The sources of diffusant for experiments were MgWO4 for tungsten diffusion, Mg2TiO4 for Ti diffusion, and AlPO4 for P diffusion; in all cases these compounds were pre-reacted at high temperature with Mg2SiO4 or Fe-bearing olivine prior to diffusion anneals. Samples were placed with the source materials in noble metal or silica capsules, which were sealed under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure depth profiles for all sets of experiments; measurements of P were also made with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the 31P(?,p)34S reaction. These new data suggest marked differences among diffusivities of these cations, with titanium diffusion faster than diffusion of tungsten, but slower than diffusion of phosphorus over the conditions investigated. Diffusivities of all of these elements appear significantly slower than those of divalent cations in olivine. These results will be discussed in context with extant diffusion data for major, trace and minor elements in olivine. The effects of oxygen fugacity and olivine composition on diffusion, and potential implications for diffusion mechanisms will also be considered.

Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Liang, Y.

2012-12-01

302

Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality  

E-print Network

We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the...

Volovik, G E

2006-01-01

303

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

Martin, G.R. (Process Consulting Services, Grapevine, TX (United States)); Lines, J.R. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States)); Golden, S.W. (Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

304

Vacuum MOCVD fabrication of high efficience cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition (MOCVD) is a new fabrication process with improved safety and easier scalability due to its metal rather than glass construction and its uniform multiport gas injection system. It uses source materials more efficiently than other methods because the vacuum molecular flow conditions allow the high sticking coefficient reactants to reach the substrates as undeflected molecular beams and the hot chamber walls cause the low sticking coefficient reactants to bounce off the walls and interact with the substrates many times. This high source utilization reduces the materials costs power device and substantially decreases the amounts of toxic materials that must be handled as process effluents. The molecular beams allow precise growth control. With improved source purifications, vacuum MOCVD has provided p GaAs layers with 10-micron minority carrier diffusion lengths and GaAs and GaAsSb solar cells with 20% AMO efficiencies at 59X and 99X sunlight concentration ratios. Mechanical stacking has been identified as the quickest, most direct and logical path to stacked multiple-junction solar cells that perform better than the best single-junction devices. The mechanical stack is configured for immediate use in solar arrays and allows interconnections that improve the system end-of-life performance in space.

Partain, L. D.; Fraas, L. M.; Mcleod, P. S.; Cape, J. A.

1985-01-01

305

Advantages of Slow High-Vacuum Pumping for Suppressing Excessive Gas Load in Dynamic Evacuation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dynamic diffusion pump systems, such as vacuum evaporators and sputter coating systems, where the chamber is frequently evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum, the oil-vapor backstreaming problem sometimes occurs owing to the excessive gas load flowing into the high-vacuum pump just after switching the evacuation mode from low-speed roughing to high-speed, high-vacuum pumping. Two kinds of excessive gas loads exist just after crossover: (1) gas molecules in the vacuum chamber space and (2) temporarily increased outgassing from the chamber wall surface. The outgassing rate from the chamber wall surface becomes very large with the rapid reduction of pressure owing to high-speed, high-vacuum pumping, because the time constant of diffusion of gas molecules in the wall surface is much larger compared with the time constants of pumping down and the resultant reduction of sorption rate of impinging gas molecules. Slow high-vacuum pumping, followed by high-speed pumping, is very effective to suppress the temporarily increased outgassing load and the adverse effect of the space gas load, and to meet the maximum throughput capacity of the diffusion pump. Providing with a low-conductance bypass valve makes it possible to use a small-volume buffer tank and a low-speed rotary pump as a backing pump, leading to a reduction in the cost of high-vacuum evacuation systems.

Yoshimura, Nagamitsu

306

Neutron radiation hardness of vacuum compatible two-component adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the investigation of the irradiation dependent bonding strength of two-component glues which have low outgassing compatible with vacuum applications. The strength of the glue joints is compared before and after exposure to a thermal neutron fluence of 2.35×1016neutronspercm2. The goal of this work is to establish a glue which is applicable to join glass and metal parts

J. Bertsch; L. Goeltl; K. Kirch; B. Lauss; R. Zubler

2009-01-01

307

Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

1992-07-01

308

Fluxless eutectic bonding of GaAs-on-Si by using Ag/Sn solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxless GaAs-on-Si wafer bonding using Ag/Sn solder was investigated to realize uniform and void-free heterogeneous material integration. The effects of the diffusion barrier, Ag/Sn thickness, and Ar plasma treatment were studied to achieve the optimal fluxless bonding process. Pt on a GaAs wafer and Mo on a Si wafer act as diffusion barriers by preventing the flow of Ag/Sn solder into both the wafers. The bonding strength is closely related to the Ag/Sn thickness and Ar plasma treatment. A shear strength test was carried out to investigate the bonding strength. Under identical bonding conditions, the Ag/Sn thickness was optimized to achieve higher bonding strength and to avoid the formation of voids due to thermal stress. An Ar plasma pretreatment process improved the bonding strength because the Ar plasma removed carbon contaminants and metal-oxide bonds from the metal surface.

Eo, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Dae-Seon; Jeong, Ho-Jung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

2013-11-01

309

Vacuum melting and mechanical testing of simulated lunar glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar silicate glasses may possess superior mechanical properties compared to terrestrial glasses because the anhydrous lunar environment should prevent hydrolytic weakening of the strong Si-O bonds. This hypothesis was tested by melting, solidifying, and determining the fracture toughness of simulated mare and highlands composition glasses in a high vacuum chamber. The fracture toughness, K(IC), of the resulting glasses was obtained via microindentation techniques. K(IC) increased as the testing environment was changed from air to a vacuum of 10 exp -7 torr. However, this increase in toughness may not result solely from a reduction in the hydrolytic weakening effect; the vacuum-melting process produced both the formation of spinel crystallites on the surfaces of the glass samples and significant changes in the compositions which may have contributed to the improved K(IC).

Carsley, J. E.; Blacic, J. D.; Pletka, B. J.

1992-01-01

310

Development and evaluation of vacuum pressure gauge components from carbon and graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype all carbon triode ultrahigh vacuum gage was fabricated and tested. The gage exhibited a sensitivity of 3.7 per torr for nitrogen and an X-ray background approximately 0.1 as large as would be expected of a metal gage of the same design. The gage made from these materials, showed good sensitivity and durability. A practical technique was developed for bonding carbon components together without metal fasteners. The bond is made with a cross-linked phenolic resin which is converted to vitreous carbon by a careful pyrolysis procedure. The resulting bonds are strong, electrically conductive, and can withstand repeated excursions to 2500 K in vacuum. Measurements of adsorption and outgassing characteristics of four refractory carbons have confirmed that such materials are suitable for use in ultrahigh vacuum and that some are superior refractory metals in man respects.

Benson, D. K.; Beitel, G. A.

1972-01-01

311

Polymers in a vacuum  

E-print Network

In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. The time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a characteristic time proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory time correlations.

J. M. Deutsch

2007-06-13

312

What is vacuum?  

E-print Network

Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

Peter Rowlands

2008-10-01

313

Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

2014-02-20

314

Chemical bonding technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primers employed in bonding together the various material interfaces in a photovoltaic module are being developed. The approach develops interfacial adhesion by generating actual chemical bonds between the various materials bonded together. The current status of the program is described along with the progress toward developing two general purpose primers for ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), one for glass and metals, and another for plastic films.

Plueddemann, E.

1986-01-01

315

R&D ERL: Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

2010-01-01

316

One Bond Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by SmartMoney.com (see the May 20, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this quick and easy yet thorough guide takes readers through the process of developing a bond portfolio. At the site, users will find help on deciding how much to invest in bonds, how to divide their portfolio, and tips on investing for both income and profit. First, however, visitors might want to wet their feet in the bond primer section, which covers all the basics, explains the yield curve, offers a calculator and glossary, and throws in "ten things your broker won't tell you about bonds" for good measure.

2001-01-01

317

Vacuum system of the cyclotrons in VECC, Kolkata  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum system of the K=130 Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) (operational since 1978) has been recently modernized and the same of the K{sub bend}=520 Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC), currently under commissioning, is being deployed for remote monitoring and control. The vacuum system of RTC is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum level of 2 X 10{sup -6} mbar inside 23 m{sup 3} volume of Resonator tank and DEE tank. This has been upgraded by replacing several valves, Freon units, gauges and pumps. The relay based manual control system has been replaced by PLC based automated system. The SCC vacuum system also has an elaborate arrangement comprising of turbo molecular pumping modules with associated isolation valves and characteristic gauges. This paper describes essential elements, typically used to obtain high (1X10{sup -7} mbar) vacuum using rotary pumps, diffusion pumps and cold traps/turbo-molecular pumps and other system components such as valves, gauges and baffles. The supervisory control methodology/scheme of both the vacuum systems, developed in-house using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open-source software tool for designing distributed control system, is also elaborated here. (author)

Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Akhtar, J.; Yadav, R.C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.; Bhandari, R.K., E-mail: r_ani@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: rbb@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: javed@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: yadav@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: sarbajit@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: dsarkar@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: bhandari@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India)

2011-07-01

318

Vacuum vapor deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

1995-01-01

319

Hydrogen bonding probes of phenol -OH groups.  

PubMed

Correlations between hydrogen bonds and solvent effects on phenol -OH proton shieldings, temperature coefficients (??/?T) and effects on OH diffusion coefficients for numerous phenolic acids, flavonols, flavones, and oleuropein derivatives of biological interest were investigated in several organic solvents and were shown to serve as reliable indicators of hydrogen bonding and solvation state of -OH groups. The temperature coefficients span a range of -0.5 to -12.3 ppb K(-1). Shielding differences of 2.0 to 2.9 ppm at 298 K were observed for solvent exposed OH groups between DMSO-d(6) and CD(3)CN which should be compared with a shielding range of ~7 ppm. This demonstrates that the solvation state of hydroxyl protons is a key factor in determining the value of the chemical shift. For -OH protons showing temperature gradients more positive than -2.5 ppb K(-1), shielding changes between DMSO-d(6) and CD(3)CN below 0.6 ppm, and diffusion coefficients significantly different from those of traces of H(2)O, there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond predictivity value of 100%. The C-3 OH protons of flavonols show very significant negative temperature coefficients and shielding changes between DMSO-d(6) and CD(3)CN of ~2.3 ppm, which indicate the absence of persistent intramolecular hydrogen bonds, contrary to numerous X-ray structures. PMID:23292312

Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Primikyri, Alexandra; Pappas, Charalambos G; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Tzakos, Andreas G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

2013-02-14

320

Vacuum annealing of titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The optimal temperature range for hydrogen removal in vacuum annealing is 550–650°C. The holding time depends on the hydrogen concentration, the thickness of the section, and the hydrogen concentration desired.2.The presence of oxide films formed during annealing in air at temperatures up to 500°C has no effect on the properties of titanium alloys after subsequent vacuum annealing.3.During vacuum annealing of

E. A. Borisova; I. I. Shashenkova; A. I. Krivko; T. V. Barasheva

1975-01-01

321

A large high vacuum, high pumping speed space simulation chamber for electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing high power electric propulsion devices poses unique requirements on space simulation facilities. Very high pumping speeds are required to maintain high vacuum levels while handling large volumes of exhaust products. These pumping speeds are significantly higher than those available in most existing vacuum facilities. There is also a requirement for relatively large vacuum chamber dimensions to minimize facility wall/thruster plume interactions and to accommodate far field plume diagnostic measurements. A 4.57 m (15 ft) diameter by 19.2 m (63 ft) long vacuum chamber at NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The chamber utilizes oil diffusion pumps in combination with cryopanels to achieve high vacuum pumping speeds at high vacuum levels. The facility is computer controlled for all phases of operation from start-up, through testing, to shutdown. The computer control system increases the utilization of the facility and reduces the manpower requirements needed for facility operations.

Grisnik, Stanley P.; Parkes, James E.

1994-01-01

322

Vacuum metastability with black holes  

E-print Network

We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

Burda, Philipp; Moss, Ian

2015-01-01

323

Transient liquid phase bonding of ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys possess excellent properties including resistance to oxidation, corrosion, creep and thermal fatigue. In addition, ferritic ODS alloys exhibit resistance to void swelling and are of particular interest to the nuclear industry. The present study involves the joining of fuel cans to end caps that will be utilized in the nuclear industry. Mechanically alloyed (MA) ODS alloys possess coarse columnar grain structure strengthened with nanosize yttria dispersoids. In that past, fusion welding techniques resulted in microstructural disruption leading to poor joints. This work investigated joining of two ferritic MA ODS alloys, MA956 and PM2000, using; (a) Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and (b) Solid-state diffusion bonding. TLP bonds were prepared with MA956 and PM2000 in the unrecrystallized and recrystallized conditions using electron beam physical vapor deposited (EBPVD) boron thin films as interlayers. The use of thin interlayers reduced the amount of substrate dissolution and minimized the bondline microstructural disruption. Different bond orientations were also investigated. Successful bonds with better microstructural continuity were obtained when substrates were joined in the unrecrystallized condition followed by post bond recrystallization heat treatment with the substrate faying surface aligned along the working (extrusion or rolling) direction than when substrates were aligned perpendicular to the working direction. This was attributed to the number of yttria stringers cut by the bondline, which is less when the substrate faying surface is lying parallel to the working direction than when the substrate faying surface is lying perpendicular to the working direction. Solid-state diffusion bonding was conducted using MA956 and PM2000 in the unrecrystallized and recrystallized conditions. Bonding occurred only when an unrecrystallized substrate was involved. Bonding occurred at unusually low stresses. This may be attributed to the grain boundary diffusion, owing to submicron grain size of the unrecrystallized substrates. Post bond heat treatment was conducted in order to induce recrystallization in the bonds. Room temperature mechanical testing was conducted on the bonds and the bulk. Bond shear strengths and tensile strengths of up to 80% and 110% of bulk, respectively, were obtained. Defects in the bulk material such as porosity and unwanted fine grain formation were observed. Pore formation at the bondline during post bond heat treatment seems to decrease the bond strength. These defects were attributed to prior thermomechanical history of the materials.

Krishnardula, Venu Gopal

2006-04-01

324

Ti Diffusion in Pyroxene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of titanium has been characterized in natural enstatite and diopside under buffered conditions and in air. The sources of diffusant for the enstatite experiments were mixtures of Mg, Si and Ti oxide powders, which were combined and heated at 1300°C overnight, and then thoroughly mixed with synthesized enstatite powder and heated for an additional day at 1300°C. Sources for diopside experiments were prepared similarly, using Ca, Mg, Si, and Ti oxide powders combined with synthesized diopside powder, with heating of source materials at 1200°C. Buffered experiments were prepared by enclosing source material and pyroxene (polished and pre-annealed under conditions comparable to those to be experienced in the experiment) in AgPd or platinum capsules, placing the metal capsule in a silica glass capsule with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO or IW) and sealing the assembly under vacuum. Some experiments on enstatite were run in air; sample and source were placed in Pt capsules and crimped shut. Prepared capsules were then annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 8 hours to a few months, at temperatures from 950 to 1200°C. The Ti distributions in the pyroxene were profiled with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for Ti diffusion in a natural enstatite, for diffusion normal to the (210) cleavage face (950 - 1150°C, experiments run in air): DTi = 1.9×10-10 exp(-300 ± 44 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 sec-1. Diffusion under NNO and IW-buffered conditions is similar to that for experiments run in air, suggesting little dependence of Ti diffusion on oxygen fugacity. There is also little evidence of anisotropy, as diffusion normal to (001) does not differ significantly from diffusion for the other orientation. Preliminary findings for Ti diffusion in diopside suggest diffusivities similar to those for enstatite. Ti diffusivities in enstatite are similar to those of the trivalent REEs (Cherniak and Liang, 2007), but more than two orders of magnitude slower than those of Fe-Mg (ter Heege et al., 2006) and Cr (Ganguly et al., 2007). These respective variations may reflect the interplay of cation size and charge, or may point to the substitution of Ti on the tetrahedral site. Measurements of diffusion under a broader range of conditions and for other high field strength elements are underway to better interpret these findings. Major and trace element zoning in pyroxenes have been observed in residual peridotites and mafic cumulates. The large differences in cation mobility among Ti, Cr, and Fe-Mg in pyroxene may allow us to distinguish the dominant process that gives rise to the chemical disequilibria. In contrast to those produced by subsolidus reequilibration during cooling, the apparent diffusive boundary layer thicknesses as measured by major and trace elements in a pyroxene grain are not sensitive to the respective cation diffusion rates if zoning is produced by magmatic processes that involves dissolution- precipitation. Examples of zoning in pyroxenes produced by magmatic and subsolidus processes will be discussed. Ganguly et al. (2007) GCA 71, 3915-3925; ter Heege et al. (2006) Eos Trans. AGU 87, Fall Mtg. Suppl. MR21A-0004; Cherniak and Liang (2007) GCA 71, 1324-1340

Cherniak, D.; Liang, Y.

2008-12-01

325

Interactive Pi Bonding Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application demonstrates the effect of pi bonding on the one-electron ligand field splitting in an octahedral. By clicking on the appropriate buttons students can see how D changes when you move from ligands with no pi bonding capability to pi donor and pi acceptor ligands.

326

The dissociative bond.  

PubMed

Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other. PMID:23282044

Gordon, Nirit

2013-01-01

327

Planning Successful Bond Campaigns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains specific recommendations for conducting bond campaigns. It outlines the three major considerations of any bond campaign: (1) committee organization and appointment; (2) time lines; and (3) getting out the vote. The publication focuses on the need for total community involvement and outlines some of the components for…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Support.

328

Chemical Bonds I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical bonding is discussed from a bond energy, rather than a wave mechanics, viewpoint. This approach is considered to be more suitable for the average student. (The second part of the article will appear in a later issue of the journal.) (AL)

Sanderson, R. T.

1972-01-01

329

Interfacial bonding stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interfacial bonding stability by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the stability of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.

Boerio, J.

1984-01-01

330

Wood Bond Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

1989-01-01

331

Shape Bonding method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

332

Ultrasonically bonded value assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A valve apparatus capable of maintaining a fluid-tight seal over a relatively long period of time by releasably bonding a valve member to its seat is described. The valve member is bonded or welded to the seat and then released by the application of the same energy to the bond joint. The valve member is held in place during the bonding by a clamping device. An appropriate force device can activate the opening and closing of the valve member. Various combinations of material for the valve member and valve seat can be utilized to provide an adequate sealing bond. Aluminum oxide, stainless steel, inconel, tungsten carbide as hard materials and copper, aluminum, titanium, silver, and gold as soft materials are suggested.

Salvinski, R. J. (inventor)

1975-01-01

333

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

334

Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

335

Modeling Vacuum Arcs  

E-print Network

We are developing a model of vacuum arcs. This model assumes that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, followed by ionization of fragments by field emission and the development of a small, dense plasma that interacts with the surface primarily through self sputtering and terminates as a unipolar arc capable of producing breakdown sites with high enhancement factors. We have attempted to produce a self consistent picture of triggering, arc evolution and surface damage. We are modeling these mechanisms using Molecular Dynamics (mechanical failure, Coulomb explosions, self sputtering), Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes (plasma evolution), mesoscale surface thermodynamics (surface evolution), and finite element electrostatic modeling (field enhancements). We can present a variety of numerical results. We identify where our model differs from other descriptions of this phenomenon.

Insepov, Z; Proslier, T; Huang, D; Mahalingam, S; Veitzer, S

2010-01-01

336

Self diffusion of reversibly aggregating spheres  

E-print Network

Reversible diffusion limited cluster aggregation of hard spheres with rigid bonds was simulated and the self diffusion coefficient was determined for equilibrated systems. The effect of increasing attraction strength was determined for systems at different volume fractions and different interaction ranges. It was found that the slowing down of the diffusion coefficient due to crowding is decoupled from that due to cluster formation. The diffusion coefficient could be calculated from the cluster size distribution and became zero only at infinite attraction strength when permanent gels are formed. It is concluded that so-called attractive glasses are not formed at finite interaction strength.

Sujin Babu; Jean Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai

2007-05-10

337

Investigation of the Reliability of Copper Ball Bonds to Aluminum Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of Cu\\/Al bonds was compared with that of Au\\/Al bonds to establish reliable copper ball bonding for IC's. Diffusion-controlled intermetallic compound phases of CuAl and. CuAl2were identified in. the interfaces of the Cu\\/Al bonds after isothermal aging by micro-X-ray diffraction. In addition, diffusion-controlled compound phases of Au4Al, Au5Al2, Au2Al, AuAl, and. AuAl2were identified in the. interfaces of Au\\/Al

Jin Onuki; M. Koizumi; I. Araki

1987-01-01

338

Detecting leaks in vacuum bags  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

Carlstrom, E. E.

1980-01-01

339

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

340

Sonoluminescence as Quantum Vacuum Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonoluminescence is explained in terms of quantum vacuum radiation by moving interfaces between media of different polarizability. It can be considered as a dynamic Casimir effect, in the sense that it is a consequence of the imbalance of the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field during the noninertial motion of a boundary. The transition amplitude from the vacuum into a

Claudia Eberlein

1996-01-01

341

Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

1997-01-01

342

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

1997-01-01

343

Statistical mechanics of the vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.

Christian Beck

2012-03-01

344

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

345

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

346

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

2014-01-28

347

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides  

SciTech Connect

Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ?}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States) [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

2014-01-28

348

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5'-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

2014-01-01

349

Diffusion and phase transformation on interface between substrate and NiCrAlY in Y-PSZ thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiCrAlY/Y2O3-Y-PSZ (yttria-partially stabilized zirconia) thermal barrier coatings were developed on a superalloy (Ni-10Co-9Cr-7W-5Al, wt.%) surface. The superalloys were first coated with a bond coat of Ni-19Cr-8Al-0.5Y (wt.%) alloy that was deposited by low-pressure plasma spraying and then covered with a top coat of ZrO2-8wt.%Y2O3 by air plasma spraying. The microstructure near the interface was analyzed using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction, and the phases of composition were measured using an electron probe microanalyzer after exposure at 1100°C for different times in air or a vacuum. The reaction processes also were simulated using diffusion-controlled transformation (DICTRA) software in which diffusion was considered as being only the ? phase, and the ?? phase was treated as spheroidal particles in ?. From the authors’ results, it can be concluded that a ??-phase layer is observed at the interface between substrate and bond coat, and its thickness increases with increasing exposure times in air at 1100 °C. This layer showed good cohesion with the substrate and bond coat. It can also be concluded that the formation of the ??-phase layer can be predicted from DICTRA simulation. The simulation also shows the same trend of the composition profiles as experimental data.

Chen, H.; Jin, Z.; Liu, C.; Zhou, K.

2004-12-01

350

Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

1987-09-01

351

Cleaning of a thermal vacuum chamber with shrouds in place  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In February, 1991, a failure of a rotary booster pump caused the diffusion pumps to backstream into a 10 ft x 15 ft thermal vacuum chamber. Concerns existed about the difficulty of removing and reinstalling the shrouds without causing leaks. The time required for the shroud removal was also of concern. These concerns prompted us to attempt to clean the chamber without removing the shrouds.

Bond, William R.

1992-01-01

352

Hillslope diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is designed to help students apply hillslope diffusion equations (derived in class prior to the lab) to understand real-world hillslopes. The major goal is a deeper understanding of hillslope processes and the equations used to describe hillslope diffusion by observing the same factors described in the equations on real-world hillslopes.

Jeni McDermott

353

Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .  

E-print Network

Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport

354

Introduction Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

E-print Network

Introduction Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging D-Eigenvalues and . . . Further ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Diffusion Tensor and Diffusion Kurtosis Tensor in Biomedical Engineering Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging D-Eigenvalues and . . . Further Discussion Home Page

Zhang, Shuzhong

355

Free radicals created by plasmas cause autohesive bonding in polymers  

SciTech Connect

We find that plasma immersion ion implantation of polymer surfaces enhances their autohesive bond strength when pressed together by more than a factor of five. Both polymerising (CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}) and nonpolymerising (Ar) plasmas are effective. There is currently no satisfactory theory for predicting this remarkable phenomenon. We propose that free radicals created by the plasma treatment process diffuse to the interface and cause covalent bonds to form. This theory predicts the dependence of bond strength on plasma bias voltage, treatment time, and autohesive process conditions.

Awaja, Firas; McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Zhang Shengnan [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); James, Natalie [Cochlear Limited, 14 Mars Road, Lane Cove New South Wales 2066 (Australia)

2011-05-23

356

Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application  

SciTech Connect

Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. A diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 {micro}m thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency.

Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H.

1998-02-01

357

Ceramic-to-metal bonding for pressure transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solid-state diffusion technique involving the placement of a gold foil between INCONEL X-750 and a machinable glass-ceramic "MACOR" was shown to be successful in bonding these two materials. This technique was selected after an exhaustive literature search on ceramic-metal bonding methods. Small expansion mismatch between the Inconel and the MACOR resulted in fracture of the MACOR when the bonded body was subjected to tensile stress of 535 psi. The bonded parts were submitted to a cyclic loading test in an air atmosphere at 1 Hz from 0 to 60 KPa. Failure was observed after 700,000 cycles at 650 C. Ceramic-Inconel bonding was not achieved with this method for boron nitride and silica glass.

Mackenzie, J. D.

1984-01-01

358

On Asymmetric Diffusional Solidification During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underlying cause of asymmetric diffusion solidification which alters microstructure during transient liquid phase bonding under low temperature gradient was studied. A new solute-conserving asymmetric numerical model coupled with experimental verification showed that a transition from bi-directional to unidirectional solidification, under a constant temperature gradient, is controlled by competition between liquid and solid-state diffusion at one of the two liquid-solid interfaces. This mechanistic understanding would aid a more effective use of the process.

Ghobadi Bigvand, A.; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.

2014-04-01

359

Invisibility cloaking in the diffusive-light limit (presentation video)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein's theory of relativity imposes stringent limitations to making macroscopic objects invisible with respect to electromagnetic light waves propagating in vacuum. These limitations are not relevant though for propagation of light in diffusive media like fog or milk because the effective energy speed is significantly lower than in vacuum due to multiple scattering events. Here, by exploiting the close mathematical analogy between the electrostatic or near-field limit of optics on the one hand and light diffusion on the other hand, we design, fabricate, and characterize simple core-shell cloaking structures for diffusive light propagation in cylindrical and spherical geometry.

Schittny, Robert; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin

2014-09-01

360

Use of a Novel Fluorinated Organosulfur Compound To Isolate Bacteria Capable of Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum residue fraction of heavy crudes contributes to the viscosity of these oils. Specific microbial cleavage of COS bonds in alkylsulfide bridges that form linkages in this fraction may result in dramatic viscosity reduction. To date, no bacterial strains have been shown conclusively to cleave COS bonds within alkyl chains. Screening for microbes that can perform this activity was

Jonathan D. Van Hamme; Phillip M. Fedorak; Julia M. Foght; Murray R. Gray; Heather D. Dettman

2004-01-01

361

Bonding with Your Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... baby feel the different textures of dad's face Building a Support System Of course, it's easier to ... can take nearly all of your attention and energy — especially for a breastfeeding mom. Bonding will be ...

362

Gold Thermocompression Wafer Bonding  

E-print Network

Thermocompression bonding of gold is a promising technique for the fabrication and packaging microelectronic and MEMS devices. The use of a gold interlayer and moderate temperatures and pressures results in a hermetic, ...

Spearing, S. Mark

363

Characterization of anodic bonding  

E-print Network

Anodic bonding is a common process used in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) device fabrication and packaging. Polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) is emerging as a new MEMS device and ...

Tudryn, Carissa Debra, 1978-

2004-01-01

364

Hydrogen bonds animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color animation of water molecules interacting and forming hydrogen bonds is a hybrid between a PowerPoint slide show an an animation. Students can replay portions or click next if they do not need to replay a segment.

Northland Community and Technical College Biology Department

2007-12-12

365

The electrical resistance of vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the physics of electrical conduction in vacuum between two parallel conducting planes (planar vacuum diode). After reviewing known features of conduction in the high-voltage range, we turn to the low-voltage range. An ohmic current-voltage characteristic is calculated in the case of identical cathodic and anodic electrodes, whence an electrical resistance of the vacuum gap can be defined. The inverse resistance involves the elemental conductance 2e 2/h and the number of conductance channels between the two electrodes. The channels are thermally populated from the electrodes and the population is analytically calculable from the Poisson equation of electrostatics and the Boltzmann law of thermal equilibrium. The observed resistance of a real vacuum diode (Mullard's EB 91) is accounted for without adjusting parameters. The paper also examines the link-up between Joule's law, involving dissipation, and Ohm's law, with vacuum being contrasted with a material conducting medium; the origin of dissipation in vacuum is understood. Quantum and statistical physics are kept at the undergraduate level. Finally, the results obtained for the vacuum diode shed light upon the quantized conductance of nanoscale semiconductor wires, a topic usually handled only in graduate courses.

Bringuier, E.

2013-07-01

366

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27

367

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

368

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

369

Exciton diffusion lengths of organic semiconductor thin films measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence quenching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate spectrally resolved photoluminescence quenching as a means to determine the exciton diffusion length of several archetype organic semiconductors used in thin film devices. We show that aggregation and crystal orientation influence the anisotropy of the diffusion length for vacuum-deposited polycrystalline films. The measurement of the singlet diffusion lengths is found to be in agreement with diffusion by Förster transfer, whereas triplet diffusion occurs primarily via Dexter transfer.

Lunt, Richard R.; Giebink, Noel C.; Belak, Anna A.; Benziger, Jay B.; Forrest, Stephen R.

2009-03-01

370

All about Chemical Bonding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stephen Lower, a retired professor at Simon Fraser University, created this expansive and instructive website as a supplement to formal chemistry education for undergraduate students. Visitors will find in-depth descriptions along with several diagrams dealing with chemical bonding issues including their properties, shared-electron covalent bonds, hybrid orbitals, coordination complexes, and metals and semiconductors. General chemistry students looking for assistance should visit this well-developed educational site.

Lower, Stephen

371

Vacuum-state estimation of vacuum circuit breakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum state of vacuum switching elements after production is checked normally by Penning- or Magnetron methods (combined electrical and magnetic field). Vacuum in the range of 10-1 - 10-4 Pa can be measured in this way. After assembly into circuit breakers however, these methods are not applicable. HF interruption performance during making operation has been proposed earlier as a possible alternative. Further investigations show that differences in the number of HF prestrike current loops can be found in the pressure range of 10-1 - 105 Pa. Current chopping of DC arcs between 5 and 30 A during opening operation, may be another option for determination of the pressure range by measuring the lifetime of the arc, but the resolution in the vacuum range below 10-1 Pa is too poor.

Damstra, Geert C.; Smeets, Rene P.; Poulussen, H. B. F.

1994-05-01

372

Diffusion tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion tube was designed to operate below about 0.25 percent of water supersaturation. It is simply a long tube lined on the inside with a damp chamois cloth, and heated isothermally to a few degrees centigrade above the incoming air. The diffusion coefficient for water vapor is slightly larger than that for heat, making it possible to supersaturate the airflow. This is the same principle by which transient supersaturations may occur in parallel plate cloud chambers. Only the diffusion of vapor and heat from the walls into the moving air are considered.

Leaitch, R.; Megaw, W. J.

1981-01-01

373

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-print Network

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10

374

Vacuum Function Operation and Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The understanding of vacuum function and systems is essential for students and employees working within the micro- and nanofabrication industry. This presentation/webinar highlights the use, construction, and examples of current vacuum technology systems today. Prepared by WHO, of the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center, this presentation provides material presented from the instructor/engineer viewpoint. Discussions include vacuum pump function, gauge use and ranges, applicable design considerations, as well as insight on cost and equipment training methodologies that have been utilized by the NACK Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

375

Photoelectron backscattering in vacuum phototubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we describe results of studies of a photoelectron backscattering effect in vacuum phototubes: classical photomultipliers (PMT) and hybrid phototubes (PH). Late pulses occurring in PMTs are attributed to the photoelectron backscattering and distinguished from pulses due to an anode glow effect. The late pulses are measured in a number of PMTs and HPs with various photocathode sizes covering 1 50 cm range and different types of the first dynode materials and construction designs. It is shown that the late pulses are a generic feature of all vacuum photodetectors—PMTs and PHs—and they do not deteriorate dramatically amplitude and timing responses of vacuum phototubes.

Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Vasiliev, R. V.; Vyatchin, Y. E.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.

2006-11-01

376

Fume incinerator with vacuum baffle  

SciTech Connect

A single unit, shell and tube fume incinerator utilizes a vacuum baffle structure proximate a combustion zone to control the flow of combustion exhaust gas. The vacuum baffle is located slightly above the hot ends of a plurality of heat exchange tubes to deflect the hot exhaust gases from the combustion zone away from the ends of the tubes, and back to the outside of the tubes, thereby controlling the time at temperature'' for contaminants in the impure gas feed. A vacuum effect is created just below the baffle to draw cleansed exhaust below the baffle back up into the combustion zone to prevent the escape of impure gas. 3 figs.

Houston, R.

1994-01-04

377

Mechanical behaviour of metal-ceramic bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical behaviour of ceramics bonded with metal is analyzed from the mechanical point of view (interfacial fracture mechanics, applied and residual stress field) and from the physico-chemical point of view taking into account the embrittlement induced by interfacial reactions or diffusion of metal into ceramic and the damages due to the change in interfacial microstructure (segregation, interfacial phases or films, microcracks, ...) during bonding or life. Indeed the behaviour of metal-ceramic bonds is inevitably dependent on the synthesis of all those parameters. Le comportement mécanique des liaisons céramique-métal est analysé du point de vue mécanique (mécanique de la rupture interfaciale, champs des contraintes appliquées et résiduelles) et, du point de vue physicochimique, en tenant compte des effets de fragilisation induits par les réactions interfaciales ou la diffusion du métal dans la céramique et des endommagements dus aux modifications de la microstructure interfaciale (segrégation, phases et films interfaciaux, microfissures ... ) intervenant lors de l'assemblage ou du service. En effet le comportement des assemblages métal-céramique dépend obligatoirement de la synthèse de tous ces paramètres.

Tréheux, D.; Lourdin, P.; Guipont, V.; Juvé, D.

1994-10-01

378

Relational Bonds and Loyalty: The Bonds that Tie  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the effect of financial, social and structural bonds on the loyalty of Arabic five star hotel guests. Three different measures of loyalty are used; attitudinal, behavioural and combined to identify how the three relational bonds affect loyalty. The results show that social and structural bonds increase all types of loyalty whereas financial bonds only increase attitudinal and

Ahmad Shammout; Michael Polonsky; Michael Edwardson

379

Measurement of interfacial properties for aluminum and titanium matrix alloy composites manufactured by vacuum plasma spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous fiber silicon carbide\\/titanium and aluminum matrix composite monolayers were tested by means of an indentation technique to measure the interfacial shear strength. Experimental results were interpreted using two analytical models and compared to results of other researches in order to evaluate the interface quality obtained with a vacuum plasma spray fabrication method. The separate contribution of chemical bond and

Valente; JE Masters; T Kevin O'Brien; T Valente

1994-01-01

380

Science and technology of plasma activated direct wafer bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studied the kinetics of silicon direct wafer bonding with emphasis on low temperature bonding mechanisms. The project goals were to understand the topological requirements for initial bonding, develop a tensile test to measure the bond strength as a function of time and temperature and, using the kinetic information obtained, develop lower temperature methods of bonding. A reproducible surface metrology metric for bonding was best described by power spectral density derived from atomic force microscopy measurements. From the tensile strength kinetics study it was found that low annealing temperatures could be used to obtain strong bonds, but at the expense of longer annealing times. Three models were developed to describe the kinetics. A diffusion controlled model and a reaction rate controlled model were developed for the higher temperature regimes (T > 600sp°C), and an electric field assisted oxidation model was proposed for the low temperature range. An in situ oxygen plasma treatment was used to further enhance the field-controlled mechanism which resulted in dramatic increases in the low temperature bonding kinetics. Multiple internal transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MIT-FTIR) was used to monitor species evolution at the bonded interface and a capacitance-voltage (CV) study was undertaken to investigate charge distribution and surface states resulting from plasma activation. A short, less than a minute, plasma exposure prior to contacting the wafers was found to obtain very strong bonds for hydrophobic silicon wafers at very low temperatures (100sp°C). This novel bonding method may enable new technologies involving heterogeneous material systems or bonding partially fabricated devices to become realities.

Roberds, Brian Edward

381

Diffuse radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

1981-01-01

382

Vacuum deposited polycrystalline silicon films for solar cell applications. Quarterly report, 1 April-30 June 1980  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline p-type films were vacuum deposited onto TiB/sub 2/ coated alumina and sapphire substrates. Epitaxial layers were also formed on single crystal silicon substrates. Junctions in the layers were created by both gaseous diffusion in a tube furnace and by vacuum deposition. The TiB/sub 2/ vacuum deposited bottom electrodes have resistivities between 30 and 40 ..mu.. ..cap omega..-cm. All-vacuum-deposited solar cells were fabricated for the first time. Efficiencies approaching those in the diffused junction devices were achieved. The n-layers were deposited on the previously deposited p-layer/TiB/sub 2//ceramic sandwiches by vacuum deposition of silicon in a phosphine (PH/sub 3/) atmosphere. Photovoltaic data in diffused junction samples, including efficiency and spectral response measurements, indicate that crystallite size may no longer be the limiting factor in achieving high efficiency; rather, performance is now being limited by the presence of impurities in the vacuum deposition silicon base region.

Feldman, C.; Arrington, III, C. H.; Blum, N. A.; Satkiewicz, F. G.

1980-08-01

383

Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric pressure or to a partial vacuum source. The design would be such that the higher pneumatic pressure would be sufficient to push the silicone arches down onto the substrates, blocking the channels. Thus, by connecting pneumatic- actuation channels to the two pneumatic sources in spatial and temporal alternation, waves of opening and closing, equivalent to peristalsis, could be made to move along the pump channels. A pump according to this concept could be manufactured inexpensively. Pneumatic sources (compressors and partial vacuum sources) similar those needed for actuation are commercially available; they typically have masses of .100 g and power demands of the order of several W. In a design-optimization effort, it should be possible to reduce masses and power demands below even these low levels and to integrate pneumatic sources along with the proposed pumps into miniature units with overall dimensions of no more than a few centimeters per side.

Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

2003-01-01

384

Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

Burger, D. R.

1982-01-01

385

Vacuum microelectronic devices [and prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review\\/tutorial paper, we cover the history, physics, and current status of vacuum microelectronic devices. First we overview the performance requirements of vacuum microelectronic devices necessary for them to replace, or fill voids left by, solid state devices. Next we discuss the physical characteristics of micro-field-emission sources important to device applications. These characteristics include fundamental features, such as current-voltage

IVOR BRODIE; PAUL RICHARD SCHWOEBEL

1994-01-01

386

Vacuum frying of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 °C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of

Jagoba Garayo; Rosana Moreira

2002-01-01

387

Vacuum Energy in Quantum Graphs  

E-print Network

VACUUM ENERGY IN QUANTUM GRAPHS A Senior Honors Thesis by JUSTIN HOWARD WILSON Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE... RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2007 Majors: Physics and Mathematics ii ABSTRACT Vacuum Energy in Quantum Graphs. (April 2007) Justin Howard Wilson Department of Physics and Mathematics Texas A&M University Fellows Co-Advisor: Dr. Stephen A. Fulling Department...

Wilson, Justin

2007-07-14

388

Technical specification for vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

Khaw, J. (ed.)

1987-01-01

389

Cold cathode vacuum gauging system  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

2004-03-09

390

Hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding and lithium bonding: an atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital perspective towards conservation of total bond order, inter- and intra-molecular bonding.  

PubMed

One hundred complexes have been investigated exhibiting D-X···A interactions, where X = H, Cl or Li and DX is the 'X bond' donor and A is the acceptor. The optimized structures of all these complexes have been used to propose a generalized 'Legon-Millen rule' for the angular geometry in all these interactions. A detailed Atoms in Molecules (AIM) theoretical analysis confirms an important conclusion, known in the literature: there is a strong correlation between the electron density at the XA bond critical point (BCP) and the interaction energy for all these interactions. In addition, we show that extrapolation of the fitted line leads to the ionic bond for Li-bonding (electrostatic) while for hydrogen and chlorine bonding, it leads to the covalent bond. Further, we observe a strong correlation between the change in electron density at the D-X BCP and that at the X···A BCP, suggesting conservation of the bond order. The correlation found between penetration and electron density at BCP can be very useful for crystal structure analysis, which relies on arbitrary van der Waals radii for estimating penetration. Various criteria proposed for shared- and closed-shell interactions based on electron density topology have been tested for H/Cl/Li bonded complexes. Finally, using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis it is shown that the D-X bond weakens upon X bond formation, whether it is ionic (DLi) or covalent (DH/DCl) and the respective indices such as ionicity or covalent bond order decrease. Clearly, one can think of conservation of bond order that includes ionic and covalent contributions to both D-X and X···A bonds, for not only X = H/Cl/Li investigated here but also any atom involved in intermolecular bonding. PMID:25127185

Shahi, Abhishek; Arunan, Elangannan

2014-11-14

391

Antibacterial activity of dentinal bonding agents.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of five bacterial species to seven dentinal bonding agents was examined in vitro. Agar diffusion tests using filterpaper disks containing 10 microL each of conditioner, primer, or resin were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was used as a positive control. After incubation, zones of inhibited bacterial growth were measured. Of all the compounds tested, Gluma cleanser and Gluma etchant showed the strongest growth inhibition for all bacterial strains. No antibacterial effect was noted for Prisma Universal Bond 2 and Superlux Universal Bond 2 systems. The primers of Gluma, Denthesive, and Scotchbond 2 displayed antibacterial activity that, in some cases, was comparable to that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. Zones of inhibition were seen for the resin materials of Scotchbond 2 and Tripton with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. No inhibition was seen after these resins were cured, whereas the antibacterial effect of XR-Bond on S sanguis and A viscosus was not affected by light curing. PMID:8210322

Emilson, C G; Bergenholtz, G

1993-07-01

392

Surface analysis in composite bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the interfacial region in determining the bond strength and durability of composite bonds is discussed. The characterization of a variety of carbon fibers including Celion 6000 using both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is discussed. The emphasis is on composite bonding, that is, the adhesive bonding between composites in contrast to fiber-matrix interaction. The primary objective of the research is the characterization of composite surfaces before adhesive bonding and after fracture of bonded specimens. Work done on the analysis of composite samples pretreated in a number of ways prior to bonding is detailed.

Messick, D. L.; Wightman, J. P.

1982-01-01

393

Strength of Chemical Bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

Christian, Jerry D.

1973-01-01

394

Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds.  

PubMed

Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as '?-hole - lone pair' or '?-hole - ?' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction. PMID:25656525

Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek

2015-03-01

395

Unstable, metastable, or stable halogen bonding interaction involving negatively charged donors? A statistical and computational chemistry study.  

PubMed

The noncovalent halogen bonding could be attributed to the attraction between the positively charged ?-hole and a nucleophile. Quantum mechanics (QM) calculation indicated that the negatively charged organohalogens have no positively charged ?-hole on their molecular surface, leading to a postulation of repulsion between negatively charged organohalogens and nucleophiles in vacuum. However, PDB survey revealed that 24% of the ligands with halogen bonding geometry could be negatively charged. Moreover, 36% of ionizable drugs in CMC (Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry) are possibly negatively charged at pH 7.0. QM energy scan showed that the negatively charged halogen bonding is probably metastable in vacuum. However, the QM calculated bonding energy turned negative in various solvents, suggesting that halogen bonding with negatively charged donors should be stable in reality. Indeed, QM/MM calculation on three crystal structures with negatively charged ligands revealed that the negatively charged halogen bonding was stable. Hence, we concluded that halogen bonding with negatively charged donors is unstable or metastable in vacuum but stable in protein environment, and possesses similar geometric and energetic characteristics as conventional halogen bonding. Therefore, negatively charged organohalogens are still effective halogen bonding donors for medicinal chemistry and other applications. PMID:25390886

Yang, Zhuo; Xu, Zhijian; Liu, Yingtao; Wang, Jinan; Shi, Jiye; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang

2014-12-11

396

Microstructural and mechanical characterization of W/SiC bonding for structural material in fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SiC/SiC composites are expected to be employed as structural materials in fusion reactors after DEMO. Tungsten may be used as armor material of divertor to protect from the high temperature heat flux. An advanced SiC/SiC composite, NITE SiC/SiC, has excellent resistance to high stress and temperature, and diffusion and sinter bonding methods using high temperature are able to join SiC/SiC composites. This work evaluates the microstructure of interphases when tungsten is joined to SiC to screen potential bonding techniques. The W/SiC joints were produced by diffusion bonding, sinter bonding and liquid phase sinter bonding methods using the hot-pressing methods. Evaluation by SEM, EPMA, TEM and shear test showed the promise of these bonding methods.

Kishimoto, H.; Shibayama, T.; Shimoda, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kohyama, A.

2011-10-01

397

Mullite/Mo interfaces formed by Intrusion bonding  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and strength of Mo/mullite interfaces formed by diffusion bonding at 1650 C has been analyzed. Interfacial metal-ceramic interlocking contributes to flexural strength of approx. 140 MPa as measured by 3 point bending. Saturation of mullite with MoO2 does not affect the interfacial strength.

Bartolome, Jose F.; Diaz, Marcos; Moya, Jose S.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2003-04-30

398

Reversible geminate recombination of hydrogen-bonded water molecule pair  

E-print Network

Reversible geminate recombination of hydrogen-bonded water molecule pair Omer Markovitcha and Noam dependence agrees quantitatively with the solution for reversible diffusion-influenced geminate recombination to determine the dissociation and bimolecular recombination rate parameters for a water dimer. The theory

Agmon, Noam

399

Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

Buggele, A. E.

1973-01-01

400

Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication  

DOEpatents

A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500/sup 0/C in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

Landingham, R.L.; Shell, T.E.

1985-05-20

401

Biomolecular halogen bonds.  

PubMed

Halogens are atypical elements in biology, but are common as substituents in ligands, including thyroid hormones and inhibitors, which bind specifically to proteins and nucleic acids. The short-range, stabilizing interactions of halogens - now seen as relatively common in biology - conform generally to halogen bonds characterized in small molecule systems and as described by the ?-hole model. The unique properties of biomolecular halogen bonds (BXBs), particularly in their geometric and energetic relationship to classic hydrogen bonds, make them potentially powerful tools for inhibitor design and molecular engineering. This chapter reviews the current research on BXBs, focusing on experimental studies on their structure-energy relationships, how these studies inform the development of computational methods to model BXBs, and considers how BXBs can be applied to the rational design of more effective inhibitors against therapeutic targets and of new biological-based materials. PMID:25326832

Ho, P Shing

2015-01-01

402

Vacuum Fluctuations Cannot Mimic a Cosmological Constant  

E-print Network

When the vacuum fluctuation pressure is calculated directly from fundamental principles of quantum field theory, in the same manner as vacuum fluctuation energy density is commonly calculated, one finds it is not equal to the negative of the vacuum fluctuation energy density. Thus, vacuum fluctuations cannot manifest as a cosmological constant of any order.

Robert D. Klauber

2007-11-05

403

Studies of Lubricating Materials in Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricating materials for use in a vacuum environment have been the subject of a series of experimental investigations. Evaporation properties were evaluated for solid polymeric compositions. Friction and wear studies explored the behavior during sliding contact for series of polymeric compositions, binary alloys containing soft film-forming phases, complex alloys with film-forming materials, and a burnished MoS2 film. Friction and wear experiments were conducted at 10(exp-9)mm Hg with a 3/16-inch-radius-hemisphere rider specimen sliding on the flat surface of a rotating 2-1/2-inch-diameter disk specimen with materials that had low rates of evaporation. The influence of fillers in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on decomposition during vacuum friction studies was determined with a mass spectrometer. A real advantage in reducing decomposition and improving friction wear properties is gained by adding fillers (e.g., copper) that improve thermal conductivity through the composite materials. A polyimide and an epoxy-MoS2 composition material were found to have better friction and wear properties than PTFE compositions. A series of alloys (cast binary as well as more complex alloys) that contained microinclusions of potential film-forming material was studied. These materials replaced the normal surface oxides as they were worn away on sliding contact. Iron sulfide, nickel oxide, and tin are typical film-forming materials employed and were demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting surface welding and reducing friction. A burnished MoS2 film applied to type 440-C stainless steel in argon with a rotating soft wire brush had good endurance properties but somewhat higher friction than commercially available bonded films. An oil film applied to the burnished MoS2 markedly reduced its endurance life.

Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.; Swikert, M. A.

1964-01-01

404

Gold-Aluminum Intermetallics: Ball Bond Shear Testing and Thin Film Reaction Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gold-aluminum intermetallic phases are known to contribute to the long term degradation of gold wire ball bonds to aluminum metallization on semiconductor devices. The properties of these intermetallics were investigated through two techniques: 1) ball bond shear testing and 2) preparation of known intermetallic compositions by using thin film Au-Al diffusion couples. The influence of thermal aging on gold

GUY V. CLATTERBAUGH; JOEL A. WEINER; HARRY K. CHARLES

1984-01-01

405

Diffuser Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests begun at Stennis Space Center's E Complex Sept. 13 evaluated a liquid oxygen lead for engine start performance, part of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at SSC's E-3 Test Facility. Phase 1 of the subscale diffuser project, completed Sept. 24, was a series of 18 hot-fire tests using a 1,000-pound liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen thruster to verify maximum duration and repeatability for steam generation supporting the A-3 Test Stand project. The thruster is a stand-in for NASA's developing J-2X engine, to validate a 6 percent scale version of A-3's exhaust diffuser. Testing the J-2X at altitude conditions requires an enormous diffuser. Engineers will generate nearly 4,600 pounds per second of steam to reduce pressure inside A-3's test cell to simulate altitude conditions. A-3's exhaust diffuser has to be able to withstand regulated pressure, temperatures and the safe discharge of the steam produced during those tests. Before the real thing is built, engineers hope to work out any issues on the miniature version. Phase 2 testing is scheduled to begin this month.

2007-01-01

406

Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

2008-01-01

407

Neutron radiation hardness of vacuum compatible two-component adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the investigation of the irradiation dependent bonding strength of two-component glues which have low outgassing compatible with vacuum applications. The strength of the glue joints is compared before and after exposure to a thermal neutron fluence of 2.35×10 neutrons per cm. The goal of this work is to establish a glue which is applicable to join glass and metal parts of the ultra-cold neutron (UCN) guide system at the Paul Scherrer Institute's UCN source.

Bertsch, J.; Goeltl, L.; Kirch, K.; Lauss, B.; Zubler, R.

2009-04-01

408

Insurance and bonding  

SciTech Connect

Societal risk management in industrial democracies relies upon mechanisms of prior restraint rather than on responsibility for the consequence of accidents. The evolution of risk management from one based upon private, voluntary standard of risk management from one based upon private, voluntary standard setting to one based upon restraint is reviewed. While insurance and bonding historically have played a major role in private management of catastrophic risks, their role has been underutilized in the current, restraint-based mode. The conditions under the insurance and bonding that can serve as a tool for risk regulation are illustrated in the arena of toxic pollution risks. 45 refs., 1 fig.

Katzman, M.T.

1989-01-01

409

Vacuum System of the Large Cyclotrons at VECC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) has two large cyclotrons, K-130 cyclotron and K-500 cyclotron. The first beam in the room temperature K-130 cyclotron (RTC) was accelerated in June 1977. The cyclotron accelerated and delivered alpha and proton beams consistently to the cyclotron users for several years. Heavy ion beams were available in this cyclotron from 1997 to 2007. Presently, the cyclotron is working as a primary source for RIB production. The cyclotron has an acceleration chamber volume of about 28 m3. The total length of beam line is about 65 m. Vacuum of the order of 1 x 10-6 mbar is presently maintained in the cyclotron and beam line using diffusion pumps. It is one of the largest vacuum systems operating in India. It is consistently being operated 24 x 7 round the year giving beam to the cyclotron users. A K-500 superconducting cyclotron (SCC) with K=520 has been constructed at Kolkata. SCC will be used to accelerate beams to 80 MeV/A for light heavy ions and about 10 MeV/A for medium mass heavy ions. Three turbo molecular pumps are connected to the acceleration chamber. Three cryopanels placed inside the lower dees in the valley gap of the superconducting magnet are available in the accelerating chamber for achieving high vacuum. The acceleration chamber having a volume of about 1.0 m3 was operated using turbomolecular pumps, liquid nitrogen cooled panels and liquid helium cooled cryopanels at different stages during beam commissioning. Differential pumping is provided across the RF liner to avoid distortion. The first beam line of about 21 m has been installed in the cyclotron. The outer vacuum chamber of the cyclotron magnet cryostat has active pumping. The vacuum system of the superconducting cyclotron is also operating reliably round the clock throughout the year. The paper describes the details of the vacuum systems of the large cyclotrons at VEC Centre Kolkata India, its commissioning and operating experience.

Pal, G.; Mallik, C.; Yadav, R. C.; Akhter, J.; Datta Gupta, A.; Mandal, B.; Roy, A.; Polley, A.; Datta, M.; Nandi, C.; Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharyya, Srimantra; Pal, Sarbajit; Bhandari, R. K.

2012-11-01

410

Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Olazar, Martin [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: martin.olazar@ehu.es; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

2009-10-15

411

Effect of Vacuum-Microwave Predrying on Quality of Vacuum-Fried Potato Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vacuum microwave predrying on the quality of vacuum-fried potato chips were studied. The results showed that vacuum microwave predrying had a significant effect on moisture and oil contents, as well as color parameters and structure of potato chips. Vacuum microwave predrying significantly decreased the oil and moisture contents of vacuum-fried potato chips. The rates of both mass

Xian-ju Song; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar

2007-01-01

412

Microwave Induced Direct Bonding of Single Crystal Silicon Wafers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have heated polished doped single-crystal silicon wafers in a single mode microwave cavity to temperatures where surface to surface bonding occurred. The absorption of microwaves and heating of the wafers is attributed to the inclusion of n-type or p-type impurities into these substrates. A cylindrical cavity TM (sub 010) standing wave mode was used to irradiate samples of various geometry's at positions of high magnetic field. This process was conducted in vacuum to exclude plasma effects. This initial study suggests that the inclusion of impurities in single crystal silicon significantly improved its microwave absorption (loss factor) to a point where heating silicon wafers directly can be accomplished in minimal time. Bonding of these substrates, however, occurs only at points of intimate surface to surface contact. The inclusion of a thin metallic layer on the surfaces enhances the bonding process.

Budraa, N. K.; Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.

1999-01-01

413

Bonding topologies in diamondlike amorphous-carbon films  

SciTech Connect

The carbon ion energy used during filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition determines the bonding topologies of amorphous-carbon (a-C) films. Regions of relatively low density occur near the substrate/film and film/surface interfaces; their thicknesses increase with deposition energy. The ion subplantation growth results in mass density gradients in the bulk portion of a-C in the growth direction; density decreases with distance from the substrate for films grown using ion energies <60 eV and increases for films grown using ion energies >160 eV. Films grown between these energies are the most diamondlike with relatively uniform bulk density and the highest optical transparencies. Bonding topologies evolve with increasing growth energy consistent with the propagation of subplanted carbon ions inducing a partial transformation of {sigma}- to {pi}-bonded carbon atoms. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Siegal, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Provencio, P. N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Tallant, D. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Simpson, R. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Kleinsorge, B. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, (United Kingdom); Milne, W. I. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, (United Kingdom)

2000-04-10

414

Water vapor diffusion membrane development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 18 different membranes were procured, characterized, and tested in a modified bench-scale vapor diffusion water reclamation unit. Four membranes were selected for further studies involving membrane fouling. Emphasis was placed on the problem of flux decline due to membrane fouling. This is discussed in greater details under "Summary and Discussion on Membrane Fouling Studies" presented in pages 47-51. The system was also investigated for low temperature application on wash-water where the permeated water is not recovered but vented into space vacuum.

Tan, M. K.

1976-01-01

415

The structure of hydrophobic gas diffusion electrodes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'flooded agglomerate' model of the Teflon-bonded gas diffusion electrode is discussed. A mathematical treatment of the 'flooded agglomerate' model is given; it can be used to predict the performance of the electrode as a function of measurable physical parameters.

Giner, J.

1972-01-01

416

Finite Time Vacuum Survival Amplitude and Vacuum Energy Decay  

E-print Network

The problem of the vacuum energy decay is studied for both signs of the cosmological constant, through the analysis of the vacuum survival amplitude, defined in terms of the {\\em conformal time}, $z$, by ${\\mathcal A}(z,z^\\prime)\\equiv $. Transition amplitudes are computed for finite time-span, $Z\\equiv z^\\prime-z$, and their {\\em late time} behavior (directly related to the putative decay width of the state) as well as the transients are discussed up to first order in the coupling constant, $\\lambda$.

Enrique Álvarez; Roberto Vidal

2011-07-15

417

Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

Huber, W. K.

1986-01-01

418

Vacuum as a hyperbolic metamaterial  

E-print Network

As demonstrated by Chernodub, vacuum in a strong magnetic field behaves as a periodic Abrikosov vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor. We investigate electromagnetic behavior of vacuum in this state. Since superconductivity is realized along the axis of magnetic field only, strong anisotropy of the vacuum dielectric tensor is observed. The diagonal components of the tensor are positive in the x and y directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, and negative in the z direction along the field. As a result, vacuum behaves as a hyperbolic metamaterial medium. If the magnetic field is constant, low frequency extraordinary photons experience this medium as a (3+1) Minkowski spacetime in which the role of time is played by the spatial z coordinate. Spatial variations of the magnetic field curve this effective spacetime, and may lead to formation of "event horizons", which are analogous to electromagnetic black holes in hyperbolic metamaterials. We also note that hyperbolic metamaterials behave as diffractionless "perfect lenses". Since large enough magnetic fields probably had arisen in the course of evolution of early Universe, the demonstrated hyperbolic behavior of early vacuum may have imprints in the large scale structure of the present-day Universe.

Igor I. Smolyaninov

2011-08-10

419

Effect of preoxidation on the bond strength of titanium and porcelain.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of preoxidation on porcelain titanium- bond strength and the effect of paste bonder (adhesive) on the titanium porcelain bond strength. 11 specimens of commercially pure titanium (26 x 7 x 3 mm) were prepared by different heat treatments in programmable dental furnace. Identification of the oxides formed on the metal surface was conducted with an X-Ray diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation. Vickers hardness numbers were determine. Additional 50 specimens of commercially pure titanium were used to bond with low fusing porcelain. The bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of the surface of pure titanium revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha -Ti decreased and that of TiO2 increased with increasing firing temperature. The Vickers hardness number decreased initially as the temperature increased but it increased remarkably above 900 degrees C & was harder in air than vacuum. The tensile shear bond strength was highest in the green stage i.e. without preoxidation of metal, and decreased above 900 degrees C, and was the lowest in the group without paste bonder application. The difference in bond strengths was statistically highly significant for all groups. Preoxidation under vacuum before porcelain firing can effectively improve bonding. The adhesive provided with the low fusing porcelain helps in the bond between titanium & porcelain. PMID:25134366

Mahale, K M; Nagda, S J

2014-06-01

420

Bonding with the Past.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with Linda Mayro, archaeologist and cultural resources manager for Pima County, Arizona, discusses efforts of local groups to preserve local Native-American and Mexican cultural-heritage sites in oppositon to commercial land developers. A public information campaign led to passage of a $6.4 million historic preservation bond. (SAS)

Common Ground: Archeology and Ethnography in the Public Interest, 1998

1998-01-01

421

Bonding silicones with epoxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that silicones, both room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) and millable rubber (press cured) can be successfully bonded to other materials using plasma treatment and epoxy adhesives. The plasma treatment using dry air atmosphere increases the surface energy of the silicone and thus provides a lower water contact angle. This phenomenon allows the epoxy adhesive to wet the silicone

Tira

1980-01-01

422

Parental Bonding Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and

L. C. Cavedo; G. Parker

1994-01-01

423

Fluoroepoxy Adhesives Bond Fluoroplastics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Etching or other special preparation unnecessary. Experiments show fluoroepoxy compounds of high fluorine content adhere to fluoroplastics, without prior etching or other treatment of fluoroplastic surfaces. Compounds mixed with each other in approximately stoichiometric amounts and react to produce fluoroepoxy compounds adhering to fluoroplastics. Advantageous in bonding polymers having fluorine contents of 55 percent or more.

Lee, Sheng Yen

1989-01-01

424

Photochemical tissue bonding  

DOEpatents

Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

2012-01-10

425

Stable, high quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes for vacuum-UV applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon photodiodes have been developed by defect-free phosphorus diffusion having practically no carrier recombination at the SiSiO2 interface or in the front diffused region. The quantum efficiency of these photodiodes was found to be around 120 percent at 100 nm. Unlike the previously tested silicon photodiodes, the developed photodiodes exhibit extremely stable quantum efficiency over extended periods of time. The possibility of using these photodiodes as vacuum ultraviolet detector standards is being currently investigated.

Korde, Raj; Canfield, L. Randall; Wallis, Brad

1988-01-01

426

Stability of vacuum in coupled directed percolation processes.  

PubMed

We study the absorbing phase transitions in coupled directed percolation (DP) processes with N -species particles in one dimension. The interspecies coupling is linear, bidirectional, and excitatory. We find that the presence of a spontaneous annihilation process A-->0 is essential in stabilizing the absorbing phase (vacuum). In the coupled contact processes, the vacuum is stable and the system exhibits DP type transitions, regardless of the coupling strength, for all N. However, in the coupled branching annihilation random walks with one offspring (BAW), where particle annihilations occur only through binary diffusion processes A+A-->0, the vacuum becomes unstable with respect to an arbitrarily small branching rate in a sufficiently strong coupling regime for N> or =3. The N=2 BAW exhibits the DP type transition for any coupling strength, but the inclusion of interspecies hard core (HC) interaction makes the vacuum unstable again and the system is always active in a strong coupling regime. Critical behavior near the zero branching point is characterized by the mean-field scaling exponents, beta= nu(radially) = 1/2 and nu(axially) =1, regardless of the presence of HC interaction. We also discuss the effects of the asymmetric coupling. PMID:15244685

Kwon, Sungchul; Park, Hyunggyu

2004-06-01

427

Stability of vacuum in coupled directed percolation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the absorbing phase transitions in coupled directed percolation (DP) processes with N -species particles in one dimension. The interspecies coupling is linear, bidirectional, and excitatory. We find that the presence of a spontaneous annihilation process A?0 is essential in stabilizing the absorbing phase (vacuum). In the coupled contact processes, the vacuum is stable and the system exhibits DP type transitions, regardless of the coupling strength, for all N . However, in the coupled branching annihilation random walks with one offspring (BAW), where particle annihilations occur only through binary diffusion processes A+A?0 , the vacuum becomes unstable with respect to an arbitrarily small branching rate in a sufficiently strong coupling regime for N?3 . The N=2 BAW exhibits the DP type transition for any coupling strength, but the inclusion of interspecies hard core (HC) interaction makes the vacuum unstable again and the system is always active in a strong coupling regime. Critical behavior near the zero branching point is characterized by the mean-field scaling exponents, ?= ?? = 1/2 and ?? =1 , regardless of the presence of HC interaction. We also discuss the effects of the asymmetric coupling.

Kwon, Sungchul; Park, Hyunggyu

2004-06-01

428

Demonstrating Diffusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

Foy, Barry G.

1977-01-01

429

Defusing Diffusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

2013-01-01

430

Diffusion Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web-based intructional material describing the use of diffusion models in population ecology. This page is part of a set of on-line lectures on Quantitative Population Ecology produced by Alexei Sharov in the Department of Entomology at Virginia Tech.

Alexei Sharov

431

Heavy ion microbeam vacuum requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport of heavy ions through an ion microbeam focusing system can be affected by insufficient vacuum within the beam transport tube. Due to interactions of heavy ions with atoms of residual gas in the vacuum tube of a microbeam facility, the angular, lateral and energy spreading of an ion beam increases prior to focusing, creating a beam halo. This beam halo can produce undesirable effects in some applications of ion microbeam techniques. In order to model this effect, the ion beam angular spread in residual gas has been approximated by Sigmund's theoretical predictions for small-angle ion multiple scattering (MS), while ion energy loss straggling distributions have been applied for studying the energy spread. The extent of the beam halo has been estimated by combining the results of these calculations with ion optics calculations. Recommendations concerning microbeam focusing due to the vacuum conditions are given for different heavy ions in the MeV energy range.

Tadi?, T.; Jakši?, M.

2009-06-01

432

Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

433

Accurate vacuum-polarization calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical scheme for evaluating the part of the one-photon vacuum-polarization effect not accounted for by the Uehling potential (the Wichmann-Kroll effect) is presented. The method can be used with an arbitary atomic model potential describing the bound electrons. Benchmark results for this effect are presented for hydrogenlike levels using a uniform nuclear-charge distribution. The effect of direct and exchange electron screening on the vacuum polarization are discussed in connection with the accurately measured 2p1/2-2s1/2 transition in lithiumlike uranium.

Persson, Hans; Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Sunnergren, Per

1993-10-01

434

QED vacuum loops and Inflation  

E-print Network

A QED-based model of a new version of Vacuum Energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of Dark Energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both Dark Energy and Inflation in the same framework of Vacuum Energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between Inflation and the Big Bang, to the automatic inclusion of Dark Matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a Universe.

H. M. Fried; Y. Gabellini

2014-11-19

435

QED vacuum loops and inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A QED-based model of a new version of vacuum energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of dark energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both dark energy and inflation in the same framework of vacuum energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between inflation and the big bang, to the automatic inclusion of dark matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a universe.

Fried, H. M.; Gabellini, Y.

2015-03-01

436

High vacuum mercury retort recovery  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Apparatus Company is a worldwide supplier of extremely high purity quadruple distilled mercury. For 40 years, the process of continuous feed vacuum distillation of mercury has been used to achieve the highest levels of purity. In the early 1970`s Bethlehem developed a mercury retort process for the recovery of mercury from manufactured articles. This process is continuously updated with new innovations and is currently a relatively high vacuum system that is capable of handling a wide variety of mercury bearing waste materials.

Boyle, J.M. [Bethlehem Apparatus Co., Inc., Hellertown, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

437

Non-Brownian molecular self-diffusion in bulk water  

E-print Network

The paper presents the velocity autocorrelation spectrum of bulk water measured by a new technique of NMR modulated gradient spin echo method. This technique is unprecedented for the spectrum measurement in the frequency interval between a few Hz to about 100 kHz with respect to directness and clarity of results and shows that a simple model of Brownian self-diffusion is not applicable to describe the diffusion dynamics of water molecules. The observed temperature dependant spectra of water show the existence of a slow chain-like dynamics in water, which we explain by coupling of diffusing molecule to broken bonds in the hydrogen bond network.

Janez Stepišnik; Aleš Mohori?; Igor Serša

2010-10-06

438

Cytotoxic interactive effects of dentin bonding components on mouse fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a wide range of pulpal reactions to dentin bonding systems and a poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dentin bonding agents. Because dentin bonding agents are composed of multiple components which may diffuse through dentin, we hypothesized that these components may cause cytotoxicity through interactive (synergistic) effects. We investigated the cytotoxicities of four dentin bonding components--HEMA, Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA--and interactive effects for three binary combinations of the dentin bonding components--HEMA and Bis-GMA, Bis-GMA and TEGDMA, and TEGDMA and UDMA. Cytotoxicities to Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were measured by the MTT assay. Concentrations which caused 50% toxicity compared with controls (TC50 values) were compared, and the interactive effects were determined by evaluation of the differences between observed and expected MTT activities of the cells. The ranks of toxicity of the dentin bonding components in terms of TC50 values were as follows: Bis-GMA > UDMA > TEGDMA > HEMA (least toxic) after 24- and 72-hour exposures. As binary combinations, the three combinations of dentin bonding components interacted in three ways--synergism, additivism, and antagonism--which were influenced by the concentrations of both components. The longer period of exposure resulted in a significant increase in the cytotoxicity of the dentin bonding components and combinations. The findings indicate that both exposure time and the interactions between the dentin bonding components may be important parameters in determining the cytotoxicity of dentin bonding agents in vivo. PMID:7560423

Ratanasathien, S; Wataha, J C; Hanks, C T; Dennison, J B

1995-09-01

439

Diffusion bonded boron/aluminum spar-shell fan blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and process development tasks intended to demonstrate composite blade application in large high by-pass ratio turbofan engines are described. Studies on a 3.0 aspect radio space and shell construction fan blade indicate a potential weight savings for a first stage fan rotor of 39% when a hollow titanium spar is employed. An alternate design which featured substantial blade internal volume filled with titanium honeycomb inserts achieved a 14% potential weight savings over the B/M rotor system. This second configuration requires a smaller development effort and entails less risk to translate a design into a successful product. The feasibility of metal joining large subsonic spar and shell fan blades was demonstrated. Initial aluminum alloy screening indicates a distinct preference for AA6061 aluminum alloy for use as a joint material. The simulated airfoil pressings established the necessity of rigid air surfaces when joining materials of different compressive rigidities. The two aluminum alloy matrix choices both were successfully formed into blade shells.

Carlson, C. E. K.; Cutler, J. L.; Fisher, W. J.; Memmott, J. V. W.

1980-01-01

440

Bonding technologies for silicon scanning mirror having vertical comb fingers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1500 micrometers X 1200 micrometers silicon scanning mirror for laser display has been fabricated. This scanning mirror is mainly composed of two structures having vertical comb fingers. By anodic bonding of the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass substrate, and followed deep ICPRIE (Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching), isolated comb electrodes were fabricated at the lower structure. But in this anodic bonding, gold signal lines for electrical connection to the electrodes, which were inserted between silicon and Pyrex glass, were cut off by mechanical pressure or damaged to agglomerate by diffusion. To remove these phenomena, Pyrex glass was trenched about 2000 Angstroms in depth in the shape of signal lines, and Cr/Au signal lines were formed along the etched grooves about 500 Angstroms/3500 Angstroms in depth, and then annealed at 400 degree(s)C, N2 atmosphere, for 1 hour before anodic bonding. As a result, gold signal lines were successfully fabricated and the contact resistance was acquired below several tens ohms. By flip chip bonding, the upper and lower structure having vertical comb fingers were assembled. Vertical comb fingers of two structures were aligned with a microscope and the frames of two structures were bonded at 300 degree(s)C for 20 sec. using the eutectic bonding material, electroplated AuSn. Using these bonding technologies, the scanning mirror was successfully fabricated and it could be used for laser display as a galvanometric vertical scanner.

Lee, Jin-Ho; Ko, Young-Chul; Choi, Byoung-So; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Duk-Young

2001-11-01

441

The Illiquidity of Corporate Bonds  

E-print Network

This paper examines the illiquidity of corporate bonds and its asset-pricing implications. Using transactions data from 2003 to 2009, we show that the illiquidity in corporate bonds is substantial, significantly greater ...

Bao, Jack

442

ChemTeacher: Ionic Bonds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Ionic Bonds page includes resources for teaching students about ionic bonding.

2012-07-20

443

ChemTeacher: Covalent Bonds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Covalent Bonds page includes resources for teaching students about covalent bonding.

2012-07-20

444

Photon Propagation in the Casimir Vacuum  

E-print Network

A transformation that relates the Minkowskian space of the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) vacuum between parallel conducting plates and the QED vacuum at finite temperature is obtained. From this formal analogy,the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the photon self-energy for the QED vacuum between parallel conducting plates (Casimir vacuum) are found in an approximation independent form. It leads to two different physical eigenvalues and three eigenmodes. We also apply the transformation to derive the low energy photons phase velocity in the Casimir vacuum from its expression in the QED vacuum at finite temperature.

Javier Pardo Vega; Hugo Pérez Rojas

2011-10-20

445

The concept of bond order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for obtaining precise charge densities in defined regions of space from ab initio molecular wavefunctions is employed to place the concept of bond order on a firm theoretical footing. The bond orders obtained for carbon—carbon bonds in a range of organic compounds are assessed: those for buta-1,3-diene confirm that it consists of essentially localised double and single bonds.

Elliott, Robert J.; Richards, W. Graham

446

Gallium phosphide as a new material for anodically bonded atomic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturized atomic sensors are often fabricated using anodic bonding of silicon and borosilicate glass. Here we describe a technique for fabricating anodically bonded alkali-metal cells using GaP and Pyrex. GaP is a non-birefringent semiconductor that is transparent at alkali-metal resonance wavelengths, allowing new sensor geometries. GaP also has a higher thermal conductivity and lower He permeability than borosilicate glass and can be anodically bonded below 200 °C, which can also be advantageous in other vacuum sealing applications.

Dural, Nezih; Romalis, Michael V.

2014-08-01

447

Chapter 13. The Vacuum System  

E-print Network

chamber sectors, the bellows adapters (2 degrees) between sectors, and the support frames which. The kicker will also require a special design, but it will not be installed at the time the experiment The vacuum chamber sectors are a welded fabrication of aluminum alloy 6061 plate. The standard chambers have

Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

448

Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

1987-01-01

449

Vacuum pumping system for TPX  

SciTech Connect

The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

St. Onge, K.D.

1995-12-31

450

Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; /Arizona U. /Munich U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

2011-12-05

451

Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids  

EPA Science Inventory

The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

452

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01

453

A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

1993-01-01

454

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOEpatents

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15

455

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

456

Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

1982-01-01

457

Bonding interactions through hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydride reductions are some of the most important reactions in synthetic organic chemistry. Typically, a hydride transfer reagent, such as LiAlH 4 or NaBH4, is dissolved in solution and undergoes reactions with carbon-heteroatom unsaturated bonds. The classic example of such reactivity is the synthesis of alcohols from ketones. We have found, using experimental methods, that the hydride affinity of AIH3

Daniel J Goebbert

2006-01-01

458

Continuing Conversation about Continuing Bonds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article is a response to the contributions the special issue of Death Studies on continuing bonds. The contributions indicate that the conversation among scholars has clarified our thinking on how bonds function in individual grief. The author discussed two issues to help keep the conversation moving: (a) the relationship of continuing bonds

Klass, Dennis

2006-01-01

459

Cyclic Bonds in Branched Polymers  

E-print Network

In the gelation theory it has been implicitly assumed that (I) a cyclic bond is a finite bond that returns to itself; (II) cyclic bonds distribute at random in network structures. In this paper these two assumptions are reexamined from a new point of view. The physical soundness of the assumptions are assessed through comparison with experimental observations.

Kazumi Suematsu

2015-02-19

460

46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds...payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. The stand- ard...payment bond requirements of Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the...

2012-10-01

461

46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds...payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. The stand- ard...payment bond requirements of Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the...

2014-10-01

462

46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds...payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. The stand- ard...payment bond requirements of Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the...

2011-10-01

463

46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds...payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. The stand- ard...payment bond requirements of Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the...

2010-10-01

464

46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds...payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. The stand- ard...payment bond requirements of Article 14 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the...

2013-10-01

465

Direct bonded space maintainers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period. PMID:8217886

Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O

1993-01-01

466

Disulfide bonds of acetylcholinesterase  

SciTech Connect

The positions of the inter- and intrasubunit disulfide bridges were established for the 11S form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) isolated from Torpedo californica. A major form of AChE localized within the basal lamina of the synapse is a dimensionally asymmetric molecule which contains either two (13S) or three (17S) sets of catalytic subunits linked to collagenous and non-collagenous structural subunits. Limited proteolysis yields a tetramer of catalytic subunits which sediments at 11S. Each catalytic subunit contains 8 cysteine residues. Initially, these Cys residues were identified following trypsin digestion of the reduced protein alkylated with (/sup 14/C)-iodoacetate. Peptides were resolved by gel filtration followed by reverse phase HPLC. To determine the disulfide bonding profile, native non-reduced 11S AChE was treated with a fluorescent, sulfhydryl-specific reagent, monobromobimane, prior to proteolytic digestion. One fluorescent Cys peptide was identified indicating that a single sulfhydryl residue was present in its reduced form. Three pairs of disulfide bonded peptides were identified, sequenced, and localized in the polypeptide chain. The Cys residue that is located in the C-terminal tryptic peptide was disulfide bonded to an identical peptide and thus forms the intersubunit crosslink. Finally, the cysteine positions have been compared with the sequence of the homologous protein, thyroglobulin. Both likely share a common pattern of folding.

MacPhee-Quigley, K.; Vedvick, T.; Taylor, P.; Taylor, S.

1986-05-01

467

Is a hydrogen bond responsible for the optical properties of some dihydroxyanthraquinones: Quinizarin and anthraflavic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have deposited under vacuum two dihydroxyanthraquinones (DHAQ); quinizarin (1,4-DHAQ) and anthraflavic (2,6-DHAQ). The former exhibits a strong absorption band in the visible range at about 480 nm which is attributed to a ? ? ?? transition. The low value of the energy is attributed to the red shift effect of the hydrogen bond. For the latter compound this same

J. C. Bernede; T. Ben Nasrallah; M. Jamali; J. Y. Mevellec; C. Rabiller; A. Proutiere

1995-01-01

468

Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

Rahmati, Shohreh

469

Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution  

SciTech Connect

A power law regression equation, = 1.46(/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, , between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(?(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ?(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Pauling’s simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, ?, power law expression ? = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M-O bonded interactions for a relatively wide range of M atoms of the periodic table. The power law equation determined for the oxide crystals at ambient conditions is similar to the power law expression = r[1.46/]5.26 determined for the perovskites at pressures as high as 80 GPa, indicating that the intrinsic connection between R(M-O) and ?(rc) that holds at ambient conditions also holds, to a first approximation, at high pressures.

Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

2014-01-18

470

26 CFR 1.144-1 - Qualified small issue bonds, qualified student loan bonds, and qualified redevelopment bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...issue bonds, qualified student loan bonds, and qualified...144-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...issue bonds, qualified student loan bonds, and qualified...limitation on capital expenditures) or under...

2010-04-01

471

Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description  

SciTech Connect

Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO`s will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C.

Pajunen, A.L.

1997-12-23

472

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pct of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial managanese, and 20 to 40 pct of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt masses were in the range 10 to 60 kg, melt temperatures in the range 1850 to 2050 K, and chamber pressures in the range 3 to 400 pascals. Crucible diameter was 0.2m. Mass transport has been described in terms of Machlin's model for melt phase diffusion, Langmuir's model for evaporation, and convective bulk flow for gas phase mass transport. Two preliminary criteria are shown to demonstrate the suitability of vacuum distillation to any particular system and a third operational criterion is developed to define the range of vacuum required to eliminate gas phase mass transport resistance effectively.

Harris, R.; Davenport, W. G.

1982-12-01

473

Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (?BCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H ?* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak through to very strong H-bonds. PMID:25582457

Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

2015-02-23